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CONTENTS

Sl. No District Human Development Profiles Pg. No

Preface v
Executive Summary vii
1 Adilabad 1
2 Karimnagar 15
3 Khammam 29
4 Mahbubnagar 45
5 Medak 61
6 Nalgonda 75
7 Nizamabad 89
8 Ranga Reddy 103
9 Warangal 117
10 Hyderabad 133
11 Components of Human Development Index 145
A Comparative Perspective

Appendices 163
A1 Human Development Index 165
A2 Estimation of Social Sector Expenditure and 167
its Components
A3 Health Infrastructure Index 169
Preface
The Report on Human Development in Telangana State: District Profiles is a part of
the larger report on human development in Telangana State, a work in progress. It was
at the invitation of the Planning Department that the Centre for Economic and Social
Studies (CESS) agreed to prepare the report for Telangana State. The objective of this
report is to examine the experience of Telangana State in human development at the state
and district levels.

Telangana emerged as the 29th state of the Indian Union from undivided Andhra Pradesh
after a prolonged struggle for statehood for nearly six decades. Notwithstanding the
abundance of natural and financial resources, human development remained inadequate
historically. The articulation of the aspirations of the community of Telangana, during the
last phase of the separate Statehood Movement, reflects the development agenda of the
people rooted in the socio-economic-cultural-political-historical ethos of the Telangana
community. The desire for inclusive development through inclusive decentralized
governance and for deepening and widening of the democratic functioning of the state,
market and civil society to protect the rights of every citizen of the state has been well
articulated. The aspirations of the people are in favour of a decentralized model of
economic development and for innovative public policies to promote the standard of
living, knowledge and longevity by removing inequalities and vulnerabilities.

The social structure in Telangana is uniquely skewed towards socially marginalized


sections-backward classes, scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and religious minority
groups- which constitute 85 percent of the state population. Social backwardness often
converges with economic backwardness and low human development. Civil society in
Telangana state is active with high awareness of socio-economic and political issues due
to its active participation in various social movements, especially the prolonged
movement for statehood. The emergence of the middle class in recent times has also
contributed to the high level of socio-political consciousness among the people. All these
indicate the prevalence of an enabling environment for the social mobilization of people
to play a vigilant citizenry role to moderate the state, market and civil society. A new
social framework that allows inclusive and participatory development would be able to
meet the aspirations of the people

v
The expectations of the Telangana Community broadly converge with the development
paradigm of UNDP that human development is the expansion of peoples freedom to
engage actively in shaping development with equity and sustainability wherein people
are both the beneficiaries and drivers of human development, as individuals and in
groups.

We thank our Chairman Prof. R. Radhakrishna for his constant support and guidance in
the preparation of the report. This report is the outcome of the collective effort of faculty
members, S. Galab, C. Ravi, E. Revathi, N. Sreedevi and P. Aparna of CESS. We thank all
those involved. The inputs from P. Satya Sekhar of Indian Institute of Family Health, have
been very useful on health component of the report. We thank him for his support. We
are grateful to Sri B. P. Acharya IAS, Principal Secretary, Planning Department,
Government of Telangana State for his useful comments on the draft report. We also
thank Prof. Kanakalatha Mukund for editing the manuscript and for useful comments and
suggestions on the draft. We hope the findings of the Report would be useful for
improving human development in Telangana state in future.

Date: 25-12-2015 S. Galab


Hyderabad Director, CESS

vi
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Executive Summary
Telangana became the 29th state of India, separated from undivided Andhra Pradesh on
2nd June 2014. The aspirations of the people as expressed during the Telangana
movement were in favor of a decentralized model of economic development and for
innovative public policies to promote the standard of living, knowledge and longevity by
removing inequalities and vulnerabilities. Human development is the expansion of
peoples freedom to live long, healthy and creative lives. The construction of a Human
Development Index that combines three dimensions of developmentsuch as long and
healthy life, knowledge and decent standard of livingreflects the approach of the UNDP.
Following the UNDP methodology, HDI has been computed for the 10 districts of
Telangana state for the years 2004-05 and 2011-12.
HDI across Districts of Telangana State
Table 1 presents the values of HDI for the 10 districts of Telangana state with their
relative rankings. The indices clearly indicate that there has been a significant
improvement in the HDI across all the districts. However the relative rankings of some of
the districts changed in the seven years between 2004-05 and 2011-12. In both the years,
Hyderabad, Ranga Reddy, Warangal and Karimnagar retained their ranks from 1 to 4
respectively. The ranks of the bottom two districts in 2004-05 i.e. Nizamabad and Medak
changed to 8 and 10 respectively in 2011-12. The rank improved from 7 to 5 for
Khammam, while the rank of Nalgonda slipped from 5 to 7 and Mahbubnagar from 8 to
9. Adilabad remained at 6th position in both the years.
Table 1: HDI and its Rankings across Districts of Telangana
District HDI Rank
2004-05 2011-12 2004-05 2011-12
Adilabad 0.289 0.508 6 6
Hyderabad 0.631 0.764 1 1
Karimnagar 0.350 0.521 4 4
Khammam 0.286 0.519 7 5
Mahbubnagar 0.270 0.464 8 9
Medak 0.261 0.446 9 10
Nalgonda 0.320 0.500 5 7
Nizamabad 0.251 0.466 10 8
Ranga Reddy 0.364 0.605 2 2
Warangal 0.356 0.534 3 3
Telangana 0.322 0.510 -- --
Source: Draft HDI Report 2011-12(2014), CESS Hyderabad

ix
Figure 1 below presents the value of HDI in 2004-05 and percentage change in HDI
between 2004-05 and 2011-12 to examine whether the districts with low value of HDI
improved faster compared to the districts with high HDI value. The figure very clearly
shows that districts with a low value of HDI in 2004-05 had increased their HDI value
faster compared to the districts with a higher HDI values.
Figure 1: HDI of Districts in 2004-05 and Change in HDI between 2004-05 and 2011-12

2004-05 % Change between 2004-05 and 2011-12

0.70 90.0
0.60 80.0
70.0
0.50 60.0
0.40 50.0
HDI % Change
0.30 40.0
0.20 30.0
20.0
0.10 10.0
0.00 0.0

The decomposition of changes in HDI across the districts reveals that the share of
standard of living in the total change is higher for most of the districts. The share of health
in total change is higher in Karimnagar. Health and education occupied second and third
places in that order in most of the districts except in Medak, Ranga Reddy and Nizamabad
(Figure 2).
Figure 2: Decomposition of Changes in HDI across Districts of Telangana

MPCE(Adj) Health Education

90
80
70 13 19
20 16
60 18
50 11 14 25 24
8 17 27
40 15 15 15
18
30 21
20 4 24 40 40
6 32 35 36 30
10 22 28
12 11
0

x
Table 2: Projected HDI and its Rankings across Districts of Telangana State

District Growth of HDI: 2004-2011 HDI 2015-16 (Projected) Rank in 2015-


16
Adilabad 10.8 0.700 4
Hyderabad 3.0 0.853 1
Karimnagar 7.0 0.654 7
Khammam 11.6 0.728 3
Mahbubnagar 10.3 0.632 9
Medak 10.1 0.606 10
Nalgonda 8.0 0.646 8
Nizamabad 12.3 0.665 6
Ranga Reddy 9.4 0.808 2
Warangal 7.1 0.673 5
Telangana 8.3 0.663 --

The value of the human development index at the state level grew at the rate of 8.3
percent per annum between 2004-05 and 2011-12 (Table 2). Nizamabad and Khammam
achieved the highest growth rate of 12 percent during this period. Adilabad,
Mahbubnagar, Medak and Ranga Reddy achieved a growth rate of 9 to 11 percent. The
growth rate was below the state average in Hyderabad, Karimnagar and Warangal. The
HDI values have been projected for 2015-16 at these growth rates. Ranks have been
allotted to districts on the basis of these projected HDI figures. Hyderabad and Ranga
Reddy retained their positions as the first and second highest districts in the state.
Hyderabad retained its top position despite having the lowest growth among the districts
of the state. Medak and Mahbubnagar remained the bottom two districts. There were
changes in rankings at the middle level. Khammam, Adilabad and Nizamabad improved
their positions while the ranks of Warangal, Karimnagar and Nalgonda slipped. Thus, the
top five districts in 2015-16 would be Hyderabad, Ranga Reddy, Khammam, Adilabad and
Warangal districts. It is to be noted that the percentage of both Scheduled Caste and
Scheduled Tribe population is highest in the last three districts. Among these three,
Adilabad and Warangal are highly urbanized with 28 percent of the population living in
urban areas.

xi
Public Expenditure and Human Development Index

Public expenditure in the social sector is one of the determinants of the performance of the
social sector. There has been progress in human development indicators such as literacy and
infant mortality rates, but the progress has been slow and we lag behind several East and South
East Asian countries. Thus, it is important to assess the relationship between social sector
expenditure and human development. The analysis of spending on human development is made
in terms of social sector expenditure as a proportion of total budgetary expenditures of the state
government and expenditure on education and health as a percentage of social expenditure.

Around 60-64 percent of total expenditure is spent on the social sector in all the districts of
Telangana except Karimnagar and Nizamabad, where the share is below 60 percent (Figure 3).
Thus, the allocation to the social sector is more or less the same across the districts and over a
period of time. But the HDI values across the districts vary to a considerable extent (Figure 4).

Figure 3: Share of Social Sector Expenditure in Total Expenditure


across the Districts of Telangana State

2004-07 2010-13

80
67
64
64

62
62

62
61
61
61

61
61

61
60

70

60
58
58
58

56

60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Source: Budget Documents of Andhra Pradesh

Out of total social sector expenditure, the share of education was higher than that of health
across all the districts during both the periods. In the latest period i.e. 2010-13, the share of
education exceeds 50 percent in Medak, Karimnagar, Mahbubnagar and Nizamabad. The share
ranges between 40 and 50 in Khammam, Warangal, Adilabad and Nalgonda. It is just 32
percent in Ranga Reddy district, the lowest in the state. The share of education remains the
same between two periods across all the districts except Nizamabad, Medak, Nalgonda and
Ranga Reddy districts. In the latter three districts there was a marginal decline of share while
it increased by 5 percentage points in Nizamabad district (Figure 5).

xii
Figure 4: HDI across the Districts of TS

2004-05 2011-12

0.764
0.9

0.631
0.605
0.8

0.534
0.521
0.519

0.508
0.7
0.466

0.464
0.446

0.5
0.6

0.364
0.356
0.35
0.289
0.286
0.5

0.32
0.261
0.251

0.27
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

Source: Draft HDI Report 2011-12(2014), CESS Hyderabad

Figure 5: Share of Education in Social Sector Expenditure across the


Districts of Telangana State
2004-07 2010-13
55.6
52.1
52.1

51.0

50.9

50.6
50.4
50.4

50.2

48.9
48.4
48.2

60.0

45.6
45.6
44.2
43.6

50.0 31.8
31.0

40.0
30.0
20.0
10.0
0.0

Source: https://treasury.ap.gov.in

The share of health expenditure declined in all the districts between 2004-07 and 2010-13
except in Adilabad. During the period 2010-13, the share of health in social expenditure was
below 5 percent in all the districts except Warangal, Adilabad and Medak. It was below 10
percent in these three districts (Figure 6).

xiii
Figure 6: Share of Health in Social Sector Expenditure across the
Districts of Telangana State

2004-07 2010-13

10.5
12.0

9.9
10.0

7.3

6.7
8.0

5.6
5.6

5.6
5.5

5.2

5.1
5.1
4.7

4.5

4.4
4.3

4.3

4.1
6.0

3.8
4.0
2.0
0.0

xiv
ADILABAD
Adilabad

Basic Features of Adilabad


It is the second largest district in the state with an area of 16,105 sq.km, next to
Mahbubnagar district
The district has a population of 27.41 lakh which accounts for 7.8 percent of the
population of the state, the second lowest next to Nizamabad with 7.2 percent
The density of population is the lowest at 170 per sq.km
The population is growing at 1 percent per annum
Children (0 13 years) constitute 26 percent of the total population and there
has been a decline in the growth rate of this age group
The younger age group (16-24 years) constitutes 18 percent of total population
and is growing at 2.02 percent per annum
42.5 percent of the population are in the working age group (25-59) which is
growing at 1.61 percent
Older persons (60 plus) constitute 8.7 percent of the population and the growth
rate of this age group is 3.5 percent per annum
27.7 percent of the population lives in urban areas
53 percent of the urban population in the district lived in slums
The district has the second highest proportion of both SC and ST population at
17.8 and 18.1 percent respectively (2011)
The sex ratio is 1001
The sex ratio among SCs is 1012 and 1003 among STs
The child sex ratio is 934 among all social groups, 935 among SCs and 956
among STs
The district ranks 1st in child sex ratio among STs
The child sex ratio among SCs is lower than the state average, and is the second
lowest in the state (lowest sex ratio- 932 in Hyderabad )
It stands in the middle position in child sex ratio of all caste groups
Adilabad district is predominantly an agricultural economy
Agriculture provides the livelihood for more than 60 percent of workers
It receives average annual rainfall of 1126 mm which is higher than the state
average of 904 mm.
But the rainfall is highly variable, and was below normal in 19 out of 32 years
(1980 to 2011)
The net area sown constitutes 38.3 per cent of geographical area, lower than
the state average of 48.8 percent during TE 2013-14
The gross irrigation ratio was 17.6 percent, lower than the state average of 48.8
percent
The cropping intensity was 110
Groundwater is the major source of irrigation
Marginal and small holdings constitute 74 percent of total holdings, lower than
the state average of 82 percent
It has the second highest percentage of area under forest cover (42.8 percent)
(Khammam is in the first position with 47.4 percent of forest area)

3
Adilabad

It is the largest cotton cultivating district in Telangana with 54 percent of gross


cropped area under cotton
Rice, soybean and redgram are the other important crops
Cereamic pipes, cement and mud bricks, paper, plywood, cotton yarn, cotton
thread, automobile parts, mangalore tiles, rice, oil, dal milling are the important
manufacturing activities
Nirmal paintings and toys are a special feature of the district
Beedi making is another important activity
Adilabad is one of the districts with a high level of out migration
According to the 2001 Census, 5.67 percent of the male population migrate
from the district

4
Adilabad

Human Development Index

Adilabad ranks 6th among the districts


of TS
Its rank remained the same between
2004-05 and 2011-12
HDI improved from 0.289 to 0.508
between 2004-05 and 2011-12
The growth rate was 10.8 per cent per
annum during this period
At this rate, HDI will increase to 0.700
in 2015-16

Most of the improvement in HDI is due


to an improvement in the standard of
living (consumption levels) and health
components
The contribution of education in the
overall improvement in human
development is marginal

Per Capita Social Sector Expenditure


increased by 7.6 per cent per annum
Expenditure on medical and public
health accounted for 7.3 percent of
social sector expenditure in 2010-13
The percentage share of public health
expenditure in DDP was 0.36 and its
share in total expenditure was 4.5
percent in 2010-13
In these aspects the district stands
second highest (Warangal stands in first
position) among the districts of TS
(excluding Hyderabad)
Expenditure on education accounts for
about 50 percent of social sector
expenditure
29.4 percent of total expenditure is
spent on education.
The expenditure on education accounts
for 2.38 percent of DDP

5
Adilabad

Economic Dimension

The average annual growth rate of


Gross District Domestic Product
(GDDP) was 8 per cent per annum
during 2004-12, lowest among the
districts of TS
The agriculture sector registered a
growth rate of 4.7 percent, second
lowest among the districts
Industry grew at 7.9 percent
The growth rate of the services sector
at 9.9% was higher than the other two
sectors
The growth rate of the services sector
in the district was the lowest in the
state.
The district contributes 5.9 per cent to
the gross state domestic product
(GSDP) while it has 7.8 percent of the
states population
The districts share in Gross State
domestic Product (GSDP)-agriculture
is 6.8 percent
The district contributes 6.4 percent of
GSDP-Industry and 5.4 per cent of
GSDP-Services
The agricultural sector shows a high
degree of fluctuation in growth, higher
than the state average
Both the crop and livestock sectors are
contributing to the growth of the
agriculture sector
The growth of the crop sector is 13.5
percent and the growth in livestock
sector is 17.7 percent, the highest in
the state
Fisheries are growing at 7.5 percent,
the second highest in the state (Medak
is in first position)
There is a decline in the growth of the
forestry sector
The district has 6.96 lakh hectares of
forest area, the second highest in the
state

6
Adilabad

The manufacturing sector grew at the


rate of 18.1 percent, the second
highest in the state (Mahbubnagar is
in the first position)
Agriculture contributes only 16.4
percent of GDDP while 63 percent of
the workforce depends on agriculture
The share of the workforce in
agriculture increased while the share
of the sector in GDDP decreased by 6
percentage points
The share of industry in GDDP is 31
percent while it employs 19 percent of
the workforce
The share of the workforce in industry
decreased by 3.6 percentage points
while the share of the sector in GDDP
increased by 3 percentage points
One half of GDDP is coming from the
services sector but it employs only
18.5 of the workforce.
The growth rate of wages both in
agriculture and non-agriculture is
higher than all the other districts of
TS.
Agricultural wages have grown at a
rate of 9.3 percent while non-
agricultural wages grew at 11.6
percent

7
Adilabad

Health Dimension

Despite a reduction in infant and


maternal mortality, the mortality rates
in the district are still high
The infant mortality rate in the
district is the second highest
The decline in IMR has not been
impressive
Maternal mortality in the district is
the highest in the state
The share of per capita expenditure
on medical services and public health
is 7 percent of total per capita social
sector expenditure
The share of expenditure on medical
services and health in total monthly
expenditure is 6.40 per cent, which is
higher than the state average of 5.36
per cent
The total fertility rate declined from
4.6 in 1981 to 2.0 in 2013
TFR is lower than the replacement
rate
The contraceptive prevalence rate
gradually increased to 60 percent

8
Adilabad

The mean age at marriage in the


district is the highest at 20.7 years
(2012-13)
There has been a sharp decline in the
number of marriages below the legal
age
The percentage of marriages below
legal age among women in the 20-24
age group has also declined
The performance of the district is
above the state level in the above two
parameters
Around 90 percent of deliveries are
safe deliveries
This proportion is the lowest in the
state
The percentage of women who
received 3+ ANCs declined from 83.2
percent in 2007-08 to 76.5 percent in
2012-13
73 percent of pregnant women
received ANC in the 1st trimester

9
Adilabad

87 percent of new born babies


received colostrum (2012-13)
Around 60 percent of babies were
breast fed by their mothers within one
hour of birth
Around 21 percent of children in the
district are stunted
The current malnutrition level
(wasted) among children is 32 percent
22 percent of the children are
underweight
45 percent of adults had anaemia
53 percent of the adolescents had
anaemia
71 percent of children in the age group
of 6 to 59 months had anaemia (2012-
13)

10
Adilabad

The incidence of diabetes and


hypertension was low among adults in
the district
17.8 percent of men and 14.2 percent
of women had hypertension, the
second lowest in the state
The 2012 HIV Surveillance Survey
(HSS) ANC data indicates low HIV
prevalence (0.13 per cent) among ANC
attendees, and also shows a declining
trend
HIV awareness among females was
62.2 (2012-13)
In 2012, a total of 63,395 clients were
tested at ICTCs in the district
The number of ICTCs increased from
17 in 2008 to 52 in 2012
The incidence of HIV was high in
Bazarhthnoor (11.1 %) and Bejjur
(33.3 %) blocks
The health infrastructure index stood
at 47.3 in 2013, compared to 47.8 in
2007, the second highest in the state
There was a decline in the
achievement levels of PHCs and sub-
centres
The achievement levels in terms of
beds and doctors improved, but was
lower than the state average
The health support facilities index
improved by 24 percent
This index was the lowest among the
districts of TS in 2012-13
The percentage of households with
safe drinking water increased but this
was still the lowest among the
districts of TS
The district has the second lowest
percentage of households having
sanitation facilities

11
Adilabad

Education Dimension

The literacy rate is lower than the


state average
It ranks 9th in overall and rural literacy
(Mahbubnagar is in the lowest
position)
Rural literacy increased by 9
percentage points between 2001 and
2011
The gap between rural and urban
literacy is 20 percent

Female literacy improved by 11


percentage points
The gap between male and female
literacy is 20 percent
Literacy rates are lower among SCs
and STs, but improved by 11
percentage points
The gap has narrowed between SCs,
STs and all castes
The gap in male-female literacy is the
same across all social groups
STs constitute 18 percent of the
population

The literacy level is higher among the


younger age group and is improving
among males and females
But the district has the second lowest
literacy rate among this age group
The literacy rate in urban areas is
higher than in Nizamabad, Medak,
Hyderabad, Ranga Reddy and
Mahbubnagar

12
Adilabad

Though there has been an


improvement in the percentage of
population who have studied up to
primary and above, in relative terms,
the position of the district remains the
same
There is a decline in the percentage of
children aged 12 years with primary
level of education in urban areas
The proportion of children in this age
group in urban areas showed a decline
from 3.24 percentage to in 2001 to
2.23 percentage in 2011
The percentage of drop-outs is higher
among the STs, especially among girls
The percentage of drop-outs is lower
among the SCs as compared to all
categories

There has been an improvement in all


the leading indicators over the period
Except in pupil-teacher ratio and
schools per 1000 children, all the other
variables are well below the state
average
The density of schools stood at 3.2,
while the number of schools per 1000
children is 9.3, compared to the state
average of 6.7
Schools with drinking water (82.8%)
and schools with toilets for girls
(58.5%) are comparatively lower than
the state average

13
Adilabad

14
KARIMNAGAR
Karimnagar

Basic Features of Karimnagar

Karimnagar has an area of 11,800 sq. km and a population of 37.76 lakh


One-fourth of the population live in urban areas
The density of population is 319 per sq.km
The population grew at the rate of 0.79 percent per annum between 2001 and 2011
Younger age population (16-24) is growing at 1.17 percent per annum and the older
population (60 +) is growing at 3.26 percent per annum
Population in the working age (25-59) is growing at the rate of 1.54 percent per
annum
The district has the highest proportion of SCs who constitute 18.8 percent of the total
population
The proportion of ST in the population is only 2.8 percent
The adult sex ratio was 1008
The adult sex ratios of the SCs and STs were relatively high at 1014 and 995
respectively
The child sex ratio was 935
Agriculture was the main occupation for 60 percent of its workers
It receives an average annual rainfall of 970 mm which is higher than the state
average of 904 mm.
But there is a lot uncertainty in the rainfall which was below normal in 18 out of 32
years (1980 to 2011)
Around 48 percent of area is under cultivation
It has the highest proportion of area under irrigation in the state; 73 percent of its
gross area is under irrigation
More than 75 percent of the irrigated area depends on ground water
The cropping intensity is 147, second highest, next to Nizamabad with 167
Marginal and small holdings constitute 87 percent of total holdings, higher than the
state average of 82 percent
It is the second largest rice cultivating district in Telangana
Rice and maize are grown on around 52 percent of the Gross Cropped Area
Cotton is grown on one-third of the Gross Cropped Area
One fifth of the area is under forest
The most important commodities produced in the district are coal, bakery products,
cement, beedis, cement bricks, rice, cotton, chilli powder, turmeric powder, maize
powder and fancy items
As per the 2001 Census, 5.71% of males in the district had migrated in search of
work; among them 11.42% had migrated to other states and 26.11% to other
districts within the state

17
Karimnagar

Human Development Index

The HDI of the district improved from


0.350 to 0.521 between 2004-05 and Change in HDI
2011-12 0.700
0.654
The HDI grew at the rate of 7 per cent 0.600
per annum during this period, the
0.521
lowest in the state (excluding 0.500
Hyderabad) 0.400
At this rate, HDI will increase to 0.654 0.350
0.300
in 2015-16
0.200
Most of the improvement in HDI is due 0.100
to an improvement in the health and
0.000
education components
2004-05 2011-12 Projected
The distinctive feature of the district is 2015-16
that improved consumption levels
contributed to the improvement in HDI.
Change in the Components of HDI
In all the other districts of TS, health
2004-05 2011-12 Projected 2015-16
and education components contributed

0.935
to human development

0.616
0.999

0.684
0.486

0.499
Per Capita Social Sector Expenditure
0.396
0.415

0.345
0.315

increased by 8.6 per cent per annum 0.499


Expenditure on medical services and
public health accounted for 4.3 percent -0.001
of social sector expenditure in 2010-13 MPCE(Adj) Health Education
The percentage share of public health
expenditure in District Domestic
Product (DDP) was 0.16 and its share in Public Expenditure on Education
and Health
total expenditure was 2.5 percent in
2010-13 as % of DDP
These proportions declined between as % of Total Expenditure
2004 and 2007
as % of Social Sector Expenditure
One half of social sector expenditure is
spent on education 60.0
50

50

29.3 percent of total expenditure is 50.0


spent on education 40.0
The expenditure on education accounts
29

29

30.0
for 1.85 percent of DDP
20.0

10.0
1.9

6
1.8

4
0.2

0.2
3

0.0
2004-07 2010-13 2004-07 2010-13

Education Health

18

Karimnagar

Economic Dimension

The average annual growth rate of


Gross District Domestic Product Average Annual Growth of Domestic
(GDDP) was 11 percent against 12 per Product by Sector: 2004-05 to 2011-
12 (Percent)
cent at the state level
Karimnagar Telangana
The agriculture sector registered a
growth rate of 18 percent, the highest

18.1
20.0
in the state

13.2

12.0
12.0

11.9
The industry and services sectors have

11.0
15.0

8.6
grown at 8 percent and 12 percent

8.1
10.0
respectively
5.0
These growth rates are lower than the
state growth rates 0.0
The district contributes 9 percent of
Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP)
while its share in the population of the
state is 10.7 percent
The share of the district in GSDP- Average Annual Growth of Domestic
Agriculture is 12 percent Product by Sector: 2004-05 to 2011-
12 (Percent)
The district contributes 10 percent of
GSDP-Industry and 8 per cent of GSDP- Agriculture Industry
Services Services GDDP
The growth rates of agriculture and
100.0
industry show a lot of fluctuation
Both the crop and livestock sectors are 50.0
contributing to the growth of the 0.0
agriculture sector
-50.0
The growth of the crop sector was very
high at 33 percent and the growth of
the livestock sector was 15.1 percent
Fisheries have grown at 4 percent
Forestry has grown at less than one Average Annual Growth Rate of
percent Agriculture and Allied activities:
The manufacturing sector has grown at 1999-2000 to 2007-08 (%)
8 percent Karimnagar Telangana
Communication, transport, banking
33.3

and trade are the high growth services 35.0


30.0
sectors
18.4

25.0
15.1

20.0
10.5

15.0
9.0

8.1

10.0
4.0
0.6
0.3

0.0

5.0
0.0

19
Karimnagar

Agriculture contributes only 18


percent of GDDP while 60 percent of
the workforce depend on agriculture
The share of agriculture in employment
has remained the same while its share
in GDDP decreased by 4 percentage
Structural Changes in the District
points
Economy
The share of industry in GDDP is 31 Share in GDP Share in Workforce
percent while its share in employment
is 24 percent

59.8

59.6
70.0
The share of industry in GDDP and

50.6
60.0

46.6
employment has remained the same 50.0
One half of GDDP is coming from the

31.4

31.2
40.0

23.9
22.0
services sector though it employs only

24.4
18.2
30.0

16.5
15.8
17 percent of the workforce 20.0

Agricultural wages grew at the rate of 10.0

8.83 percent which was above the state 0.0


2004-05 2011-12 2004-05 2011-12 2004-05 2011-12
average while the growth rate of non-
Agriculture Industry Services
agricultural wages was negligible

Average Annual Growth Rate of


Wages: 2000-01 to 2010-11
Karimnagar Telangana

10 8.83
8
5.90
6 4.31
4
2 0.14
0
Agriculture Wage Non-agriculture
Wage

20
Karimnagar

Health Dimension

Infant Mortaltiy Rate


The infant mortality rate was relatively 2004-05 2011-12
low at 38
The rate of decline in IMR between 80 65 67 64 64 63
60
2004-05 and 2011-12 was higher than 60 44 40 43
38 38 38
in Ranga Reddy and Hyderabad 40
The under-five mortality rate, however 20
is still rather high 0

Karimnagar

Karimnagar

Karimnagar
Telangana

Telangana

Telangana
The maternal mortality rate is low at
74, next to Hyderabad (71)
The share of per capita expenditure on
medical and public health is 5.6 percent Male Female Persons
of total per capita social sector
expenditure
Motality Rates
The total fertility rate is lowest in the 2004-05 2011-12

134
109
district throughout the time period and is 150

92
74
67
below the replacement rate 100

49

46
45
The contraceptive prevalence rate is 50
0
higher in the district than the state Karimnagar

Karimnagar
Telangana

Telangana
average
It declined from 68 percent in 2007-08
to 63 in 2012-13
Under Five Mortality Maternal Mortality

Trend in Total Fertility Rate in


Hyderabad

Karimnager Telangana
6

4 4.3 2.3
3.4 1.8
4.1 1.8
2 3.4
2.2
0 1.5 1.5
1981 1991 2001 2011 2013

Contraceptive Prevalence (%)


Karimnager Telangana

80 68 65 63 62
62 59
60
40
2002-04 2007-08 2012-13

21
Karimnagar

Characteristics of Women
2007-08 2012-13

45.2
60

48
50
40

24.8

28
26

19.6
19.5
20.2
30

19
20
20

8.7

11
The percentage of currently married 10
women in the district in the age group 0

Karimnagar

Karimnagar

Karimnagar
Telanagana

Telanagana

Telanagana
of 20-24 who were married below the
legal age of 18 years is the lowest in the
state
There has been considerable Age at % of Marriages % of Marriages
improvement in the percentage of Marriage below legal below legal
age age among
marriages below the legal age (20-24)
As in most of the districts, almost all married
deliveries are safe
In the case of other maternal health
care indicators like ANC during the 1st Maternal Health Care
trimester and 3+ANCs etc., the district 2002-04 2007-08 2012-13

is in the top position 150


There has been a gradual decline in the

100
97
96

95

93
88
85
85

percentage of pregnant women who

79
100
received ANC in the 1st trimester from
50
88 in 2002-04 to 85 in 2012-13
The percentage of babies who received 0
colostrum increased, and was the ANC I trim 3+ANCs Safedelivery
highest in TS
The district showed a decline in the
percentage of infants whose mothers
Child Feeding Practices
started breastfeeding within one hour
2002-04 2007-08 2012-13
of birth 120
97

The increasing number of C-section


88
87
83

100
deliveries may have contributed to this 80
55

53
49

45
44
40

60
38

decline
28

40
20
0
Telangana

Telangana
Karimnager

Karimnager

% of Children Initiation of Breast-


received Colostrum feeding within one
hour of birth

22
Karimnagar

Anthropometric Indices of
Nutritional Status among Children
under age Five:2012-13
The performance of the district in the Karimnager Telangana
nutritional status of children is not

36.8
impressive

32.8
40.0

29.5

29.5
The percentage of stunted children is

23.8
23.0
30.0
slightly lower than the state average
The percentage of children wasted is 20.0
the second highest in the state, next to
Warangal 10.0
The percentage of under-weight 0.0
children is also the second highest Stunting Wasting Underweight
among the districts of TS
Nearly 72 percent of children in the age
Anaemia among Children, Adolescents
6-59 months were found to be anaemic and Adults: 2012-13 (<11.0 g/dl)
during 2012-13 Karimnager Telangana
54 percent of adolescents and 48

71.8
percent of adults are anaemic in the

71
80

54.2
54.1

49.6
47.5
district 60
The percentage of men with diabetes 40
was the highest in the state, along with 20
Nizamabad 0
The incidence of hypertention was high Children 6- Adolescents 20 years and
among men as observed in other 59 months 6-19 years Above
districts
According to 2012 HSS-ANC data, the
Percentage Men and Women aged 18
HIV prevalence was high (1.25%) years & above having High Bloodsugar
among the ANC clients >160,hypertension(SBP>=140 or
According to DLHS-IV data, the HIV and DBP>=90)
STI/RTI awareness rate among women Men Women
was 81% and 29%, respectively
22.3

21.8

25
16.2
15.6

20
15
5.5

10
3.8

3.7
3.1

5
0
Karimnager

Karimnager
Telangana

Telangana

High Blood Sugar Hypertension

23
Karimnagar

Health Infrastructure and Health


Support Facilities Index

2007 2013

70.7
80

64.8

59.5
70
60

43.6
39.9
38.8
37.6
37.2
The achievement of health 50
40
infrastructure was low in Karimnagar
30
as compared to the state average 20
The health infrastructure index was 10
37.2, compared to the state average of 0

Karimnagar

Karimnagar
Telangana

Telangana
39.9
The achievement status of PHC and Sub-
centers at 55.1 and 75.6 respectively
was higher than the state average of Health Infrastructure Health Support
52.1 and 69.4 Index Facilities Index
However the district has a very low
achievement level with regard to Percentage of Households with
doctors (6.7) and beds (11.5) Drinking Water and Sanitation
The performance of the district in safe Facilities
drinking water and sanitation facilities 2001 2011
is lower than the state average
91.4
83.3

83.2

100
90
60.6

80
50.0
70
46.2

60
35.9

50
26.6

40
30
20
10
0
Karimnagar

Karimnagar
Telangana

Telangana

Households with Safe Households with


Drinking Water (%) Sanitation Facilities
(%)

24
Karimnagar

Education Dimension

Changes in Literacy Rates


2001 2011
The improvement in literacy in rural
areas has been high 100
The rural-urban gap remains high

78
74
80
Though the literacy rates among SCs

64

64
60

59
55

55
and STs were lower, they have shown

52
50
60

47
an improvement

34
40
STs constitute 2.8 percent of the
population 20
The gap between STs and all social 0
groups was high Total Rural Urban All SC ST
The improvement in literacy among
females was higher across all social
Changes in Literacy Rates
groups 2001 2011
The gap in male-female literacy is the
same across all social groups
74
80

68
The decline in gender gap is not much 67

61
58

55

50
The literacy rate of the younger age 60

46

43

42
35
groups (15-24) was the highest in the 40

22
state
20
This applied to both rural and urban
areas and males and females 0
All SC ST All SC ST
The percentage of literates with
primary and above level of education is Male Female
also higher in this district
The completion rate of primary school Percentage of Literacy among Youth
among 12 years old children in the 2001 2011
district was the second highest
95

Gender differences were minimal


92

91

90
87

100
87

83
82
75

72

80
63

61

60
40
20
0
Karimnagar

Karimnagar

Karimnagar
Telangana

Telangana

Telangana

Persons Male Female

25
Karimnagar

Literates with Primary and above


level of education (%)
2001 2011

80.7
80.1

79.3
79.1
78.4

77.5
100

71.7
71.3
69.7

68.7
66.6
73
80
60
40
20
0

Karimnagar

Karimnagar

Karimnagar
Telangana

Telangana

Telangana
The district had the second lowest level
of drop-outs at primary level
The drop-out rate among STs, Persons Male Female
especially among girls, was more than
double the rate among SCs and all
social groups
Karimnagar performs better than the
Children in the age of 12 years with
state average with regard to education Primary level of education (%)
infrastructure indicators 2001 2011
The district is slightly weaker on the
pupil-teacher ratio (17.9) compared to

73
72

72
70

68
67

67

66
80

64
62
58
the state average of (16.4) 70

53
60
Schools with access to drinking water 50
40
and girls toilets is also very high at 93.7 30
20
and 86.6 respectively 10
0
Karimnagar

Karimnagar

Karimnagar
Telangana

Telangana

Telangana
Persons Male Female

Drop-out Rate at Primary


Level:2011-12

Persons Male Female


35.2

40
30.8
26.4

30
17.9
16.8

15.7
14.9
14.6

14.3

20

10

0
All SC ST

26
Karimnagar

Education Infrastructure Indicators


2004-05 2011-12

100 93.7
86.6
90 78.4
80
70
60 47.7
50
40
26.5
30 19.7 21.3 17.9
20
3.8 4.2 6.4 7.6
10
0
Density of Schools per Student Schools with Schools with Pupil Teacher
Schools - per 1000 Children Classroom drinking water Girls toilets ratio
10 Sq.km (6-14 age ratio (%) (%)
group)

27
KHAMMAM
Khammam

Basic Features of Khammam


Khammam district is the third largest district in the state with an area of 160.29
sq.km
It has a population of 27.97 lakh which constitutes 7.9 percent of the population
of the state
It has a very low density of population at about 174.5 per sq.km, next only to
Adilabad with 170.3 per sq.km
The population grew at the rate of 0.82 percent per annum between 2001 and
2011
The younger age group (16-24) accounted for 18 percent of the total population
and was growing at the rate of 1.22 percent per annum
Around 45 percent of the population were of working age (25-59) and the age
group had a growth rate of 1.89 percent per annum
Older persons (60 plus) constituted 9.8 percent of the total population and with
a growth rate of 3.59 percent per annum
Around 23 percent of population lived in urban areas
42.3 percent of the urban population were living in slums
The scheduled caste population constituted 16.5 percent of the total population
It has the largest percentage of tribal population in the state at 27 percent
Koyas and Lambadas are the prominent tribal groups in the district
It has the second highest sex ratio in the state at 1011, next to Nizamabad with
1017
The sex ratio among SCs is 1013 and is 1022 among STs the highest in the state
It ranks 1st in child sex ratio for all caste groups, for SCs and STs
The child sex ratio for all social groups is 958 girls for 1000 boys, for SCs 992
and for STs 961
It is one of the 250 most backward districts in the country (out of 640)
It is one of the coal mining districts of India
Agriculture provides livelihood for nearly 67 percent of the workforce
It receives an average an annual rainfall of 1124 mm which is higher than the
state average of 907 mm
The annual rainfall was below normal in 15 out of 32 years (1980 to 2011)
The net area sown accounted for one-third of the geographical area, the lowest
in the state
The gross irrigation ratio was 46.1 percent which was slightly lower than the
state average
It has the highest extent of area under canal irrigation in the state; 25.3 percent
of the net irrigated area is under canals
The dependency on groundwater irrigation is the lowest in the district with 43.4
percent
The cropping intensity is 115
Marginal and small holdings constitute 80 percent of total holdings, which was
lower than state average of 82 percent

31
Khammam

Rice and maize are the important food grains which are grown on 46 percent of
the Gross Cropped Area (GCA)
One-third of GCA is under cotton
The district has the highest percentage of area under fruits in Telangana state
Chillies is another important commercial crop cultivated in the district
The yield of all these crops is higher than the state average
It has the second highest percentage of area under forest with 47.3 percent
The manufacturing sector is growing at 13.9 percent
Granite, coal, power generation, ferro alloys, iron, steel, cane furniture, paper
board making, textiles, rice and cotton are the important manufactures in
various towns in the district
As per the 2001 Census, 7.49% of men had migrated outside the district
Among them 1.36% migrated to other states and 25.56% migrated to other
districts within the state
The top two destinations for out-of-state migration were Dantewada in
Chhattisgarh and Surat in Gujarat

32
Khammam

Human Development Index

HDI in the district improved from 0.286 Change in HDI


to 0.519 between 2004-05 and 2011-12 0.728
0.800
HDI has grown at 11.6 per cent per
annum during this period 0.600 0.519

At this growth rate, the HDI will increase


0.400 0.286
to 0.673 during 2015-16, and the rank of
the district will also improve 0.200
Most of the improvement in HDI is due
0.000
to an improvement in the standard of
2004-05 2011-12 Projected
living (Consumption levels) and health 2015-16
components
The contribution of education is lower
than of the other two components Change in the Components of HDI
Per Capita Social Sector Expenditure 2004-05
2011-12
increased by 9.4 per cent per annum Projected 2015-16
between 2004-07 and 2010-13

0.814
Its share in the states social sector

0.696
0.682
0.900

0.597
expenditure (excluding Hyderabad) was 0.800

0.537
0.700
0.435
10.8 percent 0.600

0.347

0.341
0.500
Expenditure on medical and public
0.198

0.400
0.300
health accounted for 4.3 per cent of 0.200
social sector expenditure in 2010-13 0.100
0.000
The percentage share of public health MPCE(Adj) Health Education
expenditure in DDP was 0.2 and its share
in total expenditure was 2.6 percent in
2010-13
These proportions declined between
2004 and 2007 Public Expenditure on Education and
Around 6 percent of household Health
expenditure was spent on health during as % of DDP
2011-12
as % of Total Expenditure
Around 44 percent of social sector
as % of Social Sector Expenditure
expenditure is spent on education
About 26 percent of the total 50.0
44

44

expenditure is spent on education


40.0
The district spent 1.98 percent of DDP
28

on education
26

30.0

20.0

10.0
5
2.0
1.8

4
3
0.2

0.2
3

0.0
2004-07 2010-13 2004-07 2010-13
Education Health

33
Khammam

Economic Dimension

Average Annual Growth of Domestic Product


Gross District Domestic Product by Sector: 2004-05 to 2011-12 (%)
(GDDP) was growing at the rate of 8.4 Khammam Telangana
percent against 12 per cent at the state

13.2

12.0
12.0
14.0
level during 2004-2011

10.6
The growth of agriculture in the 12.0

8.6

8.4
8.3
district was the lowest in the state 10.0

The agriculture sector has grown at the 8.0

rate of 4.3 percent 6.0

4.3
The agricultural growth rate has 4.0

shown a lot of fluctuation, to a greater 2.0

degree than the state average 0.0


Agriculture Industry Services GDDP
Industry and services sectors have
grown at 8.3 percent and 10.6 percent
respectively Average Annual Growth of Domestic Product
The district contributes 7.4 percent of by Sector: 2004-05 to 2011-12 (%)

GSDP while its share in the population


Agriculture Industry
of the state is 7.9 percent
Services GDDP
The share of the district in GSDP- 25.0
Agriculture is 10.8 percent 20.0
The district contributes 7.8 percent of 15.0
GSDP-Industry and 6.4 per cent of 10.0
5.0
GSDP-Services 0.0
During 1999-2007, the crop sector -5.0
-10.0
grew at 9.2 percent and the livestock -15.0
sector grew at 12.9 percent
The contribution of the livestock sector
was more than that of the crop sector
during this period
Forestry is growing at less than one Average Annual Growth Rate of Agriculture
percent and allied: 1999-2000 to 2007-08 (%)
Khammam Telangana
The district has the highest proportion
of area under forest (47.3 percent of its
12.9

14.0
geographical area)
10.5

12.0
The fisheries sector has grown by 7.2
9.2

9.0

10.0
8.1
7.4

percent
7.2

8.0
6.0
4.0
0.3

2.0
0.0

0.0

0.0

34
Khammam

The manufacturing sector grew at a Structural Changes in the District Economy

relatively high rate of 13.9 percent Share in GDP Share in Workforce

Agriculture contributes only 21


percent of GDDP while 67 percent of

71.4
80.0

66.7
the workforce depend on agriculture 70.0
The share of agriculture declined both 60.0

49.2
in employment and in output.

45.8
50.0
Its share in GDDP declined by 1.7
percentage points, while its share in

32.0
40.0

30.3
employment declined by 4.7

23.5
22.2
30.0

20.5

16.9
percentage points

11.7
20.0
The share of industry in GDDP is 30.3

9.8
percent while it employs 9.8 percent of 10.0

the workforce 0.0


The share of industry in GDDP and in 2004-05 2011-12 2004-05 2011-12 2004-05 2011-12

employment declined by 2 percentage Agriculture Industry Services

points
Around 50 percent of GDDP is coming
from the services sector, though it Average Annual Growth Rate of Wages:
employs only 24 percent of the 2000-01 to 2010-11
workforce
Khammam Telangana
The share of services in GDDP has
increased by 3.4 percentage points 7
while the share of the sector in 5.90
6
employment increased by 6.6
percentage points 5
4.31
Agricultural wages increased at a rate 4.05
of 4.05 percent while non-agricultural 4 3.54
wages grew at 3.54 percent, and both
3
were below the state average
2

0
Agriculture Wage Non-agriculture Wage

35
Khammam

Health Dimension

Infant Mortality Rates


Male Female Persons

71
80

69
67

67

63
70

60
60

47

46
45

44

43
50

40
40
30
IMR declined by 23 points 20
IMR of girl babies was lower than that of 10
0
boy babies 2004-05 2011-12 2004-05 2011-12
This difference declined from 6 points in
2004-05 to 2 points in 2011-12 Khammam Telangana
The under-five mortality rate was
higher in the district than in the state Under Five Mortaltity and Maternal
The maternal mortality rate in the Mortality
district was the second highest, next to 2004-05 2011-12
Adilabad

144
The share of per capita expenditure on

134
200

99

92
medical and public health was 4.31 150
72

67
54

46
100
percent of total per capita social sector 50
expenditure 0

Khammam
Khammam

Telagnana

Telagnana
The share of medical expenses in the
total monthly household expenditure
was 5.92 during 2011-12
The total fertility rate declined from 4.7 Under Five Mortality Maternal Moratality

in 1981 to 1.6 in 2013, which is below


the replacement rate Trend in Total Fertility Rate

Khammam Telangana
4.7
5
3.7
4
4.3

3 3.4 2.3

2 1.6 1.6
2.3
1.8 1.8
1

0
1981 1991 2001 2011 2013

36
Khammam

Contraceptive Prevalence (%)

2002-04 2007-08 2012-13

80 74
67 65
70 63 62
59
60
50

The contraceptive prevalence rate was 40


74 percent, which was the highest in 30
the state in 2007-08, but it declined to 20
63 percent during 2012-13 10
The mean age at marriage for girls had 0
increased to 20 by 2012-13 Khammam Telangana
Though the percentage of marriages
below the legal age and number of
marriages below legal age in the 20-24 Characteristics of Women
2007-08 2012-13
age group declined, these rates are
higher than that of other districts

55

47.9
60
96 percent of deliveries in the district

33.6

32.7
50

27.6
were safe deliveries

26.4
40
19.8
20.3
18.6

19.2
87 percent of pregnant women 30

11.8

10.7
20
received 3+ ANCs 10
81 percent of pregnant women 0
Khammam
Khammam

Telanagana

Telanagana

Khammam

Telanagana
received ANC in the 1st trimester, the
highest in the state

Age at Marriage % of Marriages % of Marriages


below legal age below legal age
among (20-24)
married

Maternal Health Care


2002-04 2007-08

120
96.4
89.8
85.1

100
81.3

87
75.1

71.1
70.7
63.9

80
60
40
20
0
ANC I trimester 3+ANCs Safe delivery

37
Khammam

Child Feeding Practices


2002-04 2007-08 2012-13

92

88
87
100

83
90
80

58
70

55

53
47
60

45
40
38

38
50
40
30
20
10
0

Khammam
Khammam

Telangana

Telangana
The percentage of infants who
received colostrum decreased from 92
in 2007-08 to 83 in 2012-13
% of Children Initiation of Breast-
There was a decline in the percentage received Colostrum feeding within one
of babies who were breast-fed within hour of birth
one hour of birth during 2007-2012
Anthropometric indices of the
nutritional status of children below age Anthropometric Indices of
Nutritional Status among Children
five show that the percentage of
under age Five:2012-13
stunted children (21.7) is lower than
Khammam Telangana
the state average
The percentage of wasting (35.2) was

35.2
29.5

29.5
29.3
40
relatively higher in the district
23.8
21.7

30
29.3 percent of the children were
under-weight 20
Anaemia among children 6-59 months 10
(80.4%) is the highest in the state 0
More than 60 percent of the Stunting Wasting Underweight
adolescents and adults are anaemic
These percentages are the highest in
the state Anaemia among Children,
Adolescents and Adults: 2012-13
(<11.0 g/dl)
Khammam Telangana

100
80.4

65.7
71

63.7

80
54.2

49.6

60

40

20

0
Children 6-59 Adolescents 20 years and
months 6-19 years above

38
Khammam

The incidence of diabetes is similar to Percentage Men and Women aged


the other districts 18 years & above having High
Hypertension among men and women Bloodsugar >160
is relatively lower in the district Khammam Telangana
As per the 2012 HSS-ANC data, the
6
level of HIV prevalence was moderate 4.2
(0.50%) among the ANC clients, with a 4
3.7 3.8
3.1
declining trend
According to DLHS-IV data, the HIV and 2
STI/RTI, the awareness rate among
women was 86% and 42.4%, 0
Men Women
respectively
The health infrastructure index was
49.1, the highest among the districts of Percentage Men and Women aged
the state 18 years & above having
The achievement status of PHC and hypertension(SBP>=140 or DBP>=90
Sub-centres was very high at 74.0 and Karimnager Telangana
104.2, much higher than the state
average of 52.1 and 69.4 respectively 30
19.3 21.8
However the district has a very low 20 15 16.2
achievement with regard to doctors 10
and beds, at 6.0 and 12.3 respectively 0
The district has also fared better with Men Women
regard to safe drinking water as it
increased from 77 percent to 90.8
percent Health Infrastructure
Sanitation facilities recorded an 2007 2013
improvement from 29 to 48.2%
70.7
69.5

59.5

80
coverage
52.7
51.8
49.1

39.9
38.8

60
40
20
0
Khammam Telangana Khammam Telangana
Health Infrastructure Health Support
Index Facilities Index

39
Khammam

Percentage of Households with Drinking Water and Sanitation Facilities

2001 2011

91.4
90.8

83.2
76.5

100
80

50.0
48.2

35.9
60

29
40
20
0
Khammam Telangana Khammam Telangana
Households with Safe Drinking Water (%) Households with Sanitation Facilities (%)

40
Khammam

Education Dimension

Changes in Literacy Rates


2001 2011

100

81
78
The improvement in literacy rate in 80

65

65
rural areas was higher than in urban

63
60
57

57

53
52

52
areas 60
The gap in literacy between rural and

38
40
urban areas continue at 22 percentage
points 20
Literacy among STs is the third highest
0
in the district
Total Rural Urban All SC ST
STs constitute 27.4 percent of the
population, the highest in the state
The literacy rate of STs was lower than
the rate for SCs and all social groups Changes in Literacy Rates
The gap between STs and all groups 2001 2011

declined from 19 percentage points in


72

71
80
66

2001 to 13 points in 2011 70 63

60

57

55
60
The female literacy rate improved by
48

47

44
43
50
10 percentage points 40

28
There was a gap of 14.9 percentage 30
20
points between male and female 10
literacy 0
The male-female literacy gap among All SC ST All SC ST
SCs and STs was 15.8 and 16.1 Male Female
percentage points respectively
Female literacy needs to be improved
for all caste groups
Nearly 91 percent of males are literates Percentage of Literacy among 15-24
in the age group of 15-24 age population-Khammam
This proportion among girls was 83 2001 2011
percent
91.1
90.8
87.0

83.2

82.7
81.9
79.8
87

There was a gap of 6 percentage points 100


71.9

61.4
70

60.1

between rural and urban areas in the 80


literacy rates of males 60
This gap was 12 percentage points in 40
the case of females 20
0
Khammam

Khammam

Khammam
Telangana

Telangana

Telangana

Persons Male Female

41
Khammam

Percentage of Literates with Primary


and above level of education
2001 2011

79.1
78.7
78.4
78 percent of the population had

77.6

77.5
76.1
90

71.3

70.6

68.7
68.2

73

64.8
80
schooling up to primary and above 70
level 60
50
Around 79 percent of males and 76 40
percent of females had schooling of 30
20
primary and above level 10
There was not much difference 0

Khammam

Khammam
Telangana

Telangana

Khammam

Telangana
between males and females
The gap in literacy above the primary
level is high between rural and urban
areas Persons Male Female
Around 71 percent of children of 12
years had completed education up to
Percentage of children in the age of
the primary level 12 years with Primary level of
The levels were the same across rural education-Khammam
and urban areas and between males 2001 2011
and females

67.5
70.8
70.7

70.5
The drop-out rate at the primary level
66.9

66.3
80
63.5

61.8
58.4

57.5

was the lowest among the districts of 70

52.8
53
60
TS 50
The drop-out rate among girls was 40
lower than among boys 30
The drop-out rate was higher among 20
10
STs than among the SCs and all 0
categories
Khammam

Khammam

Khammam
Telangana

Telangana

Telangana

The district shows an improvement in


indicators of education infrastructure
The district has a high percentage of Persons Male Female
schools with drinking water (90.4%)
and girls toilets (81.8%)
The student class room ratio stands at Drop-out Rate at Primary Level:2011-12
21.4, while the pupil- teacher ratio was Persons Male Female
17.7.
25.9
25.5

30
25

However, the density of schools was


lower (2.7) than the state average ( 3.9)
14.2

20
13.5
13.4
15

11.1

8.5

10

0
All SC ST

42
Khammam

Education Infrastructure Indicators


2004-05 2011-12

100 90.4
81.8
76.9
80
60
40 32.7
21.4 24.2 23.3
17.7
20 7 8.4
2.3 2.7
0
Density of Schools per Student Schools with Schools with Pupil Teacher
Schools - per 1000 Children Classroom ratio drinking water Girls toilets (%) ratio
10 Sq.km (6-14 age (%)
group)

43
MAHBUBNAGAR
Mahbubnagar

Basic Features of Mahbubnagar


It is the largest district with an area of 18,432 sq. km, which accounts for 16 percent
of the total area of the state
Its population of 40.53 lakh constitutes 11.5 percent of the total population of the
state, the second highest population, after Ranga Reddy
The population in the district grew at the rate of 1.44 percent per annum between
2001 and 2011, the second highest next to Ranga Reddy (4.01 %)
There was a decline in the growth of population in the age group of 0-6 and 7-10
The younger age group (16-24) constitutes 16.8 percent of the total population,
growing at the rate of 1.89 percent per annum
The population of working age comprises 41.7 percent of the total population and
grew at 2.32 percent per annum, the second highest rate of growth in the state, next
to Ranga Reddy (5.02%)
Around 9 percent of population are in the older age group of 60 plus, growing at 3.34
percent per annum
This the least urbanized district and only 15 percent of the population live in urban
areas
38.9 percent of the urban population in various towns live in slums and nearly 90
percent of population in Narayanpet town live in slums according to the 2011 Census
17.5 percent of the population belong to the scheduled castes and 9 percent to
scheduled tribes
The sex ratio among adults is 977
The child sex ratio is relatively low at 925
The sex ratio among SCs is 991 and 948 among STs
The child sex ratio among SCs is 953 and 872 among STs
It is one of the 250 most backward districts in the country (out of 640)
Agriculture, sheep rearing and handloom weaving are the important economic
activities
Agriculture provides livelihood for nearly 67 percent of the workforce
The average annual rainfall is 604 mm which is much lower than the state average of
907 mm
Around 50 percent of the district is under cultivation, the second highest, next to
Medak with 54.5 percent of net area sown
The gross irrigation ratio was 34.3 percent, the second lowest, next to Adilabad (17.6
%)
81 percent of net irrigated area is served by groundwater
The cropping intensity is 112
Marginal and small holdings constitute 76.6 percent of total holdings, which is lower
than the state average of 82 percent
44 percent of area is under food grains. Rice, maize and redgram are the important
food grains
Cotton and oilseeds are each grown on 20 percent of GCA
The yield of cotton, rice, maize and redgram is lower than the state average
The yield of oilseeds is higher than the state average
13.9 percent of the district is under forest

47
Mahbubnagar

The manufacturing sector is growing at 19.6 percent, the highest in the state
Cement, bricks, pharmaceutical products, iron ingots, cylinder pipers, textiles,
chemical products, cotton, beedi, handloom saris, pots, rice and oil are the important
commodities produced in the district
As per the 2001 Census, 6.15 percent of the men had migrated from the district
The two main destination districts for interstate migration were Thane and Pune in
Maharashtra, which had a high rate of prevalence of HIV

48
Mahbubnagar

Human Development Index

Mahbubnagar has the second lowest Change in HDI


HDI among the districts of TS 0.700 0.632
Its rank declined from 8 in 2004-05 to 9 0.600 0.464
in 2011-12 0.500
The HDI improved from 0.270 to 0.464 0.400 0.270
between 2004-05 and 2011-12 and has 0.300
grown at 10.3 per cent per annum 0.200
during this period 0.100
0.000
At this rate - HDI will increase to 0.632
2004-05 2011-12 Projected
during 2015-16 but the rank of the 2015-16
district will not change

Most of the improvement in HDI is due


Change in the Components of HDI
to an improvement in the standard of
2004-05 2011-12 Projected 2015-16
living (consumption levels)and health
components

0.704
0.800
In the overall improvement in HDI, the

0.657
0.700
contribution of education is lower than

0.546
0.500
that of the other two components 0.600
0.457

0.437
0.500
Per Capita Social Sector Expenditure

0.296
0.400
0.275
0.242

increased by 6.6 per cent per annum


0.300
between 2004-07 and 2010-13
Expenditure on medical services and 0.200
public health accounted for around 5 0.100
percent of social sector expenditure in 0.000
2010-13 MPCE(Adj) Health Education
The percentage share of public health
expenditure in DDP was 0.23 and its
Public Expenditure on Education and Health
share in total expenditure was 2.9 as % of DDP
percent in 2010-13 as % of Total Expenditure
More than 50 percent of social sector as % of Social Sector Expenditure
expenditure is spent on education
60.0
52

52

The district spent 2.5 percent of DDP on 50.0


education and stands in second position 40.0
32

32

among the districts of TS 30.0


A little more than one third of the total 20.0
expenditure is spent on education
2.5

2.5

10.0
0.3

0.2

5
3

0.0
2004-07 2010-13 2004-07 2010-13
Education Health

49
Mahbubnagar

Economic Dimension

Average Annual Growth of


Domestic Product by Sector: 2004-
05 to 2011-12 (Percent)
Gross District Domestic Product is Mahbubnagar Telangana
growing at the rate of 9.7 percent
against 12 per cent at the state level 15.0 11.9 12.0 13.2 12.0
10.9
The district is one of the middle level 10.0 8.6 6.7
9.7
of development districts in the state 5.0
The agriculture sector has grown at a 0.0
very high rate of 11.9 percent
The services sector has also grown
rapidly at 10.9 percent as against 13.2
percent at the state level
The district has the lowest growth rate
Average Annual Growth of
of industry at 6.7 percent which is just
Domestic Product by Sector (%):
a little more than half of the growth 2004-2011
achieved at the state level
Agriculture Industry
The district contributes 7 percent of
GSDP while it has 11.5 percent of the Services GDDP
population of the state 60.0
The share of the district in GSDP- 50.0
Agriculture is 12.8 percent 40.0
30.0
The district contributes 5.8 per cent of 20.0
GSDP-Industry and 6.5 per cent of 10.0
0.0
GSDP-Services -10.0
Both the crop and livestock sectors are -20.0
2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12
contributing to the growth of the
agriculture sector
The district has the second highest rate
of growth of the livestock sector at
15.8 next to Adilabad with 17.7 percent Average Annual Growth Rate of
Forestry is growing at less than one Agriculture and Allied activities:
1999-2000 to 2007-08
percent while the growth rate of
(Percent)
fisheries is 2 percent
Mahbubnagar Telangana
19.2

30.0
15.8

13.6
10.5

20.0
9.0

8.1
2.0
0.6

10.0
0.3

0.0

0.0

50
Mahbubnagar

Structural Changes in the District


Economy
Share in GDP Share in Workforce

72.5

71.2
The growth of the manufacturing sub- 80.0
sector in the district is the highest in the 70.0

51.5
48.1
60.0
state
50.0
Agriculture contributes one fourth of

28.8

25.2
40.0

23.3
23.1
the GDDP while 71 percent of the

16.8
30.0

14.9
12.6
workers depend on agriculture

12
20.0
The decline in the percentage of 10.0
0.0
workers in agriculture is less than the

2011-12
2004-05

2011-12

2004-05

2004-05

2011-12
decline in the share of agriculture in
GDDP
There has been not much change in the Agriculture Industry Services
share of the industry sector both in
GDDP and employment
Average Annual Growth Rate of
The rapid growth of the services sector
Wages: 2000-01 to 2010-11
is not contributing to employment
Mahbubnagar Telangana
generation
Both agricultural and non-agricultural 10 9.49
wages are growing at a very high rate of 8.41
more than 8 percent 8
These growth rates are higher than in 6
5.90
most of the other districts of TS 4.31
4

0
Agriculture Wage Non-agriculture
Wage

51
Mahbubnagar

Health Dimension

Changes in Infant Mortality Rate


2004-05 2011-12

80
90

75
70
67
80

63
60
58
70

55
52
60

44

43
40
50
40
30
20
10
The district has the highest Infant 0

Telangana

Telangana

Telangana
Mahbubnagar

Mahbubnagar

Mahbubnagar
Mortality Rate though it declined by 20
percentage points
The reduction in IMR is not adequate
given the prevailing high levels of IMR
Gender differences in IMR declined Male Female Persons

from 10 points in 2004-05 to 6 points


in 2011-12 Under Five and Maternal Mortality
The under-five mortality rate in the Rates
district is the highest in the state 2004-05 2011-12
The maternal mortality rate is also
high 160 143 134
140
The total fertility rate declined from 120 96 98 92
100
4.9 in 1981 to 2.4 in 2013, but is above 80 61 67
46
60
the replacement rate 40
20
0
Telagnana

Telagnana
Mahbubnagar

Mahbubnagar

Under Five Mortality Maternal Moratality

Trend in Total Fertility Rate

Mahbubnagar Telangana

6 4.9
4.5
5
4 3.1
4.3 2.4 2.4
3
3.4
2
2.3
1 1.8 1.8
0
1981 1991 2001 2011 2013

52
Mahbubnagar

Contraceptive Prevalence (%)

2002-04 2007-08 2012-13

80
65 65 62
59 59
60 54

40

20
The contraceptive prevalence rate 0
increased from 54 in 2002-04 to 65 in Mahbubnagar Telangana
2012-13
The mean age at marriage for girls
increased to 20 years Characterisitcs of Women
The performance of the district in 2007-08 2012-13

respect of the percentage of currently

58.9

47.9
47.0
70.0
married women (in 20-24 age group) 60.0

34.7

27.6
50.0

26.4
who were married below 18 years is 19.9

19.8
19.2
18.2
40.0

10.7
30.0
poor

8.3
20.0
10.0
Around 62 percent of pregnant women 0.0
had received ANC during the 1st trimester
Mshbubnsgst

Mshbubnsgst

Mshbubnsgst
Telangana

Telangana

Telangana
during 2007-08, and this figure remained
the same in 2012-13
Around 87 percent of women received
more than 3 ANCs during 2007-08 but this Mean age at % of Marriages Currently
Marriage below legal age married women
declined to 75 percent during 2012-13 at marriage (20-24) married
Around 97 percent of deliveries are safe below 18 years
deliveries
Maternal Health Care
2002-04 2007-08 2012-13

120
96.7
87.3

100
76.7

75.2

70.9
62.1

80
57.9
62
42.9

60
40
20
0
ANC I trimester 3+ANCs Safe delivery

53
Mahbubnagar

Child Feeding Practices


2002-04 2007-08 2012-13

92
88

88
87
100
90
80

60
70

53
45
60

40
40

40

38
50

32
40
30
20
10
92 percent of infants received 0
colostrum during 2007-08, but this

Telangana

Telangana
Mahbubnagar

Mahbubnagar
declined to 88 during 2012-13
Breast-feeding the baby within one
hour of birth improved from 40
percent in 2007-08 to 60 percent % of Children received Initiation of Breast-
Colostrum feeding within one
during 2012-13
hour of birth
Around 34 percent of children are
stunted, which is higher than the state
average Anthropometric Indices of
18 percent of children are wasted, the Nutritional Status among Children
under age Five:2012-13
lowest figure for the state Mahbubnagar Telangana
40
26 percent of children are under- 33.6
weight children 29.5 29.5
30 25.7
64 percent of children (6-59 months) 23.8
are anaemic which is lower than the 20 17.5
state average
The incidence of anaemia is 54 percent 10
among adolescents
50 percent adults are suffering from 0
anaemia Stunting Wasting Underweight

Anaemia among Children,


Adolescents and Adults: 2012-13
(<11.0 g/dl)
Mahbubnagar Telangana
63.6
71

80
54.2
53.5

49.8
49.6

60
40
20
0
Children 6-59 Adolescents 6- 20 years and
months 19 years above

54
Mahbubnagar

Percentage Men and Women aged


18 years & above having High
Bloodsugar >160

Mahbubnagar Telangana

5.0
4.0 3.7 3.9
4.0 3.1
3.0
4 percent of men and women (age 18
2.0
years and above ) have diabetes
1.0
More men have hypertension than
0.0
women
Men Women
HIV and RTI/STI awareness rate among
married women (15-49 years) was
Percentage Men and Women aged
69% and 19%, respectively (DLHS-IV) 18 years & above having
Based on 2012 HSS-ANC data, the level hypertension(SBP>=140 or DBP>=90
of HIV positivity was high (1.38%)
among the ANC clients Mahbubnagar Telangana
Since 2008, there has been a gradual 25 22 21.8
increase in the number of ICTCs and the 20 16.2 16.2
number of total people being tested in 15
the district 10
The health infrastructure index is 41.0,
5
compared to the state average of 38.1
0
The achievement status of PHC and Sub-
Men Women
centers was 63.1 and 84.2 respectively,
higher than the state average of 52.1 and
69.4 Health Infrastructure and Health
The district has low achievement with Support Facilities Index
regard to beds and doctors at 10.7 and 6.1 2007 2013
respectively
70.7
61.7

The district has the lowest rank in terms of


59.5

80
57.4

70
sanitation facilities
41.1
41.0

39.9

60
38.8

50
40
30
20
10
0
Telangana

Telangana
Mahbubnagar

Mahbubnagar

Health Infrastructure Health Support


Index Facilities Index

55
Mahbubnagar

Households with Safe Drinking Water and Sanitation Facilities (%)

2001 2011
120.0
97.0
96.3

91.4
83.2

100.0

80.0

50.0
60.0

35.9
26.4

40.0
18.5

20.0

0.0
Mahbubnagar Telangana Mahbubnagar Telangana
Households with Safe Drinking Water (%) Households with Sanitation Facilities (%)

56
Mahbubnagar

Education Dimension

Changes in Literacy Rates


2001 2011
The district has the lowest level of 100
literacy in the state, though the urban

78
75
literacy rate was slightly better 80

55

55
There is a gap of 27 percentage points

51
60

48
44

44

42
41
in literacy between rural and urban

33
40

26
areas, the highest in the state
20
The district the lowest literacy rates for
SCs and STs 0
There is a gap of 13 percentage points Total Rural Urban All SC ST

in literacy between STs and all social


groups
This gap is 7 percentage points
between SCs and all social groups Changes in Literacy Rates
There was a considerable 2001 2011
improvement in female literacy of 13
65
percentage points between 2001 and 70
57 58
54
2011 60
50 45 45
There continues to be a gap of 21 38 38
40 32
percentage points in literacy between 30
30
males and females 20
20 13
The gender gap in literacy among SCs is 10
20 points and among STs 23 0
percentage points All SC ST All SC ST
Female literacy needs to be improved Male Female
in all caste groups
Around 84 percent of males are
literates in the age group of 15-24 Percentage of Literates in 15-24
This proportion among girls is 75 Age Group
2001 2011
percent
There is a gap of 11 percentage points
91.1
83.6

82.7
81.9
87

100
between rural and urban areas in male
75.1

75.1
71.9

67.8

90
61.4

80
literacy rates, the highest in the state
54.8

70
40.8

60
In the case of females the gap in literacy 50
40
rates is 25 percentage points, the 30
20
highest in the state 10
0
Telangana

Telangana

Telangana
Mahbubnagar

Mahbubnagar

Mahbubnagar

Persons Male Female

57
Mahbubnagar

Percentage of Literates with Primary


and above level of Education
2001 2011
73 percent of the population is literate

79.1
78.4

77.5
74.7
73.4

71.5
71.3

68.7
with schooling of primary and above

66.8
90

73

62.7
69
80
level 70
60
50
Around 75 percent of males and 72 40
30
percent of females are literates with 20
10
0
primary and above level schooling

Telangana

Telangana

Telangana
Mahbubnagar

Mahbubnagar

Mahbubnagar
There is little difference between males
and females
The difference in the level of literacy
(schooling of primary and above level)
Persons Male Female
is high between rural and urban areas
at 11 percentage points
Around 63 percent of children of 12 Percentage of children in the age of 12
years have completed primary level of years with Primary level of education
education, the lowest in the state 2001 2011
These levels were more or less the

67.5
66.9

66.3
64.9
62.9

61.8

60.7
57.5

same across rural and urban areas and 80 52.9

52.8
44.5

35.3
60
between males and females
40
The percentage of drop-outs at the 20
primary level in the district is also the 0
highest in the state
Telangana

Telangana

Telangana
Mahbubnagar

Mahbubnagar

Mahbubnagar
Drop-outs are more among STs ,
especially among girls
Drop-outs are lower among SCs as
compared to all categories Persons Male Female
The improvement in education
infrastructure indicators has been less
in Mahbubnagar Drop-out Rate at Primary
Level:2011-12
The density of schools (2.8) and schools
per 1000 children (5.9) is lower than All SC ST
the state average
57.9

70.0
However the district has a better
52.9

48.1

60.0
student classroom (18.7) and pupil- 50.0
34.6

teacher ratio (14.9) compared to state


33.7

32.8

32.0
30.7

29.6

40.0
average 30.0
8402 percent of the schools have 20.0
drinking water and 65.3 percent of the 10.0
schools have toilets for girls 0.0
Persons Male Female

58
Mahbubnagar

Education Infrastructure Indicators: Mahbubnagar

2004-05 2011-12

90 84.2
80
70 65.3
59.2
60
50
36.4 34.7
40
30 25.2
18.7
20 14.9
6.2 5.9
10 2.4 2.8
0
Density of Schools per Student Schools with Schools with Pupil Teacher
Schools - per 1000 Children Classroom drinking water Girls toilets ratio
10 Sq.km (6-14 age ratio (%) (%)
group)

59
MEDAK
Medak

Basic Features of Medak

Medak district has an area of 9699 sq.km with a population of 30.33 lakh (2011
Census)
It accounts for 8.4 percent of the area and 8.6 percent of the population of the state
The density of population is 313 per sq.km, higher than the state average of 306 per
sq.km
The district population grew at the rate of 1.28 percent per annum between 2001 and
2011
Around 31 percent of population are children in the age group of 0 15. The growth
of population in the age group 0 -10 (20 percent) has declined
The younger age group (16 24 years) constitutes 17 percent of the population and
is growing at 2.12 percent
Persons in the working age group (25 59) constitute 42 percent and this group has
grown at the rate of 2.07 percent
The older age group ( 60 plus) accounts for 10 percent of the total population and is
growing at 3.62 percent
Around 24 percent of the population live in urban areas
Nearly 38 percent of the urban population in the district live in slums
Scheduled castes constitute 17.7 percent and scheduled tribes 5.6 percent of the
population of the district
The sex ratio for all social groups is 992, 952 for SCs and 970 for STs
The district ranks 2nd in the sex ratio of SCs
The sex ratio among children is 952 for all social groups, 980 for SCs and 911 for STs
The district ranks 2nd in child sex ratio for all social groups and SCs
The child sex ratio declined for all social groups, SCs and STs between 2001 and 2011
Agriculture provides livelihood for nearly 69 percent of the workforce
The average annual rainfall is 963 mm which is higher than the state average of 907
mm., but was below normal in 15 out of 32 years (1980 to 2011)
The net area sown constitutes more than half of the geographical area, the highest in
the state
The gross irrigation ratio was 38.3 percent which is lower than the state average of
48.8 percent
Groundwater is the major source of irrigation for 92.3 percent of the net area sown
The cropping intensity is 128
Marginal and small holdings constitute 86.3 percent of total holdings, higher than the
state average of 82 percent

63
Medak

Agriculture is highly diversified in the district


Around 66 percent of area is under food crops
Rice, maize, bengalgram and greengram are the important foodgrains
Sugarcane is produced only in this district and is grown on 3.8 percent of the area
Cotton and groundnut are grown on 16 percent and 11 percent of the area
respectively
Vegetables are grown 3 percent of total area
The yield of all the crops is higher than the state average
Only 9.4 percent of the district is under forests
The manufacturing sector grew at 3.8 percent during the period 1999-2007
The important products manufactured under the large and medium sector are
turbines, generators, electrical equipment, missiles, light combat vehicles, sugar, bulk
drugs, formulations (capsules, syrups, injections, tablets, powders), pesticides and
formulations, V-belts, cotton and synthetic yarn, tyres, tubes and flaps, beer, soft
drinks, electrical fans, refrigerators, air coolers, building systems, CR-Steel strips
According to the 2001 Census, 3.84% of males had migrated from the district; among
them 9.75% migrated to other states and 28.27% migrated to other districts within
the state

64
Medak

Human Development Index

The district has the lowest HDI in the state,


Change in HDI
and has dropped from the 9th rank during
2004-05 to the last position during 2011- 0.700 0.606
12 0.600
0.446
The HDI improved from 0.261 to 0.446 0.500
between 2004-05 and 2011-12, and has 0.400 0.261
grown at 10 per cent per annum during this 0.300
period 0.200
0.100
At this rate the HDI will increase to 0.606
0.000
during 2015-16 2004-05 2011-12 Projected
Most of the improvement in HDI is due to 2015-16
the improvement in the standard of living
(consumption-MPCE)and education
components Change in HDI Components
In the overall improvement in HDI, the 2004-05 2011-12 Projected 2015-16
contribution of health is lower than that of
the other two components

0.703
0.8
Per Capita Social Sector Expenditure

0.575
0.7

0.550

0.558
increased by 11.8 per cent per annum between
2004-07 and 2010-13 0.6

0.441
The growth of social sector expenditure in

0.372
0.5
0.361

the district was the highest in the state

0.277
0.4
Expenditure on medical services and public
0.173

health accounted for around 6 percent of 0.3


social sector expenditure in 2010-13 0.2
The percentage share of public health 0.1
expenditure in DDP was 0.1 and its share in
total expenditure was 3.5 percent in 2010- 0
MPCE(Adj) Health Education
13
These proportions had declined as
compared to 2004-07 Public Expenditure on Education and Health
One half of the social sector expenditure is
spent on education as % of DDP
The district spent 1.23 percent of DDP on as % of Total Expenditure
education and stands in the second lowest as % of Social Sector Expenditure
position (Ranga Reddy is in the last 60.0
position) among the districts 51 50
50.0
About one-third of the total expenditure is
40.0
spent on education 31 31
30.0
20.0
10.0 1.4 4 7 4 6
1.2 0.2 0.1
0.0
2004-07 2010-13 2004-07 2010-13
Education Health

65
Medak

Economic Dimension

Average Annual Growth of Domestic Product


by Sector: 2004-05 to 2011-12 (%)

Medak Telangana
The Gross District Domestic Product 25.0

20.3
(GDDP) is growing at the rate of 17

16.8
15.6
20.0

15.1
percent against 12 per cent at the state

13.2

12.0
12.0
15.0
level

8.6
The district ranks first along with 10.0
Ranga Reddy 5.0
The agriculture sector has grown at a
0.0
relatively high rate of 15.1 percent
The services sector has also grown
rapidly at 15.6 percent as against 13.2
percent at the state level
It ranks 2nd in the growth rate of the
services sector, next to Ranga Reddy Average Annual Growth of Domestic Product
by Sector: 2004-05 to 2011-12 (%)
The district is in top position in the
growth of the industry sector at 20.3 Agriculture Industry
percent Services GDDP
The district contributes 12.1 percent of
80.0
GSDP while it has 8.6 percent of the
population of the state 60.0
The share of the district in GSDP- 40.0
Agriculture is 15 percent, the highest in 20.0
the state
0.0
The district contributes 19 per cent of
GSDP-Industry and 8 per cent of GSDP- -20.0
Services -40.0
It is the district with the second highest
contribution to the output from
industry in the state
There are fluctuations in the growth of
Average Annual Growth Rate of
various sectors
Agriculture and Allied activities: 1999-
During 1999-2007 the crop and 2000 to 2007-08 (%)
livestock sectors grew at more than 10 Medak Telangana
percent and contributed to the growth
13.9
10.5

of the agriculture sector 15.0


10.7
10.1

Fisheries grew at 13.9 percent which is


9.0

8.9
8.1

10.0
the highest in the state
5.0
Forestry grew at one percent
1.1
0.3

0.0

0.0

66
Medak

Structural Changes in the District


The high growth of industry is not Economy
because of the growth of the Share in GDP Share in Workforce
manufacturing sector

69.1
67.5
80.0
The growth of the manufacturing
70.0
sector in the district is the lowest
60.0
Agriculture contributes 17 percent to

44.3

41.0

38.3
50.0

36.6
GDDP while 69 percent of the workers 40.0
depend on agriculture

22.3

17.3
30.0

16.6

16.1

15.9

14.8
The share of agriculture in GDDP 20.0
declined while the share of workers in 10.0
agriculture increased 0.0
The share of industry in GDDP 2004-05

2011-12

2004-05

2011-12

2004-05

2011-12
increased by 8 percentage points while
its contribution to employment
Agriculture Industry Services
declined marginally
The share of the services sector both in
GDDP and the workforce declined Average Annual Growth Rate of
Agricultural wages have grown at a Wages: 2000-01 to 2010-11
very high rate of 5.81 percent Medak Telangana
The growth rate of non-agricultural
wage was lower than the agricultural 7
5.81 5.90
wage 6
These growth rates are lower than that 5 4.31
the state average and of most of the 4 3.56
districts 3
2
1
0
Agriculture Wage Non-agriculture Wage

67
Medak

Health Dimension

Changes in Infant Mortaltiy Rate


2004-05 2011-12

80 73 67 67
60 60

54

50
60

46
44

40
40 33

20
20
The infant mortality rate in the district 0

Medak

Medak

Medak
Telangana

Telangana

Telangana
is the second highest in the state
IMR declined by 17 points
The female IMR is lower than male IMR
in all the districts except Hyderabad Male Female Persons

Gender differences in IMR declined


from 13 points in 2004-05 to 8 points Child Mortality and Materanal Rates
in 2011-12
The under five mortality rate was 43 2004-05 2011-12
The gap between Medak and 160 131 134
Hyderabad (27) and Warangal (29) 140
120
was high 100
90 92
65 67
The maternal mortality rate was 90 80
60 43 46
The total fertility rate declined from 4.6 40
in 1981 to 2.2 in 2013 20
0
The fertility rate is higher than the
Medak

Medak
Telangana

state average and is higher than the Telangana


replacement rate
Under Five Maternal Mortality
Mortality

Trend in Total Fertility Rate in Medak

Medak Telangana
4.6
5 4.2
4
4.3 2.9
3 2.2 2.2
3.4
2
2.3
1 1.8 1.8

0
1981 1991 2001 2011 2013

68
Medak

Contraceptive Prevalence (%)


2002-04 2007-08 2012-13

70 65 62
58 59 59
60 53
50
40
30
The contraceptive prevalence rate is 20
lower than the state level and is the 10
lowest in the state
0
The rate declined from 59 in 2007-08 to Medak Telangana
53 in 2012-13
The mean age at marriage is 19
The percentage of marriages below Characteristics of Women
legal age declined sharply 2007-08 2012-13
24 percent of currently married women

51
in the age group of 20-24 were below

48
60
50
the legal age when they married during

29

28
26
40

24
19
19

20

18
30
19

2012-13

11
20
10
This proportion was more than 50 0
percent during 2007-08
Medak

Medak

Medak
Telanagana

Telanagana

Telanagana
While 80 percent of pregnant women
received ANC during the 1st trimester
in 2007-08, this declined to 69 percent Age at % of % of
in 2012-13 Marriage Marriages Marriages
Similarly the percentage of women who below legal below legal
age age among
received 3 plus ANC also declined (20-24)
during this period married
Around 99 percent of deliveries were
reported to be safe deliveries
This is due to an increase in Maternal Health Care: Medak
institutional deliveries 2002-04 2007-08 2012-13

120
98.7
96.3
93.2

100
80.3

77.5
73.7

73.1
70.6

69.4

80
60
40
20
0
ANC I trimester 3+ANCs Safe delivery

69
Medak

Child Feeding Practices


2002-04 2007-08 2012-13

94
100

88
87
90

80
80
70

53
60

46

45
45
44
50

40

39

38
40
30
20
The percentage of infants who received
10
colostrum declined from 94 in 2007-08 0
to 80 in 2012-13 Medak Telangana Medak Telangana
The percentage of babies who were % of Children Initiation of Breast-
breast-fed within one hour of birth also received Colostrum feeding within one
declined during 2007-2012 hour of birth
The anthropometric indices of the
nutritional status of children below the
Anthropometric Indices of
age of five show that the percentage of Nutritional Status among Children
stunted children is lower than the state under age Five:2012-13
average Medak Telangana
The percentage of wasting is higher
than the state figure, and is the second 40 37.3 36.8
highest next to Warangal 29.5 29.5
30
36.8 percent of children were under- 20.5
23.8
weight, the second highest next to 20
Nizamabad
10
68 percent of children in the age group
of 6-59 months were anaemic, stands 0
third lowest in the state Stunting Wasting Underweight
50 percent of adolescents (6-19 years)
and 44 percent of adults (20 years and Anaemia among Children,
above) were anaemic, the second Adolescents and Adults: 2012-13
lowest next to Nizamabad in both these (<11.0 g/dl)
indicators Medak Telangana
71.0
68.1

80
54.2
50.1

49.6
43.6

60
40
20
0
Children 6-59 Adolescents 20 years and
months 6-19 years above

70
Medak

Percentage of Men and Women 18 years &


above having High Bloodsugar 160,
hypertension(SBP>=140 or DBP>=90)

Men Women

21.8
23
25
The incidence of diabetes was lower in

18.4
the district for both men and women 20

16.2
The percentage of adult women who
had hypertension was the highest in 15
the state
10
Hypertension among men was the
same as in other districts

3.7
3.1
2.5
5

2.2
Based on 2012 HSS-ANC data, the level
of HIV positivity was low (0.33%) 0
among the ANC clients Medak Telangana Medak Telangana
The HIV and RTI/STI awareness rates High Blood Sugar Hypertension
among women were 81.0% and 19.3%,
respectively (DLHS-IV)
The health infrastructure index was Health Infrastructure
45.0 in 2013, compared to 42.3 in 2007 2007 2013
Medak observed a decline in the

70.7
70.3
80
achievement levels of PHCs

59.7

59.5
70
The achievement levels in respect of 60
42.3

39.9
38.8
45

beds and doctors improved but was 50


40
still lower than the state average 30
The health support facilities index 20
improved by 17.8 percent, but the 10
0
figure is lower than the state average Medak Telangana Medak Telangana
The percentage of households having Health Health Support
sanitation facilities in the district is half Infrastructure Index Facilities Index
of the figure for Hyderabad
Households with Safe Drinking Water and
Sanitation Facilities (%)
2001 2011
96.5
94.2

91.4

120
83.2

100
50.0

80
44.1

35.9
25.2

60
40
20
0
Medak Telangana Medak Telangana
Households with Safe Households with
Drinking Water (%) Sanitation Facilities
(%)

71
Medak

Education Dimension

Changes in Literacy Rates

2001 2011
The literacy level in the district is 100
relatively low

79
77
The improvement in literacy rate is 80
higher in rural areas than in urban

61

61
56

53
60

52
52
areas

47

45
40
There is still is a gap of 22 percentage 40

28
points in literacy between rural and
urban areas 20
Literacy among SCs and STs improved
0
by 14 and 17 percentage points Total Rural Urban All SC ST
between 2001 and 2011
The gap in the literacy levels of SCs and
all social groups is 8 points and STs and Changes in Literacy Rates
all social groups is 16 percentage 2001 2011
points
71.4
The district has the 2nd lowest literacy 80.0 64.3

62.8
rates for both SCs and STs

56.9
70.0
51.4

51.4
The literacy rate for males improved 60.0

44.3
41.1

38.7
by 7 percentage points between 2001 50.0

32.0
28.2
40.0
and 2011
30.0
Female literacy rate improved by 13

14.3
20.0
percentage points during this period 10.0
The male-female gap in literacy was 20 0.0
percentage points during 2011 All SC ST All SC ST
90 percent of males and 85 percent of Male Female
girls in the age group of 15-24 were
literate
Percentage of Literacy among 15-24
age population
2001 2011
91
90
87
85

100
83
82

80
78
72

80
65

61
51

60
40
20
0
Telangana

Telangana

Telangana
Medak

Medak

Medak

Persons Male Female

72
Medak

Percentage of Literates with Primary


There is a gap of 5 percentage points and above level of education
2001 2011
between rural and urban areas in the
literacy rates of younger males

79.1
78.5
78.4
77.6

77.5
76.3
90

71.3
This rural-urban gap is 13 percentage

68.7
68.6
66.2

73
80

62.1
points in the case of literacy rates of 70
60
younger females 50
78 percent of the people are literate 40
30
with schooling up to primary and 20
above level 10
Around 79 percent of males and 76 0

Medak

Medak

Medak
Telangana

Telangana

Telangana
percent of females are literates with
primary and above level schooling
There is not much difference between
Persons Male Female
males and females
The gap between rural and urban areas
is 7 percentage points Percentage of children in the age of
70 percent of boys and 69 percent of 12 years with Primary level of
girls of 12 years had completed education
2001 2011
primary education
These proportions were slightly lower
70.3
69.9

69.4
67.5
66.9

66.3
in urban areas than in rural areas 80

61.8
58.8
57.5
53.4

52.8
70
The drop-out rate in the district is the

47.6
60
second highest in the state, next to 50
40
Mahbubnagar 30
This is the case for boys and girls, and 20
among SCs and STs 10
0
There has been an improvement in the
Medak

Medak

Medak
Telangana

Telangana

Telangana

district in education infrastructure


indicators
The density of schools (4.0) and Persons Male Female
schools per 1000 children (6.4) is on
par with the state average
81.6 percent of the schools have Drop-out Rate at Primary Level:2011-12
drinking water and 73.4 percent of the Persons Male Female
schools have girls toilets
56.9
52.3

However, the student classroom (23.6) 60


47.9

and pupil-teacher ratios (19.7) are


32.5
31.9

31.3

30.7
30.5
30.3

40
lower than the state average
20

0
All SC ST

73
Medak

Education Infrastructure Indicators


2004-05 2011-12

81.6
90

73.4
67.4
80
70

46.2
60
50
33.7

26.9
40
23.6

19.7
30
20
6.4
5.9
3.3

10
4

0
Density of Schools per 1000 Student Schools with Schools with Pupil Teacher
Schools - per 10 Children (6-14 Classroom ratio drinking water Girls toilets (%) ratio
Sq.km age group) (%)

74
NALGONDA
Nalgonda

Basic Features of Nalgonda


Nalgonda has an area of 12,240 sq.km which is 12 percent of the total area of the
state
Its population of 34.89 lakh constitutes one tenth of the state population
The density of population is 245.7 per sq.km
The growth rate of population in the district was 0.72 percent per annum between
2001 and 2011, the second lowest next to Hyderabad (0.29 percent )
The child population (0 13) accounted for 24 percent of the total population, and
the growth rate of age group was declining
The younger age group (16-24) constituted 18 percent of the total population and
was growing at 1.38 percent
43 percent of the population was of working age (25-59) and this group was
growing at 1.64 percent
The older age group (60 plus) accounted for 11 percent of the total population and
was growing at 3.68 percent
The district has the second lowest level of urbanisation. 19 percent of its population
live in urban areas, next to Mahbubnagar with 15 percent
Around 39 percent of the urban population in the district live in slums
18 percent of the population belonged to scheduled castes, the second highest after
Karimnagar
Scheduled tribe population constituted 11 percent of the total population
The sex ratio was 983; the sex ratio for SCs was 1002, and for STs it was 934, the
second lowest in the state, after Hyderabad with 915
The child sex ratio was 923, 959 for SCs and 841 among STs which again was the
second lowest in the state, after Hyderabad with 824
Agriculture provides livelihood for nearly 66 percent of the workforce
The average annual rainfall of 753 mm is lower than the state average of 907 mm.
and was below normal in 19 out of 32 years (1980 to 2011)
Net area sown constitutes 48.4 percent of the geographical area
Nearly 55 percent of the gross cropped area is under irrigation
There is a high level of dependency on groundwater and 71 percent of the net area
irrigated is under wells
Only 20 percent of NIA is irrigated by canals
The cropping intensity is 126
Marginal and small holdings constitute 80 percent of total holdings, lower than the
state average of 82 percent

77
Nalgonda

It has the largest share of GCA under rice at 44 percent


Cotton is a major crop, and is grown on 31 percent of the area
It is the second largest district in fruit cultivation
The yield of cotton is lower than the state average
Only 6 percent of the geographical area is under forest, the lowest in the state
The manufacturing sector grew at 13.9 percent during 1999-2007
Nalgonda district is famous for cement units, handloom weaving, rice mills and
pharmaceutical units
Cement and cement products, slabs for flooring, stone crushing, ceramic tiles and
ceramic products, feldspar granite, lime stone slabs, rice and dal and flour milling
and cotton ginning are the important manufacturing activities
Nalgonda exports quartz, feldspar and granite in raw form, different colours of lime
stone slabs, white granite, cement and cement products, ready-made garments,
parboiled rice and rice bran oil
As per 2001 Census, 8.33% of the males had migrated from the district
Among them, 3.72% migrated to other states and 32.67% migrated to other
districts within the state.
The top destinations for out-of-state migration were Mumbai (Suburban) and
Thane in Maharashtra, which were districts with high HIV prevalence

78
Nalgonda

Human Development Index

The HDI of the district improved from


0.320 to 0.500 between 2004-05 and
2011-12 and has grown at 8 per cent
per annum during this period
At this growth rate, HDI will increase to
0.646 during 2015-16
Most of the improvement in HDI is due
to an improvement in the standard of
living (Consumption levels) and health
components
The contribution of education is lower
than the other two components
Per Capita Social Sector Expenditure
increased by 10 per cent per annum
between 2004-07 and 2010-13
The share of the district in the social
sector expenditure of the state
(excluding Hyderabad) was 12 percent
Expenditure on medical services and
public health accounted for 4 percent of
the social sector expenditure in 2010-
13
The percentage share of public health
expenditure in DDP was 0.2 and its
share in total expenditure was 2.4
percent in 2010-13.
Around 49 percent of the social sector
expenditure is spent on education
The district spent 2.12 percent of DDP
on education
One third of the total expenditure is
spent on education

79
Nalgonda

Economic Dimension

The Gross District Domestic Product


(GDDP) is growing at a rate of 11.6
percent as compared to 12 per cent at
the state level
The growth performance of agriculture
is lower than industry and services
The agriculture sector has grown at the
rate of 7.5 percent
There has been a high degree of
fluctuation in the growth of
agriculture, higher than the state
average
Industry and services sectors have
grown at 13.4 and 13.5 percent
respectively
The district contributes 8.5 percent of
GSDP while its share in the population
of the state is 9.9 percent
The share of the district in GSDP-
Agriculture is 13.9 percent
The district contributes 8.4 percent of
GSDP-Industry and 7.2 per cent of
GSDP-Services
During 1999-2007, the crop sector
grew at 13.6 percent and the livestock
sector at 9.4 percent
The contribution of the crop sector was
higher than that of the livestock sector
Forestry grew at less than one percent
Fisheries sector grew by 2.1 percent

80
Nalgonda

The manufacturing sector registered a


growth of 7.6 percent during 1999-
2007
Agriculture contributes only 23
percent of GDDP while 66 percent of
the workforce depend on agriculture
The share of agriculture declined in
employment and in output
Its share in GDDP declined by 2.5
percentage points, while the share in
employment declined by 2.2
percentage points
The share of industry in GDDP was 29
percent while it employed 17 percent
of the workforce
The share of industry in GDDP and in
employment increased
The share in GDDP increased by 0.5
percentage points the share in
employment increased by 2.3
percentage points
Around 50 percent of GDDP is coming
from the services sector but it
employs only 17.4 percent of the
workforce.
The share of services in GDDP
increased by 3 percentage points
while there is no change in the share
of employment
Agricultural wages grew at 7.57
percent while non-agricultural wages
grew at 8.31 percent, both above the
state average

81
Nalgonda

Health Dimension

IMR in the district declined by 16


points
Female IMR was lower than male IMR
The difference declined from 6 points
in 2004-05 to 4 points in 2011-12
The under-five mortality rate was
higher in the district in the state
The maternal mortality rate was
relatively high
The share of per capita expenditure on
medical services and public health was
3.8 percent of total per capita social
sector expenditure
The share of medical expenses in the
total monthly household expenditure
was 12.69 during 2011-12, the highest
among the districts of TS
The total fertility rate declined from
4.5 in 1981 to 1.8 in 2013
The contraceptive prevalence rate was
67 percent, higher than the state level

82
Nalgonda

It declined in 2012-13 both at the


district and the state level
The mean age at marriage increased to
19 years
The percentage of marriages below
legal age declined, but it was still
higher than in most districts
The proportion of marriages below
legal age among women in the age
group of 20-24 years was also higher
than in most districts
The performance of the district in
some of the maternal care indicators
was impressive
87 percent of pregnant women
received ANC in the 1st trimester, the
highest in the state
89 percent of pregnant women
received 3+ANC
98 percent of deliveries are safe
deliveries

83
Nalgonda

95 percentage of infants received


colostrum, the second highest in the
state
The percentage of babies who were
breast-fed within one hour after birth
was below 50 percent
18 percent of children in the district
were stunted, the second lowest in the
state
The percentage of wasting was
relatively high in the district
29.4 percent of children were under-
weight
Anaemia among children, adolescents
and adults was higher in the district as
compared to the state average

84
Nalgonda

The incidence of diabetes was similar


to the other districts
Hypertension among women is
relatively lower in the district
Based on 2012 HSS-ANC data, HIV
positivity was low (0.25%) among the
ANC clients, with a significant decline
in 2012
The HIV and RTI/STI awareness rate
among women was 79.6 and 31.9%,
respectively (DLHS-IV)
The health infrastructure index for
Nalgonda declined from 42.8 to 41.6
The achievement status of PHC and
Sub-centres also decelerated to 62.0
and 83.5 respectively
The number of beds and doctors
however increased to 12.6 and 8.2
respectively
While the percentage of households
with safe drinking water declined from
87.8% to 86.8%, the percentage of
households with sanitation facilities
was only 40.6% compared to the state
average of 53.0

85
Nalgonda

Education Dimension

There has been a greater improvement


in the literacy rate in rural areas than
in urban areas
There is still a gap of 22 percentage
points in literacy between rural and
urban areas
Literacy among STs is the second
highest in the district
STs constitute 11.3 percent of
population
The literacy rate among STs was lower
than among SCs and all social groups
The gap between STs and all groups
declined from 22 percentage points in
2001 to 16 points in 2011
The female literacy rate improved by
9.5 percentage points
The gap between male and female
literacy was 20 percentage points
The literacy gap between men and
women among SCs and STs was 21 and
24 percentage points respectively
Female literacy needs to be improved
in all caste groups
Nearly 94 percent of males in the age
group of 15-24 were literate
This proportion among girls was 84
percent
There is a gap of 3 percentage points
between rural and urban areas in the
literacy rates of men and 12
percentage points in the case of women

86
Nalgonda

78 percent of the people were literate


with schooling up to primary and
above level
Around 79 percent of males and 76
percent of females were literates with
schooling up to primary and above
level
There was little difference between
males and females
The rural-urban gap in the level of
literacy with schooling up to primary
above level was high
Around 72 percent of children of 12
years had completed primary level of
education
These levels were the same across
rural and urban areas and for boys and
girls
The drop-out rate at the primary level
was relatively high at 30 percent
The drop-out rate was lower for girls
than for boys
The drop-out rate was higher among
STs than among SCs and all categories
51 percent of ST students dropped out
at the primary level
The district has shown an
improvement in education
infrastructure indicators
The density of schools (3.4) and
schools per 1000 children (7.3) show
good progress
Though the percentage of schools with
drinking water improved from 69.7 to
79.6, this was still well below the state
average of 86.8
Schools with toilets for girls showed a
marked improvement from 38.1 to
83.2 percent
The student classroom ratio was 21.3,
while the pupil-teacher ratio was 20.9

87
Nalgonda

88
NIZAMABAD
Nizamabad

Basic Features of Nizamabad


Nizamabad has an area of 7956 sq.km (7 percent of the area of the state)
Its population of 25.51 lakh constitutes 7 percent of the total population of the state
The density of population is 319 per sq.km
The population grew at 0.84 percent per annum between 2001 and 2011
Around one fourth of the total population were in the 0-13 age group. There was a decline
in the growth of population in the 0-10 age group
17 percent of the population were in the younger age group (16-24) which grew at the rate
of 1.18 percent
The working age population (25-59) constituted 43 percent and grew at 1.41 percent
The older age group (60 plus) constituted 10 percent of the population, and grew at 3.59
percent
23 percent of the population lived in urban areas
48 percent of the urban population in the district lived in slums
The scheduled caste population comprised 14.5 percent and the scheduled tribe population
7.6 percent of the total population in the district
The sex ratio was 1040, the highest in the state; the child sex ratio was 948
The district ranked 1st in sex ratio among SCs (1075) and second in sex ratio among STs
(1017)
The child sex ratio among SCs was 942 and 922 among STs
The child sex ratio of all social groups, SCs and STs had declined between 2001 and 2011
Agriculture is the main occupation for more than 50 percent of workforce in the district
Livestock is another important activity in the district
It receives an average annual rainfall of 1036 mm, higher than the state average of 907
mm
The net area sown accounts for 45.5 percent of the area of the district
The extent of gross area irrigated was 66.5 percent, the second highest next to Karimnagar
The dependence on groundwater was high at 77.6 percent
The cropping intensity was 167, the highest in the state
Marginal and small holdings constituted 90 percent of total holdings, higher than the
state average of 82 percent
It is an important rice producing district, with 42 percent of GCA under rice
Maize, greengram and blackgram are important foodgrains
Fodder crops are grown only in this district
Cotton and turmeric are also grown in the district
Soyabean is grown on 11 percent of GCA
The productivity of all the crops was higher than the state average
21.2 percent of the area was under forests

91
Nizamabad

The manufacturing sector grew at the rate of 10 percent per annum during 1999-
2007
The important commodities produced in the district were beedi, sugarcane, sugar,
jiggery, food items, murmura, khara, sweets, ice, pipes etc.
According to the 2001 Census, 3.84% of men had migrated from the district
9.75% of the migrants had gone to other states and 28.27 percent to other districts
within the state

92
Nizamabad

Human Development Index

Change in HDI
0.665
0.700
0.600
The district had the lowest level of HDI 0.466
0.500
in the state during 2004-05
0.400
The HDI Improved from 0.251to 0.466 0.251
0.300
between 2004-05 and 2011-12
0.200
The HDI grew at 12.3 per cent per
annum during this period, the highest 0.100
among all other districts 0.000
2004-05 2011-12 Projected
At this rate, the HDI will increase to
2015-16
0.665
Most of the improvement in HDI is due
to an improvement in the standard of Change in the Components of HDI
living (consumption levels) and 2004-05 2011-12 Projected 2015-16
education components

0.723
Per Capita Social Sector Expenditure 0.800

0.641
0.633
increased by 6.6 per cent per annum 0.700

0.568
during the period 2004-07 and 2010-

0.500
0.600
13, the second lowest, after Ranga

0.372
0.500
0.357
Reddy

0.324
Expenditure on medical services and 0.400

public health accounted for around 5 0.300


0.131

percent of social sector expenditure in 0.200


2010-13 0.100
The percentage share of public health
0.000
expenditure in DDP was 0.2 and its MPCE(Adj) Health Education
share in total expenditure was 2.5
percent in 2010-13
These proportions declined from 2004 Public Expenditure on Education and Health

to 2007
as % of DDP
More than half of social sector as % of Total Expenditure
expenditure is spent on education as % of Social Sector Expenditure
The district spent 2.44 percent of DDP
56

60.0
on education
51

50.0
About one-third of the total 40.0
31
30

expenditure is spent on education 30.0


20.0
2.4
2.4

0.2

0.2
5

10.0
5
3

0.0
2004-07 2010-13 2004-07 2010-13
Education Health

93
Nizamabad

Economic Dimension

Average Annual Growth of Domestic Product


by Sector: 2004-05 to 2011-12 (%)

Nizamabad Telangana
The Gross District Domestic Product
grew at the rate of 11 percent during the 18.0

15.9
period 2004-2011 as against 12 per cent 16.0

13.2
at the state level

12.0
12.0
14.0

11.4

11.2
The agriculture sector has grown at the 12.0
rate of 15.9 percent the second highest

8.6
10.0

8.0
in the state 8.0
Industry and services sectors have 6.0
grown at 8 percent and 11.4 percent
4.0
respectively
2.0
The growth rates of these two sectors
0.0
are lower than the state average Agriculture Industry Services GDDP
The district contributes 5 percent of
GSDP while its share in the population
Average Annual Growth of Domestic Product
of the state is 7.2 percent by Sector: 2004-05 to 2011-12 (%)
The share of the district in GSDP- Agriculture Industry
Agriculture is 8.7 percent Services GDDP
The district contributes 3.3 percent of 80.0
GSDP-Industry and 4.8 per cent of GSDP- 60.0
Services 40.0

The growth of the agriculture sector has 20.0


0.0
fluctuated severely during this period -20.0
During 1999-2007 the crop and -40.0
livestock sectors were growing at more
than 9.7 and 11 percent respectively
and contributing to the growth of the
agriculture sector
Both forestry and fisheries were Average Annual Growth Rate of Agriculture
and Allied activities: 1999-2000 to 2007-08
growing at less than one percent (%)
Nizamabad Telangana
11.2
10.5

12.0
9.7

9.0

10.0
8.1
7.5

8.0
6.0
4.0
0.9
0.7
0.3

2.0
0.0

0.0

94
Nizamabad

The manufacturing sector grew at 10


percent during the period 1999-2007 Structural Changes in the District Economy
Agriculture contributes 25 percent of Share in GDP Share in Workforce
GDDP while more than half of the

56.9

55.7
55.1
workforce depends on agriculture 60.0

50.3
The share of agriculture in employment 50.0
declined marginally while its share in
GDDP increased by 2.8 percentage 40.0

points

27.5
25.9
25.0
30.0

25
22.2
The share of industry in GDDP was 19

19.9
19.3

17.2
percent while its share in employment 20.0
was 25 percent
The share of industry in GDDP declined 10.0

while its share in employment 0.0


remained the same
2004-05

2011-12

2004-05

2011-12

2004-05

2011-12
Around 56 percent of GDDP is coming
from the services sector. It employs Agriculture Industry Services
only one-fifth of the workforce
Agricultural wages increased at a rate
below the state average while the
growth of non-agricultural wages was Average Annual Growth Rate of Wages:
higher than in the state as well as most 2000-01 to 2010-11

of the districts Nizamabad Telangana

7
5.90
6
4.83
5 4.38 4.31
4
3
2
1
0
Agriculture Wage Non-agriculture Wage

95
Nizamabad

Health Dimension

Infant Mortality Rates


Male Female Persons

74
80

67

67

63
70

60
59

54
60

49
44

44

43
50

40
40
30
The infant mortality rate in the district 20
is relatively high 10
Female IMR is lower than male IMR 0
Gender differences in IMR declined 2004-05 2011-12 2004-05 2011-12

from 15 points in 2004-05 to 10 points Nizamabad Telangana

in 2011-12
The under-five mortality rate was 41 Under Five Mortaltity and Maternal
The maternal mortality rate was 79 Mortality Rates
The TFR was lower than the state 2004-05 2011-12
average
The total fertility rate declined from 160
4.1 in 1981 to 1.8 in 2013 and was 140
134

lower than the replacement rate 120


116

The share of medical expenditure in 100 92


household expenditure was 3.26 80 67
79

percent 60
61
41 46
40
20
0
Nizamabad Telagnana Nizamabad Telagnana
Under Five Mortality Maternal Moratality

Trend in Total Fertility Rate in Hyderabad


Nizamabad Telangana

5
4.5 4.1
4 3.3
3.5
4.3 2.5
3
2.5 3.4 1.8 1.8
2
1.5 2.3
1 1.8 1.8
0.5
0
1981 1991 2001 2011 2013

96
Nizamabad

Contraceptive Prevalence (%)


2002-04 2007-08 2012-13

80
65 62
59 58 59
60 51

40

The contraceptive prevalence was only 20


58 percent
0
The mean age at marriage was 20.5 Nizamabad Telangana
The percentage of marriages below the
legal age declined sharply
24 percent of currently married Characteristics of Women
women in the age group of 20-24 years
were married below the legal age 2007-08 2012-13
during 2012-13, while this proportion

41.1

48
60
was 41 percent during 2007-08 50

23.8

28
19.2
40

26
17.6
20.5
While 83 percent of pregnant women
19
20
30

11
20
received ANC during the 1st trimester 10

2
in 2007-08, this declined to 61 percent 0 Telanagana

Telanagana

Telanagana
Nizamabad

Nizamabad

Nizamabad
in 2012-13
Similarly the percentage of women
who received 3 plus ANC also declined
during this period Age at % of % of
Marriage Marriages Marriages
Around 97 percent of deliveries were below legal below legal
reported as safe deliveries age age among
(20-24)
married

Maternal health care


2002-04 2007-08

120
95 97
100 88 87
83 83
80 70 69
61
60
40
20
0
ANC I trimester 3+ANCs Safe delivery

97
Nizamabad

Child Feeding Practices


2002-04 2007-08 2012-13

92

88
87
100
90

72
80

58
70

53
48
60

45
40

38
50

27
40

18
30
20
10
0

Telangana

Telangana
Nizamabad

Nizamabad
Unlike in many other districts, the
percentage of infants who received
colostrum increased from 72 in 2007-
08 to 92 in 2012-13 % of Children Initiation of Breast-
There was a decline in the percentage received Colostrum feeding within one
hour of birth
of babies who were breast-fed within
one hour of birth during the period
2007-2012 Anthropometric Indices of Nutritional Status
among Children under age Five:2012-13
The district has the second highest
Nizamabad Telangana
percentage of stunted children
indicating chronic malnutrition

45.1
50
The percentage of underweight 45
children in the district was also the
33.2

40

29.5

29.5
highest in the state 35
23.8

30
Anaemia among children between 6 to
20.7
25
59 months was also high 20
Anaemia among adults and adolescents 15
10
in the district was comparatively lower 5
0
Stunting Wasting Underweight

Anaemia among Children, Adolescents and


Adults: 2012-13 (<11.0 g/dl)
Nizamabad Telangana
74.6
71.0

80
54.2

49.6
47.5

43.4

60

40

20

0
Children 6-59 Adolescents 6- 20 years and
months 19 years above

98
Nizamabad

Percentage Men and Women aged 18


years & above having High Bloodsugar
>160,hypertension(SBP>=140 or
DBP>=90)
Men Women
The district has the highest incidence of

23.3
diabetes among male adults in the state

21.8
16.3

16.2
25
As in most of the districts, hypertension 20
was reported more among adult men 15

5.6

3.7
3.6
10

3.1
As per the 2012 HSS-ANC data, the level 5
of HIV prevalence was moderate 0

Telangana

Telangana
Nizamabad

Nizamabad
(0.50%) among the ANC clients
Since 2008, there has been a gradual
increase in the number of ICTCs (68 in
2012) and the number of total people High Blood Sugar Hypertension
being tested (84,931 in 2012) in the
district
According to DLHS-IV data, the HIV Health Infrastructure and Health
Supporting Facilities Index
awareness and STI/RTI awareness
rates among women were 72.2% and 2007 2013

70.7
68.6
28.9%, respectively

59.5
58.9
80
44.3

39.9
The health infrastructure index was
38.9

60 38.8
44.3 in 2013, compared to 38.9 in 2007 40
20
There was a decline in the achievement 0
levels of Sub-centres in Nizamabad
Telangana

Telangana
Nizamabad

Nizamabad
Achievement levels in terms of beds and
doctors improved
The health support facilities index Health Infrastructure Health Support
improved by 16.5 percent, though this Index Facilities Index
was lower than the state figure
96 percent of the households had safe
drinking water Households with Safe Drinking Water
and Sanitation Facilities (%)
Only 41.6 percent of the households had
2001 2011
sanitation facilities
95.5

91.4
91.2

83.2

120
100
50.0
41.6

80
35.9
26.5

60
40
20
0
Telangana

Telangana
Nizamabad

Nizamabad

% of Households % of Households
with Drinking Water with Sanitation

99
Nizamabad

Education Dimension

Changes in Literacy Rates


There has been more improvement in
the literacy rate in rural areas than in 2001 2011
urban areas
90
There is still a gap of 21 percentage

77.2
71.4
80
points in literacy levels between rural

61.3

61.3
and urban areas 70

56.5

52.9
The literacy rate among SCs and STs 60

47.7
52

52

45.9
40.6
improved by 13 and 15 percentage 50
points between 2001 and 2011

30.7
40
The gap in the literacy level of SCs and 30
all social groups is 8 points and STs and 20
all social groups is 15 percentage 10
points 0
The literacy rates of both SCs and STs in Total Rural Urban All SC ST
the district is relatively low
Both male and female literacy rates
were low at 71.5 and 51.5 percent Changes in Literacy Rates
respectively
2001 2011
The male literacy rate improved by 7
71.5

percentage points and the female 80.0


64.9

63.1

literacy rate by 12 percentage points 70.0


53.2

58

51.5
between 2001 and 2011 60.0

43.5
39.5
45

50.0

34.3
The male-female gap in literacy was 20
28.7
40.0
percentage points during 2011

16.5
30.0
90 percent of men in the age group of 20.0
15-24 were literate; this proportion 10.0
0.0
among women was 86 percent
All SC ST All SC ST
There was a gap of 3 percentage points
between rural and urban areas in the Male Female
literacy rates of younger men and of 12
percentage points in the case of Literacy among 15-24 age population (%)
younger women 2001 2011
91
90
87
86

100
83
82

81
80

90
72
67

80
61

70
54

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Nizamabad

Nizamabad

Nizamabad
Telangana

Telangana

Telangana

Persons Male Female

100
Nizamabad

Literates with Primary and above level of


education (%)
2001 2011

79.1
90

78.4

77.5
77.3
76.6

75.6
71.3

70.4

68.7
80

73
77 percent of the population were

68.2

64.8
70
literates with schooling up to primary
60
and above level
50
Around 77 percent of males and 76
40
percent of females were literate with 30
schooling up to primary and above 20
level 10
There was not much difference 0
between males and females

Nizamabad

Nizamabad

Nizamabad
Telangana

Telangana

Telangana
The gap between rural and urban areas
was 7 percentage points
The percentage of both boys and girls of Persons Male Female
12 years who had completed primary
education was the same at 68 percent
Percentage of children in the age of
This figure was slightly lower in urban 12 years with Primary level of
areas than in rural areas education
The drop-out rate was quite low,
2001 2011
among boys and girls
The drop-out rate was higher among
68
68

68
68
67

66
80
62
60
58
57

53

53
STs, especially among girls, than among 60
the SCs and all social groups 40
There has been an improvement in the 20
district in education infrastructure 0
indicators
Telangana

Telangana

Telangana
Nizamabad

Nizamabad

Nizamabad

The density of schools (4.0) and schools


per 1000 children (6.4) is on par with
state average Persons Male Female
81.6% of the schools had drinking
water and 73.4% of the schools had
Drop-out Rate at Primary Level:2011-12
toilets for girls
However the student classroom (23.6)
Persons Male Female
and pupil-teacher ratios (19.7) were
33.9

40
less than the state average
27.9

30
22
17.2
16.1

15.8
15.1
14.9

14.4

20

10

0
All SC ST

101
Nizamabad

Education Infrastructure Indicators


2004-05 2011-12

100
89.5 87.5
90
80 71.6 71.6
70
60
50
40 30.2
30 22.6 23.3
18.8
20
3.7 4.4 6.3 7.2
10
0
Density of Schools per Student Schools with Schools with Pupil Teacher
Schools - per 1000 Children Classroom drinking water Girls toilets (%) ratio
10 Sq.km (6-14 age ratio (%)
group)

102
RANGA REDDY
Ranga Reddy

Basic Features of Ranga Reddy

This is the second smallest district in the state with an area of 7493 sq.km which is
6.5 percent of the area of the state
It has a population of 52.97 lakh, which is 15.6 percent of the total population of the
state, the highest in the state as per the 2011 Census
The density of population is 706 per sq.km, second only to Hyderabad
The growth of population was the highest in this district, at 4.01 percent per annum
between 2001 and 2011
Children (0 -13 age) account for 25 percent of the total population
It is the only district in the state which experienced population growth in the age
groups of 0-6, 7-10 and 11-13 at the rate of 2.39, 0.78 and 1.81 percent per annum
respectively
The younger age group (16-24 years) constitutes 18 percent of the total population
in the district, and grew at the rate of 3.58 percent per annum, the highest in the
state
The working age population (25-59 years) constitutes 46 percent of the total district
population, and grew at 5.02 percent per annum, the highest in the state
The older age group (60 plus) accounts for 7.4 percent of the total district population,
and grew at 5.50 percent per annum, the highest in the state
It is a highly urbanised district with 70 percent of the population living in urban
areas, and ranks first in the state (barring Hyderabad which is 100 percent urban)
Around 25 percent of the urban population live in slums in the district
The scheduled caste population constitutes 12 percent and the scheduled tribe
population 4 percent of the total district population, lower than the state average in
both cases
The sex ratio was 961 for all social groups and 988 for SCs, the second lowest in the
state for both groups
The sex ratio of STs was also low at 940
The child sex ratio was 933
The child sex ratio among SCs was 964, and among STs it was 885
Agriculture provides livelihood for 55 percent of the workers and one fourth of the
workforce depend on services
Net area sown covers 34 percent of the district, lower than state average of 43.2
percent
36 percent of the gross cropped area is irrigated in the district, the second lowest in
the state, next to Adilabad
Groundwater irrigation is the major source and serves 93 percent of net area
irrigated
Cropping intensity is 113, second lowest in the state, next to Adilabad
Marginal and small holdings accounts for 78 percent of total holdings, lower than the
state average of 82 percent

105
Ranga Reddy

Agriculture in the district is diversified


Around 70 percent of the area is under food crops
Cereals, pulses, spices and vegetables are grown in the district
Cotton and turmeric are also grown in the district
Productivity is lower than the state average for all the crops except for groundnut
Nearly 10 percent of the geographical area in the district is under forests
The manufacturing sector grew at 9 percent per annum during 1999-2007
The important manufactured products in the district are bus bodies, medicines,
cigarettes, foam rubber and furniture, industrial goods, dairy products, feeds, leather,
polyster yarn, cotton yarn, aluminium goods, steel products, biscuits, turmeric
powder, sugar, cotton yarn, polished stones, beedi, leaf plates, shahabad stones,
beverages, oils
As per the 2001 Census, 3.22% of males had migrated out of the district
6.04% of the migrants moved to other states and 19.83% to other districts within the
state

106
Ranga Reddy

Human Development Index

The district had the second highest HDI


in the state during 2004-05, next to Change in HDI
Hyderabad
1.000
The HDI improved from 0.364 to 0.605 0.808
between 2004-05 and 2011-12 0.800
0.605
It grew at 9.4 per cent per annum
0.600
during this period 0.364
At this rate, the HDI will increase to 0.400
0.808 during 2015-16 0.200
Most of the improvement in HDI is due
to an improvement in the standard of 0.000
living (consumption levels) and the 2004-05 2011-12 Projected
2015-16
education component
Per Capita Social Sector Expenditure
increased by 6.4 per cent per annum
Change in the Components of HDI
between 2004-07 and 2010-13
The share of the district in the total 2004-05 2011-12 Projected 2015-16

social sector expenditure of the state


(excluding Hyderabad) was 12.6

0.907
percent, the second highest in the state
0.837

0.696
0.733
0.999
Public health accounted for around 4
0.553

0.799

0.505

0.546
percent of social sector expenditure in

0.357
0.599
0.268

2010-13 0.399
The percentage share of public health 0.199
expenditure in DDP was 0.1 and its -0.001
share in total expenditure was 3 MPCE(Adj) Health Education
percent in 2010-13.
The expenditure pattern remained the
same between 2004-07 and 2010-13
A little more than one-third of the social
sector expenditure was spent on Public Expenditure on Education and Health
education as % of DDP
The district spent less than 1 percent of as % of Total Expenditure
DDP on education and stands in the as % of Social Sector Expenditure
lowest position among the districts
32

About one-fifth of the total expenditure


31

35.0
30.0
is spent on education
21

25.0
20

20.0
15.0
10.0
4

4
0.8

0.7

3
0.1

0.1
3

5.0
0.0
2004-07 2010-13 2004-07 2010-13
Education Health

107
Ranga Reddy

Economic Dimension

Average Annual Growth of Domestic


Product by Sector: 2004-05 to 2011-12 (%)
The Gross District Domestic Product
(GDDP) grew at a very high rate of 16 Ranga Reddy Telangana
percent during 2004-2011 as

17.9
20.0

17.0

16.3
compared to 12 per cent at the state 18.0
level

13.2
16.0

12.0
12.0
The district ranks first along with 14.0
12.0
Medak district

8.6
10.0
The agriculture sector has grown at the

6.1
8.0
rate of 6.1 percent 6.0
Both industry and services sectors have 4.0
grown rapidly at 17 percent and 17.9 2.0

percent respectively 0.0


Agriculture Industry Services GDDP
The district ranks second in the growth
of industry, next to Medak
It ranks 1st in the state in the growth of
the services sector Average Annual Growth of Domestic
The district contributes 18.2 percent of Product by Sector: 2004-05 to 2011-12 (%)

GSDP while its share in the states Agriculture Industry


Services GDDP
population is 15.1 percent 60.0
The share of the district in GSDP- 50.0
40.0
Agriculture is 9.1 percent 30.0
The district contributes 24.2 of GSDP- 20.0
Industry and 17.4 per cent of GSDP- 10.0
Services 0.0

There was a high degree of fluctuation -10.0


-20.0
in the growth of all the sectors during
this period
Both the crop and livestock sectors
have contributed to the growth of the
agriculture sector Average Annual Growth Rate of Agriculture
The crop sector grew at a higher rate at and Allied activities: 1999-2000 to 2007-08
(%)
9.6 percent than the livestock sector at
Ranga Reddy Telangana
3.8 percent
10.5

Forestry grew at one percent while 12.0


9.6

9.0

8.1

10.0
there was negative growth in fisheries 8.0
in the district
4.2
3.8

6.0
4.0
The manufacturing sector grew at the
1.0
0.3

0.0

2.0
rate of 9.2 percent 0.0
-2.0
-4.0
-3.6

-6.0

108
Ranga Reddy

Structural Changes in the District Economy


Share in GDP Share in Workforce

54.6
54.5
60.0

50.9
Agriculture contributes only 7 percent 50.0

40.1
of GDDP while half of the workforce

38.3
35.6

35.5
depend on agriculture 40.0

25.0
24.4
The share of agriculture in the 30.0

20.5
workforce increased while its share in
13.5
20.0
GDDP declined

7.1
10.0
The share of industry in GDDP is 38
percent while its share in employment 0.0
2004-05

2011-12

2004-05

2011-12

2004-05

2011-12
is 21 percent
There has been an increase in the share
of industry in GDDP while its share in Agriculture Industry Services
employment has declined
Around 55 percent of GDDP is coming Average Annual Growth Rate of Wages:
from the services sector. But, it employs 2000-01 to 2010-11
only one-fourth of the workforce
Rangareddy Telangana
The growth rate of agricultural wages
was below the state average while the 12 10.91
growth of non-agricultural wages was 10
higher than the state average as well as 8
that of most of the districts 5.90
6 5.24
4.31
The growth in non-agricultural wages 4
was more than double the growth rate
2
of wages in agriculture
0
Agriculture Wage Non-agriculture Wage

109
Ranga Reddy

Health Dimension

Changes in Infant Mortaltiy Rate


2004-05 2011-12

80

67

63
60
70

58

55
51
60

44

43
40
50

36

34
32
40
30
20
The infant mortality rate in the district 10
0
is the second lowest in the state, next to

Telangana

Telangana

Telangana
Ranga Reddy

Ranga Reddy

Ranga Reddy
Hyderabad
Female IMR is lower than male IMR
The difference between male and
female IMRs narrowed between 2004 Male Female Persons
and 2011
The rate of decline was higher among
Change in the other Motality
boys than among girls
Rates
The district has relatively high under- 2004-05 2011-12
five mortality and maternal mortality
rates

134
150
The total fertility rate declined from 4.8
113

92
in 1981 to 2 in 2013
78
100
67
61

The rate of decline is on par with the


50

46

decline in the state since 2001 50

It was below the replacement level in 0


2011 and in 2013 Ranga Telangana Ranga Telangana
Reddy Reddy
Under Five Mortality Maternal Mortality

Trend in Total Fertility Rate


Rangareddy Telangana

6
4.8
5
3.9
4
4.3
3 2.6
3.4
2.0 2.0
2
2.3
1.8 1.8
1

0
1981 1991 2001 2011 2013

110
Ranga Reddy

Contraceptive Prevalence (%)

2002-04 2007-08 2012-13


70
65 65
The district had the second lowest 65
62
contraceptive prevalence rate, next to 59
Medak 60
Though the rate rose by 10 percentage 55 55
55
points during 2007-08, it declined by
same rate during 2012-13 50
The mean age at marriage declined Rangareddy Telangana
marginally from 19.6 to 19
The percentage of marriages below
legal age declined significantly Characteristics of Women
The percentage of currently married 2007-08 2012-13
women (20-24 years) who were

47.9
60
married when less than 18 years old

40.0
50
also declined

28.0

27.6
26.4
40

22.5
19.8
19.6

19.2
The district stands in the middle 30
19

10.7
8.8
20
position in all these aspects of 10
improvement 0
The district ranked l0th in the
Telanagana

Telanagana

Telanagana
Ranga Reddy

Ranga Reddy

Ranga Reddy
percentage of women who had received
ANC in the 1st trimester during 2002-
03
This position improved during 2007- Age at % of % of
Marriage Marriages Marriages
08, but the district again reverted to the below legal below legal
lowest rank in 2012-13 age age among
The percentage of women who had (20-24)
married
received 3 plus ANCs also declined from
97 in 2007-08 to 71 in 2011-12, the
lowest in the state Maternal Health Care
97 percent of deliveries were safe 2002-04 2007-08 2012-13
deliveries during 2012-13
120
96.8
97

89.4
87.5

100
74.7

70.6

68.9

80
57.8
58.4

60

40

20

0
ANC I trimester 3+ANCs Safe delivery

111
Ranga Reddy

Child Feeding Practices


2002-04 2007-08 2012-13
120

95

88
87
85
100

64
80

53
52

45
41
40
60

38
37
40
20
0
Child feeding practices such as the

Rangareddy

Rangareddy
Telangana

Telangana
percentage of children who received
colostrum and initiation of
breastfeeding within one hour of birth
improved during 2007-08 % of Children Initiation of Breast-
received Colostrum feeding within one
Though the improvement continued at hour of birth
the state level during 2012-13, the
district showed a reverse trend with
regard to babies given colostrum
The percentage of infants who were Anthropometric Indices of Nutritional Status
breast-fed within one hour of birth among Children under age Five:2012-13

improved during 2012-13 both at the


state as well as at the district level Rangareddy Telangana

31.4
35
Stunting which is an outcome of chronic

29.5

29.5
27.3
26.6

malnutrition among children was 30


23.8

higher in the district than the state 25


average
20
Wasting which indicates current
malnutrition was slightly lower than 15
the average for the state 10
The percentage of underweight
children was higher than the state 5
average 0
Anaemia among children between 6-59 Stunting Wasting Underweight
months was higher than among
adolescents and adults Anaemia among Children, Adolescents and
Anaemia among adolescents was 58 Adults: 2012-13 (<11.0 g/dl)
percent, lower than the state average Rangareddy Telangana
52 percent of the adults had anaemia,
71.0
64.7

which was higher than the state 80


58.0
54.2

70
51.6
49.6

average 60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Children 6-59 Adolescents 6- 20 years and
months 19 years above

112
Ranga Reddy

Men and Women aged 18 years & above


having High Bloodsugar >160,
hypertension(SBP>=140 or DBP>=90 (%)
Men Women
The percentage of adults with diabetes
was higher among men, and the

22.9

21.8
25
incidence was higher than the average

17.4
for the state

16.2
20

A higher proportion of adult men than 15


women had hypertension
The percentage of women with 10

4.7
hypertension is higher than the average

3.7
3.1

3.1
5
for the state
As per the 2012 HSS-ANC data, the level 0
Ranga Telangana Ranga Telangana
of HIV prevalence was moderate Reddy Reddy
(0.50%) among the ANC clients High Blood Sugar Hypertension
The HIV positivity levels showed a
declining trend among all ICTC clients. Health Infrastructure and Health Support
Since 2007, there had been a gradual Facilities Index

increase in the number of ICTCs 2007 2013

According to DLHS-IV data, HIV and

88.6
100
STI/RTI awareness rates among

70.7
75.6
90
women were 71.3% and 19.5%, 80

59.5
70
respectively
39.9
60
38.8

Ranga Reddy fares very poorly with 50


40
19.6
18.6

regard to the status of achievement of 30


20
health indicators 10
The health infrastructure index was 0
Ranga Telangana Ranga Telangana
19.6, the lowest among all the districts, Reddy Reddy
and much lower than the state average
Health Infrastructure Health Support
of 39.9 Index Facilities Index
The achievement status of PHC and
Sub-centres was very low at 27.8 and Households with Safe Drinking
37.5 respectively compared to the state Water and Sanitation Facilities (%)
average of 52.1 and 69.4 2001 2011
Even with regard to doctors (7.6) and
95.8

beds (5.4), the district had a very low 120


91.4

91.4
83.2

81.4

100
achievement status
59.9

80
50.0

There was an increase in the access of


35.9

60
households to safe drinking water 40
(91.4% to 95.8%) and sanitation 20
facilities (59.9% to 81.4%) 0
Ranga Telangana Ranga Telangana
Reddy Reddy
Households with Safe Households with
Drinking Water (%) Sanitation Facilities (%)

113
Ranga Reddy

Education Dimension

Changes in Literacy Rates

2001 2011

82
90
The district has the second highest

77
76

76
80
literacy level in the state

66
66

65
70

61
The improvement in the literacy rate

56
53
60

52
was higher in rural areas than in urban 50
areas

35
40
There is still a gap of 21 percentage 30
points in literacy between rural and 20
urban areas 10
The literacy levels among SCs and STs 0
Total Rural Urban All SC ST
improved by 13 and 22 percentage
points between 2001 and 2011
The gap in the literacy rate of SCs and Changes in Literacy Rates
all social groups was 11 points and STs
and all social groups was 20 percentage 2001 2011

points 90
82
75

73
The district ranks 2nd in the literacy 80

69
66
63
70

57
57
rates of both SCs and STs, next to 60
46

46
Hyderabad

41
50
40
The district ranks 2nd in both male and

22
30
female literacy with 82 and 69 percent 20
10
respectively, next to Hyderabad 0
The literacy rate for males improved by All SC ST All SC ST
7 percentage points between 2001 and Male Female
2011
The female literacy rate improved by 13
Literates in 15-24 Age Group (%)
percentage points during this period
2001 2011
The male-female gap in literacy was 13
percentage points during 2011
92.2

91.1
89.2

84.7
87.0

86.1

100
82.7
81.9

92 percent of men were literates in the


77.1

90
71.9

69.0

age group of 15-24, the proportion 80


61.4

70
among girls was 86 percent 60
There was a gap of 2 percentage points 50
between rural and urban areas in the 40
30
literacy rates of young men 20
This rural-urban gap was 9 percentage 10
points in the case of young women 0
Ranga Reddy

Ranga Reddy

Ranga Reddy
Telangana

Telangana

Telangana

Persons Male Female

114
Ranga Reddy

81 percent of the population were Literates with Primary and above


literates with schooling up to primary level of Education (%)
and above level the highest in the state
Around 82 percent of men and 80 2001 2011
percent of women were literates with

81.6
85

80.2
81

79.1
78.4
education up to primary and above

77.6

77.5
76.3
80

74.3
levels, at first and second ranks

71.3

73
75
respectively

68.7
70
There was little difference between
males and females 65
The gap between rural and urban 60

Telangana
Ranga Reddy

Ranga Reddy

Telangana

Ranga Reddy

Telangana
areas was 7 percentage points
The percentage of boys and girls 12
years old who had completed primary
education was 63 and 62 percent
Persons Male Female
respectively, the second lowest in the
state, next to Hyderabad
These proportions were lower in Children in the age of 12 years with
urban areas than in rural areas Primary level of education (%)
The drop-out rates were fairly high
among boys and girls 2001 2011
The drop-out rate was the same 80

68
67

66
63

63
63

62
62
60

70
58

57
among SCs and STs and was slightly

53
60
higher among ST girls than SC girls 50
40
There has been progress in the district 30
20
in education infrastructure indicators 10
The density of schools (6.7) is higher 0
Telangana
Ranga Reddy

Ranga Reddy

Telangana

Ranga Reddy

Telangana
than the state average, while schools
per 1000 children has shown no
improvement (5.3)
The percentage of schools with Persons Male Female
drinking water was high at 91.2, but
the percentage of schools with toilets
for girls was low at just 59.4 Drop-out Rate at Primary Level:
The student classroom ratio was 20.7, 2011-12
while the pupil- teacher ratio was 22.6 All SC ST
26.1
24.7

30
23.5
23.5

22.3

21.4
21.3

21.1

25
21

20
15
10
5
0
Persons Male Female

115
Ranga Reddy

Education Infrastructure Indicators


2004-05 2011-12
100 91
90 81
80
70
59
60 52
50
40
30 24 21 24 23
20
6 7 5 5
10
0
Density of Schools per Student Schools with Schools with Pupil Teacher
Schools - per 10 1000 Children Classroom ratio drinking water Girls toilets (%) ratio
Sq.km (6-14 age group) (%)

116
WARANGAL
Warangal

Basic Features of Warangal


Warangal district has an area of 12,846 sq.km which constitutes 11 percent of the
area of the state
Its population of 35.13 lakhs accounts for 10 percent of the state population
The population of the district grew at the rate of 0.79 percent per annum between
2001 and 2011
The population in the age group of 0-13 years constitutes 23 percent of the total
population, but there was a decline in the growth of population in the age group of
0-10 during this period
The younger age group (16-24 years) accounts for 17 percent of the total population,
and grew at the rate of 1.23 percent
The working population in the age group of 25-59 years constitutes 44 percent of the
population, and grew at the rate of 1.68 percent
11 percent of the population was in the age group of 60 years and above which grew
at the rate of 3.62 percent
It is the second most urbanised district (barring Hyderabad which is completely
urban) with 28.3 percent of the district population living in urban areas
34.5 percent of the urban population live in slums
17.5 percent of the population belong to Scheduled caste and 15 percent to scheduled
tribes
The overall sex ratio was 997, for SCs it was 1002 and for STs 973
The child sex ratio was 923, 946 for SCs and for 881 for STs, the lowest in the state
Agriculture provides employment to 69 percent of the workforce in the district, the
second highest in the state, next to Mahbubnagar
42 percent of the area is under cultivation
The district has the second highest percentage of area under irrigation at 67
percent, next to Karimnagar
78 percent of area is irrigated through groundwater
The cropping intensity is 131
Cotton is the important crop and accounts for 37 percent of GCA
51 percent of the area is under food crops
Rice, maize, greengram and chillies are the important food crops
Rice is grown on 34 percent of GCA
The yield of cotton, maize and groundnut is higher than the state average

119
Warangal

29 percent of the district is under forest, the second highest in the state, next to
Adilabad
The manufacturing sector grew at the rate of 8.4 percent during 1999-2007
The important activities/commodities produced in the district are seed processing
units, rice milling, maize, cotton, silk yarn, coal, electronic goods, pipes, decorative
clay tiles, roof tiles
According to the 2001 Census 5.83 percent of males had migrated out of the district.
Among them 6.97 percent migrated to other states and 38.76 percent migrated to
other districts within the state
The top two destinations for out-of-state migration were Surat in Gujarat and
Thane in Maharashtra, which were high HIV prevalence districts

120
Warangal

Human Development Index

The HDI improved from 0.356 to 0.534


Change in HDI
between 2004-05 and 2011-12
It grew at 7.1 per cent per annum 0.800 0.673
0.700
during this period 0.600
0.534

At this growth rate, HDI will increase to 0.500 0.356


0.673 during 2015-16 0.400
0.300
Most of the improvement in HDI is due 0.200
to an improvement in the standard of 0.100
living (consumption levels) and health 0.000
components 2004-05 2011-12 Projected
2015-16
Per Capita Social Sector Expenditure
increased by 7.6 per cent per annum
during 2004-07 and 2010-13 Change in the Components of HDI
The share of the district in the social 2004-05 2011-12 Projected 2015-16
sector expenditure of the state

0.879
(excluding Hyderabad) was 14.6 0.999
percent, the highest in Telangana 0.899
Expenditure on medical and public

0.665
0.627
0.799
health accounted for around 10

0.553
0.699
percent of social sector expenditure in 0.599 0.470

0.487
2010-13, the highest in the state

0.408

0.390
0.499
The percentage share of public health
0.284

0.399
expenditure in DDP was 0.64 and its
0.299
share in total expenditure was 6
percent in 2010-13 0.199
The district retained its first position in 0.099
the state though these proportions -0.001
MPCE(Adj) Health Education
declined between 2004 and 07
Around 46 percent of the social sector
expenditure is spent on education Public Expenditure on Education
The district spent 2.93 percent of DDP and Health
on education, the highest in the state as % of DDP
About 27 percent of the total as % of Total Expenditure
as % of Social Sector Expenditure
expenditure is spent on education
46

46

50.0
40.0
28

27

30.0
20.0
11

10
2.9
2.7

10.0
6
1
1

0.0
2004-07 2010-13 2004-07 2010-13
Education Health

121
Warangal

Economic Dimension
The Gross District Domestic Product Average Annual Growth of Domestic
(GDDP) grew at the rate of 8.2 percent Product by Sector: 2004-05 to 2011-12
(Percent)
as against 12 per cent at the state level
Warangal Telangana
during 2004-2011, one of the lowest

13.2
rates in the state

12.0
12.0
14.0
The growth rate of agriculture was also

10.4
12.0
very poor at 4.8 percent

8.6

8.2
10.0

7.4
Industry grew at the rate of 7.4 percent, 8.0

4.8
the second lowest in the state, next to 6.0
4.0
Mahbubnagar 2.0
The rate of growth of the services sector 0.0
was also the second lowest at 10.4
percent, next to Adilabad with 9.9
percent
The district contributes 6.6 percent of Average Annual Growth of Domestic
GSDP while its share in the population Product by Sector: 2004-05 to 2011-12
of the state is 10 percent (%)

The share of the district in GSDP- Agriculture Industry

Agriculture is 9.8 percent 30.0


Services GDDP

The district contributes 4.7 percent of 20.0


GSDP-Industry and 6.7 per cent of
10.0
GSDP-Services
There was a high degree of fluctuation 0.0

in the growth rates of these sectors in -10.0

the district -20.0

Both the crop and livestock sectors are -30.0

contributing to the growth of the


agriculture sector
The crop sector grew at 11 percent and
the livestock sector at 12.2 percent Average Annual Growth Rate of
Agriculture and Allied activities:
The contribution of the livestock sector 1999-2000 to 2007-08
was higher than that of the crop sector (%)
Warangal Telangana
12.2

14.0
Forestry is growing at less than one
11.0
10.5

12.0
percent
9.0

8.8

The fisheries sector showed negative 10.0


8.1

growth 8.0

The manufacturing sector grew at 8.4 6.0

percent 4.0
0.3

2.0
0.4

0.0

0.0
-0.3

-2.0

122
Warangal

Agriculture contributes only 21


percent of GDDP while 69 percent of
Structural Changes in the District
the workforce depend on agriculture Economy
The share of agriculture in
Share in GDP Share in Workforce
employment increased by 1.3
percentage points while its share in

68.7
67.4
80.0

58.4
GDDP decreased by 6.2 percentage 70.0

51.8
points 60.0
50.0
The share of industry in GDDP is 21
27.2
40.0

21.5
21.0
21.0

20.6
percent while its share in employment

18.8
30.0

13.8
is 10 percent

9.8
20.0
The share of industry in GDDP 10.0
0.0
remained the same while its share in
2004-05

2011-12

2004-05

2011-12

2004-05

2011-12
employment declined by 4 percentage
points
More than 50 percent of GDDP is Agriculture Industry Services
coming from the services sector. But it
employs only 22 percent of the
workforce
The share of services in GDDP
Average Annual Growth Rate of
increased by 6 percentage points while Wages: 2000-01 to 2010-11
the increase in the share of
Warangal Telangana
employment was only 3 percentage 8 6.94
points 7
5.90
Agricultural wages increased at the 6
rate of 6.94 percent which was above 5 4.31
the state average while the growth of 4 3.56
non-agricultural wages was below the 3
state average at 3.56 percent 2
1
0
Agriculture Wage Non-agriculture
Wage

123
Warangal

Health Dimension

Changes in Infant Mortaltiy Rate

2004-05 2011-12
80

67

67

63
60
70

59
60

44
42

40

40
50

38

33
40

20
30
20
10
0

Warangal

Telangana

Warangal

Telangana

Warangal

Telangana
The infant mortality rate was 40, lower
than that of the state Male Female Persons
The IMR of girls (38) was lower than
that of boys (42), the second lowest
Motality Rates
next to Hyderabad (19)
The female-male gap in IMR declined
2004-05 2011-12
from 8 points in 2004-05 to 4 in 2011- 160

134
12 140

113
The under-five mortality rate was 29, 120

92
the second lowest in the state, next to 100

78
Hyderabad (27) and had declined by 36
67

80
64

points 60
46

The maternal mortality rate was 78


29

40

It declined by 38 points from 113 in 20

2004-05 0
Warangal Telangana Warangal Telangana
The fertility rate declined from 4.6 in
Under Five Mortality Maternal Mortality
1981 to 1.6 in 2013
TFR has been below the replacement
rate since 2011 Trend in Total Fertility Rate
Warangal Telangana

5
4.5 4.6
4 4.1
4.3
3.5
3 3.4
2.5 2.5 1.8 1.8
2
1.5 2.3 1.6
1 1.6
0.5
0
1981 1991 2001 2011 2013

124
Warangal

Contraceptive Prevalence (%)


2002-04 2007-08 2012-13

80

71
70
The contraceptive prevalence rate was

65
64
70

62
59
the highest in the state at 71 in 2012-13 60
Unlike in many other districts, the 50
contraceptive prevalence rate in 40
Warangal increased gradually from 64 30

in 2002-04 to 70 in 2007-08 and to 71 20


10
in 2012-13
0
The mean age at marriage was 18.9 Warangal Telangana
years during 2012-13, the lowest in the
state
Characteristics of Women
It just increased marginally from 18.6 in
2007-08 2012-13
2007-08
Marriages below legal age declined

50.7

47.9
60
from 38.3 percent in 2002-04 to 14.3 in 50
2012-13

27.6
40

26.4

25
19.8
18.6
18.9

17.5
19.2
30
It tops the other districts in the state
14.3

10.7
20
with regard to marriages below legal
10
age 0
Around 25 percent of currently married
Warangal

Telanagana

Telanagana

Telanagana
Warangal

women in the age group of 20-24 years Warangal


were married below the legal age
This had declined by half from 50.7 Age at % of Marriages % of Marriages
Marriage below legal below legal
percent in 2007-08 age age among
69 percent of women had taken ANC in (20-24)
married
I trimester
This had declined from 82.8 percent in
2002-04 Maternal Health Care
2002-04 2007-08
89 percent of women received 3 and
99

120
more ANCs during 2012-13
97
95

89

90
83
83

100
77
69

This had also declined from 95 percent 80


60
in 2002-04 40
20
99 percent of deliveries are safe 0
deliveries ANC I trimester 3+ANCs Safe delivery

125
Warangal

Child Feeding Practices


2002-04 2007-08 2012-13

100

88
87
85
90

78
80

62
70

53
50
60
78 percent of new born babies received

45
40
50

38
colostrum during 2012-13, the lowest

29
40

25
30
in the state 20
10
Like in many districts in the state, there 0
was a decline in the percentage of Warangal Telangana Warangal Telangana
babies who received colostrum from % of Children Initiation of Breast-
received Colostrum feeding within one
85.3 percent in 2007-08 hour of birth
For about 50 percent of babies,
mothers started breast feeding within
Anthropometric Indices of Nutritional Status
one hour of birth among Children under age Five:2012-13
This proportion declined from 62.3 Warangal Telangana
percent in 2002-04 (highest in the
50

42.1
state) to 29.4 percent in 2007-08 (the
lowest in the state) 40

29.5

29.5
Around 12 percent of children are

27.0
23.8

30
stunted, the lowest in the state
42 percent of children are wasted, the 20
11.7

highest in the state 10


27 percent of children were
underweight which was lower than the 0
Stunting Wasting Underweight
state average
80 percent of children in the age of 6-59
Anaemia among Children, Adolescents and
months were anaemic, the second Adults: 2012-13 (<11.0 g/dl)
highest in the state next to Hyderabad Warangal Telangana
Around 53 percent of adolescents and
100
adults had anaemia in the district
79.9
71.0

80
54.2

52.6
52.3

49.6

60
40
20
0
Children 6-59 Adolescents 20 years and
months 6-19 years above

126
Warangal

Percentage Men and Women aged 18 years &


above having High Bloodsugar >160,
hypertension(SBP>=140 or DBP>=90)

Men Women

27.5

21.8
18.2
30.0

16.2
4 percent of men and 3 percent of 25.0
20.0
women were diabetic 15.0

4.0

3.7
3.1
2.7
10.0
5.0
18.2 percent women had hypertension, 0.0
Warangal Telangana Warangal Telangana
the second highest in the state next to
High Blood Sugar Hypertension
Medak
28 percent of men had hypertension,
the highest in the state
As per 2012 HSS-ANC data, the level of
HIV prevalence was moderate (0.75 %)
with a fluctuating trend Health Infrastructure and Health
Support Facilities Index
According to DLHS-IV data, the HIV and
2007 2013
STI/RTI awareness rates among

70.7
women were 78.7% and 19.8%

65.3
80

59.5
respectively

50.9
45.7
44.1
60

39.9
38.8
The health infrastructure index was
40
45.7
The achievement status of PHC and 20
Sub-centres was 59.6 and 86.3 percent 0
respectively, compared to the state Warangal Telangana Warangal Telangana

average of 52.1 and 69.4 percent Health Infrastructure Health Support


Index Facilities Index
There was also an increase in the
number of beds and doctors to 21.4 and
Households with Safe Drinking Water and
15.6 percent respectively, higher than Sanitation Facilities (%)
the state average 2001 2011
Access to safe drinking water increased
91.4
86.9

100
from 75.3 percent to 86.9, while
83.2
75.3

90
sanitation facilities increased from 25.6 80
70
percent to 43.7 percent
50.0
43.7

60
35.9

50
26.6

40
30
20
10
0
Warangal Telangana Warangal Telangana
Households with Safe Households with
Drinking Water (%) Sanitation Facilities (%)

127
Warangal

Education Dimension

The literacy rate in the district was 65.1 Changes in Literacy Rates
percent 2001 2011
The rural literacy rate was 59 percent
in 2011 100

81
79
The urban literacy rate was 81 percent 80

65

65

62
in 2011

59
57

57
52

51
60

49
The literacy rate in rural areas

34
improved by 7 percentage points 40
between 2001 and 2011 20
The gap in literacy between rural and
0
urban areas declined from 27.5 points Total Rural Urban All SC ST
in 2001 to 22.2 points in 2011
The literacy rate among SCs was 61.8
Changes in Literacy Rates
percent and 45.8 percent for STs in
2001 2011
2011
The improvement over 2001 was 80 75
71
69
higher among STs by 14 points than 70 62
58 56
that of SCs by 11points 60 53
50 46 45
The gap in literacy between STs and all 39 39
40
social groups declined from 23 points 30 22
in 2001 to 17 points in 2011 20
Male literacy was 74.5 and female 10
literacy was 55.7 in 2011 0
All SC ST All SC ST
The literacy rate improved between
Male Female
2001 and 2011 by 6 points for men and
11 points for women
The gap in literacy between men and Literacy among 15-24 age population (%)

women declined from 24 points in 2001 2011


94.1

2001 to 19 points in 2011


91.1
90.5

87.0

86.7
85.4

100
82.7
81.9

Male literacy among SCs was 71 and


73.6

90
71.9

80
61.6

61.4

female literacy was 53 percent in 2011 70


60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Warangal

Warangal

Warangal
Telangana

Telangana

Telangana

Persons Male Female

128
Warangal

Male literacy among STs was 65.7 and


female literacy was 45.9 percent in
2011
The gender gap for SCs was 18 and for
STs was 19 percentage points in 2011
Female literacy is low and the same Literates with Primary and above level of
education (%)
across all social groups
2001 2011
The district ranks 2nd in literacy for the

81.5
80.4

79.1
population in the age group of 15-24

78.4

77.5
90

79
71.7
71.3
69.2

68.7
73

65.4
80
years for both males and females in 70
2011 60
50
94 percent of males and 87 percent of 40
females are literates in that age group 30
20
The rural and urban gap for this age 10
group was 10 percentage points 0

Telangana

Telangana

Telangana
Warangal

Warangal

Warangal
80.4 percent of the population were
literate with schooling up to primary
and above. This was the same as in Persons Male Female
Hyderabad in 2011, and was the second
highest, next to Ranga Reddy
Children in the age of 12 years with
These proportions among males and Primary level of education (%)
females were 81.5 and 79 percent 2001 2011
respectively
73.5
72.9

72.3
67.5

80
There was a rural-urban gap of 7
66.9

66.6

66.3
62.2

61.8
57.5

70
57.3

percentage points
52.8

60
74 percent of boys and 72 percent of 50
girls of 12 years had completed primary 40
30
school, the highest in the district for
20
both boys and girls 10
There was little difference between 0
Warangal

Warangal

Warangal
Telangana

Telangana

Telangana

rural and urban areas in this regard


The drop-out rate at the primary level
was 25.9 percent during 2012-13 Persons Male Female

129
Warangal

The drop-out rate among SCs was


lower than all social groups while for
STs it was 46.9 percent
The drop-out rate among SC girls was
lower than for SC boys Drop-out Rate at Primary Level: 2011-12

The drop-out rate among ST girls was Persons Male Female


48 percent, higher than for boys at 46.1 60
percent

47.7
46.9
46.1
50
The drop-out rates were the same for
both boys and girls for all social groups 40
There has been progress in the district
25.9

25.8

30
26

in education infrastructure indicators


22.4
24
The density of Schools (4.1) and 20 20.6

schools per 1000 children (7.8) is


higher than state average 10

83.5 percent of the schools had 0


drinking and 72.2 percent of the All SC ST
schools had girls toilets, which showed
marked progress
The student classroom was 20.2, while
the pupil-teacher ratio was 17.3

130
Warangal

Education Infrastructure Indicators

2004-05 2011-12

90 83.5
80 67.2
72.2
70
60
50
36.8
40
26.4
30 20.2 21.8
17.3
20 7 7.8
10 3.5 4.1
0
Density of Schools per Student Schools with Schools with Pupil
Schools - per 1000 Classroom drinking Girls toilets Teacher ratio
10 Sq.km Children (6- ratio water (%) (%)
14 age
group)

131
HYDERABAD
Hyderabad

Basic Features of Hyderabad


Hyderabad is the smallest district with a geographical area of 217 sq.km
It has a population of 39.43 lakhs, 11.2 percent of the total population of the
state
The density of population is very high at 18,172 per sq.km
It is one of the top ten districts in density of population in India (2011 Census)
The district has the lowest growth rate of population at 0.29 percent per
annum
There is a decline in the growth rate of the population in the 0-24 age group
The working age population (25-59) constituted 45 percent and grew at 1.26
percent
The growth rate of population in the older age group (60 plus) is 1.75 percent
per annum, the lowest in the state
The district is completely urban and around 30 percent of population live in
slums
As per the 2001 Census, 6.03% of males in the district were migrants
The proportion of both SC and ST population is the lowest in the district (6.3
and 1.2 percent respectively)
The sex ratio for both adults and children is the lowest in the district with 954
and 911 respectively
The sex ratio among SCs is 994
The child sex ratio among STs is the lowest at 824
Metal products, paper products, electrical products, aluminium utensils, gas
stoves and small machine parts are important manufacturing activities
The majority of the software firms in TS are concentrated in Hyderabad and it
contributes to a significant extent to software exports from India
Its IT exports exceeded $7 billion in 2014 and the private sector has invested
extensively in digital infrastructure
Two of the top ten pharmaceutical companies in India - Dr.Reddys
Laboratories Limited and Aurobindo Pharma Ltd.- are located in Hyderabad

135
Hyderabad

Human Development Index

The district has the 1st rank in human


development in the state
It has maintained the same position
between 2004-05 and 2011-12
HDI Improved from 0.631 to 0.764
between 2004-05 and 2011-12
HDI has grown at 3 per cent per annum
during this period
At this rate, HDI will increase to 0.853
during 2015-16
Most of the improvement in HDI is due
to an improvement in the standard of
living (consumption levels) and health
components
The contribution of education is less
than that of the other two components
in the overall improvement in HDI
Per Capita Social Sector Expenditure
increased by 14.8 per cent per annum
between 2004-07 and 2010-13, the
highest in the state
Expenditure on medical services and
public health accounted for 14 percent
of social expenditure in 2010-13, the
highest in the state and it is higher than
the average of 9 districts
Around 18 percent of social
expenditure is spent on education

136
Hyderabad

Economic Dimension

The average annual growth rate of


Gross District Domestic Product
(GDDP) was 13 percent during 2004-
2012
Both industry and services sectors
have grown rapidly at 12.2 percent
and 13.7 percent respectively
The district contributes 20 percent of
Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP)
while its share in the population of the
state is 11.2 percent
The district contributes 11 per cent of
GSDP-Industry
Around 30 percent GSDP-Services is
contributed by this district
The growth of the manufacturing
sector in the district was the lowest at
1.2 percent per annum during 1999-
2007
Communication, real estate and
banking were the high growth service
sectors in the district
The real estate sector grew at 18.8
percent per annum during this period,
the highest in the state
The banking sector grew at 12.6
percent
The share of industry in total
employment is higher than its share in
GDDP-Industry
The share of industry in GDDP is 15
percent while it employs 26 percent of
the workforce
Nearly 84 percent of GDDP is coming
from the services sector and it
provides employment to 73 percent of
the workforce

137
Hyderabad

Health Dimension

The district performed better than the


other districts in reducing mortality
rates
The infant mortality rate in the district
is the lowest in the state
Infant mortality among girls is less
than that of boys in all the districts
while it is higher than that of boys in
Hyderabad
The under-five mortality rate is lower
than the state average
The decline in under five mortality is
also higher than in the state
The maternal mortality rate in the
district is also the lowest in the state
The share of per capita expenditure on
medical services and public health is
14 percent of total per capita social
sector expenditure
The share of private expenditure per
capita per month on medical services
and health in total per capita per
month expenditure is 3.27, which is
lower than the state figure at 5.36 per
cent
The total fertility rate in Hyderabad
declined from 4.2 in 1981 to 1.6 in
2013, the lowest in the state
TFR has been lower than the
replacement rate since 2001
The contraceptive prevalence rate
increased from 2002 to 2007 and
remained stagnant thereafter at 65
percent

138
Hyderabad

The mean age at marriage was 21.7


years in 2007-08, the highest in the
state
It declined slightly to 20.5 in 2012-13
The percentage of marriages below
the legal age was the lowest in the
district
But the percentage of women
currently married in the age group of
20-24 increased during 2007-2012
only in this district
78 % of pregnant women in the 15-49
age group had received ANC in the 1st
trimester during 2012-13
This proportion had declined from 86
percent in 2007-08
The percentage of pregnant women
who had received 3+ ANCs also
declined from 98 in 2007-08 to 72 per
cent in 2012-13, which was lower
than in many other districts
98 percent of the deliveries in the
district in 2012-13 were safe
deliveries
The percentage of new born infants
who received colostrum improved
sharply from 2007-08 onwards in the
district
The percentage of babies who were
breast-fed in the first hour after birth
declined during 2007-08 and reached
the previous position during 2012-13

139
Hyderabad

29 percent of children in the district


are stunted
13 percent of children are wasted, the
lowest in the state
The percentage of underweight
children is 19 percent, also the lowest
in the state
Around 68 percent of children in the
age of 6 to 59 months are anaemic
Nearly 56 percent of adolescents have
anaemia
51 percent of adults are anaemic in
the district
The percentage of adult males and
females suffering from high blood
sugar is higher in the district than in
the state
The percentage of adult males and
females with hypertension is higher
in the district than in the state
Hypertension is higher among men

140
Hyderabad

Hyderabad fares very poorly with


regard to status of achievement of
health indicators
The Health infrastructure Index is a
modest 27.9, compared to the state
average of 38.1
The achievement status of PHC and
Sub-centres is very low at 7.6 and 6.6
respectively compared to state average
of 52.1 and 69.4
Since Hyderabad is a completely urban
district, health infrastructure in terms
of PHCs and SCs does not exist in many
areas
However with regard to doctors (44.9)
and beds (52.5), the district has a very
high achievement status
99 percent of the households have safe
drinking water and sanitation facilities
As per the 2012 HSS-ANC data, HIV
prevalence was moderate (0.38%)
among the ANC clients
According to DLHS-IV data, the HIV and
STI/RTI awareness rate among women
was 83.8% and 34.2%, respectively

141
Hyderabad

Education Dimension

The district stands first in literacy


among all caste groups , SCs and STs
Literacy rates are lower among SCs
and STs, but this improved during
2011
There is a need to improve literacy
among STs
6.3 percent of the population are SCs
and STs constitute only 1.2 percent of
the population in the district
Improvement in literacy is higher
among females across all social groups
Still the gap between male-female
literacy is higher, and is the same
across all social groups
Literacy among the younger age
groups (15-24 age) is higher and
gaining improvement for both males
and females
The district was in the first position in
this regard in 2001
During 2011, its rank declined to 2 for
all and females
Its rank declined to 4th in the case of
males
This may be due to a decline in the
growth of population (-0.91% per
annum) in the age group of 14-24
between 2001 and 2011
The percentage of population with
education up to primary and above
levels is higher than in the state
There was a decline in this proportion
between 2001 and 2011

142
Hyderabad

Around 60 percent of children 12


years old had completed primary
school in 2001
There was a decline in this proportion
between 2001 and 2011
This may be due to a decline in the
growth rate of children in the age
group of 7-10 and 11-13 between
2001 and 2011
The drop-out rate in the district at the
primary level was 19 percent
The drop-out rates among SCs and STs
were lower than among other
categories
It was negative in the case of ST girls
The district has a very high density
(148.0) of schools per 10 Sq.km
However the number of schools per
1000 children is very low at 4.4,
compared to the state average of 6.7
Student-classroom ratio (21.1),
schools with drinking water (94.6%)
and schools with girls toilets (92.2%)
were higher than the state average
The pupil-teacher ratio was 24.1,
compared to the state average of 16.4

143
Hyderabad

144
COMPONENTS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX

A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE
Comparative Perspective

Components of Human Development Index


A Comparative Perspective

This chapter is an attempt to develop a comparative perspective regarding the


components of Human Development Index across the districts of Telangana State.

Economic Dimension of Human Development in Telangana

Table 1 provides growth rates of the GDDP and broad sectors for the districts of
Telangana state. Medak, Ranga Reddy and Hyderabad attained a higher growth of Gross
District Domestic Product (GDDP) than that of the state during 2004-2011. Except Medak
the other two districts have shown higher level of HDI values with ranks of 2nd and 1st
respectively. Despite the achievement of the highest growth in GDDP, Medak was ranked
the lowest in human development in 2011-12. The growth of GDDP in Nalgonda,
Nizamabad and Karimnagar districts was slightly lower than that of state. Of these three
districts, only Karimnagar had achieved a higher level of HDI with a rank of 3 in 2011-12.
Mahbubnagar, Khammam, Warangal and Adilabad achieved growth rates of GDDP
ranging from 8 to 10 percent, lower that of the state. These districts, except Mahbubnagar,
achieved a middle level of human development. Thus, economic growth has not shown
any significant impact on the level of human development across the districts of
Telangana State.

The growth of industry and services sectors contributed to the growth of the economy in
7 out of ten districts. The growth rate of agriculture was higher than that of other sectors
in Karimnagar, Nizamabad and Mahbubnagar districts.

Sectoral shares in total employment were not matching their shares in output. Though
the contribution of agriculture to the GDDP is declining, its share in employment has not
declined in most of the districts. More than 60 percent of the workforce depends on
agriculture for livelihood in seven out of nine districts in the state. Industry contributed
more than one-third of the GDDP in Adilabad, Karimnagar, Khammam, Medak and Ranga
Reddy districts. Employment in the industry sector exceeded 20 percent only in
Karimnagar, Ranga Reddy and Hyderabad districts. Around half of the GDDP was
contributed by the services sector in eight districts of the state. The contribution of the
services sector was 38 percent in Medak and 84 percent in Hyderabad, the bottom and

147
Comparative Perspective

top districts respectively. It was only in Hyderabad that 73 percent of the workforce
depended on services. Around 22 to 25 percent of employment was generated in services
in Warangal, Khammam and Ranga Reddy districts. In all the remaining 6 districts, the
share of services in employment was below 20 percent during 2013-14 (Table 2).
Table 1: Average Annual Growth Rate of GDDP and Sectors across the Districts of
Telangana: 2004-05 to 2011-12
District GDDP Agriculture Industry Services
Adilabad 8.0 4.7 7.9 9.9
Hyderabad 13.0 NA 12.2 13.7
Karimnagar 11.0 18.1 8.1 11.9
Khammam 8.4 4.3 8.3 10.6
Mahbubnagar 9.7 11.9 6.7 10.9
Medak 16.8 15.1 20.3 15.6
Nalgonda 11.6 7.5 13.4 13.5
Nizamabad 11.2 15.9 8.0 11.4
Ranga Reddy 16.3 6.1 17.0 17.9
Warangal 8.2 4.8 7.4 10.4
Telangana 12.0 8.6 12.0 13.2
NA: Not applicable since the share of agriculture in GDDP is not even one percent for this
district
Source: Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Government of Telangana

Table 2: Sectoral Shares in Output and Employment across the Districts of Telangana State

District Agriculture Industry Services


Share in GDP Share in Share in GDP Share in Share in GDP Share in
Workforce Workforce Workforce
TE TE 2001 2013 TE TE 2001 2013 TE TE 2001 2013
2004 2011 -14 2004 2011 -14 2004 2011 -14
-05 -12 -05 -12 -05 -12
Adilabad 22.6 16.4 60.3 62.6 28.3 31.3 22.5 18.9 49.1 52.3 17.1 18.5
Hyderabad 3.5 0.9 1.8 1.0 18.4 15.1 24.8 25.9 78.1 84.0 73.5 73.1
Karimnagar 22.0 18.2 59.8 59.6 31.4 31.2 24.4 23.9 46.6 50.6 15.8 16.5
Khammam 22.2 20.5 71.4 66.7 32.0 30.3 11.7 9.8 45.8 49.2 16.9 23.5
Mahbubnagar 28.8 25.2 72.5 71.2 23.1 23.3 12.6 12 48.1 51.5 14.9 16.8
Medak 22.3 17.3 67.5 69.1 36.6 44.3 16.6 16.1 41.0 38.3 15.9 14.8
Nalgonda 25.5 23.0 67.9 65.7 28.1 28.6 14.6 16.9 46.4 48.4 17.5 17.4
Nizamabad 22.2 25.0 56.9 55.1 27.5 19.3 25.9 25.0 50.3 55.7 17.2 19.9
Ranga Reddy 13.5 7.1 40.1 54.5 35.6 38.3 24.4 20.5 50.9 54.6 35.5 25
Warangal 27.2 21.0 67.4 68.7 21.0 20.6 13.8 9.8 51.8 58.4 18.8 21.5
Telangana 18.6 14.1 57.3 55.7 28.0 28.7 18.9 17.9 53.4 57.2 23.8 26.4
Source: Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Government of Telangana, Census 2001 and Report on District Level
Estimates for the State of Telangana 2013-14, GOI, Ministry of Labour and Employment, Labour Bureau, Chandigarh

148
Comparative Perspective

Health Dimension of Human Development in Telangana

Improving maternal and child health and their survival are central to the achievement of
national health goals as well as the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 4 and 5.

Infant Mortality Rate

The Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) is an important component of mortality indicating the
health status of the newborn. The Infant Mortality Rate at the state level was 43 in 2011
(Figure 1). The IMR was lower than the state average in Hyderabad (20), Ranga Reddy
(34) Karimnagar (38) and Warangal (40). IMR among girl babies was lower than among
boy babies, except in Hyderabad. The difference between male and female IMR was 4
points at the state level in 2011 (Figure 2). The gender gap was higher in Nizamabad (10),
Adilabad (8) and Medak (8). IMR declined by 2.86 percentage points per year between
2004-05 and 2011-12. Achievement of the MDG of reducing IMR to 25 by 2015 would
require further acceleration of this rate of decline, especially in Mahbubnagar, Medak,
Nizamabad, Adilabad and Nalgonda districts. Though the under-five mortality rate in
Telangana state (46) was lower than that of all-India (49), there was a huge gap between
TS and Kerala (12).

Figure 1: Infant Mortality Rate across Districts of TS

2004-05 2011-12

80 75
69 71
64 64 67 67
70 63 63
60 55 55
48 49 49 50
50 43 46
38 40
40 33 34
30
20
20
10
0

Source: Statistical Abstract of Andhra Pradesh

149
Comparative Perspective

Figure 2: Infant Mortality Rates: 2011-12

Male Female

70

58
54

54
60

53

52
50
47

46

46
45

45
44

44
50

42

40
38
38

38
36
40 32

30
21
19

20
10
0

Source: Statistical Abstract of Andhra Pradesh

Maternal Mortality Rate

The Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) is a sensitive indicator reflecting the availability of
health care facilities and the prevailing socio-economic scenario. The Maternal Mortality
Ratio (MMR) is defined as the number of maternal deaths during pregnancy or within 42
days after the termination of pregnancy per one lakh live births during a year. The
estimates of maternal mortality are required not only to capture the reproductive health
status of women but also to get an idea of the adequacy of maternal services provided to
women. One of the major goals of MDG (2000) and national goals has been to bring down
the MMR to 100 per lakh births by 2012.

According to the data released by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, the MMR in
Telangana was 92 per lakh births in 2011-13. The MDG goal has been achieved in all the
districts except in Adilabad. Nationwide, the MMR has dropped by 34 points from 212 in
2007-09 to 178 in 2010-12 and to 167 per lakh live births in 2011-13. Telangana becomes
the fourth best state in the country with the lowest MMR rate after Kerala (66), Tamil
Nadu (90) and Maharashtra (87). Across the districts Adilabad (152), Khammam (99) and
Mahbubnagar (98) recorded MMR above the state average during 2011-2013 (Figure 3).
On the basis of the present rate of decline of 11 points per annum, the projected MMR for
Telangana will be 56 by 2013-15 and 38 after 2016. Delaying the first pregnancy after

150
Comparative Perspective

marriage, identification of high risk pregnant women in primigravida and complete post-
partum care to every mother and new born child will reduce maternal deaths.

Total Fertility Rate


The pace of decline in fertility was slower till the first half of the 1980s but thereafter
there has been a rapid decline in fertility in Telangana. The decline in fertility was
achieved primarily through contraceptive use almost solely through female sterilization.
District-wise total fertility rate projections indicated that a woman in Telangana state, on
an average, had 1.8 children in her lifetime. The districts which reported fertility rates
over and above replacement level were Medak (2.2) and Mahbubnagar (2.4) in 2013. It is
to be noted that fertility differences have narrowed down considerably among women
with a higher level of education and women across locations and social groups.
Figure 3: Maternal Mortality Rate across the Districts of TS

2007-09 2011-13

222
250

200

152
144
143
134
132
131

150
116
113

113
109
104

99
98
92
90

90
79
78

78

100
74
71

50

Source: Statistical Abstract of Andhra Pradesh, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare

Contraceptive Prevalence Rate


The contraceptive prevalence rate among currently married women of 15-49 years was
62 percent in 2012-13. The highest contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) for any modern
method was reported in Warangal (70%) district and the lowest in Medak district (53%).

151
Comparative Perspective

Age at Marriage

The age at marriage of women occupies a prominent place in demography as it is one of


the proximate determinants of fertility. For a variety of social, cultural and economic
reasons, girls get married at a young age in India. A low female age at marriage is linked
to a low age at which the first child is born. Young women are not physically and mentally
prepared for motherhood, and this may lead to complications for both mother and child.

The mean age at marriage in the state for girls increased to 19.8 years (DLHS-4, 2012-13)
as compared to 19.2 years (DLHS-3, 2007-08). The districts that reported higher than the
state average of the mean age at marriage for girls were Adilabad (20.7%), Nizamabad
and Hyderabad (20.5%) followed by Khammam (20.3%).

More than a quarter (28%) of the currently married women aged 20-24 were married
before the legal age of 18 years in 2012-13. The percentage of girls marrying before the
legal age (18 years for girls) was above the state average in Mahbubnagar (35%),
Khammam (33%) and Nalgonda (30%).

Maternal Health Care


Between the two DLHS surveys i.e. 2007-08 and 2012-13, the coverage of three or more
ANC visits and registration in first trimester by pregnant women declined from 93% and
74.5% in 2007-08 to 79.9% and 70.3% respectively during 2012-13. The highest
proportion of early check-ups under ANC was recorded in Nalgonda (87%) and the
lowest in Ranga Reddy district, where 58% women reported receiving an ANC check-up
in their first trimester (Figure 4). However, more women with 10 or more years of
schooling, belonging to the other backward caste (OBCs) group and living in an urban
area, received ANC checkup in their first trimester as compared to women with low
education, from scheduled communities and rural areas. The district and state level
figures highlight the urgent need to promote ANC in the first trimester to 100 percent.

152
Comparative Perspective

Figure- 4: Pregnant women availed 3 and above ANC


and early registered of ANC in first trimester, DLHS-4, 2012-13

100 94.8
88.6 89.3
90 87.0
86.7
79.8 84.5
80 82.8
75.3 76.4 78.2 81.4
73.8 72.2
70.6 72.9
70 69.2 69.4 70.3
62.0
60 61.0
57.9
50

40

3+ ANC ANC in first trimester

Breast Feeding

Eighty-eight percent of children under age 3 years were given colostrum during 2012-13.
This percentage was lower than that of the state in Warangal (78.3), Medak (80.2),
Khammam (82.6) and Ranga Reddy (84.8). Data from DLHS-3 (2007-08) show that
37.8% of children were breast-fed by mothers within one hour of birth in Telangana state
which increased to 54% by 2012-13. Among the districts, Karimnagar had the lowest
percentage in the initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth (44%); it was widely
practiced in Ranga Reddy (64%) followed by Mahbubnagar district (60%). Studies
reported that women with a low education and low standard of living and those from
scheduled caste and tribes were more likely to have breastfed their children within an
hour of birth highlighting the positive trend of early breastfeeding practice among SC and
ST groups.

Nutritional Status

Nutritional status is a major determinant of the health and well-being of children.


Inadequate or unbalanced diets and chronic illness are associated with poor nutrition
among children. Table 3 represents percentage of children below age five classified as
malnourished according to three anthropometric indices of nutritional status (height for
age, weight for height and weight for age).

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Comparative Perspective

According to DLHS-4 (2012-13), The lowest rate stunting was reported in Warangal
district (12%) followed by Nalgonda (18%). However, the highest rate of stunting was
recorded in Mahbubnagar (34%), followed by Nizamabad (33%), and Hyderabad (29%).

Table 5: Nutritional Status of Children in the Age Group of 0-5: 2012-13


District Stunting Wasting Underweight
Adilabad 20.6 31.6 22.4
Nizamabad 33.2 20.7 45.1
Karimnagar 23.0 36.8 32.8
Medak 20.5 37.3 36.8
Hyderabad 29.4 12.9 19.1
Ranga Reddy 26.6 27.3 31.4
Mahbubnagar 33.6 17.5 25.7
Nalgonda 18.0 31.5 29.4
Warangal 11.7 42.1 27.0
Khammam 21.7 35.2 29.3
Telangana 23.8 29.5 29.5
Source: DLHS-IV Telangana-2012-13

Wasting was the lowest in Hyderabad (12.9%) followed by Mahbubnagar (33.6%) and
the highest rate was reported in Warangal (42.1%), followed by Karimnagar (36.8%) and
Khammam (35.2%).

Around 30 percent of children were reported to be underweight at the state level.


Hyderabad had the lowest percentage of underweight children (19.1 %) followed by
Adilabad (22.4%). The highest percentage of underweight children were in Nizamabad
(45.1%) followed by Medak (36.8%).

Prevalence of Anaemia

Anaemia is a major health problem in Telangana, especially among women and children.
Among children between the ages of 6 and 59 months in Telangana state, the majority
(71%) were found to be anaemic. The anaemia rate was higher than the state average in
the following districts: Khammam (80%), Warangal (79.5%), Nizamabad (75%) and
Karimnagar (72%). About half of the persons (above 20 years of age) and adolescents (6-
19 years) have anaemia. Districts reporting anemia among adolescents (6-19 age group)
above the state average of 54% were Khammam (66%), Ranga Reddy (58%) and
Mahbubnagar (54%).

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Comparative Perspective

Non-Communicable diseases

The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) observes that nearly 52% of Indians are not
aware that they are suffering from high blood sugar. DLHS-4 (2012-13) data showed that
4% of men and 3% of women in the age of 18 years and above suffered from diabetes
(160 mg/dl or higher) in Telangana. Three districts namely Medak, Adilabad and
Warangal recorded levels below the state average.

According to DLHS-4 (2012-13), 22% men and 16% of women in the age group of 18
years and above have hypertension and require medical attention on a priority basis. The
prevalence of hypertension among men ranges from a minimum in Adilabad (18%) to a
high in Warangal (28%) and Hyderabad (24%). The prevalence of hypertension among
women ranges from a minimum in Nalgonda (14%) and Adilabad (14.2%) to the highest
in Warangal (18.2%) and Medak (18.4%).

Summing up of Health-Indicators

Based on the data from DLHS IV pertaining to the period 2012-13, districts in the first
and second position performed relatively better with reference to some of the health
indictors. And, at the same time, the same districts showed a poor performance (and were
in the worst two ranks) with reference to some other indicators. Hence, here all the
districts are tabulated in terms of their performance (Table 6).

Overall, the study included 23 indicators related to fertility, mortality, maternal, child
nutrition and general health. The status of the total ten districts was identified as to the
position of each indicator top/bottom. For instance, out of the total 23 indicators,
Adilabad stands top (1 or 2) in 6 indicators. Thus it performed well in terms of 6 out of
23 indicators. On the other hand, Adilabad stands bottom (10 or 9) in terms of 3
indicators. None of the districts are found with better performance in terms of at least 11
indicators. However, Hyderabad was found to be relatively better due to its 9 better
performing indicators and with only 2 least performing indicators.

Thus, it may be noted based on the analysis through 23 indicators that the common areas
of concern are maternal care, child nutrition and general health with respect to all the
districts of Telangana.

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Comparative Perspective

Table 6: Performance of Health-Indicators and Areas of Concern


District Number of Number of Areas of Concern
Better Least
Performance Performance
Indicators Indicators
Adilabad 6 3 Mortality, Maternal Care
Hyderabad 9 2 Maternal care and General Health
Karimnagar 7 3 Child Nutrition and General Health
Fertility, Mortality, Maternal Care, Child Nutrition
Khammam 2 8 and General Health
Fertility, Mortality, Maternal Care, Child Nutrition
Mahbubnagar 3 6 and General Health
Fertility, Mortality, Maternal Care, Child Nutrition
Medak 5 8 and General Health
Nalgonda 6 0 Mortality
Nizamabad 3 4 Maternal Care, Child Nutrition and General Health
Ranga Reddy 3 5 Fertility, Maternal Care and Child Nutriiton
Warangal 5 7 Fertility, Child Nutrition and General Health

Health Infrastructure and Health Support Facilities


All health related aspects are influenced by the availability of and access to health
services. To protect and promote general health, the public health infrastructure must be
strong. The achievement of Public Health Centres per 30,000 persons (WHO norm) was
55.2 percent in the state during 2013. The achievement of Sub Centres per 5000 persons
was 73.4 percent, while the achievement of required beds per lakh persons (Kerala
achievement - 330 per lakh persons) was 17.7 percent and doctors per 1000 persons was
13.2 percent. The achievement levels of beds and doctors were higher in Hyderabad,
Nizamabad and Warangal districts.

At the state level, according to the 2011 Census, 91.4 percent of households have safe
drinking water facility (tap water, hand-pump and tube wells). In a few districts namely,
Adilabad, Karimnagar, Nalgonda and Warangal, this percentage was below the average.
In 2011, around 50 percent of the households had sanitation facilities at the state level.
This proportion of households was below the state average in all the districts except in
Hyderabad (98.5%) and Ranga Reddy (81.4%).

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Comparative Perspective

Education Dimension of Human Development

The education dimension of human development has been analysed on the basis of the
quantitative indicators namely, literacy rates by gender, location and caste, literacy
among younger age (15-24 years) population, primary completion rate among the
children in the age of 12 years and drop-out rate at the primary level. The indicators on
literacy are analysed for two time points 2001 and 2011 based on data from the Census.

Status of Literacy across Districts of Telangana State

The literacy rate in the state is not very encouraging. Only 66.5 percent of the population
were literates during 2011 and the state was categorised as a middle level of literacy state
(Figure 5). Hyderabad and Ranga Reddy stood in the first and second positions with 83.2
and 75.9 percent literacy respectively and Mahbubnagar with 55 percent ranked 10th.
The improvement in literacy between 2001 and 2011 was 8.5 percentage points.

Figure 5: Literacy Rates across Districts of Telangana

2001 2011

83
90

79
76
66.5

80
66
65
65

64
64
61

61

61

70
58
57
57
57
55

55
53
52
52

60
44

50
40
30
20
10
0

Rural Urban Variations in Literacy Rates

Literacy rates differed significantly between rural and urban areas. The rural literacy rate
was only 57.3 per cent as against 81.1 per cent in urban areas. Thus, there was a gap of
23.8 points between rural and urban areas. Telangana state had the highest level of rural-
urban gap with 23.8 points as against the national average of 16.3 percentage points.
When rural literacy rate is considered, the state was at the bottom and even Bihar showed
a better performance than Telangana 57.3 per cent in Telangana as against 59.8 per

157
Comparative Perspective

cent in Bihar. However, rural areas made higher progress than urban areas 8.4 points
in rural areas and 4.1 points in urban areas. If this performance is continued, it will take
more than three decades to bridge the gap between rural and urban areas. The highest
gap in literacy between rural and urban areas (27 percentage points) was found in
Mahbubnagar (Figure 6), indicating that emphasis should be laid on rural areas in this
district.

Figure 6: Rural Literacy and Rural -Urabn Gap in Literacy: 2011

Rural Literacy Rural-Urban Gap

70 59.6 59.8 60.1 60.6


55.3 56 56.5 57.3 58.8
60 50.9
50
40
27

24
23

30
22

22
22
22
21
20

18
20
10
0

Caste and Literacy

Literacy rates were lower among SC and ST communities as compared to other


communities. While the overall literacy rate was 66.5 per cent, the corresponding rates
among SC and ST communities were 58.9 per cent and 49.5 per cent respectively in 2011.
Thus, there was a gap of about 7.6 percentage points for SCs and 17 percentage points for
STs. Literacy rates among SC and ST communities rose at a faster rate than for those in
the general population. While the overall literacy rate went up by 8.5 percentage points
between 2001 and 2011, the literacy rate among SCs rose by 11.4 percentage points and
among STs rose by 14.4 percentage points.

The performance of SCs was higher than of STs in all the districts. This gap was very high
and more than 10 points in Nalgonda, Warangal and Khammam (Figure 7). The
proportion of ST population in these districts is higher than the state average. There was
a lesser gap ranging between 5 -7 points in Mahbubnagar, Adilabad, Nizamabad and

158
Comparative Perspective

Karimnagar. Among these districts, Adilabad has a higher proportion of both SC and ST
population of about 18 percent each.

Figure 7: Literacy among SCs and STs: 2011

SC ST

77.3
90

69.3
64.7
80

62.9
61.8
60.8

58.9

58.8
58.5

56.1
70
53.4

52.9

51.6
51.5
51.3
49.5
48.5
48.1
47.7

45.9
44.7
60
42.3

50
40
30
20
10
0

Gender Gap in Literacy Rates

The gender gap is the main contributor to low literacy. At the state level, the female
literacy rate was only 57.9 per cent as against 75.0 per cent among males in 2011,
indicating a gap of 17.1 percentage points. Mahbubnagar, Nalgonda, Adilabad, Nizamabad
and Medak have shown a higher gender disparity of 20 percentage points.

The gender gap in literacy was more in rural areas at 20.4 points than in urban areas at
11 points at the state level. The gender gap in rural literacy was the lowest in Khammam
at 15.8 percentage points and the gender gap in urban literacy was the lowest in
Hyderabad at 7.7 percentage points. Districts with low literacy rates such as
Mahbubnagar, Medak and Nizamabad had a higher gender gap. Thus, the overall literacy
rate can be improved by improving female literacy.

The gender gap among SCs was 18.1 and among STs it was 20.1 percentage points at the
state level in 2011 as against 17.1 percentage points among all caste groups. The gender
gap in literacy did not vary much across the caste groups in the state. The same pattern
can be observed across the districts except in Hyderabad and Ranga Reddy where the
gender gap among all caste groups was much lower than that of SCs and STs.

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Comparative Perspective

Literates with Primary and above level

Around 79 percent of males and 78 percent of females were literates with primary and
above level schooling in the state during 2011. There was not much difference between
males and females. The gap between rural and urban areas was 7 percentage points. The
percentage of literates with primary and above level of education exceeded 80 percent in
Hyderabad, Ranga Reddy, Karimnagar and Warangal districts. With respect to women,
this percentage was higher than 80 percent only in Hyderabad and Ranga Reddy.

Literacy among 15-24 age Population

Around 87 percent of persons in the age group of 15-24 were literates at the state level
in 2011. The proportion among males was 91.1 percent and among females it was 87
percent. The gender gap was 4.1 percentage points at the state level. However, it was
more than 10 percentage points in Mahbubnagar, Nalgonda, Medak and Adilabad
districts. The same districts have also shown a higher rural-urban gap in the literacy rates
of persons in this age group.

Primary Completion among children of 12 years old

The proportion of children of 12 years completing primary education was 67 percent


according to 2011 Census. The percentage of boys was 68 and that of girls was 66 percent
with reference to the completion of primary education. The proportion of children both
boys and girls who had completed primary education was the lowest in Hyderabad with
57 percent.
The percentage of children who had completed primary education was higher in rural
than in urban areas. However, the percentage was higher in urban areas in Adilabad,
Khammam and Mahbubnagar districts.

Drop-out rates at the Primary level

The drop-out rate at the primary level in the state was 23.1 percent during 2011-12. The
drop-out rate among STs was 35.8 percent, higher than that of SCs and all social groups.
The drop-out rates were lower among SCs as compared to all social groups and STs. This
was the case among boys and girls. For all social groups, the drop-out rates for both male
and female were higher than the state average in Adilabad, Mahbubnagar, Medak,
Nalgonda and Warangal. The same is the case with STs also.

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Comparative Perspective

Education Infrastructure
There has been an improvement in the education infrastructure indicators in the state.
Around 87 percent of the schools had drinking water facility and 75 percent of schools
had separate toilets for girls during 2011-12. But wide variations were observed across
the districts. For instance, in Adilabad, Mahbubnagar, Medak, Nalgonda and Warangal
districts a lower percentage of schools had drinking water facility than the state average.
A lower percentage of schools had toilets for girls in Adilabad, Mahbubnagar, Medak,
Ranga Reddy and Warangal, which was lower than the state average. There had been a
decline in the student classroom ratio from 28.6 in 2004-05 to 21.2 in 2011-12 in the
state. It was slightly higher in Adilabad, Medak and Nizamabad. The pupil-teacher ratio
declined from 23.5 in 2004-05 to 16.4 in 2011-12 in the state. In Adilabad, and
Mahbubnagar, the pupil-teacher ratio was higher than the state average.

161
Appendices
A1. Human Development Index

A2. Estimation of Social Sector Expenditure and its Components

A3. Health Infrastructure Index


A1. Human Development Index (HDI)
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of human development. It
measures the average achievement of a district in three basic dimensions of human
development a decent standard of living, knowledge and a long and healthy life. The
HDI is a geometric mean of normalised indices from each of these three dimensions.

HDIj= (Iyj* Ikj*Ihj)1/3

Where, HDIj is the Human Development Index of jth district and Iy, Ik and Ih are normalised
dimension indices for the jth district. The normalised dimension index, Iij is given by

Iij = (Xij - Mini) / (Maxi - Mini),

Where Xij refers to the attainment of the jth district with respect to the ith indicator and
Maxi and Mini are the maximum and minimum goal posts for the ith indicator for all the
districts respectively.

District level Human Development indices are constructed for two time periods i.e. 2004-
05 and 2011-12. The indicators used for the above mentioned three dimensions of human
development are:
Decent standard of living: It is measured by average Monthly Per Capita
Consumption Expenditure (MPCE) adjusted for inequality. The adjusted figure is
given by
MPCE (Adj)= MPCE(1-G), where G is gini coefficient of inequality.
Data on MPCE for the year 2004-05 are taken from 61st round of NSSO on
Consumer Expenditure Survey and the data for the year 2011-12 are taken from
68th round.
A Long and healthy life: It is measured by life expectancy at birth. Since district-
wise estimates on life expectancy at birth are not available we have used Infant
Survival rate. Infant Survival rate is obtained by deducting the number of infant
deaths from 1000 in a given year. (Infant Mortality rate (IMR) compares the
number of deaths of infants per 1000 live births in a given year. Children under
less than one year old are defined as infants). We have estimated the district-wise
infant mortality rates for the years 2004-05 and 2011-12.
Knowledge: It is measured by adult (15+ age) literacy (with one-third weight) and
average years of schooling (6-14 years) (with two-thirds weight). The data for
these two indicators are drawn from 61st and 68th rounds of NSSO on Employment
and Unemployment Survey pertaining to 2004-05 and 2011-12 periods
respectively.

The goal posts for the indicators have been fixed at absolute levels to permit inter-
temporal comparisons and are given as under.

165
Sl.no Indicator Minimum Maximum
I Decent standard of living
1 Adjusted Average Monthly Per Capita Consumption Expenditure at 500 2500
2004-05 prices (Rs.)
II A long and healthy life
1 Infant Survival Rate (Per 1000) 900 990
III Knowledge
1 Adult Literacy Rate (15 + age) 0 100
2 Average Years of Schooling (Children 6-14 years) 0 10

For jth district, the Index of Knowledge is given by

Ikj =( Iaj1/3* Ibj2/3)

Where, Iaj is Normalised Index of Adult Literacy Rate and Ibj is Normalised Index of
Average years of Schooling (6-14 years)
Finally the HDI is given by

HDIj = (Iyj* Ikj*Ihj)1/3

166
A2. Estimation of Social Sector Expenditure and its Components

Social sector expenditure includes the heads of expenditure under the category of social
services and expenditure under rural development. The functional budgetary
classification of Social Services consists of Education, Sports, Art and Culture, Medical
and Public Health, Family Welfare, Water Supply and Sanitation, Housing, Urban
Development, Welfare of SCs, STs and OBCs, Labour and Labour Welfare, Social Security
and Welfare, Nutrition, Relief on Natural Calamities, Other Social Services.

The expenditure under the head Rural Development, listed under Economic Services in
the budget classification, relates mostly to anti-poverty programmes. However, in this
report the focus is mainly on education and medical and public health.

The main source of district wise government receipts/expenditure is


https://treasury.ap.gov.in a website of Directorate of Treasuries and Accounts i.e., AP
Cyber Treasury. This source provides every head of expenditure with detailed breakup
(major, minor, sub-minor head, grant or sub-head wise) across revenue, capital and loan
accounts for each and every district of the state for about a decade period i.e., since 2002-
03 till 2013-14.

We have downloaded the data even before the bifurcation of the state, for the purpose of
estimating the human development expenditure in the state of Telangana. We have taken
Major Head wise expenditure under revenue and capital account for each district of
Telangana State. Expenditure under loan account i.e., loans and advances made by the
government are not taken for the study as most of it was shown under PAO Hyderabad
only and the expenditure under this account for other districts was shown as nil or
negligible. In other words, PAO Hyderabad has released the money to the Head of the
Departments which in turn must have distributed to the line departments existing in the
districts.

There are different ways of examining the trends in budget expenditures. One way is to
look at social sector expenditures as a proportion of GSDP/DDP (Gross State Domestic
Product and District Domestic Product). As the overall rate of growth of the state
economy is measured by the growth of GSDP / DDP, the proportion of social sector
expenditure in GSDP/DDP explains the expenditure levels and trends to verify the claims
of different governments that they are fully committed to address the issues of poverty

167
eradication/alleviation and social development. The data on GSDP/DDP are drawn from
Statistical Abstracts published by the Directorate of Economics and Statistics,
Government of Telangana. A second approach is to calculate social sector expenditure as
a percentage of aggregate budget expenditure. This approach explains whether these
challenges are really taken into account while preparing the budget estimates under
these heads of expenditure.The third method is to look at the real per capita expenditures
(at constant prices) for the social sector. All the three approaches are used to discuss
aggregate social sector expenditure. The period of study is between two points of time.
For inter-district analysis we have taken the three year average of 2004-07 as the first
point of time and 2010-13 as the latest point of time.

168
A3. Health Infrastructure Index

Health infrastructure index is developed by taking into account the number of Sub-
centres (SCs), Primary Health Centres (PHCs), number of beds and doctors. District-wise
health infrastructure index is constructed for two time periods 2007-08 and 2012-13.
The indicators used for the construction of infrastructure index and recommended norms
are given as under.

Sl.no Indicator Norm


1 Sub-centres (SC) One Per 5000 population
2 Primary Health Centre (PHC) One Per 30,000 population
3 Beds 330 per 1,00,000 population (achievement of Kerala)
4 Doctors One per 1000 population (WHO recommendation)

The Sub-centre is the most peripheral and first contact point between the primary health
care system and the community. PHC is the first contact point between the village
community and the Medical officer. The PHCs are envisaged to provide integrated
curative and preventive health care to the rural population. The norms for these two
indicators are given in the guidelines provided by the Ministry of Health and Family
Welfare. The number of beds in the secondary and tertiary level hospitals reveals the
performance of the district in providing health infrastructure. This indicator is compared
with Kerala - one of the best states in health infrastructure in India. In regard to the
number of doctors we have used the norm recommended by the World Health
Organisation (WHO).

The data on the number of SCs, PHCs, Hospital Beds and Doctors are obtained for the
periods 2007-08 and 2012-13 from DLHS III and DLHS IV. The achievement of each
district in meeting the requirement of each of these indicators is measured in comparison
with the norms. The Health infrastructure index is arrived by taking the simple average
of the percentage of achievement of all the indicators.

HIIj = (SCj +PHCj + Bedsj + Doctorsj) where,

HIIj = Health Infrastructure Index in a district


SCj = Percentage of achievement of a district in providing required Sub-centres according
to the norm
PHCj = Percentage of achievement of a district in providing required Primary Health
Centres according to the norm

169
Bedsj = Percentage of achievement of a district in providing required number of beds
according the norm
Doctorsj = Percentage of achievement of a district in providing required number of
doctors according to the norm

The achievement of each indicator is measured by

Achievement of SCs = (Number of SCs / Required number of SCs according to the norm)
*100
Achievement of PHCs = (Number of PHCs / Required number of PHCs according to the
norm)* 100
Achievement of Beds = (Number of Beds / Required number of Beds according to the
norm) * 100
Achievement of Doctors = (Number of Doctors / Required number of Doctors according
to the norm) * 100

The health supporting facilities index, in addition to the health infrastructure index, is also
constructed by taking the percentage of households having safe drinking water and toilet
facility. The availability of drinking water facilities and access to toilet facilities for the
households play a key role in the health of individuals as well as the community as a
whole. The data regarding the percentage of households having safe drinking water and
toilet facility are obtained from the 2001 and 2011 Census. The health support facility
index is arrived at by taking the simple average of these two indicators.

****

170