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Ravi Kesh Mishra MIT, Manipal Registration No:070907262
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1. INTRODUCTION TO GSM 2. GSM ARCHITECTURE 3. GSM ACCESS MECHANISM 4. PHYSICAL & LOGICAL CHANNELS 5. CODING & COMMUNICATION PROCESS 6. HANDOVER 7. RF PLANNING
INTRODUCTION TO GSM
GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications):
The GSM is a set of recommendations and specifications for a digital cellular phone network (known as Public Land Mobile Network, PLMN). These recommendations ensure the compatibility of the equipment from different GSM manufacturers and interconnectivity between different administrations. GSM was designed with a moderate level of service security. The system was designed to authenticate the subscriber using a pre-shared key and challenge response. Communications between the subscriber and the base station can be encrypted.
• A cellular telephone system links mobile subscribers into the public telephone system or to another cellular subscriber. Information between the mobile unit and the cellular network uses radio communication. Hence the subscriber is able to move around and become fully mobile. The service area in which mobile communication is to be provided is divided into regions called cells. Each cell has the equipment to transmit and receive calls from any subscriber located within the borders of its radio coverage area.
The original version of GSM were released in various phases each adding on some features on the existing phase. The various phases are: 1. Phase I:
This phase contains the most common services such as:
Voice Telephony International Roaming Call forwarding Call barring Short Message Service(SMS)
Phase I also incorporated features like ciphering and Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). Phase I features were then closed and cannot be modified.
2. Phase II: Additional features included in Phase II are: Advice of charge Call line identification Call waiting Call hold Conference calling Additional data communication capabilities
3. Phase 2+: The Phase 2+ program will cover multiple subscriber numbers and a variety of business oriented features. Some of the enhancements include: Multiple service profiles Private numbering plan Access to Centrex services
Features of GSM:
The GSM system provides a greater subscriber capacity than analogue systems. Digital transmission of speech and high performance digital signal processors provides good quality speech transmission. Since GSM is a digital technology, the signals passed over a digital air interface can be protected against errors by using better error detection and correction techniques. In regions of interference or noise-limited operation the speech quality is noticeably better than analogue. GSM offers high data and speech confidentiality. In a GSM system the mobile station and the subscriber are identified separately . The subscriber is identified by means of a smart card known as a SIM. This enables the subscriber to use different mobile equipment while retaining the same subscriber number.
GSM carrier frequencies:
GSM networks operate in a number of different carrier frequency ranges (separated into GSM frequency ranges for 2G and UMTS frequency bands for 3G), with most 2G GSM networks operating in the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands. Where these bands were already allocated, the 850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands were used instead. Regardless of the frequency selected by an operator, it is divided into timeslots individual phones to use. This allows eight full-rate or sixteen half-rate speech channels per radio frequencies. These eight radio timeslots are grouped into a TDMA frame. Half rate channels use alternate frames in the same timeslot. The channel data rate for all 8 channels is 270.833 Kbit/s, and the frame duration is 4.615 ms. The transmission power in the handset is limited to a maximum of 2 watts in GSM850/900 and 1 watt in GSM1800/19.
GSM Network Components:
A GSM system is basically designed as a combination of four major subsystems: 1. Radio subsystem (RSS) 2. Network (switching) subsystem (SSS) 3. Operation and maintenance subsystem (OMS)
The SS is responsible for performing call processing and subscriber related functions. It includes the following functional units: • Mobile services Switching Center (MSC) • Home Location Register (HLR) • Visitor Location Register (VLR) • Authentication Centre (AUC) • Equipment Identity Register (EIR)
The BSS performs all the radio-related functions. The BSS is comprised of the following functional units: • Base Station Controller (BSC) • Base Transceiver Station (BTS)
SWTICHING SYSTEM COMPONENTS
Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC):
The MSC performs the telephony switching functions for the mobile network. It controls calls to and from other telephony and data systems, such as the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), public data networks, private networks and other mobile networks.
Gateway Functionality: Gateway functionality enables an MSC to interrogate a network's HLR in order to route a call to a Mobile Station (MS). Such an MSC is called a Gateway MSC (GMSC). For example, if a person connected to the PSTN wants to make a call to a GSM mobile subscriber, then the PSTN exchange will access the GSM network by first connecting the call to a GMSC. The same is true of a call from an MS to another MS. Any MSC in the mobile network can function as a gateway by integration of the appropriate software.
Home Location Register (HLR):
The HLR is a centralized network database that stores and manages all mobile subscriptions belonging to a specific operator. It acts as a permanent store for a person's subscription information until that subscription is cancelled. The information stored includes: • Subscriber identity • Subscriber supplementary services • Subscriber location information • Subscriber authentication information The HLR can be implemented in the same network node as the MSC or as a stand-alone database. If the capacity of a HLR is exceeded by the number of subscribers, additional HLRs may be added.
Visitor Location Register (VLR):
The VLR database contains information about all the mobile subscribers currently located in an MSC service area. Thus, there is one VLR for each MSC in a network. The VLR temporarily stores subscription information so that the MSC can service all the subscribers currently visiting that MSC service area. The VLR can be regarded as a distributed HLR as it holds a copy of the HLR information stored about the subscriber.
Authentication center (AUC):
The main function of the AUC is to authenticate the subscribers attempting to use a network. In this way, it is used to protect network operators against fraud. The AUC is a database connected to the HLR which provides it with the authentication parameters and ciphering keys used to ensure network security.
Equipment Identity Register (EIR):
The EIR is a database containing mobile equipment identity information which helps to block calls from stolen, unauthorized or defective MS‘s.
BASE STATION SYSTEM COMPONENTS
Base Station Controller (BSC):
The BSC manages all the radio-related functions of a GSM network. It is a high capacity switch that provides functions such as MS handover, radio channel assignment and the collection of cell configuration data.
Base Transceiver Station (BTS):
The BTS controls the radio interface to the MS. The BTS comprises the radio equipment such as transceivers and antennas which are needed to serve each cell in the network. A group of BTSs are controlled by a BSC.
MOBILE STATION (MS)
An MS is used by the mobile subscriber to communicate with the mobile network. The range or coverage of the MS‘s depends on the output power of the MS. GSM MS consists of: A mobile terminal Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)
Unlike other standards, in GSM the subscriber is separated from the mobile terminal. Each subscriber's information is stored as a "smart card" SIM. The SIM can be plugged into any GSM mobile terminal. This brings the advantages of security and portability for subscribers.
GSM GEOGRAPHICAL NETWORK STRUCTURE
Every telephone network needs a specific structure to route incoming calls to the correct exchange and then on to the subscriber. In a mobile network, this structure is very important because the subscribers are mobile. As subscribers move through the network, these structures are used to monitor their location.
A cell is the basic unit of a cellular system and is defined as the area of radio coverage given by one BS antenna system. Each cell is assigned a unique number called Cell Global Identity (CGI). In a complete network covering an entire country, the number of cells can be quite high.
There are five different cell sizes in a GSM network—macro, micro, Pico, femto and umbrella cells. The coverage area of each cell varies according to the implementation environment: Macro cells can be regarded as cells where the base station antenna is installed on a mast or a building above average roof top level. Micro cells are cells whose antenna height is under average roof top level; they are typically used in urban areas. Pico cells are small cells whose coverage diameter is a few dozen metres; they are mainly used indoors. Femtocells are cells designed for use in residential or small business environments and connect to the service provider‘s network via a broadband internet connection. Umbrella cells are used to cover shadowed regions of smaller cells and fill in gaps in coverage between those cells.
LOCATION AREA (LA)
A Location Area (LA) is defined as a group of cells. Within the network, a subscriber‘s location is known by the LA, which they are in. The identity of the LA in which an MS is currently located is stored in the VLR. When an MS crosses the boundary between two cells belonging to different LA‘s, it must report its new Location Area to the network. If it crosses a cell boundary within a LA, it does not report its new cell location to the network. When there is a call for an MS, a paging message is broadcast within all the cells belonging to the relevant LA.
GSM ACCESS MECHANISM
GSM Access Mechanism:
The frequency of operation of 2G system is given to be 900 MHz The uplink frequency extends from 890-915 MHz and the downlink frequency extends from 935- 960 MHz The separation between the carrier frequencies is 200 kHz. The access mechanisms used by the GSM networks are as follows:
1. Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA):
In this type of division the whole spectrum is divided into smaller frequency bands. A channel gets the whole frequency band of the spectrum for whole time.
No dynamic coordination necessary. Works also for analog signals
Waste of bandwidth if the traffic is distributed unevenly Inflexible Guard spaces
2. Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA):
In this type of division the channel gets the whole spectrum for a specified duration.
Only one carrier in the medium at a given time. Throughput high for many users.
The only disadvantage that this method suffers is the necessity for precise synchronization.
3. FDM and TDM:
This method combines both frequency division and time division. The channel gets a particular frequency for a specified duration.
Better protection against tapping. Protection against frequency selective interference. Higher data rates
4. Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA);
Here each channel has a unique code. Hence, all the channels use the full spectrum at the same time.
Bandwidth efficient No synchronization and coordination necessary. Good protection against tapping.
Lower user data rates More complex regeneration.
PHYSICAL AND LOGICAL CHANNELS
INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL AND LOGICAL CHANNELS
Each timeslot on a TDMA frame is called a physical channel. Therefore, there are 8 physical channels per carrier frequency in GSM. Physical channels can be used to transmit speech, data or signalling information.
A physical channel may carry different messages, depending on the information that is to be sent. These messages are called logical channels. For example, on one of the physical channels used for traffic, the traffic itself is transmitted using a Traffic Channel (TCH) message, while a handover instruction is transmitted using a Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH) message.
All information to and from an MS must be formatted correctly, so that the receiving device can understand the meaning of different bits in the message.
When an MS is switched on, it searches for a BTS to connect to. The MS scans the entire frequency band, or, optionally, uses a list containing the allocated carrier frequencies for this operator. When the MS finds the strongest carrier, it must then determine If it is a control channel. It does so by searching for a particular logical channel called Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH). A frequency carrying BCCH contains important information for an MS, including e.g. the current LA identity, synchronization Information and network identity. Without such information, an MS cannot work with a network.
Broadcast control channel (BCCH) is a base to mobile channel which provides general information about the network, the cell in which the mobile is currently located and the adjacent cells Frequency correction channel (FCCH) is a base to mobile channel which provides information for carrier synchronization Synchronization channel (SCH) is a base to mobile channel which carries information for frame synchronization and identification of the base station transceiver
When the MS has finished analyzing the information on a BCH, it then has all the information required to work with a network. However, if the MS roams to another cell, it must repeat the process of reading FCCH, SCH and BCCH in the new cell. If the mobile subscriber then wishes to make or receive a call, the Common Control Channels (CCCH) must be used.
COMMON CONTROL CHANNEL:
Paging channel (PCH) is a base to mobile channel used to alert a mobile to a call originating from the network Random access channel (RACH) is a mobile to base channel used to request for dedicated resources Access grant channel (AGCH) is a base to mobile which is used to assign dedicated resources (SDCCH or TCH)
DEDICATED CONTROL CHANNELS:
Stand-alone dedicated control channel (SDCCH) is a bi-directional channel allocated to a specific mobile for exchange of location update information and call set up information Slow associated control channel (SACCH) is a bi-directional channel used for exchanging control information between base and a mobile during the progress of a call set up procedure. The SACCH is associated with a particular traffic channel or stand alone dedicated control channel Fast associated control channel (FACCH) is a bi-directional channel which is used for exchange of time critical information between mobile and base station during the progress of a call. The FACCH transmits control information by stealing capacity from the associated TCH
Once call set-up procedures have been completed on the control physical channel, the MS tunes to a traffic physical channel. It uses the Traffic Channel (TCH) logical channel. There are two types of TCH: Full rate (TCH): transmits full rate speech (13 Kbits/s). A full rate TCH occupies one physical channel. Half rate (TCH/2): transmits half rate speech (6.5 Kbits/s).Two half rate TCH's can share one physical channel, thus doubling the capacity of a cell.
CONCEPT OF BURSTS
Examples of burst parts are: training sequence, encrypted bits, tail bits, guard period and stealing flag bits. a) Training sequence
A fixed bit pattern, called the TSC (training sequence code) is known by both the MS and the BTS. It is used to train the MS in predicting and correcting the signal distortions (due to Doppler and multipath effects) in the demodulation process. The TSC has a 26, 41 or 64 bit pattern. b) Encrypted bits
The encrypted bits represent the useful bits serving for speech, data transmission, or signalling. c) Tail bits
The tail bits (TB) at the beginning define ("flag") the start of a burst. The tail bits at the end define the end of a burst.
The guard period (GP) between to consecutive bursts is necessary for switching the transmitter on and off. The transmitted amplitude is ramped up from zero to a constant value over the useful period of a burst and then ramped down to zero again. This is always required for the MS, and the BTS may do so if the adjacent burst is not emitted. Switching off will reduce interference to other RF channels. e) Stealing flag bits
The stealing flag bits indicate whether the adjacent 57 bits in the associated data Field contain speech/data information or are "stolen" from the traffic channel for Carrying pre-emptive FACCH (fast associated control channel) signalling information. The FACCH is used for sending signalling data if the capacity of the SACCH (slow Associated control channel) is not sufficient.
Carries traffic channel and control channels BCCH, PCH, AGCH, SDCCH, SACCH and FACCH.
FREQUENCY CORRECTION BURST:
• • •
Carries FCCH channel. Made up of 142 consecutive zeros. Enables MS to correct its local oscillator locking it to that of the BTS.
• • •
Carries SCH Chanel. Enables MS to synchronize its timings with the BTS. Contains BSIC and TDMA Frame number.
Transmitted on the unused timeslots of the BCCH carrier in the downlink.
26 • • Carries RACH. Has a bigger guard period since it is used during initial access and the MS does not know how far it is actually from the BTS.
CODING AND COMMUNICATION PROCESS
• • The transmission of speech is one of the most important services of a mobile cellular system. The GSM speech codec, which will transform the analog signal(voice) into a digital representation, has to meet the following criteria • • • • • • A good speech quality, at least as good as the one obtained with previous cellular systems. To reduce the redundancy in the sounds of the voice. This reduction is essential due to the limited capacity of transmission of a radio channel. The speech codec must not be very complex because complexity is equivalent to high costs.
The final choice for the GSM speech codec is a codec named RPE-LTP (Regular Pulse Excitation Long-Term Prediction). This codec uses the information from previous samples (this information does not change very quickly) in order to predict the current sample. The speech signal is divided into blocks of 20 ms. these blocks are then passed to the speech codec, which has a rate of 13 kbps, in order to obtain blocks of 260 bits.
• • • • Channel coding adds redundancy bits to the original information in order to detect and correct, if possible, errors occurred during the transmission. The channel coding is performed using two codes: a block code and a convolution code. The block code receives an input block of 240 bits and adds four zero tail bits at the end of the input block. The output of the block code is consequently a block of 244 bits. A convolution code adds redundancy bits in order to protect the information. A convolution encoder contains memory. This property differentiates a convolution code from a block code. A convolution code can be defined by three variables: n, k and K.
The value n corresponds to the number of bits at the output of the encoder, k to the number of bits at the input of the block and K to the memory of the encoder.
The presence of different layers in the system helps in the communication process. The interfaces and the functions between the different layers must be defined. This communication is called Peer to Peer communication and is controlled by layer‘s protocol. The different types of layers are:
• • This layer provides services for support of the user‘s application process and for control of all communication between applications. Examples of layer 7 functions are file transfer, message handling, directory services, and operation and maintenance.
• • • This layer defines how data is to be represented, that is, the syntax. The presentation layer transforms the syntax used in the application into the common syntax needed for the communication between applications. Layer 6 contains data compression.
• • • This layer establishes connections between presentation layers in different systems. It also controls the connection, the synchronization and the disconnection of the dialogue. It allows the presentation layer to determine checkpoints, from which the retransmission will start when the data transmission has been interrupted.
• • • This layer guarantees that the bearer service has the quality required by the application in question. Examples of functions are error detection and correction (end-to-end), and flow control. The transport layer optimizes the data communication, for example by multiplexing or splitting data streams before they reach the network.
• • • • The basic network layer service is to provide a transparent channel. This means that the application requesting a channel ignores network problems and the related signal exchange because that is the task of the lower levels. It just requires an open channel, transparent for the transmission of data, between transport layers in different systems. The Network Layer establishes, maintains, and releases connections between the nodes in the network and handles addressing and routing of circuits.
Data Link Layer
• • This layer provides an essentially error-free point-to-point circuit between network layers. The layer contains resources for error detection, error correction, flow control, and retransmission.
• This layer provides mechanical, electrical, functional, and procedural resources for activating, maintaining, and blocking physical circuits for the transmission of bits between data link layers. The physical layer contains functions for converting data into signals compatible with the transmission medium. For the communication between only two exchanges, layers 1 and 2 are sufficient.
The term means that a Mobile station latched onto a particular cell of an area will be forwarded to latch onto any other of its neighbor site depending on certain parameters.
Reason for Handover:
In telecommunications there may be different reasons why a handover might be conducted:
when the phone is moving away from the area covered by one cell and entering the area covered by another cell the call is transferred to the second cell in order to avoid call termination when the phone gets outside the range of the first cell; when the capacity for connecting new calls of a given cell is used up and an existing or new call from a phone, which is located in an area overlapped by another cell, is transferred to that cell in order to free-up some capacity in the first cell for other users, who can only be connected to that cell; in non-CDMA networks when the channel used by the phone becomes interfered by another phone using the same channel in a different cell, the call is transferred to a different channel in the same cell or to a different channel in another cell in order to avoid the interference;
again in non-CDMA networks when the user behaviour changes, e.g. when a fast-travelling user, connected to a large, umbrella-type of cell, stops then the call may be transferred to a smaller macro cell or even to a micro cell in order to free capacity on the umbrella cell for other fast-travelling users and to reduce the potential interference to other cells or users (this works in reverse too, when a user is detected to be moving faster than a certain threshold, the call can be transferred to a larger umbrella-type of cell in order to minimise the frequency of the handovers due to this movement); In CDMA networks a soft handoff may be induced in order to reduce the interference to a smaller neighbouring cell due to the "near-far" effect even when the phone still has an excellent connection to its current cell.
Types of Handover:
The most basic form of handover is when a phone call in progress is redirected from its current cell (called source) and its used channel in that cell to a new cell (called target) and a new channel. In terrestrial networks the source and the target cells may be served from two different cell sites or from one and the same cell site (in the latter case the two cells are usually referred to as two sectors on that cell site). Such a handover, in which the source and the target are different cells (even if they are on the same cell site), is called inter-cell handover. The purpose of inter-cell handover is to maintain the call as the subscriber is moving out of the area covered by the source cell and entering the area of the target cell.
A special case is possible, in which the source and the target are one and the same cell and only the used channel is changed during the handover. Such a handover, in which the cell is
not changed, is called intra-cell handover. The purpose of intra-cell handover is to change one channel, which may be interfered, or fading with a new clearer or less fading channel.
A hard handover is one in which the channel in the source cell is released and only then the channel in the target cell is engaged. Thus the connection to the source is broken before the connection to the target is made—for this reason such handovers are also known as breakbefore-make. Hard handovers are intended to be instantaneous in order to minimize the disruption to the call. A hard handover is perceived by network engineers as an event during the call. A soft handover is one in which the channel in the source cell is retained and used for a while in parallel with the channel in the target cell. In this case the connection to the target is established before the connection to the source is broken, hence this handovers is called make-before-break. The interval, during which the two connections are used in parallel, may be brief or substantial. For this reason the soft handovers is perceived by network engineers as a state of the call, rather than a brief event. Soft handovers may involve using connections to more than two cells, e.g. connections to three, four or more cells can be maintained by one phone at the same time. When a call is in a state of soft handovers the signal of the best of all used channels can be utilised for the call at a given moment or all the signals can be combined to produce a clearer copy of the signal. The latter is more advantageous, and when such combining is performed both in the downlink (forward link) and the uplink (reverse link) the handover is termed as softer. Softer handovers are possible when the cells involved in the handovers have a single cell site.
• • • • The overall handover process is implemented in the MS, BSS & MSC. The BSS measures the uplink performance for the MS being served and also assesses the signal strength of interference on its idle traffic channels. The MS assists the handover decision process by performing certain measurements. When the MS is engaged in a speech conversation, a portion of the TDMA frame is idle while the rest of the frame is used for uplink (BTS receive) and downlink (BTS transmit) timeslots.
• • • •
During the idle time period of the frame, the MS changes radio channel frequency and monitors and measures the signal level of the six best neighbor cells. Measurements which feed the handover decision algorithm are made at both ends of the radio link. At the MS end, measurements are continuously signaled, via the associated control channel, to the BSS where the decision for handover is ultimately made. MS measurements include: • • Serving cell downlink quality (bit error rate (BER) estimate). Serving cell downlink received signal level, and six best neighbor cells downlink received signal level.
• • • • •
The MS also decodes the Base Station ID Code (BSIC) from the six best neighbor cells, and reports the BSICs and the measurement information to the BSS. The BTS measures the uplink link quality, received signal level, and MS to BTS site distance. The MS RF transmit output power budget is also considered in the handover decision. If the MS can be served by a neighbor cell at a lower power, the handover is recommended. From a system perspective, handover may be considered due to loading or congestion conditions. In this case, the MSC or BSC tries to balance channel usage among cells.
INTRODUCTION TO RF PLANNING:
The goal is to achieve optimum use of resources and maximum revenue potential whilst maintaining a high level of system quality. Full consideration must also be given to cost and spectrum allocation limitations. A properly planned system should allow capacity to be added economically when traffic demand increases. By doing a proper RF Planning by keeping the future growth plan in mind we can reduce a lot of problems that we may encounter in the future and also reduce substantially the cost of optimization. On the other hand a poorly planned network not only leads to many Network problems, it also increases the optimization costs and still may not ensure the desired quality.
TOOLS USED FOR RF PLANNING
• • • • Network Planning Tool CW Propagation Tool Traffic Modeling Tool Project Management Tool
Network Planning Tool: • Planning tool is used to assist engineers in designing and optimizing wireless networks by providing an accurate and reliable prediction of coverage, doing frequency planning automatically, creating neighbor lists etc. With a database that takes into account data such as terrain, clutter, and antenna radiation patterns, as well as an intuitive graphical interface, the Planning tool gives RF engineers a state-of-the-art tool to: – – – – Design wireless networks Plan network expansions Optimize network performance Diagnose system problems
One of the major planning tools used by Ericsson is TEMS.
Propagation Tool Kit: • The propagation test kit consists of – – – – – – – • • Test transmitter. Antenna Receiver to scan the RSS (Received signal levels). The receiver scanning rate should be settable so that it satisfies Lee‘s law. A laptop to collect data. A GPS to get latitude and longitude. Cables and accessories. Wattmeter to check VSWR.
A single frequency is transmitted a predetermined power level from the candidate site. These transmitted power levels are then measured and collected by the Drive test kit. This data is then loaded on the Planning tool and used for tuning models.
Traffic Modelling Tool: • • Traffic modelling tool is used by the planning engineer for Network modelling and dimensioning. It helps the planning engineer to calculate the number of network elements needed to fulfil coverage, capacity and quality needs.
Project Management Tool: • • • • • Though not directly linked to RF Design Planning, it helps in scheduling the RF Design process and also to know the status of the project Site database: This includes RF data, site acquisition, power, civil, etc. Inventory Control Fault tracking Finance Management
RF PLANNING PROCEDURES:
RF PLANNING PROCEDURES:
The most important step in the planning of a site. Various information‘s regarding the terrain; the type of clutter, with the required vector data is obtained. All these data are then plotted onto a map using MAPINFO to get the required plot.
This is the next step that follows site survey. After the analysis of the terrain, the site has to be set up and for that a proper plan has to be prepared. Cell planning can be described as all the activities involved in: Selecting the sites for the radio equipment Selecting the radio equipment Configuring the radio equipment Every cellular network requires cell planning in order to provide adequate coverage and call quality.
A cell may be defined as an area of radio coverage from one BTS antenna system1. It is the smallest building block in a mobile network and is the reason why mobile networks are often referred to as cellular networks. Typically, cells are represented graphically by hexagons. There are two main types of cell: Omni directional cell: An Omni-directional cell (or Omni cell) is served by a BTS with an antenna which transmits equally in all directions (360 degrees). Sector cell: A sector cell is the area of coverage from an antenna, which transmits, in a given direction only. For example, this may be equal to 120 degrees or 180 degrees of an equivalent Omni- directional cell. One BTS can serve one of these sector cells with a collection of BTS‘s at a site serving more than one, leading to terms such as two-sectored sites and more commonly, three-sectored sites.
The sites are then placed with the specific orientation as obtained from the clutter and the terrain diagram. The diagram shows the orientation of the sites in Patna area.
The next most important step is the frequency planning of the site. Assigning the BCCH (Broadcast Channel), TCH (Traffic Channel) frequencies and giving them a specific BSIC (Base Station Identity Code) and the CGI (Cell Group Identity) of the cell. CGI MCC + MNC+ LAC +CI
MCC- Mobile Country Code (404 & 405 for INDIA) MNC- Mobile Network Code (Depends on the service provider) LAC- Location Area Code CI- Cell Identity (Specific to a given cell)
The basic steps followed in the frequency planning is described the flowchart.
Planning the BCCH:
Care has to be maintained while imparting the BCCH frequencies to the cell sectors. The sectors should not have the same or adjacent frequency allotted to them. If this is not the case there will be very high interference between the sectors and the voice quality of the call will be reduced. Even the neighborhood sites should not have frequency close to that of the adjacent sites for the same reason of interference. The sectors cannot have same and adjacent frequencies, but there are only a limited number of frequencies allotted to the operator. So here comes the important concept of frequency re use.
Multiple reuse patterns are a generic method for using tight frequency reuse in combination with frequency hopping. The fundamental idea with MRP is to apply different reuse pattern with different degrees of tightness and use frequency hopping to combine them into an average use. The goal is to deploy as many transceivers as possible in existing cell to minimize the number of costly new sites.
The BCCH frequency in one cell cannot be used as TCH frequency in another cell. The reasons behind using a specific BCCH frequency are: 1. Traffic independent BSIC decoding: When the mobiles are trying to decode the BSIC through the synchronization channel, the performance will not be affected on the traffic load in the network. The reason is that TCH frequency will never disturb any BCCH frequency on which SCH is mapped.
2. Full gain from power control and DTX: Only TCH frequencies can use DTX and power control in the downlink. With a dedicated frequency band, full gain from power control and DTX is achieved in downlink. 3. Re-planning the TCH frequencies will not affect the BCCH plan: If additional transceivers are to be added to existing cell, the BCCH plan is not affected. The only restriction is to follow the adjacent frequency interference. Thus it is possible to keep the same BCCH plan even if additional transceivers are added to the network.
Generally all the frequencies allotted to the network can be used as TCH frequencies. The call can continue on any of the allotted frequencies but every sector has a limited number of call initiating frequencies. The call can initiate on only a certain number of frequencies and can continue on other as given by HSN (Hopping Sequence Number).
Hopping sequence number (HSN), determines the hopping sequence‘s respective algorithm. The value ‗0‘ means cyclic hopping. The values from 1 to 63 means pseudo random hopping. This info is sent in the main DCCH in the IE ‗Channel Description‘ contained in the ASSIGNMENT COMMAND and in the HANDOVER COMMAND if it was assigned to the used channel. If frequency hopping is enabled the parameter H is set to 1. In this case the IE also contains the HSN together with the MAIO. (Mobile Allocation Index Offset) Modulo Division by 8 is the concept used in HSN.
It is the fine tuning of a nominal to real time environment.
Reasons for Optimisation: Inaccuracy of radio planning - Statistical variations in the path loss characteristics - Finite terrain database resolution Implementation - Antenna radiation pattern and effective radiated power - Antenna pattern distortion Environment - Seasonal environmental changes, e.g. trees, leave - Environmental changes such as new highways, new buildings Perceived reduction in network quality Maximising the use of existing infrastructure Change in original design format
Single site verification
Drive test based:
Antenna Reorientation Antenna Down tilt Antenna Relocation Antenna Height adjustment Masthead Amplifiers
Cell parameter optimisation:
Handover parameters Power planning Neighbour list reconfiguration Frequency planning
Reflection • • • Occurs when a wave impinges upon a smooth surface. Dimensions of the surface are large relative to. Reflections occur from the surface of the earth and from buildings and walls.
Diffraction (Shadowing) • •
Occurs when the path is blocked by an object with large dimensions relative to and sharp irregularities (edges). Secondary ―wavelets‖ propagate into the shadowed region. Diffraction gives rise to bending of waves around the obstacle.
Scattering • • Occurs when a wave impinges upon an object with dimensions on the order of or less, causing the reflected energy to spread out or ―scatter‖ in many directions. Small objects such as street lights, signs, & leaves cause scattering
Multiple Waves Create ―Multipath‖ Due to propagation mechanisms, multiple waves arrive at the receiver Sometimes this includes a direct Line-of-Sight (LOS) signal
Multipath Propagation • • Multipath propagation causes large and rapid fluctuations in a signal These fluctuations are not the same as the propagation path loss.
Multipath causes three major things
• • • • •
Rapid changes in signal strength over a short distance or time. Random frequency modulation due to Doppler Shifts on different multipath signals. Time dispersion caused by multipath delays These are called ―fading effects Multipath propagation results in small-scale fading.
PROBLEM WITH SIGNAL RECEPTION:
FADING: • The communication between the base station and mobile station in mobile systems is mostly non-LOS.
• • • •
The LOS path between the transmitter and the receiver is affected by terrain and obstructed by buildings and other objects. The mobile station is also moving in different directions at different speeds. The RF signal from the transmitter is scattered by reflection and diffraction and reaches the receiver through many non-LOS paths. This non-LOS path causes long-term and short term fluctuations in the form of log-normal fading and Rayleigh and rician fading, which degrades the performance of the RF channel.
INTERFERENCE: • Interference is a major limiting factor in the performance of cellular systems. • • • • • It causes degradation of signal quality. It introduces bit errors in the received signal. Bit errors are partly recoverable by means of channel coding and error correction mechanisms. The interference situation is not reciprocal in the uplink and downlink direction. Mobile stations and base stations are exposed to different interference situation.
There are two types of system generated interference Co-channel interference Adjacent channel interference
CO-CHANNEL INTERFERENCE: • • • This type of interference is the due to frequency reuse, i.e. several cells use the same set of frequency. These cells are called co-channel cells. Co-channel interference cannot be combated by increasing the power of the transmitter. This is because an increase in carrier transmit power increases the interference to neighboring cochannel cells. To reduce co-channel interference, co-channel cells must be physically separated by a minimum distance to provide sufficient isolation due to propagation or reduce the footprint of the cell.
ADJACENT INTERFERENCE: • • •
Interference resulting from signals which are adjacent in frequency to the desired signal is called adjacent channel interference. Adjacent channel interference results from imperfect receiver filters which allow nearby frequencies to leak into the pass band. Adjacent channel interference can be minimized through careful filtering and channel assignments. By keeping the frequency separation between each channel in a given cell as large as possible, the adjacent interference may be reduced considerably.
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Ericsson. GSM System Survey. GSM Mobile Communication. (n.d.). Retrieved from Wikipedia. RF Frequency Planning. (n.d.). Retrieved from www.scribd.com. RF Optimisation. (n.d.). Retrieved from www.scribd.com. RF Planning & Optimisation. (n.d.). Retrieved from www.edaboard.com.
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