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Prof. A.

Meher Prasad
Department of Civil Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
email: prasadam@iitm.ac.in
Seismic Design and Detailing of RC frames

Outline

General requirements
Code(IS13920-1993)Provisions
Beam-Column Joint Requirements
Foundations

Caution:
Good design, detailing, and construction requirements still
hold; in fact , those became even more important for
aseismic constructions.

Additional requirements to ensure ductility


General Background
Yielding expected
Require Good Inelastic Behaviour
Need good ductility
Hysteretic loops should be stable and full
Storey Mechanisms
Column require too much ductility
Difficult to make columns ductile
To be avoided

Three storey frame Beam-hinge mechanism Column-hinge mechanism


General Background
Beam Hinge Mechanisms

Ensure beam yield before the columns


Strong column-weak beam design
Capacity design

Abrupt Changes in Configuration

Concentration too much ductility at few locations


Avoid: else detail carefully

Structure Ductility can be Enhanced by

Regular configuration
More redundancy

Avoiding yielding of columns

Avoiding failure of foundations

Increasing member ductility


General Background
Prevent Brittle Modes of failure

Bond Failure: Brittle

Shear Failure : Brittle

Flexural Failure

Over reinforced beam : Brittle (Compression failure)


Under-reinforced beam : Ductile (Tension Failure)

Hence Ensure that:

Bond failure does not take place


Shear failure does not precede flexural yielding
Beam is under-reinforced
Ductility
Capacity to take additional displacement (without collapse) even after yield

Member ductility (moment vs. curvature relationship)

Structure ductility (say total seismic force vs. roof displacement)

No direct relationship between structure ductility and member ductility

Typical moment curvature relationship for a RC


member under flexure and axial load
Shear Design

Different Philosophy altogether (Capacity Design)

IS:4326-1976 Clause 7.2.5

The web reinforcement in the form of vertical stirrups shall be provided


so as to develop the vertical shears resulting from all ultimate vertical
loads acting on the beam plus those which can be produced by the
plastic moment capacities at the ends of the beams

The spacing of the stirrups shall not exceed d/4 in a length equal to 2d
near each end of the beam and d/2 in the remaining length.

Compliance?

Plastic Moment Capacity?


Shear Design

Suggestions to Calculate Plastic Moment Capacity

m (steel)=1.0
m (concrete)=1.3
Strain Hardening in steel (25%)
0.87 f=>1.25 f
f/1.5=> f/1.3

How to make the member Ductile?

Reinforced concrete member


Steel Ductile
Concrete Brittle
How to make the member ductile?

Reinforced concrete member


steel ductile
concrete brittle



HYSD

Mild steel


20 - 30% 0.35%
Reinforcing Steel

Fy 415 MPa

Minimum strain at failure and strain capacity


15-12 % HYSD 415
22-20 % MS 250

Ultimate tensile strength larger than actual yield


strength
Fu
1.25
Fy
Inelastic deformation can be confined to specially
detailed plastic hinges

Actual yield strength / nominal yield strength >1.15


For dependable yield strength

UBC
Actual yield < specified yield +124 MPa
Concrete

Cube strength not less than 20 MPa fck 20 MPa


Higher strength is also not very good.

Concrete cube strength = 1.25 cylinder strength fck 1.25 fc


Confinement of Concrete

Compressive strength is increased by ~ 4 times of the confining pressure


Confinement of Concrete

Confined core is small and is smaller Confining pressure to concrete is


for rectangular hoop than spiral hoop provided by transverse hoops

Efficiency (loss factor), k=0.92 for


spiral and 0.46 for rectangular
Confinement of Concrete

Strength of confined core = Strength of entire section


Buckling of Rebars

Effect of transverse steel in preventing buckling of bars

Size of hoop

Effective rebar

Adequate anchorage of hoop


Buckling of Rebars

Critical inelastic buckling stress Yield strength of rebar


Confined Concrete

Role of transverse Reinforcement

Enhance shear strength


Prevent buckling of longitudinal reinforcement
Confine the compressed concrete

Confinement of Concrete

Transverse reinforcement restrains the


transverse strains induced by longitudinal
compression when the unconfined concrete
strength is approached.
Effect of Axial Loads
Bond

Bond is offered by adhesion before slip and


friction after slip

Before incipient slip deformed bars and round


bars are same

Ribs are wedged into concrete and if properly


confined, concrete crushes around the ribs
before it pulls out.

Transfer of force from deformed bars

Micro cracks form in concrete from bar


deformation

Diagonal compression force are sustained by


Bond strength increases with
concrete increase in cover thickness and
transverse reinforcement
To satisfy equilibrium a tension force which
develop alongside the longitudinal bar must
be resisted by concrete or transverse
reinforcement
Flexural Yielding

Ductility increases as

Concrete grade increases


Steel grade decreases
Concrete Confinement increases
Tension reinforcement decreases
Compression reinforcement increases
Axial force in the member decreases
(Beams are much more ductile than columns)

Main Steps

Weak Girder-Strong Column Philosophy


Shear Failure Prevented by Special Calculations
Good development Length
Regions likely to have hinges confined with closely spaced and closed
stirrups
Capacity Design of Frames (New Zealand and Japan)

Choose yield mechanism


Locate desirable hinge locations
Estimate reasonable design seismic force on the building
Design the members at hinge locations
Detail the hinge locations to have very good ductility
Calculate capacity of the hinge locations (upper bound type)
Assess the member forces at other locations under the action of capacity force
Design other locations for that force; need not detail these for high ductility
Fundamental Strength Relationships

Strength expresses the resistance of the structure ,or that of a


member or of a particular section.

(a) Required Strength (Su) :

Corresponds to the demand resulting from the application of


prescribed factored loads and forces at ultimate limit state

(b) Ideal Strength (Si) :

corresponds to the nominal strength that is based on established


theory of structural mechanics predicting limit state with respect to
failure of a section.
Si Su
(c) Probable strength (Sp) :

Takes into account that the probable strength of materials utilized


typically during moderate inelastic seismic displacements are
greater than nominal strengths specified by codes.

S p p Si
(d) Overstrength (So) :

Takes into account all possible sources that contribute to strength


exceeding the ideal strength.

So o Si
Relationships between Strengths:

So o Si o Su /
Force Elongation Relationships

(n 2 ) /(n 1)
ductile capacity of the chain consisting of n stronglinks
2 l arg e ductile capacity of the weak link
Pis Pi Pis
Pi > PE/

Brittle Links Ductile Link Brittle Links

Strength Limits in a ductile chain


IS 13920:1993

Ductile Detailing of Reinforced Concrete


Structures Subjected to Seismic Forces

Code of Practice
Design Requirements

Requirements for Earthquake-Resistant Design and Construction


Structural Requirements
Structural Systems for RC Buildings
Moment resisting frame system
Moment resisting frame with shear walls
Shear wall system
Coupled shear wall system
Fundamental Issues and Special Design Requirements
Requirements for Good Quality Building

Understanding of earthquakes
Understanding of earthquake-resistant design philosophy
Selection of good structural system to resist lateral forces
Proper analysis
Adequate design
Good detailing
Good quality construction
Design Requirements

Force-based design procedure :: Provide resistance against


maximum design forces

Footing Beams
Axial force Bending moment

Bending moment Shear force

Shear force Columns

Pile Caps Axial force

Axial force Bending moment

Bending moment Shear force

Shear force Shear walls

Plinth Beams Axial force


Shear force
Superstructure Design

Design of Beams

Design of Columns

Design of Shear Walls

Design of Coupling Beams


Design for Flexure

Each critical section must be designed for maximum bending


moment obtained after considering all load combinations

Critical sections for beams:

Supports (maximum negative moment)


Near mid-span (maximum positive moment)

Different critical section of same member may be governed


by different load combinations
Design for Flexure

Consider bending moment distribution from different load combinations


in a continuous beam

Mid-span Critical 1.5 (DL+IL)


Moment

Support Critical
Moment 1.2 (DL+IL+EL)
Flexural Strength of Beams
Design for Flexure

Consider state of stress at critical section (for singly-reinforced


section)

0.0035 0.446 fck


Vu
0.36 fck xu
d Beam

Mu 0.87 fy
Strain Stress
fy
s,max 0.002
1.15 Es
Mu = 0.87 fy Ast

Mu,lim = 0.138 fck b d2 for Fe415


Flexural Strength of Beams
Design for Flexure

Consider state of stress at critical section (for doubly-reinforced


section)

0.0035 0.446 fck


Vu
d
0.36 fck xu
d Beam

Mu 0.87 fy
Strain Stress

Mu = 0.138 fck b d2 + Asc (fsc fcc) (d d) for Fe415


Flexural Strength of Beams
Design for Flexure

Design charts are normally used after determining Mu


(using SP 16)
Example: For M25, Fe415 RCC

Mu/bd2 pt
0.30 0.084
0.80 0.231

Example: For M25, Fe415 RCC (d/d = 0.10)

Mu/bd2 pt pc

3.46 1.197 0.002

5.40 1.795 0.635


Design for Flexure

Additional requirements for longitudinal reinforcement

- Minimum tension reinforcement

min 0.24 fck fy

Maximum reinforcement on any face

max 0.025
Positive reinforcement at a joint face must be at least
equal to half the negative reinforcement

Positive reinforcement anywhere must be at least one-


fourth maximum joint negative reinforcement

Minimum bar diameter should preferably be 12 mm


Curvature Ductility of Beams
Deflection Ductility of Members
Design for Shear

Necessity of transverse reinforcement


To confine concrete and provide ductility
To provide energy dissipation capacity
To restrain longitudinal bars
To resist shear force

Critical shear force will typically occur at beam-column joints


Shear design criteria are different depending on location
Near joints
Away from joints

Special reinforcement requirements are specified at and near joints


Design for Shear

Critical shear force (Vu) is maximum of


Maximum factored shear force
Shear force due to formation of plastic hinges at both ends of beam
plus factored gravity load on the span

1.2 (DL+IL) (DL+IL)


VaD+L = VbD+L = 1.2
A B 2

A
L MAs + MBh
Mu s B
Mu h Vu,a = VaD+L - 1.4 u u
L

Vu,a Vu,b MAs + MBh


Vu,b = VbD+L + 1.4 u u
L
Sway to right

A Sagging moment at the B Hogging moment at the


Mu s Mu h Right end of the beam
Left end of the beam
Shear in Beams
High intensity shearing stresses in beams causes
inclined (diagonal tension) cracks, which allowed
may cause failure of two modes:

In compression zone, stress concentrate at


the tip of crack, leading to crushing of
concrete leading to buckling of compression
steel

Dowel action of rebars producing secondary


longitudinal stresses causing splitting of
concrete along rebars leading to loss of bond
and anchorage and subsequent loss of
stiffness

Prevention

Transverse reinforcement to arrest the


propagation of cracks
Should resist a portion or all of the
shear on the section
Shear in Beams
Factored Shear load due to gravity and earthquake loads
Vu VD L VE
wL M p1 M p 2

2 L
Mp1 and Mp2 are the plastic hinges moments at either side of
the beam
Factored flexural strength
Calculate with m = 1.5 for concrete and 1.15 for steel.
Mu,lim or Mu Mr

Nominal flexural strength


Calculated without partial safety factors.
Mu 1.2 (Mu,lim or Mu )

Probable flexural strength (Overstrength capacity)


No partial safety factors
Account for ultimate steel stress fu = 1.25 fy
Compute shear demand in plastic hinge Mp 1.4 to 1.5 Mr
Design for Shear

Nominal shear stress is used for Vu


design v
bd
Vu

BEAM

Shear Distribution Actual Nominal

Actual shear stress depends on shape of member cross-section


Shear stress is resisted by concrete, and if required, by transverse
reinforcement
Design for Shear

Design shear strength of concrete (c) depends on longitudinal steel and


grade of concrete

100 As / bd M20 (MPa) M30 (MPa)

0.25 0.36 0.37

0.50 0.48 0.50

1.00 0.60 0.64

Shear reinforcement is required for shear stress exceeding this value


Maximum permissible shear stress is limited
Concrete M20 (MPa) M30 (MPa)
c,max 2.8 3.5
Design for Shear
If shear stress exceeds c, but is less than c,max transverse steel is
required for the additional shear force
Vus Vu c bd
At the beam ends, Vus Vu c bd =0

Clause 6.3.3 specifies the shear force to be resisted by the vertical


hoops as the maximum of,
calculated factored shear force as per analysis, and
Shear force due to formation of plastic hinges at both ends of the
beam plus the factored gravity load on the span.

Either area or number of legs of transverse steel are determined


from formula
0.87 fy Asv d Asv is total area of steel (all legs)
Vus sv is spacing of reinforcement
sv
Design for Shear

Additional requirements for transverse reinforcement are


specified

Minimum transverse reinforcement must be provided as per IS 456

Special confinement over length of 2 d at either end of beam in


which transverse reinforcement should not exceed:
d/4
8 db but not less than 100 mm

Other parts of the beam must have transverse reinforcement spacing


not exceeding d/2
Beam Shear Failure
Design for Shear

Confinement Zones
< 50 mm < 50 mm

2d HOOP SPACING 2d
Superstructure Design
Design of Beams

Design of Columns

Design of Shear Walls

Design of Coupling Beams


General Characteristics

Frame members with factored axial stress greater than 0.1 fck
under earthquake loads are designed as columns

Minimum dimensions should be 200 mm


b/D not less than 0.4

If beam span exceeds 5 m, minimum dimension should be 300 mm

Lap splices are provided only over the central half of member.
Region with lap splice should have closely confining transverse
reinforcement

No more than 50% of reinforcement should be spliced at any


section
Design for Axial Forces

Each critical section in compression members must be


designed for maximum axial forces obtained after considering
all load combinations

Critical sections for columns:


At supports (maximum axial, flexural and shear stress)

Capacity may depend on combined effect of axial and flexural


stresses

Different critical section of same member may be governed by


different load combinations
Design for Axial Forces

For columns with purely axial forces, the critical section is


subjected to uniform stress

Simple design formula can be used


Pu 0.4 fck Ac 0.67 fy Asc

For slender compression members, additional bi-axial


moments are considered (above formula not valid)

2 2
Pu D lex Pu b ley
Max May
2000 D 2000 b
Design for Axial Forces

All slender columns and short columns with significant moments


must be designed considering the interaction between axial and
flexural stresses

Combination of axial and flexural strain may result in neutral axis


inside or outside the member
Neutral axis outside : Pure compression section
Neutral axis inside : Partial section in compression and partial in
tension

For slender member, apply extra moment in addition to critical


moment from calculations
Design for Axial Forces

Consider state of strain at critical section


NA Inside OR NA Outside

P Compressive
u
Strain

Mu + +
Vu Flexural
Strain

= =
Total
Column Strain
Design for Axial Forces

Typical interaction curves are available for following variables (SP


16)

Pu fck bD , Mu fck bD2

pt1 > pt2


pt1
Pu / fckbD

pt2

Mu/fckbD2
Design for Axial Forces

For biaxial bending, moment interaction is also considered


n n
Mux Muy
M 1.0
ux1 M
uy 1
Mux1 and Muy1 are maximum moment capacity of section
for axial load Pu
n is related to Pu / Puz
Puz 0.45 fck Ac 0.75 fy Asc

2.0

1.0
n

Pu / Puz
0.2 0.8
Design for Axial Forces

Additional requirements for longitudinal reinforcement are


imposed
Minimum reinforcement

min 0.008
Maximum reinforcement
max 0.06
Practical limit for maximum reinforcement
max 0.04
Minimum bar diameter is 12 mm
For pedestals (leff < 3 b) designed without considering
reinforcement (as PCC)
min 0.0015
Design for Shear

Necessity of transverse reinforcement


To confine concrete and provide ductility
To provide energy dissipation capacity
To restrain longitudinal bars
To resist shear force

Critical shear force will occur at beam-column joints

Special reinforcement requirements are specified at and near joints


Design for Shear

Critical shear force (Vu) is maximum of


Maximum factored shear force
Shear force due to formation of plastic hinges in both framing beams

Vu

1.4MubL 1.4MubR MbL + MbR


Vu = 1.4 u u

hst hst

Formula based on beam moment capacity


Ensures plastic hinge formation in beam
Vu
before column
Design for Shear

Nominal shear stress is used for Vu


design v
bd
Vu

COLUMN

Shear Actual Nominal


Distribution

Actual shear stress depends on shape of member cross-section


Shear stress is resisted by concrete, and if required, by transverse
reinforcement
Design for Shear

Design shear strength of concrete (c) depends on longitudinal steel,


grade of concrete, axial load and member size

100 As / bd M20 (MPa) M30 (MPa)


3Pu
0.25 0.36 d 0.37 d d = 1+
Ag fck
0.50 0.48 d 0.50 d
1.0 d 1.5
1.00 0.60 d 0.64 d

Shear reinforcement is required for shear stress exceeding this value


Maximum permissible shear stress is limited

Concrete M20 (MPa) M30 (MPa)

c,max 2.8 3.5


Design for Shear

If shear stress exceeds c, but is less than c,max transverse steel is


required for the additional shear force

Vus Vu c bd

Either area or number of legs of transverse steel are determined


from formula
0.87 fy Asv d
Vus
sv
Asv is total area of steel (all legs)
sv is spacing of reinforcement
Design for Shear

Additional requirements for transverse reinforcement are imposed

Minimum transverse reinforcement must be provided as per IS 456

Special confinement required over length of l0 at either end of joint


face, l0 not exceeding:
Larger lateral dimension of column
1/6 of clear span of member
450 mm

Maximum spacing of transverse reinforcement should not exceed


least lateral dimension but not less than 75 mm
Design for Shear

Additional requirements for transverse reinforcement are imposed

Other parts of the column must have transverse reinforcement


spacing not exceeding half of least lateral dimension of column

Transverse reinforcement leg spacing in column section should not


exceed 300 mm

Transverse reinforcement spacing over splice length should not


exceed 100 mm
Design for Shear - Column

JOINT REINFORCEMENT


AS PER 8.1

Confining reinforcement required in


joints
Confining reinforcement required
near supports
Closely-spaced reinforcement
REINFORCEMENT AS PER 7.4.1

SPLICE
SPECIAL CONFINING

required over splice length

JOINT REINFORCEMENT
AS PER 8.2
Design for Shear - Column
Shear Failure
Shear Failure
Transverse Reinforcement Detailing
Effective Restraint by Ties

Ties should be in contact with the longitudianl bar


and tied with the wire

A gap between tie and longitudinal bar can


aggregate the problem of buckling after cover loss.

Closed stirrup are 135-degree hook with a 10 dia


extension (but not < 75mm) at each end that is
embedded in the confined core.

Hooks should engage peripheral longitudinal bars.

Cross ties (i.e., a bar with 135 degree hook at


each end) are less effective than closed stirrups.

Overlap of several closed stirrups at a section is


frequently needed.

Parallel legs of stirrups should not be spaced more


than 300 mm.
Poor Transverse Reinforcement Detailing

Improper hooks in
transverse reinforcement
Shear Failure Columns not Designed for Shear due to
Torsion
Special Confinement

DEVELOPMENT
LENGTH OF
Columns under
SHEAR WALL
LONGITUDINAL openings must be
BAR provided with
confining
reinforcement over its
full length
Longitudinal
reinforcement must
extend to its full
OPEN development length
Special Confinement

UNSUPPORTED
LENGTH OF COLUMN
SHEAR FAILURE
Columns with sudden
SPACE FOR VENTILATORS variation of stiffness
over its length must be
provided with special
confining reinforcement
over its full length
Shear failure may occur
in columns at the
openings

INFILLED PANEL/RC WALL


Short Column Failure

This failure can be avoided by providing special confining reinforcement over


entire column length
Beam Column Joints
Joint Detailing

Such reinforcement detailing


should not be used again
in Gujarat
Joint Detailing

JOINT REINFORCEMENT
AS PER 8.1
Beam reinforcement should be
properly anchored in joint

Column transverse reinforcement


should continue into the joint
REINFORCEMENT AS PER 7.4.1


SPLICE
SPECIAL CONFINING

Column longitudinal reinforcement


should not be spliced at the joint

JOINT REINFORCEMENT
AS PER 8.2
Anchorage and splice
Column-Footing Detailing
Superstructure Design

Design of Beams

Design of Columns

Design of Shear Walls

Design of Coupling Beams


Shear Walls
Shear walls are like wide columns in which stiffness along one axis is
significantly higher than the other axis
lw

A A tw
Section A-A
Shear Wall

lw >> tw

Take dw = 0.8 lw

lw = wall length
tw = wall thickness
dw = effective wall depth
Shear Walls

The thickness of shear wall should be greater than 150 mm


Shear walls can be rectangular or flanged

Rectangular

C-Shaped

I-Shaped
Shear Walls

Flange width beyond web of wall is smaller of


Half distance to an adjacent shear wall web
1/10 of floor-to-floor wall height

Must provide reinforcement in two curtains if


Wall thickness exceeds 200 mm
Factored shear stress exceeds 0.25 fck

Diameter of reinforcement shall not exceed 1/10 of wall thickness

Shear reinforcement shall be provided in both transverse and


longitudinal directions
Design for Flexure

Flexural design of shear walls is similar to flexural design of


columns

In-plane bending is neglected due to very high in-plane stiffness

Combined effect of out-of-plane bending and axial compression


is resisted using same procedure as for columns

Design axial strength per unit length of wall calculated from


formula
Puw 0.3(tw 1.2 e 2 ea ) fck

tw = Wall thickness
e = Eccentricity of load
ea = Additional ecc. = Hw/(2500 tw)
Design for Shear
Nominal shear stress is used for Vu
v (dw 0.8 lw )
design tw dw
Vu

SHEAR
WALL

Shear Actual Nominal


Distribution

Actual shear stress depends on shape of member cross-section


Shear stress is resisted by concrete, and if required, by transverse
reinforcement
Design for Shear
If shear stress exceeds c, but is less than c,max transverse steel is
required for the additional shear force

Vus Vu c tw dw

Either area or spacing of transverse steel is determined from


formula
0.87 fy Asv dw
Vus
sv

Asv is total area of steel (all legs)


sv is spacing of reinforcement

Vertical reinforcement shall be uniformly distributed and not be less


than transverse steel
Additional Requirements
Minimum reinforcement in each direction shall be greater than
0.0025 of wall area

Maximum spacing shall not exceed:


lw / 5
3 tw
450 mm

If wall does not have boundary element, vertical reinforcement


shall be concentrated at the ends
Minimum 4 bars at each end in two layers
Minimum bar diameter shall be 12 mm
Boundary Elements

Portion along wall edges are strengthened by longitudinal and


transverse steel

Boundary elements may have same thickness as wall web

Boundary elements are also required if extreme fiber


compressive stress due to factored gravity and earthquake load
exceeds 0.2fck

Boundary elements may be discontinued if stress becomes less


than 0.15fck

Special confining reinforcement should be provided for its entire


height
Boundary Elements
Boundary element must be capable of carrying design axial
compression
Factored gravity load
+
Additional compression due to earthquake load (PEQ)

Mu Muv
PEQ
Cw
Mu = Factored design moment for entire wall
Muv = Moment of resistance provided by vertical reinforcement
in wall section
Cw = Centre-to-centre distance of boundary elements
Reinforcement Detailing

Reinforcement in single curtain (tw < 200 mm)

Reinforcement in two curtains (tw > 200 mm)


Reinforcement Detailing
Detailing of boundary element at end of a shear wall
All vertical bars should be held with cross-ties
All horizontal bars should terminate inside member core
Reinforcement Detailing

Detailing of boundary element within wall width


Superstructure Design

Design of Beams

Design of Columns

Design of Shear Walls

Design of Coupling Beams


Coupled Shear Walls

Used with dual or multiple shear walls

Shear wall stiffness is very high


compared to stiffness of the
coupling beams
Variation of stiffness may cause very
high shear stress to develop in
coupling beams
Special detailing is required to
prevent damage
Coupled Shear Walls
Coupling beams experience large rotations

ls

Behaviour must be ductile for


good performance
Coupled Shear Walls

Coupling beams behave as deep beams

Shear stress is the most critical design stress

Tension due to shear stress acts at 45 degrees to the axis of the


beam

If earthquake induced shear stress exceeds expression given


below, the entire earthquake induced shear and flexure shall be
resisted by diagonal reinforcement

0.1 ls fck

D
Coupled Shear Walls
Total area of diagonal reinforcement is calculated from standard
shear formula
Vu
Asd
1.74 fy sin

Each diagonal must consist of at least 4 bars of 8 mm diameter

Diagonal reinforcement must be confined as per special


reinforcement for columns

Spacing of confinement reinforcement must not exceed 100 mm

Diagonal and horizontal bars should be anchored for 1.5 times


development length
Coupled Shear Walls

Additional minimum horizontal and vertical reinforcement must


be provided besides diagonal reinforcement
Foundation Design
Foundation Design

Design of Footing

Design of Pile Caps

Design of Plinth Beams


Design of Footings

Footings transfer column or wall load to the foundation

Footings are subjected to the following forces


Compression force from column/wall
Shear force
Moment from column/wall
Moment due to sub-grade reaction

Unless supported on hard rock, footings should be connected to


each other through plinth beams
Design of Footings

Pu

Mu Pu 6 Mu
Vu q1,2
B L B L2

The variation in subgrade


reaction can be eliminated by
placing the footing
q1
eccentrically with the column
q2
(not possible for all load
combinations)
L
Design of Footings

Size of footing depends on the axial compressive force and safe


bearing capacity

Average stress should not exceed safe bearing capacity

Footing should be capable of transferring axial force and moment


without causing flexural, shear or punching failure of the footing

Thickness of footing should also provide required structural rigidity,


and provide adequate cover for reinforcement
Design of Footings

Plan-view of column and footing

d d = effective depth of footing

Critical section for bending Critical section for shear is at


is at column face distance d from column face
Design of Footings Flexure

Take free-body diagram of footing at the critical section


Find critical moment due to sub-grade reaction

V
Design procedure for moment is same
d as for a beam with unit width
Longitudinal reinforcement is
determined at the critical section from
Mu moment calculations
Design of Footings Shear

Direction of critical shear is at 45 degrees from column face

Pu

Design procedure for moment is same as


Mu
for a beam
Depth of footing is determined such that
no shear reinforcement is required at the
critical section
Vu
Design of Footings Punching
Plan-view of column and footing

Punching failure can take


place through the
thickness of footing

Critical section for punching is at distance d/2


from column face
Design of Footings Punching

Direction of critical shear is at slope of 1:2 from column face


Pu

Mu The entire punching surface contributes


resistance to punching failure
Permissible punching shear strength
depends on aspect ratio of the column

Vu

a
Design of Footings Punching
Total surface area under punching failure

Ap = 2 (a + b) d

Permissible shear stress depends on aspect ratio of column

all ks c
ks 0.5 c
c 0.25 fck

c is the ratio of shorter to longer column dimension but limited to 0.5


Depth of footing is determined such that no shear reinforcement is
required at the critical section
Design of Footings

Minimum footing thickness should be greater than 150 mm

Critical sections for moment and shear should be checked in


both directions to determine thickness requirement and
longitudinal reinforcement

Footing thickness can be varied from column-face to the edge


for economy check for safety at all critical sections

Minimum reinforcement is provided in the footing as per


specifications for solid slabs
Foundation Design

Design of Footing

Design of Pile Caps

Design of Plinth Beams


Design of Pile Caps

Pu

Mu
Vu

Pile caps are used to


transfer column or wall load
(axial, shear and moment)
to a set of piles
Design of Pile Caps
Pile caps should be large enough to span over all piles

Pile driving process results in large deviations in pile location from


design specifications (up to 100 mm)

Pile caps should be large enough to accommodate these deviations

Pile cap design provides following parameters


Shape of pile cap
Depth of pile cap
Amount of reinforcement to be provided
Arrangement of reinforcement
Shape of Pile Caps

Pile cap shape depends on the number of piles that are supported

Shape also depends on the geometry of available space in the


building

IS codes provide tremendous flexibility in shape

Piles of different sizes (or capacities) should not be used with a single
pile cap

Centre of gravity of piles and pile cap should coincide so that all piles
are equally loaded
Shape of Pile Caps

Pile caps for single


column
Shape of Pile Caps

Pile caps for multiple


columns
Design of Pile Caps

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Pile caps transfer the load
through combination of beam
and truss action
Design of Pile Caps

Design of pile caps generally uses the same procedure as design of


footings

Design is carried out for axial compression, shear force and moment
from column

If several piles and columns are supported on a single pile cap, detailed
finite element analysis of the pile cap is preferable to determine critical
moment and shear force

Critical section for shear occurs at distance d/2 from the column face
(instead of distance d)

Minimum pile cap thickness must be 300 mm, most pile caps have much
greater thickness
Foundation Design

Design of Footing

Design of Pile Caps

Design of Plinth Beams


Plinth Beams
Buildings are often designed Plinth beams are essential for
with slender lower columns earthquake resistance

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Plinth Beams

Plinth beams are very important for enhancing performance of


structural system during earthquakes

Plinth beams resist unequal settlement in soft soils


Plinth beams resist relative movement of different footings and pile caps
Plinth beams will redistribute axial forces between different columns
Plinth beams may provide bracing to columns and reduce their effective
length
Plinth beams resist moment due to lateral loads and enhance foundation
safety
Plinth Beams

All footings or pile caps shall be connected by plinth beams at least


in two directions approximately at right angle to each other

The plinth beams may be placed at or below the plinth level

Plinth beams may also be placed at the level of footings or pile caps

All plinth beams should preferably be at the same level

Plinth beams must be of at least size


200 x 200 mm
Ahmedabad Example

Absence of plinth beams


contributed to collapse of the
structure (Shikhar apartment)
Design of Plinth Beams

Plinth beams are modelled and designed using same procedure


as other beams

The design moments, axial and shear forces in plinth beams are
determined by considering all load combinations

Plinth beams need to be designed for additional axial load of Ah/4


times the column or pile cap load (Ah is horizontal seismic
coefficient as per IS 1893-2001)
Summary

Design procedures for critical sub-structure and super-


structure members have been discussed

Design specifications should generally conform to IS 456-


2000 specifications

Most members require compliance with special detailing


specifications given in IS 13920-1993

Compliance with detailing specifications result in adequate


performance and controlled failure under very intense
loading
Summary

Design procedure can also be used in existing buildings to


determine capacity of various members

When capacity evaluation is required, properties and size


of steel and concrete should be realistically assessed