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A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN

PONDS EXPORTS LIMITED, PUDUCHERRY

SUMMER PROJECT REPORT

Submitted by
T. SATHIYA SUNDARAM
REGISTER NO: 27348338

Under the guidance of


Mr. JAYAKUMAR, M.E., M.B.A., MISTE
Faculty, Department Of Management Studies

in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree


of
MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT
STUDIES
SRI MANAKULA VINAYAGAR
ENGINEERING COLLEGE
PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY
PUDUCHERRY
September 2007
TABLE OF CONTENT

LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF CHARTS

CHAPTERS TITLE PAGE NO.

I INTRODUCTION 1
II REVIEW OF LITERATURE 6
III OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 12
IV RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 13

V DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 17

FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS AND


VI RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE STUDY 39
VII CONCLUSION 41

LIMITATION AND SCOPE FOR FURTHER


VIII STUDY 42
ANNEXURES

1. QUESTIONNAIRE
2. BIBLIOGRAPHY
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

With the divine blessing of god, I take immense pleasure in stating the
acknowledgement for this project. I express my deep gratitude to Mr. N.KESAVAN,
Chairman, Mr.M.DHANASEKARAN, Managing Director and Mr.S.V.SUGUMARAN,
Vice Chairman, Sri Manakula Vinayagar Engineering College.

My special thanks to our college Mr.V.S.K.VENKATACHALAPATHY for


extending me morel support during the course of this work.

My special thanks to Mr.S.JAYAKUMAR, Head of the Department of Management


studies for his motivation and providing me the permission in doing this project.

I wish to thank my internal guide Mr. G.BALA SENDHIL KUMAR for being so
resource full from the beginning of this project and help to bring this project successfully.

I thank my external guide Mr.LUCAS, Advocate cum Personal Manager of


Hidesign, Puducherry for giving me this opportunity to do this project work in their
organization and for guiding me throughout the project duration

I wish to thank all other faculty members of the department for their co-operation
and encouragement throughout my project work.

I am also thankful to the all employee of Hidesign, Puducherry for providing me


the details about the company for the completion of the project.

Last but not least I thank my parents and friends who were very supportive to me
during this project.
ABSTRACT
The welfare measure is An effort to make life worth living for workmen. It
motivates employee to a great extent which leads to organizational growth. It is a major
factor which affects the employee morale.

The study on effect of welfare measure on employee morale in HIDESIGN,


Puducherry was done to evaluate the level of satisfaction of employees about welfare
measures and its effect on employee morale.

The main objective of the study is to measure the effect of welfare measure on
morale, level of satisfaction of employees regarding working condition and general
attitude of employee towards the organization.

Certain welfare measures provided by the company like medical facility, credit
facility, canteen facility, infrastructure facility, and certain factors of morale like
motivation. Job satisfaction interrelationships are considered in this study. This was a
descriptive research study. Nearly 50 samples were collected using simple random
sampling method. A questionnaire of 23 questions was prepared and data were collected
from the employees of Hidesign. Appropriate statistical tools were used to analyze the
data.

From the study it is inferred that most of the employees were satisfied with the
welfare measures provided by the company. The employee morale was found to be good
in the company. The effect of welfare measure on employee morale was about 25%.
LIST OF TABLES

TABLE
TITLE PAGE NO.
NO.
5.1 EXPERIENCE OF RESPONDENT 21
5.2 LEVEL OF SATISFACTION OF SAFETY MEASURES 22
5.3 LEVEL OF SATISFACTION OF MEDICAL FACILITY 23
LEVEL OF SATISFACTION OF WORKING
5.4 ENVIRONMENT 24
LEVEL OF SATISFACTION OF RELATIONSHIP
5.5 BETWEEN SUPERVISOR AND WORKER 25
LEVEL OF SATISFACTION OF RELATIONSHIP
5.6 BETWEEN WORKERS 26
5.7 LEVEL OF MOTIVATION GIVEN TO EMPLOYEE 27
5.8 LEVEL OF FREEDOM GIVEN TO THE EMPLOYEES 28
STATUS OF GRIEVANCE HANDLING IN THE
5.9 COMPANY 29
5.10 WORK SATISFACTION LEVEL OF THE EMPLOYEE 30
SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES ABOUT WELFARE
5.11 MEASURES 31
ANALYSIS OF OPINION OF RESPONDENTS
REGARDING COMMUNICATION IN WORK PLACE
AND WORK SATISFACTION
5.12.1 (USING CHI-SQUARE) OBSERVED COUNT TABLE 32
5.12.2 EXPECTED COUNT TABLE 32
5.12.3 CHI- SQUARE TABLE 32
ANALYSIS OF OPINION OF RESPONDENTS
REGARDING WELFARE SATISFACTION AND WORK
SATISFACTION (USING CHI-SQUARE) - OBSERVED
5.13.1 COUNT TABLE 34
5.13.2 EXPECTED COUNT TABLE 34
5.13.3 CHI- SQUARE TABLE 34
ANALYSIS OF OPINION OF RESPONDENTS
REGARDING EXPERIENCE OF RESPONDENT AND
WORK SATISFACTION (USING CHI-SQUARE) -
5.14.1 OBSERVED COUNT TABLE 35
5.14.2 EXPECTED COUNT TABLE 35
LIST OF TABLES

TABLE TITLE PAGE NO.


NO.

5.14.3 CHI- SQUARE TABLE 36


ANALYSIS OF OPINION OF RESPONDENTS
REGARDING MOTIVATION GIVEN TO EMPLOYEE
5.15.1 AND WORK SATISFACTION (USING CORRELATION) 37

5.15.2 CORRELATION TABLE 37


ANALYSIS OF RANKING GIVEN BY RESPONDENTS
REGARDING SATISFACTION OF WELFARE
5.16.1 MEASURES (USING WEIGHTED AVERAGE METHOD) 39

5.16.2 WEIGHTED AVERAGE TABLE 39


ANALYSIS OF OPINION GIVEN BY RESPONDENTS
REGARDING SATISFACTION OF WELFARE
MEASURES AND EMPLOYEE MORALE (USING
5.17.1 REGRESSION METHOD) 40

5.17.2 REGRESSION TABLE 40


LIST OF CHARTS

CHART TITLE PAGE NO.


NO.

5.1 EXPERIENCE OF RESPONDENT 21

5.2 LEVEL OF SATISFACTION OF SAFETY MEASURES 22

5.3 LEVEL OF SATISFACTION OF MEDICAL FACILITY 23


LEVEL OF SATISFACTION OF WORKING
5.4 ENVIRONMENT 24
LEVEL OF SATISFACTION OF RELATIONSHIP
5.5 BETWEEN SUPERVISOR AND WORKER 25
LEVEL OF SATISFACTION OF RELATIONSHIP
5.6 BETWEEN WORKERS 26

5.7 LEVEL OF MOTIVATION GIVEN TO EMPLOYEE 27

5.8 LEVEL OF FREEDOM GIVEN TO THE EMPLOYEES 28

5.9 STATUS OF GRIEVANCE HANDLING IN THE COMPANY 29

5.10 WORK SATISFACTION LEVELOF THE EMPLOYEE 30


SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES ABOUT WELFARE
5.11 MEASURES 31
CHAPTER- I
INTRODUCTION

1.1 COMPANY PROFILE

Export processing plays an important role in the development of the financial


status of a country. The basis of the export processing comes from the international trade.
So we should know about the importance of international trade.

Many experts states their opinion about the international trade that it takes place
due to the differences in the comparative cost of production between countries,
differences in the opportunity cost of production of commodities between nations are the
basis for international trade.

International trade takes place, because every country would be interested to


import commodities that are not available domestically. It is one of the basis factors
promoting economic well being and increasing the national income of the country.

The following are some of the benefits of exports processing:-

1. To develop the country economically.


2. To use the natural resources available in that country profitably.
3. To increase the employment potential of the country.

The ponds Export limited is established in 1989. The main export product in
Ponds exports limited is shoe and leather export. Its Head Quarters is in Mumbai which
holds super star trading house certificates. The Ponds company activities include many
manufacturing and marketing of leather goods. Its head office is located at Chennai.
Four hundred experienced employees are working in this esteemed company. Ponds
Export limited is giving preferences to sports events. Education and hospital facilities to
the staff and their families.
It is the subsidiary of Hindustan lever limited and situated at Vazhudavoor road
Puducherry.This footwear unit confines self to fusing of shoe soles and eventual finishing
and packing of shoes for export and local markets. Further, the unit is working to develop
the exports as best as possible. The major exports are don e with countries like United
Kingdom, Germany, Europe, Dubai, and United State etc. The various export products
arte children shoes, sandals for both ladies and gents.

The management consists of following officers.

1. Factory Manager.
2. Senior Personnel Officer.
3. Production Manager.
4. Merchandising Manager.
5. Product Development Manager.
6. Planning Officer.
7. Purchase officer.
8. Store Officer.
9. Engineering Officer.
10. Quality Assurance Officer and
11. Commercial officer.

1.1.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF ORGANISATION

Leather industry is very competitive industry. Leather industry is on of the


growth engines for Indias economic development. Leather has been playing most
important role in our day-to-day life. Indian made leather product are well accepted in
local and international market for its style and quality, it has also helped tremendous
growth in giving both direct and indirect employment in our country. The performance of
leather good is having a very goods position in the international market than others.
Ponds Export limited, the giant in the consumer product extended into leather
export which includes footwear, leather goods. The company is also developed a large
exports business keeping in view with the national priorities. The footwear factory has
been manufacturing shoes for prestigious overseas customers. They were seeking market
for their products only international market. They were charging reasonable price and
maintaining reputation in the international market.

1.1.2 HISTORY OF THE COMPANY:

Ponds Limited is known for the production of powder, Mushroom, soap,


Thermometer etc, and it has a very good market in all over the world. There is a very
good demand for leather goods worldwide. Ponds India limited decided to concentrate
more in leather products which has greater demand in overseas market.

Ponds India limited company is famous for its cosmetics products in all over
India. HLL is the market leader for many commodities such as food products, soaps,
detergents, beverages etc all over India. Both Ponds and HLL have merged to make use
of their market leadership in respective areas to avoid unhealthy competition.

Leather division of HLL (Ponds export limited) footwear factory commenced its
production in 1989. it manufactures footwear for prestigious customers overseas and is
an export orient unit.

Conventional formal designs intricate and rich dress shoe and trend setting
casuals are made for both ladies and men. Modern equipment enables them to produce
Moccasin, Strobelled and Flat Lasted shoe Constructions.

Ponds India Limited is having association with M/s.Northerner, Schufabrik,


British shoe Corporation, and G.H, Bass, Clarks, Edison Bros. & Woplverin Worldwide.
1.1.3 CORPORATE VISION
From the HLL code of business principle:
Profitable growth by forming symbiotic relationships.
To be the number one quality footwear exporter in India.
Strive to be a trusted corporate citizen.
To be an integral part of the society.
To fulfill with responsibility the societies consumers and customers to respond
creatively and competitively with branded products and prompt service.
1.2 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY

The study on employee absenteeism in Ponds Exports Limited is to evaluate the


main cause for the employee absenteeism in the company. The employee absenteeism is
the booming HR issue in many industries. This study is also used to know the employee
satisfaction. The study is focused to find the cause of employee absenteeism based on
certain factors like working condition, leadership style, work stress, leave days, wage and
salary level.
CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1 ABSENTEEISM DEFINITION

Absenteeism has been variously defined by different authorities. According to


Websters dictionary, Absenteeism is a practice or habit of being an absentee and an
absentee is one who habitually stays away. Absenteeism is a habitual pattern of absence
from a duty or obligation.
According to Labour Bureau, Simla, Absenteeism is the total man shifts lost
because of absences as a percentage of the total number of man shifts scheduled to
work.
Absenteeism is the term generally used to refer to unscheduled employee
absences from the workplace. Many causes of absenteeism are legitimatepersonal
illness or family issues, for examplebut absenteeism also can often be traced to other
factors such as a poor work environment or workers who are not committed to their jobs.
If such absences become excessive, they can have a seriously adverse impact on a
business's operations and, ultimately, its profitability.

2.1.1 TYPES OF ABSENTEEISM


There are two types of absenteeism, each of which requires a different type of
approach.

2.1.1.1 Innocent Absenteeism

Innocent absenteeism refers to employees who are absent for reasons


beyond their control; like sickness and injury. Innocent absenteeism is not culpable which
means that it is blameless. In a labour relations context this means that it cannot be
remedied or treated by disciplinary measures.
2.1.1.2 Culpable Absenteeism
Culpable absenteeism refers to employees who are absent without
authorization for reasons which are within their control. For instance, an employee who is
on sick leave even though he/she is not sick, and it can be proven that the employee was
not sick, is guilty of culpable absenteeism. To be culpable is to be blameworthy. In a
labour relations context this means that progressive discipline can be applied.

For the large majority of employees, absenteeism is legitimate, innocent


absenteeism which occurs infrequently. Procedures for disciplinary action apply only to
culpable absenteeism. Many organizations take the view that through the process of
individual absentee counseling and treatment, the majority of employees will overcome
their problems and return to an acceptable level of regular attendance.

2.1.1.3 Identifying Excessive Absenteeism

Attendance records should be reviewed regularly to be sure that an


employee's sick-leave days are excessive compared to other employees. If a supervisor
suspects that an employee is excessively absent, this can be confirmed through reviewing
the attendance records.

If all indications show that an employee is excessively absent, the next


step is to gather as much information as possible in order to get a clearer picture of the
situation. The employees' files should be reviewed and the employees immediate
supervisor should document all available information on the particular employee's
history.

2.1.2 COSTS OF ABSENTEEISM

Indeed, absenteeism can take a financial toll on a small business (or a


multinational company, for that matter) in several different respects. The most obvious
cost is in the area of sick leave benefitsprovided that the business offers such benefits
but there are significant hidden costs as well.
The SOHO Guidebook cites the following as notable hidden cost factors associated with
absenteeism:
Lost productivity of the absent employee
Overtime for other employees to fill in
Decreased overall productivity of those employees
Any temporary help costs incurred
Possible loss of business or dissatisfied customers
Problems with employee morale

Indeed, excessive absenteeism, if left unchecked, can wear on a company in


numerous ways. "[Absenteeism] forces managers to deal with problems of morale,
discipline, job dissatisfaction, job stress, team spirit, productivity, turnover, production
quality, additional administration, and overhead.

2.1.3 FEATURES OF ABSENTEEISM

The rate of Absenteeism is the lowest on the paydays; it increases considerably on


the days following the payment of wages and bonus.
Absenteeism is generally high among workers below 15 years of age and those
above 40.
The rate of absenteeism various from department to department within a unit.
The percentage of absenteeism is generally higher in the night shifts than in day
shifts.
The percentage of absenteeism is much higher in coal and mica mining industries
than in organized industries.
2.1.4 REASONS FOR ABSENTEEISM
According to one line of thought, Absenteeism is due to a lack of commitment
on the part of work force. Clark Kerr and associates are of the opinion that since degree
of commitment varies with the degree of countries industrial growth, Absenteeism is
inversely related to industrial development.

Absenteeism is related to new values and norms that are developing among the
work force as the result of technological developments. The attitude and the practice of
the management also contribute to Absenteeism.

The general causes of Absenteeism are


Maladjustments with factory condition
Social and religious ceremonies
Unsatisfactory housing condition
Industrial fatigue
Unhealthy working condition
Absence of adequate welfare facilities
Alcoholism
Inadequate leave facilities.

2.1.5 MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ABSENTEEISM


The general measures to reduce the rate of Absenteeism are
Adoption of a well defined recruitment procedure
Provision of healthful and hygienic working condition
Provision of reasonable wages and allowances and job security for workers
Motivation of workers: Welfare and Social measures
Improved communication and prompt redressal of grievances
Liberal grant or leave
Safety and accident prevention
Cordial relations between supervisors and workers
Development of workers education
2.2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE FROM JOURNALS, ARTICLES

Journal of Management, Vol. 12, No. 4, (1986)


1986 Southern Management Association
Job Involvement and Organizational Commitment as Interactive Predictors of Tardiness
and Absenteeism
Gary J. Blau
This study examined job involvement and organizational commitment as
interactive predictors of absenteeism and tardiness behaviors. Personnel records and
questionnaires were used to collect tardiness and absence data for a sub sample of 82
registered staff nurses out of a total sample of 228 nurses from a large Midwestern
hospital. Results showed support for the hypothesis that individuals showing higher
levels of job involvement and organizational commitment would exhibit less unexcused
tardiness and absenteeism than those with lower levels of job involvement and
organizational commitment. The implications and limitations of these findings are
discussed.
Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, Vol. 13, No. 2, 42-60 (2006)
2006 Baker College
The Implications of Positive Psychological Capital on Employee Absenteeism
James B. Avey
University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Drawing from positive psychology and positive organizational behavior
(Luthans, 2002a, 2002b) this study utilized a field study in a high tech manufacturing
firm to demonstrate how positive psychological capital reduces levels of both involuntary
and voluntary absenteeism. Previous studies setting out to determine job attitude
antecedents of absenteeism have been generally disappointing and account for only small
levels of variance. In addition, with few exceptions conceptualization of absenteeism has
been uni-dimensional despite calls by previous researchers to consider the significant
differences in semantic networks of voluntary and involuntary absenteeism as separate
metrics. We make this dual dimension distinction and show how previous antecedents of
absenteeism contribute to one dimension more than the other. The utility of the study
findings conclude the art

Managing Employee Absenteeism


By Douglas B. M. Ehlke of Ehlke Law Offices

When an employee works a standard five-day week, one can assume 260 workdays exist
annually. After subtracting 10 days on average for vacation and another 10 days for
federal, state and local holidays, an employer could expect 240 workdays a year per
employee.
Traditional Methods

Managing absenteeism for these 240 days historically has been straightforward.
Work-related injuries were handled pursuant to the state worker's compensation laws.
Other absences were handled under the employer's policies relating to absences or
pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement (CBA). A company's absence policy would
inform employees in advance of the employer's attendance expectations. Most CBAs
would contain provisions relating to attendance expectations.

A typical policy or CBA would provide for a progressive discipline procedure for
unexcused absences. Thus, one such absence would warrant a warning and subsequent
absences might lead to termination. Some employers use a point system for unexcused
absences and others have two absenteeism rules, one for a certain number of unexcused
absences and one for excessive total absences. The key to any system is consistency in
application to avoid wrongful-termination lawsuits, along with working within the proper
leave-designation statutes and regulations.

Laws Governing Absenteeism


Today, employers must not only comply with company policies and/or CBA and
worker's compensation laws, but also The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) if it
employs 15 or more employees for 20 weeks in any given year. In addition, The Family
Medical Leave Act (FMLA) applies to employers with 50 or more employees, if the
employees work within a 75-mile radius of the premises for at least 20 weeks in any
given year.
CHAPTER - III

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

To study and analyze the cause of absenteeism in the organization

To study and evaluate the reason how the absenteeism affect organizational

outcomes.

To find the various factors which induces the employee absenteeism.

To provide a suggestion for reducing absenteeism in the organization.


CHAPTER - IV

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

4.1 RESEARCH MEANING

Research is an art of scientific investigation. According to Redmen and Mary


defines research as a systematic effort to gain knowledge.

Research methodology is way to systematically solve the research problem. It is a


plan of action for a research project and explains in detail how data are collected and
analyzed. This research study is a descriptive research study.

4.2 RESEARCH DESIGN

A research design is a plan that specifies the objectives of the study, method to be
adopted in the data collection, tools in data analysis and hypothesis to be framed.

A research design is an arrangement of condition for collection and analysis of


data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to research purpose with economy in
procedure.

4.3 NATURE OF DATA

4.3.1 Primary data

The primary data are collected from the employees of PONDS EXPORT
LIMITED through a direct structured questionnaire.

4.3.2 Secondary data

Company profiles, websites, magazines, articles were used widely as a support to


primary data.

4.4 SAMPLING SIZE AND TECHNIQUE

4.4.1 Size of the sample


It refers to the number of items to be selected from the universe to constitute as a
sample. In this study 50 employees of PONDS EXPORT LIMITED in Puducherry was
selected as size of sample.

4.4.2 Sample design

The sampling technique used in this study is simple random sampling method.
This method is also called as the method of chance selection. Each and every item of
population has equal chance to be included in the sample.

4.4.3 Questionnaire
The questions are arranged logical sequence. The questionnaire consists of a
variety of questions presented to the employees for the response. Dichotomous questions,
multiple choice questions, rating scale questions were used in constructing questionnaire.

4.5 STATISTICAL TOOLS USED

To analyze and interpret collected data the following statistical tools were used.
1) Percentage method
2) Weighted average method
3) Chi-square analysis
4) Correlation

4.5.1 Percentage method:

The percentage is used for making comparison between two or more


series of data. It can be generally calculated as

No. of respondents favorable


x 100
Percentage of respondent =
Total no of respondents
4.5.2 Weighted average method

The weighted average method can be calculated by the following formula

WX
XW =
X

Here

XW represents the weighted average


X represents the value of variable
W represents the weight given to the variable.

4.5.3 Chi-square analysis:

Chi-square analysis in statistics is to test the goodness of fit to verify the


distribution of observed data with assumed theoretical distribution. Therefore it is
a measure to study the divergence of actual and expected frequencies.

The formula for computing chi-square is as follows.

Chi-square = (O-E)2
E

The calculated value of chi-square is compared with the table of chi-square for
the given degrees of freedom at the specified level of significance. If the calculated
value is greater than the tabulated value then the difference between the observed
frequency and the expected frequency are significant. the degrees of freedom is (n-2)
where n is number of observed frequencies and in case of contingency table the
degrees of freedom is (C-1) (R-1) where C is number of columns and R is number of
rows.
4.5.4 Correlation

The correlation analysis deals with association between two or more


variables. The correlation does not necessary imply causation or functional relationship
though the existence of causation always implies correlation. By itself it establish only
co- variance

There are two types of correlation


1. Positive Correlation
2. Negative Correlation

If two variables move in same direction then they are positively correlated.
On the other hand if the two variable move in opposite direction then they are negatively
correlated. It can be calculated as

Cov(x, y) = 1/n x y x y
x = 1/n x2 x 2

y = 1/n y2 y 2

r= Cov(x, y)

x x y

Here,

r = co-efficient of correlation.
CHAPTER- 5

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

TABLE 5.1
AGE WISE CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS

Age Frequency Percent

Below 30 4 8

30-40 38 76

Above 40 8 16

Total 50 100

Inference:
From the table we can infer that 76% are between 30 -40 years and 8% are
below 30 years.

CHART-5.1
AGE WISE CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS
100

80

60
Percentage

40

20

0
Below 30 30-40 Above 40

Age of the Respondents


TABLE 5.2
EXPERIENCE WISE CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENT

Experience Frequency Percentage (%)


6-10 14 28
11-15 29 58
Above 15 7 14
Total 50 100

Inference:
From the table we can infer that 58% are working for more than 10 years
and 14% are working for less than 10 years.

CHART-5.2
EXPERIENCE WISE CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENT
70

60

Percentage 50

40

30

20

10

0
6-10 11-15 above 15

Number of Years worked


TABLE 5.3
INCOME WISE CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENT

Income Frequency Percentage (%)


Below 5000 16 32
5k-6k 28 56
6k-7k 6 12
Total 50 100

Inference:

From the table we can infer that 32% of respondent are getting the salary
below 5000 and 56% of respondent are getting between 5000 -6000.

CHART-5.3
INCOME WISE CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENT
60

50

40
Percentage

30

20

10

0
below 5000 5k-6k 6k-7k

Respondent Income
TABLE 5.4
JOB SATISFACTION LEVEL OF THE RESPONDENTS

Opinion Frequency Percentage (%)


Highly Satisfied 1 2
Satisfied 43 86
Neutral 3 6
Dissatisfied 3 6
Total 50 100

Inference:
From the table we can infer that 86% of respondent are satisfied with the
job and 6% of respondent are dissatisfied.

CHART-5.4
JOB SATISFACTION LEVEL OF THE RESPONDENTS
100

80

60
Percentage

40

20

0
Highly Satisfied Satisfied Nuetral Dissatisfied

Job Satisfaction Level


TABLE 5.5
LEVEL OF SATISFACTION OF RESPONDENTS REGARDING LEAVE DAYS
Opinion Frequency Percentage (%)
Satisfied 9 18
Neutral 25 50
Dissatisfied 15 30
Highly Dissatisfied 1 2
Total 50 100

Inference:
From the table we can infer that 18% of respondent are satisfied with
the leave days and 30% of respondent are dissatisfied.

CHART-5.5
LEVEL OF SATISFACTION OF RESPONDENTS REGARDING LEAVE DAYS
60

50

40
Percentage

30

20

10

0
satisfied neutral dissatisfied highly dissatisfied

Opinion of respondents about Leave days


TABLE 5.6
STATUS OF STRESS LEVEL TO THE RESPONDENT

Opinion Frequency Percentage (%)


Very High 1 2
High 7 14
Moderate 27 54
Low 12 24
Very Low 3 6
Total 50 100

Inference:
From the table we can infer that 14% of respondent feel that stress level is
high and 24% of respondent feel that stress level is low.

CHART-5.6
STATUS OF STRESS LEVEL TO THE RESPONDENT
60

50

40
Percentage

30

20

10

0
Very High High Moderate Low Very Low

Opinion of Respondents about stress level in job


TABLE 5.7
OPINION OF RESPONDENT ABOUT HEALTH PROBLEMS

Opinion Frequency Percentage (%)

Yes 24 48

No 26 52

Total 50 100

Inference:
From the table we can infer that 48% of respondent have health problem
and 26% or respondent do not have any health problem.

CHART-5.7
OPINION OF RESPONDENT ABOUT HEALTH PROBLEMS

60

50

40
Percentage

30

20

10

0
Yes No

opinion of Respondents about Health Problem


TABLE 5.8
LEVEL OF SATISFACTION OF RESPONDENT REGARDING WAGES

Opinion Frequency Percentage (%)

Yes 3 6

No 47 94

Total 50 100

Inference:
From the table we can infer that 94% of respondent are not satisfied with
the wage and 6% or respondent are satisfied.

CHART-5.8
LEVEL OF SATISFACTION OF RESPONDENT REGARDING WAGES

100

80

60
Percentage

40

20

0
Yes No

Level of Satisfaction of Wages


Opinion Frequency Percentage (%)
Highly Satisfied 2 4
Satisfied 18 36
Neutral 16 32
Dissatisfied 14 28
Total 50 100
TABLE 5.9
LEVEL OF SATISFACTION OF RESPONDENT ABOUT FRINGE BENEFITS

Inference:
From the table it infers that 36% of respondent are satisfied with the fringe
benefits and 28% are dissatisfied.

CHART 5.9
LEVEL OF SATISFACTION OF RESPONDENT ABOUT FRINGE BENEFITS
40

30

20

10
Percent

0
Highly Satisf ied Satisf ied Neutral Dissatisf ied

Level of Satisfaction of Fringe Benefits


TABLE 5.10
LEVEL OF SATISFACTION OF RESPONDENT ABOUT LEADERSHIP

Opinion Frequency Percentage (%)


40 80
Yes
10 20
No
50 100
Total

Inference:
From the table we infer that 80% of the respondents are satisfied with the
leadership.

CHART 5.10
LEVEL OF SATISFACTION OF RESPONDENT ABOUT LEADERSHIP
100

80

60
Percentage

40

20

0
Yes No

Level of Satisfaction of Leadership


TABLE 5.11
PERIOD DURING ABSENTEEISM IS MORE
Period Frequency Percentage (%)
Jan-April 9 18
May-August 29 58
Sep-Dec 12 9
Total 50 100

Inference:
From the table we infer that 58% of the respondent are absent more in
May August and 18% are absent during Jan- April.

CHART 5.11
PERIOD DURING ABSENTEEISM IS MORE
70

60

50
Percentage

40

30

20

10

0
Jan-April May-August Sep-Dec

Period during absenteeism is more


TABLE 5.12
SHIFT DURING ABSENTEEISM IS MORE
Period Frequency Percentage (%)
A shift 25 50
B shift 22 44
General shift 3 6
Total 50 100

Inference:
From the table we infer that 50% of the respondents are absent during A
shift and 44% of respondents are absent during B shift

CHART 5.12
SHIFT DURING ABSENTEEISM IS MORE
60

50

40
Percentage

30

20

10

0
A shift B shift General shift

Shift during absenteeism is more


ANALYSIS OF OPINION OF RESPONDENTS REGARDING WORK
CONDITION AND ABSENTEEISM
(USING CHI-SQUARE)

Observed frequency
TABLE 5.13.1

absenteeism
Jan -April May- August Sep-Dec Total
working
condition
Yes 8 22 10 40
No 1 7 2 10
Total 9 29 12 50

Expected frequency
TABLE 5.13.2

absenteeism
Jan -April May- August Sep-Dec Total
working
condition
Yes 7.2 23.2 9.6 40
No 1.8 5.8 2.4 10
Total 9 29 12 50

Null Hypothesis

There is no significant difference between working condition and


absenteeism.
CHI-SQUARE TEST
TABLE 5.13.3

O E (O-E) 2 (O-E) 2 /E
8 7.2 0.64 0.08
22 23.2 1.44 0.06
10 9.6 0.16 0.02
1 1.8 0.64 0.35
7 5.8 1.44 0.25
2 2.4 0.16 0.07

Calculated value = (O-E) 2 / E = 0.83


Degrees of Freedom = (R -1) (C-1) = 2
Tabulated value for 2 degrees of freedom at 5% level of significance is
5.99

Inference:
The calculated value is less than the tabulated value. Therefore H0 is accepted.
There is no association between work condition and absenteeism.
ANALYSIS OF OPINION OF RESPONDENTS REGARDING WORK
CONDITION AND HEALTH PROBLEM
(USING CHI-SQUARE)

Observed frequency
TABLE 5.14.1

Opinion Yes No Total

Yes 18 6 24
No 22 4 26
Total 40 10 50

Expected frequency
TABLE 5.14.2

Yes No Total
Opinion

Yes 19.2 4.8 24


No 20.8 5.2 26
Total 40 10 50

Null Hypothesis

There is no significant difference between working condition and health


problem.
CHI-SQUARE TEST
TABLE 5.14.3

O E (O-E) 2 (O-E) 2 /E
18 19.2 1.44 0.07
6 4.8 1.44 0.3
22 20.8 1.44 0.07
4 5.2 1.44 0.28

Calculated value = (O-E) 2 / E = 0.72


Degrees of Freedom = (R -1) (C-1) = 1
Tabulated value for 1 degrees of freedom at 5% level of significance is
3.84

Inference:

The calculated value is less than the tabulated value. Therefore H0 is accepted.
There is no association between work condition and health problem.
ANALYSIS OF OPINION OF RESPONDENTS REGARDING
LEADERSHIP AND WORK SATISFACTION
(USING CORRELATION)

Let x be Work satisfaction


Let y be Leadership

Observed frequency

TABLE 5.15.1
Opinion

Factors Yes No Total

Work satisfaction 40 10 50
Leadership 44 9 50

CORRELATION TABLE
TABLE 5.15.2

X Y X2 Y2 XY

40 44 1600 1936 1760

10 9 100 100 90

Cov(x, y) = 1/n x y x y
= 1/2 (1850-625)
= 612

x = 1/n x2 x 2
= 1/2(1700-625)
= 23.7
y = 1/n y2 y 2
= 1/2(2036-625)
= 45.1

Cov(x, y)
r= xXy

= 0.6

Inference:

The satisfaction of leadership and work satisfaction are positively


correlated. Any effect in leadership will affect the work satisfaction also.
ANALYSIS OF RANKING GIVEN BY RESDPONDENTS
REGARDING WORKING ENVIRONMENT
(USING WEIGHTED AVERAGE METHOD)

Observed Count

TABLE 5.16.1
Opinion
Highly Highly
Satisfied neutral Dissatisfied
Satisfied Dissatisfied
Factor
Lighting 3 15 6 2 0
Ventilation 6 35 4 4 1
Cleanliness 5 30 7 2 6

WEIGHTED AVERAGE TABLE


TABLE 5.16.2

Rank Weight Factors


Lighting Ventilation Cleanliness
X W X1 WX1 X2 WX2 X3 WX3
1 5 3 15 6 30 5 25
2 4 39 156 35 140 30 120
3 3 6 18 4 12 7 21
4 2 2 4 4 8 2 4
5 1 0 0 1 1 6 6
Total 50 193 50 191 50 176
CW 3.86 3.82 3.52
Rank 1 2 3
CW (CALCULATED WEIGHT) = WXn / Xn

Inference:
From the table it is inferred that employees rank lighting first followed by
ventilation and cleanliness as last.
ANALYSIS OF RANKING GIVEN BY RESDPONDENTS
REGARDING ABSENTEEISM
(USING WEIGHTED AVERAGE METHOD)

Observed Table

TABLE 5.17.1

Ranks
First Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth Seventh
Factors
Health 29 12 2 3 2 1 1
Family 16 20 5 4 3 1 1
Supervisor 1 2 3 4 15 10 15
Motivation 1 11 8 10 15 3 2
Salary 4 6 9 15 11 2 3
Co- workers 1 2 4 3 1 4 35
Transport 5 4 1 1 1 2 36

CW (CALCULATED WEIGHT) = WXn / Xn


CHAPTER VI

6.1 FINDINGS OF THE STUDY

Most of the employees are working more than 10 years. Majority of the
employees are between 30 -40 years and others are below 30 years. More than 86% of
the respondents are satisfied with the job.

Most of the employees are not satisfied with the leave days. Most of
respondent feel that stress level is high in the work they do. Nearly 48% of the
respondents have health problem. Majority of the respondents are not satisfied with
the wage.

It is inferred that there is a poor relationship between management and


employees. Most of the employees are absent during A shift. Most of the respondents
are satisfied with the fringe benefits given to them. The respondents are satisfied with
the working condition.

Majority of the respondents are comfortable with the leadership. There is no


association between working condition and absenteeism. There is no association
between working condition and health problem
6.2 SUGGESIONS AND RECOMMENDATION

Most of the employees are not satisfied with the wage level. The company can
increase the salary to make the employee more committed to the organization.
Increase in the pay scale of the employees based on the performance may
motivate them to a higher level.
From the data analysis we infer that stress level in the job is also more. So this
may be reduced to avoid absenteeism.
The workers are not satisfied with the leave days. So the company can
concentrate on the leave days to avoid absenteeism.
The employees are not satisfied with the ESI benefits because of much formality.
CHAPTER VII
CONCLUSION

The study on cause of employee absenteeism in PONDS EXPORTS LIMITED


in Puducherry tells that the insufficient leave days and low wage are the main
organization factors which affect the cause of absenteeism.

The company can concentrate on better salary increment and less stress in work to
avoid absenteeism in the organization. The smooth running of the organization is in the
hands of employees. So the employers have to concentrate more on their employees
and their satisfaction. This will reduce the employee absenteeism in the organization.

The companies have to give priority for employees suggestions and opinions.
The organization commitment will reduce absenteeism among employees.
CHAPTER- VIII

8.1 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The time period of the study is very short, so elaborate study was not made.

Only certain factors are considered in this study to find the cause of absenteeism.

The conclusions and suggestions were formed based on employees spot response.

Some false information may be given by the employee


8.2 SCOPE FOR FURTHER STUDY
The sample size taken for this study is only 50, it can be extended to a larger

sample

The study can be done by considering some other factors to find the cause of

absenteeism.

This study can be used to measure the satisfaction level of employee.


APPENDICES

ANNEXURE-1

QUESTIONNAIRE

NAME (OPTIONAL)
1. Grade:
(a) W1 (b) W2 (c) W3 (d) W4

2. Experience in years:
(a) 1-5 Yrs. (b) 5-10 Yrs. (c) 10-15 Yrs. (d) Above 15 Yrs.

3. Age in years:
(a) Below 30 Yrs. (b) 30-40 Yrs. (c) 40-50 Yrs.

4. Qualification:
(a) 8th Std (b) 10th Std (c) 12th Std (d) Degree & Above

5. Monthly gross income:


(a) Less than 5K (b) 5K-6K (c) 6K-7K (d) 7K-8K (e) 9K Above
6. Sex:
MALE FEMALE

7. Marital status:

MARRIED UNMARRIED
8. Size of the family:
(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 5 (e) Above 5
OPINIONS:
1. Rate your level of Satisfaction in your Job.
(a) Highly Satisfied (b) Satisfied (c) Ok (d) Dissatisfied (e) Highly
Dissatisfied

2. How many days allowed taking leave with permission_______________.

3. What is your opinion on leave if all kinds (AL, CL, SL) provided by the company.
(a) Highly Satisfied (b) Satisfied (c) Neutral (d) Dissatisfied (e) Highly
Dissatisfied

4. What is the stress level of your Job.


(a) Very high (b) High (c) Neutral (d) Low (e) Very low.
5. Are you facing any Health / Safety problems in your work place.
(a)Yes (b) No
If yes define few: _________________________________________.

6. What is your response to the fringe benefits offered by the company.


(a) Highly Satisfied (b) Satisfied (c) Neutral (d) Dissatisfied (e) Highly
Dissatisfied

7. Is there any opportunity given for career advancement?


(a) Yes (b) No

8. Is the Leadership style is Satisfactory.


(a) Yes (b) No

9. Is they provide any employee development / assistance program.


(a) Yes (b) No

10. If the Salary / Wages given to you is sufficient.


(a) Yes (b) No

11. Do you have the habit of taking leave after Salary day?
(a) Yes (b) No

12. Is working conditions are favorable to you.


(a) Yes (b) No

13. Which Quarter of the year you remain absent on the job.
(a) January-April (b) May-August (c) September-December

14. In which Shift you will be absent frequently.


(a) A Shift (b) B Shift (c) General Shift

15. In which session you will be absent.


(a) Forenoon (b) Afternoon

16. Is the Infra-Structure Satisfactory.

Highly Highly
Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied
Satisfied Dissatisfied
Lighting
Ventilation
Cleanliness

RANKING:
17. Rank the following factors which influence you the most to be absenting from the
work. (Most important reason rank 1st & so on)

a) Health Reason
b) Family Problems
c) Poor relationship with Superiors
d) Lack of motivation in the work
e) Insufficient Salary.
f) Poor relationship with Co-Workers
g) Lack of Transport facilities

If Any other Specify _______________________.


ANNEXURE-2
BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS

1. Kothari C.R., Research methodology, published by Tata Mc Graw-Hill Publishing


Company Ltd., 13th Edition, 1982.
2. Gupta, S.P., and Gupta, M.P., Business Statistics, Published by Sultan Chand & Sons,
7th Edition, 1989.
3. Personnel Management by C.B.Mamoria & S.V.Gankar, Published by Himalaya
Publishing House.