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Meher Prasad

Department of Civil Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

email: prasadam@iitm.ac.in

Seismic Design and Detailing of RC frames

Outline

General requirements

Code(IS13920-1993)Provisions

Beam-Column Joint Requirements

Foundations

Caution:

Good design, detailing, and construction requirements still

hold; in fact , those became even more important for

aseismic constructions.

General Background

Yielding expected

Require Good Inelastic Behaviour

Need good ductility

Hysteretic loops should be stable and full

Storey Mechanisms

Column require too much ductility

Difficult to make columns ductile

To be avoided

General Background

Beam Hinge Mechanisms

Strong column-weak beam design

Capacity design

Avoid: else detail carefully

Regular configuration

More redundancy

General Background

Prevent Brittle Modes of failure

Flexural Failure

Under-reinforced beam : Ductile (Tension Failure)

Shear failure does not precede flexural yielding

Beam is under-reinforced

Ductility

Capacity to take additional displacement (without collapse) even after yield

member under flexure and axial load

Shear Design

so as to develop the vertical shears resulting from all ultimate vertical

loads acting on the beam plus those which can be produced by the

plastic moment capacities at the ends of the beams

The spacing of the stirrups shall not exceed d/4 in a length equal to 2d

near each end of the beam and d/2 in the remaining length.

Compliance?

Shear Design

m (steel)=1.0

m (concrete)=1.3

Strain Hardening in steel (25%)

0.87 f=>1.25 f

f/1.5=> f/1.3

Steel Ductile

Concrete Brittle

How to make the member ductile?

steel ductile

concrete brittle

HYSD

Mild steel

20 - 30% 0.35%

Reinforcing Steel

Fy 415 MPa

15-12 % HYSD 415

22-20 % MS 250

strength

Fu

1.25

Fy

Inelastic deformation can be confined to specially

detailed plastic hinges

For dependable yield strength

UBC

Actual yield < specified yield +124 MPa

Concrete

Higher strength is also not very good.

Confinement of Concrete

Confinement of Concrete

for rectangular hoop than spiral hoop provided by transverse hoops

spiral and 0.46 for rectangular

Confinement of Concrete

Buckling of Rebars

Size of hoop

Effective rebar

Buckling of Rebars

Confined Concrete

Prevent buckling of longitudinal reinforcement

Confine the compressed concrete

Confinement of Concrete

transverse strains induced by longitudinal

compression when the unconfined concrete

strength is approached.

Effect of Axial Loads

Bond

friction after slip

bars are same

confined, concrete crushes around the ribs

before it pulls out.

deformation

Bond strength increases with

concrete increase in cover thickness and

transverse reinforcement

To satisfy equilibrium a tension force which

develop alongside the longitudinal bar must

be resisted by concrete or transverse

reinforcement

Flexural Yielding

Ductility increases as

Steel grade decreases

Concrete Confinement increases

Tension reinforcement decreases

Compression reinforcement increases

Axial force in the member decreases

(Beams are much more ductile than columns)

Main Steps

Shear Failure Prevented by Special Calculations

Good development Length

Regions likely to have hinges confined with closely spaced and closed

stirrups

Capacity Design of Frames (New Zealand and Japan)

Locate desirable hinge locations

Estimate reasonable design seismic force on the building

Design the members at hinge locations

Detail the hinge locations to have very good ductility

Calculate capacity of the hinge locations (upper bound type)

Assess the member forces at other locations under the action of capacity force

Design other locations for that force; need not detail these for high ductility

Fundamental Strength Relationships

member or of a particular section.

prescribed factored loads and forces at ultimate limit state

theory of structural mechanics predicting limit state with respect to

failure of a section.

Si Su

(c) Probable strength (Sp) :

typically during moderate inelastic seismic displacements are

greater than nominal strengths specified by codes.

S p p Si

(d) Overstrength (So) :

exceeding the ideal strength.

So o Si

Relationships between Strengths:

So o Si o Su /

Force Elongation Relationships

(n 2 ) /(n 1)

ductile capacity of the chain consisting of n stronglinks

2 l arg e ductile capacity of the weak link

Pis Pi Pis

Pi > PE/

IS 13920:1993

Structures Subjected to Seismic Forces

Code of Practice

Design Requirements

Structural Requirements

Structural Systems for RC Buildings

Moment resisting frame system

Moment resisting frame with shear walls

Shear wall system

Coupled shear wall system

Fundamental Issues and Special Design Requirements

Requirements for Good Quality Building

Understanding of earthquakes

Understanding of earthquake-resistant design philosophy

Selection of good structural system to resist lateral forces

Proper analysis

Adequate design

Good detailing

Good quality construction

Design Requirements

maximum design forces

Footing Beams

Axial force Bending moment

Shear force

Superstructure Design

Design of Beams

Design of Columns

Design for Flexure

moment obtained after considering all load combinations

Near mid-span (maximum positive moment)

by different load combinations

Design for Flexure

in a continuous beam

Moment

Support Critical

Moment 1.2 (DL+IL+EL)

Flexural Strength of Beams

Design for Flexure

section)

Vu

0.36 fck xu

d Beam

Mu 0.87 fy

Strain Stress

fy

s,max 0.002

1.15 Es

Mu = 0.87 fy Ast

Flexural Strength of Beams

Design for Flexure

section)

Vu

d

0.36 fck xu

d Beam

Mu 0.87 fy

Strain Stress

Flexural Strength of Beams

Design for Flexure

(using SP 16)

Example: For M25, Fe415 RCC

Mu/bd2 pt

0.30 0.084

0.80 0.231

Mu/bd2 pt pc

Design for Flexure

max 0.025

Positive reinforcement at a joint face must be at least

equal to half the negative reinforcement

fourth maximum joint negative reinforcement

Curvature Ductility of Beams

Deflection Ductility of Members

Design for Shear

To confine concrete and provide ductility

To provide energy dissipation capacity

To restrain longitudinal bars

To resist shear force

Shear design criteria are different depending on location

Near joints

Away from joints

Design for Shear

Maximum factored shear force

Shear force due to formation of plastic hinges at both ends of beam

plus factored gravity load on the span

VaD+L = VbD+L = 1.2

A B 2

A

L MAs + MBh

Mu s B

Mu h Vu,a = VaD+L - 1.4 u u

L

Vu,b = VbD+L + 1.4 u u

L

Sway to right

Mu s Mu h Right end of the beam

Left end of the beam

Shear in Beams

High intensity shearing stresses in beams causes

inclined (diagonal tension) cracks, which allowed

may cause failure of two modes:

the tip of crack, leading to crushing of

concrete leading to buckling of compression

steel

longitudinal stresses causing splitting of

concrete along rebars leading to loss of bond

and anchorage and subsequent loss of

stiffness

Prevention

propagation of cracks

Should resist a portion or all of the

shear on the section

Shear in Beams

Factored Shear load due to gravity and earthquake loads

Vu VD L VE

wL M p1 M p 2

2 L

Mp1 and Mp2 are the plastic hinges moments at either side of

the beam

Factored flexural strength

Calculate with m = 1.5 for concrete and 1.15 for steel.

Mu,lim or Mu Mr

Calculated without partial safety factors.

Mu 1.2 (Mu,lim or Mu )

No partial safety factors

Account for ultimate steel stress fu = 1.25 fy

Compute shear demand in plastic hinge Mp 1.4 to 1.5 Mr

Design for Shear

design v

bd

Vu

BEAM

Shear stress is resisted by concrete, and if required, by transverse

reinforcement

Design for Shear

grade of concrete

Maximum permissible shear stress is limited

Concrete M20 (MPa) M30 (MPa)

c,max 2.8 3.5

Design for Shear

If shear stress exceeds c, but is less than c,max transverse steel is

required for the additional shear force

Vus Vu c bd

At the beam ends, Vus Vu c bd =0

hoops as the maximum of,

calculated factored shear force as per analysis, and

Shear force due to formation of plastic hinges at both ends of the

beam plus the factored gravity load on the span.

from formula

0.87 fy Asv d Asv is total area of steel (all legs)

Vus sv is spacing of reinforcement

sv

Design for Shear

specified

which transverse reinforcement should not exceed:

d/4

8 db but not less than 100 mm

not exceeding d/2

Beam Shear Failure

Design for Shear

Confinement Zones

< 50 mm < 50 mm

2d HOOP SPACING 2d

Superstructure Design

Design of Beams

Design of Columns

General Characteristics

Frame members with factored axial stress greater than 0.1 fck

under earthquake loads are designed as columns

b/D not less than 0.4

Lap splices are provided only over the central half of member.

Region with lap splice should have closely confining transverse

reinforcement

section

Design for Axial Forces

designed for maximum axial forces obtained after considering

all load combinations

At supports (maximum axial, flexural and shear stress)

stresses

different load combinations

Design for Axial Forces

subjected to uniform stress

Pu 0.4 fck Ac 0.67 fy Asc

moments are considered (above formula not valid)

2 2

Pu D lex Pu b ley

Max May

2000 D 2000 b

Design for Axial Forces

must be designed considering the interaction between axial and

flexural stresses

inside or outside the member

Neutral axis outside : Pure compression section

Neutral axis inside : Partial section in compression and partial in

tension

moment from calculations

Design for Axial Forces

NA Inside OR NA Outside

P Compressive

u

Strain

Mu + +

Vu Flexural

Strain

= =

Total

Column Strain

Design for Axial Forces

16)

pt1

Pu / fckbD

pt2

Mu/fckbD2

Design for Axial Forces

n n

Mux Muy

M 1.0

ux1 M

uy 1

Mux1 and Muy1 are maximum moment capacity of section

for axial load Pu

n is related to Pu / Puz

Puz 0.45 fck Ac 0.75 fy Asc

2.0

1.0

n

Pu / Puz

0.2 0.8

Design for Axial Forces

imposed

Minimum reinforcement

min 0.008

Maximum reinforcement

max 0.06

Practical limit for maximum reinforcement

max 0.04

Minimum bar diameter is 12 mm

For pedestals (leff < 3 b) designed without considering

reinforcement (as PCC)

min 0.0015

Design for Shear

To confine concrete and provide ductility

To provide energy dissipation capacity

To restrain longitudinal bars

To resist shear force

Design for Shear

Maximum factored shear force

Shear force due to formation of plastic hinges in both framing beams

Vu

Vu = 1.4 u u

hst hst

Ensures plastic hinge formation in beam

Vu

before column

Design for Shear

design v

bd

Vu

COLUMN

Distribution

Shear stress is resisted by concrete, and if required, by transverse

reinforcement

Design for Shear

grade of concrete, axial load and member size

3Pu

0.25 0.36 d 0.37 d d = 1+

Ag fck

0.50 0.48 d 0.50 d

1.0 d 1.5

1.00 0.60 d 0.64 d

Maximum permissible shear stress is limited

Design for Shear

required for the additional shear force

Vus Vu c bd

from formula

0.87 fy Asv d

Vus

sv

Asv is total area of steel (all legs)

sv is spacing of reinforcement

Design for Shear

face, l0 not exceeding:

Larger lateral dimension of column

1/6 of clear span of member

450 mm

least lateral dimension but not less than 75 mm

Design for Shear

spacing not exceeding half of least lateral dimension of column

exceed 300 mm

exceed 100 mm

Design for Shear - Column

JOINT REINFORCEMENT

AS PER 8.1

joints

Confining reinforcement required

near supports

Closely-spaced reinforcement

REINFORCEMENT AS PER 7.4.1

SPLICE

SPECIAL CONFINING

JOINT REINFORCEMENT

AS PER 8.2

Design for Shear - Column

Shear Failure

Shear Failure

Transverse Reinforcement Detailing

Effective Restraint by Ties

and tied with the wire

aggregate the problem of buckling after cover loss.

extension (but not < 75mm) at each end that is

embedded in the confined core.

each end) are less effective than closed stirrups.

frequently needed.

than 300 mm.

Poor Transverse Reinforcement Detailing

Improper hooks in

transverse reinforcement

Shear Failure Columns not Designed for Shear due to

Torsion

Special Confinement

DEVELOPMENT

LENGTH OF

Columns under

SHEAR WALL

LONGITUDINAL openings must be

BAR provided with

confining

reinforcement over its

full length

Longitudinal

reinforcement must

extend to its full

OPEN development length

Special Confinement

UNSUPPORTED

LENGTH OF COLUMN

SHEAR FAILURE

Columns with sudden

SPACE FOR VENTILATORS variation of stiffness

over its length must be

provided with special

confining reinforcement

over its full length

Shear failure may occur

in columns at the

openings

Short Column Failure

entire column length

Beam Column Joints

Joint Detailing

should not be used again

in Gujarat

Joint Detailing

JOINT REINFORCEMENT

AS PER 8.1

Beam reinforcement should be

properly anchored in joint

should continue into the joint

REINFORCEMENT AS PER 7.4.1

SPLICE

SPECIAL CONFINING

should not be spliced at the joint

JOINT REINFORCEMENT

AS PER 8.2

Anchorage and splice

Column-Footing Detailing

Superstructure Design

Design of Beams

Design of Columns

Shear Walls

Shear walls are like wide columns in which stiffness along one axis is

significantly higher than the other axis

lw

A A tw

Section A-A

Shear Wall

lw >> tw

Take dw = 0.8 lw

lw = wall length

tw = wall thickness

dw = effective wall depth

Shear Walls

Shear walls can be rectangular or flanged

Rectangular

C-Shaped

I-Shaped

Shear Walls

Half distance to an adjacent shear wall web

1/10 of floor-to-floor wall height

Wall thickness exceeds 200 mm

Factored shear stress exceeds 0.25 fck

longitudinal directions

Design for Flexure

columns

is resisted using same procedure as for columns

formula

Puw 0.3(tw 1.2 e 2 ea ) fck

tw = Wall thickness

e = Eccentricity of load

ea = Additional ecc. = Hw/(2500 tw)

Design for Shear

Nominal shear stress is used for Vu

v (dw 0.8 lw )

design tw dw

Vu

SHEAR

WALL

Distribution

Shear stress is resisted by concrete, and if required, by transverse

reinforcement

Design for Shear

If shear stress exceeds c, but is less than c,max transverse steel is

required for the additional shear force

Vus Vu c tw dw

formula

0.87 fy Asv dw

Vus

sv

sv is spacing of reinforcement

than transverse steel

Additional Requirements

Minimum reinforcement in each direction shall be greater than

0.0025 of wall area

lw / 5

3 tw

450 mm

shall be concentrated at the ends

Minimum 4 bars at each end in two layers

Minimum bar diameter shall be 12 mm

Boundary Elements

transverse steel

compressive stress due to factored gravity and earthquake load

exceeds 0.2fck

than 0.15fck

height

Boundary Elements

Boundary element must be capable of carrying design axial

compression

Factored gravity load

+

Additional compression due to earthquake load (PEQ)

Mu Muv

PEQ

Cw

Mu = Factored design moment for entire wall

Muv = Moment of resistance provided by vertical reinforcement

in wall section

Cw = Centre-to-centre distance of boundary elements

Reinforcement Detailing

Reinforcement Detailing

Detailing of boundary element at end of a shear wall

All vertical bars should be held with cross-ties

All horizontal bars should terminate inside member core

Reinforcement Detailing

Superstructure Design

Design of Beams

Design of Columns

Coupled Shear Walls

compared to stiffness of the

coupling beams

Variation of stiffness may cause very

high shear stress to develop in

coupling beams

Special detailing is required to

prevent damage

Coupled Shear Walls

Coupling beams experience large rotations

ls

good performance

Coupled Shear Walls

beam

below, the entire earthquake induced shear and flexure shall be

resisted by diagonal reinforcement

0.1 ls fck

D

Coupled Shear Walls

Total area of diagonal reinforcement is calculated from standard

shear formula

Vu

Asd

1.74 fy sin

reinforcement for columns

development length

Coupled Shear Walls

be provided besides diagonal reinforcement

Foundation Design

Foundation Design

Design of Footing

Design of Footings

Compression force from column/wall

Shear force

Moment from column/wall

Moment due to sub-grade reaction

each other through plinth beams

Design of Footings

Pu

Mu Pu 6 Mu

Vu q1,2

B L B L2

reaction can be eliminated by

placing the footing

q1

eccentrically with the column

q2

(not possible for all load

combinations)

L

Design of Footings

bearing capacity

without causing flexural, shear or punching failure of the footing

and provide adequate cover for reinforcement

Design of Footings

is at column face distance d from column face

Design of Footings Flexure

Find critical moment due to sub-grade reaction

V

Design procedure for moment is same

d as for a beam with unit width

Longitudinal reinforcement is

determined at the critical section from

Mu moment calculations

Design of Footings Shear

Pu

Mu

for a beam

Depth of footing is determined such that

no shear reinforcement is required at the

critical section

Vu

Design of Footings Punching

Plan-view of column and footing

place through the

thickness of footing

from column face

Design of Footings Punching

Pu

resistance to punching failure

Permissible punching shear strength

depends on aspect ratio of the column

Vu

a

Design of Footings Punching

Total surface area under punching failure

Ap = 2 (a + b) d

all ks c

ks 0.5 c

c 0.25 fck

Depth of footing is determined such that no shear reinforcement is

required at the critical section

Design of Footings

both directions to determine thickness requirement and

longitudinal reinforcement

for economy check for safety at all critical sections

specifications for solid slabs

Foundation Design

Design of Footing

Design of Pile Caps

Pu

Mu

Vu

transfer column or wall load

(axial, shear and moment)

to a set of piles

Design of Pile Caps

Pile caps should be large enough to span over all piles

design specifications (up to 100 mm)

Shape of pile cap

Depth of pile cap

Amount of reinforcement to be provided

Arrangement of reinforcement

Shape of Pile Caps

Pile cap shape depends on the number of piles that are supported

building

Piles of different sizes (or capacities) should not be used with a single

pile cap

Centre of gravity of piles and pile cap should coincide so that all piles

are equally loaded

Shape of Pile Caps

column

Shape of Pile Caps

columns

Design of Pile Caps

Pu Pu

Mu Vu Mu

Vu

Pile caps transfer the load

through combination of beam

and truss action

Design of Pile Caps

footings

Design is carried out for axial compression, shear force and moment

from column

If several piles and columns are supported on a single pile cap, detailed

finite element analysis of the pile cap is preferable to determine critical

moment and shear force

Critical section for shear occurs at distance d/2 from the column face

(instead of distance d)

Minimum pile cap thickness must be 300 mm, most pile caps have much

greater thickness

Foundation Design

Design of Footing

Plinth Beams

Buildings are often designed Plinth beams are essential for

with slender lower columns earthquake resistance

GL GL

Plinth Beams

structural system during earthquakes

Plinth beams resist relative movement of different footings and pile caps

Plinth beams will redistribute axial forces between different columns

Plinth beams may provide bracing to columns and reduce their effective

length

Plinth beams resist moment due to lateral loads and enhance foundation

safety

Plinth Beams

in two directions approximately at right angle to each other

Plinth beams may also be placed at the level of footings or pile caps

200 x 200 mm

Ahmedabad Example

contributed to collapse of the

structure (Shikhar apartment)

Design of Plinth Beams

as other beams

The design moments, axial and shear forces in plinth beams are

determined by considering all load combinations

times the column or pile cap load (Ah is horizontal seismic

coefficient as per IS 1893-2001)

Summary

structure members have been discussed

2000 specifications

specifications given in IS 13920-1993

performance and controlled failure under very intense

loading

Summary

determine capacity of various members

of steel and concrete should be realistically assessed

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