You are on page 1of 30

Industrial Electronics

MTS 337: Industrial Electronics

Lec Rabia Jamshaid

MTS 337: Industrial Electronics Lec Rabia Jamshaid 1

CODE OF ETHICS
All students must come to class on time (Attendance will be taken in first 5 to
10 mins)
Students should remain attentive during class and avoid use of Mobile phone,
Obedience to all laws, discipline code, rules and community norms
Respect peers, faculty and staff through actions and speech
Student should not be sleeping during class
Bring writing material and books
Class participation is encouraged

MTS 337: Industrial Electronics Lec Rabia Jamshaid 2

Lecture Outline
Reverse Recovery Characteristics for Diode
Diode With RC
Freewheeling Diode

MTS 337: Industrial Electronics Lec Rabia Jamshaid 3

tRR and IRR Calculations
In practice, a design engineer frequently needs to calculate tRR and IRR .
This is in order to evaluate the possibility of high frequency switching.
As a thumb rule, the lower tRR the faster the diode can be switched.
= +
In abrupt recovery diodes is negligible
Following expression can be used o calculate the
reverse recovery time
2
=

where QRR is the storage charge and can be
calculated from the area enclosed by the path of
the recovery current.
Reverse Recovery current can be calculated as

= 2 Industrial Electronics Lec Rabia Jamshaid
MTS 337: 4
Example-1
The manufacturer of a selected diode gives the rate of fall of
the diode current di/dt=20 A/s, and its reverse recovery time
trr =5s. What value of peak reverse current do you expect?

SOLUTION. The peak reverse current is given as:

= 2

The storage charge QRR is calculated as:

2
=

MTS 337: Industrial Electronics Lec Rabia Jamshaid 5

Example-1 (contd)
2 1 2
= =
2

1 20
= 5 106
2

= 250

Hence,

20
= 2 = 2 250

= 100
MTS 337: Industrial Electronics Lec Rabia Jamshaid 6
Following Figure shows a diode with RC load.
When switch S1 is closed at t=0, the charging current that flows
through the capacitor and voltage drop across it are found from

= = 1

MTS 337: Industrial Electronics Lec Rabia Jamshaid 7

Following Figure shows a diode with RL load.
When switch S1 is closed at t=0, the current through the
inductor is increased

= +

= +

= 1

MTS 337: Industrial Electronics Lec Rabia Jamshaid 8
The waveform shows when t>>T, the voltage across
inductor tends to be zero and its current reaches
maximum value.

If an attempt is made to
open S1 energy stored in
inductor (=0.5Li2) will be
transformed into high
reverse voltage across
diode and switch.

MTS 337: Industrial Electronics Lec Rabia Jamshaid 9

Example#2
A diode circuit is shown in figure, with R=44 and C=0.1F. The
capacitor has an initial voltage Vo=220 v. If S1 is closed at t=0
determine:

MTS 337: Industrial Electronics Lec Rabia Jamshaid 10

Example#2
A diode circuit is shown in figure, with R=44 and C=0.1F. The
capacitor has an initial voltage Vo=220 v. If S1 is closed at t=0
determine:

Peak Diode Current

=

220
= =5
44
Energy Dissipated in Resistor
1 2
= = 2.42 103
2
MTS 337: Industrial Electronics Lec Rabia Jamshaid 11
Example#2
A diode circuit is shown in figure, with R=44 and C=0.1F. The
capacitor has an initial voltage Vo=220 v. If S1 is closed at t=0
determine:

Capacitor voltage at t=2 s

= 0.1 44 = 4.4

2
@ = 2 = 220 4.4

@ = 2 = 139.7
MTS 337: Industrial Electronics Lec Rabia Jamshaid 12
Freewheeling Diode
If switch S1 is closed a current is established through the
load, and then, if the switch is open, a path must be provided
for the current in the inductive load.

This is normally done by

connecting a diode Dm, called
a freewheeling diode.

MTS 337: Industrial Electronics Lec Rabia Jamshaid 13

Freewheeling Diode
The circuit operation is divided into two modes.
Mode 1 begins when the switched is closed.
During this mode the current voltage relation is

1
1 = 1 = + 1

MTS 337: Industrial Electronics Lec Rabia Jamshaid 14

Freewheeling Diode
Mode 2 starts when the S1 is opened and the load current
starts to flow through Dm.

2
0= + 2

2 = 1

MTS 337: Industrial Electronics Lec Rabia Jamshaid 15

Freewheeling Diode
The waveform of the entire operation is given below.

S1 Closed S1 Open
MTS 337: Industrial Electronics Lec Rabia Jamshaid 16
Diode Protection
Snubber Circuit:
Snubs or reduces the rate of change of voltage across diode

DIODE C

MTS 337: Industrial Electronics Lec Rabia Jamshaid 17

Series Connected Diodes
In many high-voltage applications (HVDC transmission lines), one diode
cannot meet the required voltage rating and thus diodes are connected in
series to increase the reverse blocking capabilities.

MTS 337: Industrial Electronics Lec Rabia Jamshaid 18

Series Connected Diodes
In practice, the v-i characteristics for the same type of diodes differ due to
tolerances in their production process.

In forward-biased condition, both diodes conduct the same amount of

current, and the forward voltage drop of each diode will approximately be
equal.

In reverse-blocking condition, each diode has to carry the same leakage

current, and as a result the blocking voltage will differ significantly.

A simple solution to this problem is to use resistors in parallel across the

diodes for equal voltage sharing.

MTS 337: Industrial Electronics Lec Rabia Jamshaid 20

Series Connected Diodes

MTS 337: Industrial Electronics Lec Rabia Jamshaid 21

Series Connected Diodes
The resistors will provide equal voltages across the diodes. Since the
total leakage current must be shared by a diode and its resistor it is
given as :
I s I s1 I R1 I s 2 I R 2
But,

VD1 VD 2 VD1
I R1 , I R2
R1 R2 R2

Therefore,
VD1 V
I s1 I s 2 D1
R1 R2

Now, knowing the reverse saturation currents of the two diodes and
the voltage across each diode would allow us to design for the value of
MTS 337: Industrial Electronics Lec Rabia Jamshaid 22
resistors.
Parallel Connected Diodes
In high-power applications, diodes are
connected in parallel to increase the
current-carrying capability.

The current sharing of the diodes would be

in accord with their respective forward
voltage drops.

Uniform current sharing can be achieved

by connecting current-sharing resistors.

MTS 337: Industrial Electronics Lec Rabia Jamshaid 23

Diode Protection

Over-voltage protection
Select diode with PIV 1.2 times than expected
Over-current protection
Using fuse in series with diode
Protection against transients 1A DIODE
Snubber circuit: absorbs di/dt or dv/dt
(Change in current and voltage)

MTS 337: Industrial Electronics Lec Rabia Jamshaid 24

Diodes in series and parallel

Used in series to increase voltage rating.

Used in parallel to increase current rating.
Series and parallel combination is used to increase both voltage
and current rating or in other words to increase power rating in
high voltage, high current circuits.

MTS 337: Industrial Electronics Lec Rabia Jamshaid 25

Diodes in series and parallel
Reverse leakage current of a
Diodes in Series: single diode may not be
sufficient in high voltage
applications.
ID
VD1 Reverse voltage may not be
equally divided in all diodes i.e.
VI characteristics of similar
diodes may differ.
ES
The current rating of series
VD2 diodes is same but reverse
voltage voltage rating may be
different.

MTS 337: Industrial Electronics Lec Rabia Jamshaid 26

Diodes in series and parallel

Forced voltage sharing in series diodes: The resistors must be

able to conduct the
cuurent greater than
the leakage current.
The resistor should be
as large as possible to
save the power.
Each parallel capacitor
will protect the diode
from voltage transients.

MTS 337: Industrial Electronics Lec Rabia Jamshaid 27

Diodes in series and parallel
Diodes in parallel:
When load current is greater than the rating of
single diode.
Forward current characteristics of diodes may
differ and parallel diodes may not share equal
current. The diode with lowest forward voltage
drop will carry larger current and may overheat.
Parallel diodes can be forced to share current by
connecting small series resistance to diodes.

MTS 337: Industrial Electronics Lec Rabia Jamshaid 28

Diodes in series and parallel

When load current is greater than the rating

of single diode.
Forward current characteristics of diodes may
differ and parallel diodes may not share equal
current. The diode with lowest forward voltage
drop will carry larger current and may
overheat.
Parallel diodes can be forced to share current
by connecting small series resistance to diodes.

MTS 337: Industrial Electronics Lec Rabia Jamshaid 29

Diode Applications
Uncontrolled half wave rectifier:

MTS 337: Industrial Electronics Lec Rabia Jamshaid 30

Diode Applications
Uncontrolled full wave rectifier: