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Appendix

Here you find a few of the multiple dimensions I have in mind concerning -
The Universe (Multiverse, The Universe is all of time and space and its contents.[9][10][11]
[12] It includes planets, moons, minor planets, stars, galaxies, the contents of intergalactic
space, and all matter and energy. The size of the entire Universe is unknown.)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universe
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mheHbVev1CU
https://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/
The widely accepted age of the universe, as estimated by general relativity, is 13.8 billion
years. In the beginning, everything in existence is thought to have occupied a single infinitely
dense point, or singularity. Only after this point began to expand in a "Big Bang" did the
universe officially begin.Feb 9, 2015
No Big Bang? Quantum equation predicts universe has no beginning
https://phys.org/news/2015-02-big-quantum-equation-universe.html

https://phys.org/news/2015-02-big-quantum-equation-universe.html
Timeline of the metric expansion of space, where space (including hypothetical non-
observable portions of the universe) is represented at each time by the circular sections. On
the left the dramatic expansion occurs in the inflationary epoch, and at the center the
expansion accelerates (artist's concept; not to scale).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Bang
The Hubble Ultra-Deep Field image shows

some of the most remote galaxies visible with present technology, each consisting of billions
of stars. The image's area of sky is very small equivalent in size to one tenth of a full moon.
[1]
Age 13.799 0.021 billion years[2]
Diameter At least 91 billion light-years (28 billion parsecs)[3]

1
Mass (ordinary matter) At least 1053 kg[4]
Average density 4.5 x 1031 g/cm3[5]
Average temperature 2.72548 K[6]
Main Contents Ordinary (baryonic) matter (4.9%)
Dark matter (26.8%)
Dark energy (68.3%)[7]
Shape Flat with only a 0.4% margin of error[8]

The development and formation of the galaxies, our galaxy, solar system, planet earth, life,
development of civilizations, western civilization and history. The history and development
of Western Philosopphy and Philosophers and Science. I also included other mind maps,
diagrams, to illustrate other subjects - merely to show the multiple dimensions and many
levels involved in these things, anything, and our multi-dimensional thinking about ,
awareness of and consciousness of these things, anything.

Timeline of Philosophers 10 pages

http://www.timelineindex.com/content/select/822/1023,822

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15 of 137 items
Next > 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 < Previous page

624 BC - 547 BC

Thales, 1st Greek Philosopher


Thales, 1st Greek Philosopher
Thales of Miletus seems to be the first known Greek philosopher, scientist and mathematician
although his occupation was that of an engineer. He is believed to have been the teacher of
Anaximander (611 BC - 545 BC) and he was the first natural philos...

610 BC - 545 BC
Astronomers
More
Anaximander of Miletus, Philosopher
Anaximander of Miletus, Philosopher
Anaximander, Ionian philosopher of Miletus, the first Greek known to have written (c.546) a
book in prose, a treatise on nature, now lost except for one quotation. It was said that he
introduced into Greece the gnomon (the vertical rod whose shadow i...

600 BC
Anarchists
More
Lao Tzu or Laozi, Founder of Taoism
Lao Tzu or Laozi, Founder of Taoism
Laozi (also Lao-Tzu, Lao-Tsu, or Lao-tze) was a philosopher and poet of ancient China. He is
best known as the reputed author of the Tao Te Ching and the founder of philosophical
Taoism, but he is also revered as a deity in religious Taoism and tradi...

600 BC
Poets
More
Epimenides of Knossos
Epimenides of Knossos
Epimenides of Knossos was a semi-mythical 6th century BC Greek seer and philosopher-
poet, who is said to have fallen asleep for fifty-seven years in a Cretan cave sacred to Zeus,
after which he reportedly awoke with the gift of prophecy. It is not...

570 BC - 495 BC
Mathematicians
More
Pythagoras of Samos
Pythagoras of Samos

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Pythagoras of Samos was an Ionian Greek philosopher, mathematician, and founder of the
religious movement called Pythagoreanism. Most of the information about Pythagoras was
written down centuries after he lived, so very little reliable information i...

551 BC - 479 BC
Founders
More
Confucius (Kongzi), Chinese Philosopher
Confucius (Kongzi), Chinese Philosopher
Confucius was a famous sage and social philosopher of China whose teachings deeply
influenced East Asia during twenty centuries. Living in times of trouble, he was convinced of
his ability to restore the world's order but he failed. Considered as a "...

535 BC - 480 BC
Iron Age
More
Heraclitus of Ephesus
Heraclitus of Ephesus
Greek philosopher, born at Ephesus of distinguished parentage. Of his early life and
education we know nothing; from the contempt with which he spoke of all his fellow
philosophers and of his fellow citizens as a whole we may gather that he regarded...

510 BC
Poets
More
Parmenides, Philosopher
Parmenides, Philosopher
Parmenides of Elea was a Greek philosopher and poet, born of an illustrious family about
BCE. 510, at Elea in Lower Italy, and is is the chief representative of the Eleatic philosophy.
He was held in high esteem by his fellow-citizens for his excelle...

500 BC - 428 BC
Astronomy
More
Anaxagoras, Cause of Eclipses
Anaxagoras, Cause of Eclipses
Greek philosopher of nature remembered for his cosmology and for his discovery of the true
cause of eclipses. He was associated with the Athenian statesman Pericles. About 480
Anaxagoras moved to Athens, then becoming the centre of Greek culture, and...

490 BC - 430 BC
5th Century BC
More
Empedocles, The 4 Classical Elements
Empedocles, The 4 Classical Elements

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Empedocles was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Agrigentum, a Greek city
in Sicily. Empedocles' philosophy is best known for being the origin of the cosmogenic
theory of the four Classical elements. He also proposed powers called Lo...

490 BC - 420 BC
Greece
More
Protagoras, Man is Measure of all Things
Protagoras, Man is Measure of all Things
Protagoras of Abdera was one of several fifth century Greek thinkers (including also Gorgias,
Hippias, and Prodicus) collectively known as the Older Sophists, a group of traveling
teachers or intellectuals who were experts in rhetoric (the science of...

488 BC
5th Century BC
More
Zeno of Elea, All is One
Zeno of Elea, All is One
Very little is known of the life of Zeno of Elea. We certainly know that he was a philosopher,
and he is said to have been the son of Teleutagoras. The main source of our knowledge of
Zeno comes from the dialogue Parmenides written by Plato. Zeno was...

475 BC
Founders
More
Leucippus, 1st Theory of Atomism
Leucippus, 1st Theory of Atomism
Leucippus or Leukippos was the first Greek to develop the theory of atomism the idea that
everything is composed entirely of various imperishable, indivisible elements called atoms
which was elaborated in far greater detail by his pupil and succe...

469 BC - 399 BC
4th Century BC
More
Socrates, I know that I know nothing
Socrates, I know that I know nothing
Socrates was a classical Greek Athenian philosopher. Credited as one of the founders of
Western philosophy, he is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of later
classical writers, especially the writings of his students Plato and Xen...

460 BC - 370 BC
Discoveries
More
Democritus, 1st Atomic Theory
Democritus, 1st Atomic Theory

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Democritus ("chosen of the people") was an Ancient Greek philosopher born in Abdera,
Thrace, Greece. He was an influential pre-Socratic philosopher who formulated an atomic
theory for the cosmos. His exact contributions are difficult to disentangle f...

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Find out about more philosophers...

Ancient World | Medieval and Renaissance | Enlightenment | Nineteenth Century | Twentieth


Century | View All Philosophers
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http://www.philosophybasics.com/general_timeline.html
his timeline of Western Philosophy is created as one long image to give an idea of the relative
scale and the clusters of activity in philosophical thought. The names are clickable links. For
more details on dates and historical eras and periods, see the section By Historical Period.
Timeline of Western Philosophy

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http://www.philosophypages.com/dy/zt.htm
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Western_philosophers
Contents

1 Western philosophers
1.1 Greek philosophers
1.1.1 600-500 BCE
1.1.2 500-400 BCE
1.1.3 400-300 BCE
1.2 Hellenistic era philosophers
1.2.1 300-200 BCE
1.2.2 200-100 BCE
1.3 Roman era philosophers
1.3.1 100 BCE - 1 CE
1.3.2 1-100 CE
1.3.3 100-200 CE
1.3.4 200-400 CE
1.4 Medieval philosophers
1.4.1 500-800 CE
1.4.2 800-900 CE
1.4.3 900-1000 CE
1.4.4 1000-1100 CE
1.4.5 1100-1200 CE
1.4.6 1200-1300 CE

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1.4.7 1300-1400 CE
1.4.8 1400-1500 CE
1.5 Early modern philosophers
1.5.1 1500-1550 CE
1.5.2 1550-1600 CE
1.5.3 1600-1650 CE
1.5.4 1650-1700 CE
1.5.5 1700-1750 CE
1.5.6 1750-1800 CE
1.6 Modern philosophers
1.6.1 1800-1850 CE
1.6.2 1850-1900 CE
1.6.3 1900-2000 CE
1900-2000 CE

George Santayana (18631952). Pragmatism, naturalism; known for many aphorisms.


H.A. Prichard (18711947). Moral intuitionist.
Bertrand Russell (18721970). Analytic philosopher, atheist, influential.
A.O. Lovejoy (18731962).
Max Scheler (1874-1928). German phenomenologist.
Ernst Cassirer (18741945).
Nikolai Berdyaev (18741948). Existentialist.
Giovanni Gentile (18751944). Idealist and fascist philosopher.
Ralph Barton Perry (18761957).
W.D. Ross (18771971). Deontologist.
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (18811955). Christian evolutionist.
Hans Kelsen (18811973). Legal positivist.
Moritz Schlick (18821936). Founder of Vienna Circle, logical positivism.
Otto Neurath (18821945). Member of Vienna Circle.
Nicolai Hartmann (18821950).
Jacques Maritain (18821973). Human rights theorist.
Jos Ortega y Gasset (18831955). Philosopher of History.
C.I. Lewis (18831964). Conceptual pragmatist.
Gaston Bachelard (18841962).
Georg Lukcs (18851971). Marxist philosopher.
Walter Terence Stace (18861967)
Karl Barth (18861968).
C. D. Broad (18871971).
Ludwig Wittgenstein (18891951). Analytic philosopher, philosophy of language,
philosophy of mind, influential.
Gabriel Marcel (18891973). Christian existentialist.
Martin Heidegger (18891976). Phenomenologist.
Antonio Gramsci (18911937). Marxist philosopher.
Rudolf Carnap (18911970). Vienna Circle. Logical positivist.
Walter Benjamin (1892-1940). Marxist. Philosophy of language.
Brand Blanshard (18921987).
Roman Ingarden (18931970). Perceptual realist, phenomenalist.
Susanne Langer (18951985).
Friedrich Waismann (18961959). Vienna Circle. Logical positivist.
Georges Bataille (1897-1962).

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Herbert Marcuse (18981979). Frankfurt School.
Xavier Zubiri (1898-1983). Materialist open realism.
Leo Strauss (18991973). Political Philosopher.
H.H. Price (18991984).
Gilbert Ryle (19001976).
Hans-Georg Gadamer (19002002). Hermeneutics.
Jacques Lacan (19011981). Structuralism.
Alfred Tarski (19011983). Created T-Convention in semantics.
E. Nagel (19011985). Logical positivist.
Karl Popper (19021994). Falsificationist.
Mortimer Adler (19022001).
Frank P. Ramsey (19031930). Proposed redundancy theory of truth.
Theodor Adorno (19031969). Frankfurt School.
Ernest Addison Moody (19031975).
Jean-Paul Sartre (19051980). Humanism, existentialism.
Karl Jaspers (19051982). Existentialist.
Eugen Fink (19051975). Phenomenologist.
Ayn Rand (19051982). Objectivist, Individualist.
Kurt Gdel (19061978). Vienna Circle.
Emmanuel Levinas (1906-1995).
Hannah Arendt (19061975). Political Philosophy.
H.L.A. Hart (19071992). Legal positivism.
C.L. Stevenson (19081979).
Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908-1961). Influential French phenomenologist.
Simone de Beauvoir (19081986). Existentialist, feminist.
Willard van Orman Quine (19082000).
Simone Weil (19091943).
A.J. Ayer (19101989). Logical positivist, emotivist.
J.L. Austin (19111960).
Marshall McLuhan (19111980). Media theory.
Alan Turing (19121954). Functionalist in philosophy of mind.
Wilfrid Sellars (1912-1989). Influential American philosopher
Albert Camus (19131960). Absurdist.
Paul Ricur (1913-2005). French philosopher and theologian.
Roland Barthes (1915-1980). French semiotician and literary theorist.
J. L. Mackie (19171981). Moral skeptic.
Donald Davidson (19172003).
Louis Althusser (1918-1990).
R. M. Hare (19192002).
P. F. Strawson (19192006).
John Rawls (19212002). Liberal.
Zygmunt Bauman (born 1925). Polish sociologist and philosopher, who introduced the idea
of liquid modernity.
Frantz Fanon (19251961). Post-colonialism
Gilles Deleuze (1925-1995). Post-structuralism
Michel Foucault (19261984). Structuralism, Post-structuralism, Postmodernism, Queer
theory.
John Howard Yoder (19271997). Pacifist.
Bernard Williams (1929-2003). Moral philosopher.
Jean Baudrillard (19292007). Postmodernism, Post-structuralism.

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Allan Bloom (19301992). Political Philosopher.
Pierre Bourdieu (1930-2002). French psychoanalytic sociologist and philosopher.
Jacques Derrida (19302004). Deconstruction.
Guy Debord (1931-1994). French Marxist philosopher.
Richard Rorty (19312007). Pragmatism, Postanalytic philosophy.
Robert Nozick (19382002). Libertarian.
David K. Lewis (19412001). Modal realism.
Hilary Putnam (1926-2016).
David Malet Armstrong (born 1926).
Noam Chomsky (born 1928).
Jrgen Habermas (born 1929).
Jaakko Hintikka (born 1929).
Alasdair MacIntyre (born 1929). Aristotelian.
Charles Taylor (born 1931). Political philosophy, Philosophy of Social Science, and
Intellectual History
John Searle (born 1932).
Alvin Plantinga (born 1932). Reformed epistemology, Philosophy of Religion.
Jerry Fodor (born 1935).
Thomas Nagel (born 1937).
Alain Badiou (born 1937).
Tom Regan (born 1938) animal rights philosopher
Saul Kripke (born 1940).
Jean-Luc Nancy (born 1940) French philosopher.
Joxe Azurmendi (born 1941). Basque Philosopher, Political philosophy, Social philosophy,
Philosophy of language
Derek Parfit (1942-2017).
Giorgio Agamben (born 1942). state of exception, form-of-life, homo sacer, and the
concept of biopolitics
Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak (born 1942). Post-colonialism, Feminism, Literary theory
Peter Singer (born 1946) Moral philosopher on animal liberation, effective altruism
John Ralston Saul (born 1947).
Slavoj iek (born 1949). Hegelianism, Marxism and Lacanian psychoanalysis
Cornel West (born 1953).
Judith Butler (born 1956). Poststructuralist, feminist, queer theory
Ken Wilber (born 1949). Integral Theory.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:21st-century_philosophers
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https://www.rit.edu/cla/philosophy/Timeline.html

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_philosophers
Timelines of philosophers by region

Eastern
Western

Alphabetical lists of philosophers in different eras

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List of philosophers born in the centuries BC
List of philosophers born in the first through tenth centuries
List of philosophers born in the eleventh through fourteenth centuries
List of philosophers born in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries
List of philosophers born in the seventeenth century
List of philosophers born in the eighteenth century
List of philosophers born in the nineteenth century
List of philosophers born in the twentieth century
List of years in philosophy
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http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x50hiq3_read-now-philosophy-of-history-download-
online_lifestyle
Walking Men Blog : "The Graph Of Ideas" by griffsgraphs
blog.walkingmen.com1202 676Search by image
http://www.redbubble.com/people/griffsgraphs/works/9068422-the-graph-of-ideas The nodes
represent all of the thinkers and comedians on Wikipedia. The size of the nodes indicates how
influential their work
Walking Men Blog : "The Graph Of Ideas" by griffsgraphs
blog.walkingmen.com1202 676Search by image

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Facebook
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Email
Related image

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Socrates Mind Map and South Park Death Episode | Rory: Philosophy At The Movies
Elements
pamrorylonergan.blogspot.com715 505Search by image
In this lesson we looked at South Park and whether the parents corrupt the children in the
episode 'Death'. As a class we came to the conclusion that they did corrupt them

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http://hdimagelib.com/socratic+questioning

http://www.brophy.net/Downloads/AIL

%20Class%20on%20Reality%20&%20Unreality/READING%20MATERIAL%20IN
%20PDF%20FORMAT/04%20INTERACTIVE%20LINKS%20TO%20PHILOSPHERS.pdf
page 7

Russell
Whitehead
Mead
Alexander
McTaggart
Keynes
Broad
Lukcs
Santayana
1925
AD
Reichenbach
Lovejoy
Ross
Berdyaev
Heisenberg

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Schlick
Kelsen
Heidegger
Neurath
Ramsey
Hartmann
Cassirer
Gdel
Perry
Gramsci
Collingwood
Schrdinger
C. I. Lewis
Ingarden
Ayer
Bachelard
Mao Zedong
Maritain
Waismann
Day
Ortega y
Gasset
Tarski
Carnap
Blanshard
E. Nagel
Popper
Gandhi
Horney
Sartre
Ryle
H.H. Price
Langer
Camus
Stevenson
Hayek
Jaspers
Wittgenstein
Adorno
Turing
Prichard
Marcel
Beauvoir
1950
AD
von Neumann
Lorenz
Wisdom
Tillich
Hopper

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Arro
w
Hare
Merleau
-
Ponty
Polya
Skinner
Berlin
Weil
Chu
rch
Anscombe
Rand
Horkheimer
Feigl
Austin
Hampshire
Arendt
Hempel
Strawson
Kurt Baier
Gadamer
Quine
Grice
Hart
Lacan
Goodman
Sellars
Habermas
Kuhn
Smart
Marcu
se
Feynman
Bergmann
Ricoeur
Gettier
Armstrong
King
Alth
usser
Chomsky
Chisholm
Derrida
Searle
Lakatos
Rawls
Foucault
Kripke

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E.O. Wilson
Deleuze

Page 8
Lehrer
Annette Baier
Held
Harding
Ruddick
Hoagland
Kemerling
MacKinnon
Dennett
Nussbaum
Bordo
West
hooks
2000
to go to the original source website of western philosophers, click
below:
http://www.philosophypages.com/dy/zt.htm
http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780191737107.timeline.0001
Year Event
c. 550 BCE

K'ung-fu-tzu, or Confucius, teaches a practical philosophy which will profoundly influence


Chinese history
c. 500 BCE

Parmenides is the first pure philosopher, using logic as a philosophical tool in his poem
Nature

The Chinese philosophy of alternating opposites is expressed as yin and yang


c. 450 BCE

The Sophists, professional philosophers, travel round Greece educating the sons of the rich
423 BCE

Socrates is now sufficiently prominent to be satirized in Clouds, a comedy by Aristophanes


c. 400 BCE

Daodejing ('The Way and the Power') is the book of Daoism


399 BCE

Socrates, convicted in Athens of impiety, is sentenced to death and drinks the hemlock
387 BCE

Plato establishes a school in Akademeia, a suburb of Athens


c. 380 BCE

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Central to Plato's philosophy is the theory that there are higher Forms of reality, of which our
senses perceive only a transient shadow
367 BCE

Aristotle, at the age of seventeen, comes to Athens to join Plato's academy


c. 330 BCE

Aristotle tackles wide-ranging subjects on a systematic basis, leaving to his successors an


encyclopedia of contemporary thought
c. 170

Marcus Aurelius is rare among emperors in writing twelve books of philosophical


Meditations
c. 244

Plotinus, moving from Alexandria to Rome, teaches the influential philosophy later known as
Neo-Platonism
c. 413

Prompted by the fall of Rome to the Visigoths, St Augustine undertakes a great work of
Christian philosophy, the City of God
c. 525

Boethius, in prison in Pavia and awaiting execution, writes the Consolation of Philosophy
529

Justinian closes down the schools of Athens, famous for their tradition of pagan philosophy
c. 930

Saadiah Gaon writes a seminal work of Jewish philosophy in his Book of Beliefs and
Opinions
c. 1020

The Persian scholar Avicenna, author of encyclopedic works on philosophy and medicine,
spends the last part of his life in Isfahan
1078

Anselm includes in his Proslogion his famous 'ontological proof' of the existence of God
c. 1180

In Cordoba the Muslim philosopher Averros writes commentaries on Aristotle that are
influential throughout medieval Europe

In Cairo the Jewish philosopher Moses Maimonides writes, in Arabic, a much translated text
with the endearing title Guide to the Perplexed
c. 1266

Thomas Aquinas begins the outstanding work of medieval scholasticism, his Summa
Theologiae
c. 1300

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Duns Scotus, known as the Subtle Doctor in medieval times, later provides humanists with
the name Dunsman or dunce
c. 1340

William of Ockham advocates paring down arguments to their essentials, an approach later
known as Ockham's Razor
1462

In keeping with his personal interest in Plato, Cosimo de' Medici founds a Platonic Academy
in Florence
c. 1595

The writings of Matteo Ricci introduce Kung Fu Tzu to Europe under a Latin version of his
name - Confucius
1644

In his Principles of Philosophy Descartes gives priority to reason, summed up in his famous
phrase cogito ergo sum
c. 1677

Baruch Spinoza's Ethics, dealing with God, the mind and the emotions, is published shortly
after his death
1690

John Locke publishes his Essay concerning Human Understanding, arguing that all
knowledge is based on experience
1710

25-year-old George Berkeley attacks Locke in his Treatise Concerning the Principles of
Human Knowledge
1714

In his Monadology Leibniz describes a universe consisting of forceful interactive parts that
he calls 'monads'
1739

David Hume publishes his Treatise of Human Nature, in which he applies to the human mind
the principles of experimental science
1762

Two books in this year, mile and Du Contrat Social, prompt orders for the arrest of Jean-
Jacques Rousseau
1781

German philosopher Immanuel Kant publishes the first of his three 'critiques', The Critique of
Pure Reason
1789

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In his Principles Jeremy Bentham defines 'utility' as that which enhances pleasure and
reduces pain
1794

In his Science of Knowledge Johann Gottlieb Fichte contrasts the I, or Ego, and its opposing
non-I, or non-Ego
1807

In Phenomenology of Spirit Friedrich Hegel interprets history as the advance of the human
mind, often through thesis, antithesis and synthesis
1818

In The World as Will and Idea Schopenhauer develops the bleakest possible view of the
effects of the human will
1836

In his essay, Nature, Ralph Waldo Emerson sets out the fundamentals of the philosophy of
Transcendentalism
1840

The first issue of the quarterly magazine The Dial is issued by the Transcendentalists meeting
at Ralph Waldo Emerson's home
c. 1845

With his emphasis on the subjective experience of human Existenz, the Danish philosopher
Kierkegaard plants the seed of existentialism
1859

In On Liberty John Stuart Mill makes the classic liberal case for the priority of the freedom of
the individual
1862

Unpublished American poet Emily Dickinson writes more than 300 poems within the year
1872

Pragmatism emerges as a philosophical approach in meetings of the Metaphysical Club in


Cambridge, Massachusetts
1883

In Thus Spake Zarathustra Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche envisages the bermensch


('superman') enhancing human existence
1884

German mathematician Gottlob Frege publishes Grundlagen der Arithmetik ('Foundations of


Arithmetic'), linking mathematics and logic
1902

US philosopher William James publishes his influential book The Varieties of Religious
Experience
1903

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British philosopher G.E. Moore publishes Principia Ethica, an attempt to apply logic to ethics
1905

US philosopher George Santayana publishes the first of the five volumes of his Life of
Reason
1907

US philosopher William James publishes Pragmatism: a New Name for Old Ways of
Thinking
1912

Ludwig Wittgenstein moves to Cambridge to study philosophy under Bertrand Russell


1913

Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell complete a work of mathematical logic,
Principia Mathematica
1921

Ludwig Wittgenstein publishes his influential study of the philosophy of logic, Tractatus
Logico Philosophicus
1923

In I and Thou the Austrian theologian Martin Buber interprets religion in terms of the
subjective experience of interpersonal relationships
1927

In Being and Time German philosopher Martin Heidegger makes an existentialist case with
Dasein ('Being There') as the central theme
1936

In Language, Truth and Logic 26-year-old A.J. Ayer produces a classic exposition of Logical
Positivism
1943

French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre expounds his theory of existentialism in Being and
Nothingness ('L'tre et le nant')
1945

Austrian philosopher Karl Popper publishes The Open Society and its Enemies

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Timeline - Science
Year Event
c. 13.7 billion years ago

Big Bang, an unimaginably large explosion from an unimaginably small particle - according
to modern theory the first moment of the universe

Hydrogen and helium nuclei form in the first three minutes, with perhaps another 300,000
years before they combine with electrons to form atoms
c. 13 billion years ago

As gravity exerts its pressure within parts of the expanding fireball, subnuclear particles
merge into more complex elements
c. 4.6 billion years ago

A new galaxy, the Milky Way, forms - and one of its stars is our sun

The new star settles down, while nuclear dust in the vicinity coalesces into planets and
asteroids orbiting the sun
c. 4.5 billion years ago

The earth condenses into a solid sphere, with an inner core which is extremely dense and hot

34
c. 4 billion years ago

The earth's surface settles into a heaving turmoil of rock and water
c. 3.5 billion years ago

Fossilized bacteria have been found in rock 3.5 billion years old in Africa
c. 3 billion years ago

Single-celled water creatures, such as algae, begin the 2-billion-year process of evolving into
slightly more complex forms of life
1 billion years ago

Sponges and jellyfish drift in the sea, to be joined later by more purposeful shrimps and
lobsters
c. 500 million years ago

The earliest known creature with a skeleton evolves as a form of fish


c. 400 million years ago

Plants, previously living only in the seas and rivers, begin to establish themselves on land
c. 350 million years ago

Insects become the first creatures capable of living their full life span out of the water - and
the first to master flight
c. 340 million years ago

Amphibians develop lungs, enabling them to live on land as well as in the water
c. 300 million years ago

Reptiles develop evolutionary advantages for adaptation to a wide range of environments


c. 250 million years ago

The entire land surface of the earth merges into a single continent, known as Pangaea, which
after about 50 million years splits in two
c. 225 million years ago

The dinosaurs dominate the planet in a way that no previous creature has been able to
c. 200 million years ago

The process of continental drift, beginning 200 million years ago, results eventually in our
present arrangement of six continents
c. 170 million years ago

Mammals begin to make their appearance


c. 150 million years ago

Archaeopteryx has the skeletal structure of a dinosaur and the feathers of a bird, intermediate
between the two species
c. 125 million years ago

35
Primitive birds begin to feature in the fossil record
c. 65 million years ago

In a very short space of time the dinosaurs die out, for reasons as yet uncertain

Mammals evolve in many new forms on land and in the water, using opportunities made
possible by the extinction of the dinosaurs
c. 50 million years ago

Australia becomes a separate land mass, isolating its living creatures. They evolve into many
species unique to the area
c. 45 million years ago

Primates evolve, from lemur-like animals to monkeys


c. 15 million years ago

A primate of this period, at ease both in the trees and on the ground, is probably the common
ancestor of gorillas, chimpanzees and humans
c. 6 million years ago

Various species of ape develop the habit of walking upright on two feet
c. 4.5 million years ago

Certain primates, in eastern and southern Africa, are by now sufficiently like humans to be
classed as hominids
c. 4.4 million years ago

Ardi, the earliest known individual of partially human type (or hominid), is of the species
Ardipithecus, in the Awash valley region of Ethiopia
c. 3.6 million years old

Two or three hominid individuals, probably Australopithecus Afarensis, walk upright through
volcanic ash at Laetoli, 30 miles south of Olduvai Gorge, and their footprints are preserved
within subsequent ash deposits
c. 3.2 million years ago

A female of the species Australopithecus Afarensis (nicknamed Lucy when her skeleton is
found), lives in the Afar Depression in Ethiopia within 50 miles of where her predecessor
Ardi was unearthed
c. 2.6 million to 14,000 years ago

The Palaeolithic era or Old Stone age begins, characterized by hominid and human use of
unpolished chipped stone tools
c. 2.6 to 1.2 million years ago

The earliest Palaeolithic era, known as the Lower Palaeolithic, covers the period before the
emergence of homo sapiens in the form of Neanderthal man

Australopithecus Boisei lives in East Africa, and is possibly the first hominid species to use
stone tools

36
c. 2.5 million years ago

The earliest known chipped stone tools are made by hominids at Gona, in the Awash Valley in
Ethiopia, close to the region where Ardi and Lucy lived many millennia earlier
c. 2.2 million years ago

Creatures of the genus Homo, classified as early modern humans, are living in east Africa
c. 2.2 to 1.4 million years ago

Homo Habilis, the earliest widely acknowledged species in the genus Homo, lives in East
Africa with a brain size much greater than the contemporary Australopithecus Boisei
c. 1.85 million years ago

A hominid, nicknamed Twiggy and thought to be in the species Homo habilis, is living in
East Africa
c. 1.8 million years ago

A species of human in east Africa, Homo erectus, is probably the first identifiable ancestor of
modern man
c. 1.7 million years ago

The ice ages set in, to continue throughout most of human history

Homo erectus, moves out of Africa and begins to spread through Europe and Asia
1.6 million years ago

A Homo erectus boy, aged about ten, lives near Lake Turkana in Kenya and dies at
Nariokotome
c. 1 million years ago

It is impossible to know when and how human beings first speak, but elementary speech may
well go back a million years
c. 500,000 years ago

Peking man shelters in caves south of modern Beijing, leaving many scraps of evidence of his
way of life

Fire is used in China by Peking man, and may have been in use much earlier in Africa
c. 250,000 years ago

A spear of hardened yew, presumably flung or thrust by a human, fixes itself between the ribs
of an elephant in what is now Saxony
c. 230,000 years ago

Humans evolve who can be classified as Homo sapiens - among them Neanderthal Man
c. 150,000 years ago

A possible second migration from Africa begins, involving at some time the ancestors of
modern man, Homo sapiens sapiens
c. 130,000 years ago

37
Neanderthal man is by now well established in Europe and Asia, probably having evolved
after his ancestors left Africa
c. 120,000 to 35,000 years ago

The Middle Palaeolithic era covers the period when Neanderthals and modern humans
coexist in Europe and Asia
c. 90,000 years ago

Fossilized bones found in the caves of Skhul and Qafzeh, in modern Israel, are of
anatomically modern humans
77,000 years ago

In the Blombos cave in South Africa stones are engraved with patterns of lines, either
decorative or practical (as a form of tally)
c. 60,000 years ago

The first human inhabitants of Australia make the crossing from southeast Asia
c. 50,000 to 30,000 years ago

Neanderthals decline in numbers, first in Asia and then in Europe


c. 45,000 years ago

Neanderthals carve a flute from the leg bone of a young bear, in the region that is now
Slovenia
c. 35,000 years ago

Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers use mammoth tusks and bones to support hide-covered tents at
Dolni Vestonice (in the Czech Republic)

The earliest known Venus figurine, with very much emphasized sexual features, is carved
near the Hohle Fels cave in Germany from the tusk of a woolly mammoth

The Neanderthals vanish quite suddenly from the fossil record, leaving modern humans as the
only surviving members of our species
c. 35,000 to 14,000 years ago

The Upper Palaeolithic era is the final section of the Old Stone Age, lasting until the
Neolithic Era
c. 31,000 years ago

Rhinoceroses, lions and mammoth feature on the walls of the Chauvet cave, in southern
France
c. 30,000 years ago

With the onset of the most recent Ice Age (the Holocene), layers of ice up to two miles thick
blanket northern regions, causing a massive reduction in sea level

With the sea level falling, a land bridge (known as Beringia) forms between Siberia and
Alaska, enabling humans to enter the continent of America

38
Painted and engraved images, on the rock face in a cave near Twyfelfontein in Namibia, date
from this period
c. 29,000 years ago

In the Cosquer cave near Marseilles, with its entrance now far below sea level, a hand print is
made
c. 27,000 years ago

In the earliest known example of ceramics, humans at Dolni Vestonice model figures in burnt
clay
c. 25,000 years ago

A Stone Age sculptor shapes a timeless image of female fecundity in the famous Willendorf
Venus

A Brassempouy, in France, a Venus figurine is carved which is the oldest known example to
have facial features
c. 24,000 years ago

An unusually decorated female figurine is carved from limestone at Kostenky, in the river
Don region of Russia
c. 23,000 years ago

Someone carves a figure of a flying bird, in mammoth ivory, in the Malta settlement in
Siberia
c. 18,000 years ago

A bison figurine is carved in mammoth ivory in the region of Zaraysk, southeast of Moscow
c. 16,000 years ago

The walls of the complex of caves at Lascaux in France are covered, over the years, with a
vast number of paintings of animals
c. 15,000 years ago

Apparent marks of cutting, on animal fossils preserved in the La Brea tar pit in Los Angeles,
suggest human activity in the area at this time

Needles of bone or ivory are now fine enough to take a thread as thin as horse hair

The walls of Altamira, an extensive cave in Spain, are decorated with paintings and engraved
images of horses, deer and above all bison
c. 14,000 to 10,000 years ago

During the Mesolithic period (Middle Stone Age) humans continue to improve their tool-
making skills but are still nomads and hunter-gatherers
c. 12,000 years ago

A canine jaw, discovered in a cave in Mesopotamia, is the earliest evidence of the


domestication of dogs

39
c. 8000 BCE

Human communities in the Middle East cultivate crops and domesticate animals, in the
Neolithic Revolution

Wheat is grown in the Middle East - the first cereal cultivated by man

Sheep are the first farm animals of which evidence of domestication survives, from a
settlement in northern Iraq

Jericho, often quoted as the first town, grows into a settlement covering ten acres

The spindle develops naturally in the process of twisting fibres into thread by hand

Humans cross from eastern Siberia to the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido, according to
the earliest traces left by the Jomon culture

Humans cross from eastern Siberia to the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido, according to
the earliest traces left by the Jomon culture
c. 7000 BCE

Neolithic communities in eastern Anatolia make implements of hammered copper - the first
tentative step out of the Stone Age
c. 6500 BCE

Catal Huyuk, in Anatolia, is the most extensive surviving example of a neolithic town

The neolithic town of Catal Huyuk has rectangular rooms with windows, a design with
lasting appeal

The neolithic town of Khirokitia in Cyprus has a paved public street with lanes leading off to
courtyards of round tent-like houses

Pottery fragments of this date survive in the neolithic site of Catal Huyuk
c. 5800 BCE

Fragments of cloth, woven in Catal Huyuk, survive because they are carbonized in a fire
c. 5000 BCE

Squash and chili are the first plants to be cultivated in America, in the Tehucan valley in
modern Mexico

The Sahara, damp enough for the hippopotamus, supports neolithic communities until it
begins to dry up in about 3000 BC
c. 4400 BCE

The first evidence of a loom comes from this period in Egypt, but some simple method of
holding the warp must be as old as weaving
3761 BCE

40
Later selected by Hebrew scholars as the date when the world began, this becomes the first
year (AM 1) in Jewish chronology
2781 BCE

Sirius rises in this year on the first day of the first Egyptian month - a rare event which
possibly launches the Egyptian calendar system
c. 2500 BCE

Yarns of spun cotton survive at Mohenjo-daro, one of the two great cities of the Indus
civilization
c. 2000 BCE

Knossos, and other such palaces, are built for dynasties in Minoan Crete

Medicine men in Peru practise trephination, cutting holes in the skulls of brave or foolhardy
patients
c. 1750 BCE

A mathematical papyrus, copied out by Ahmes, an Egyptian scribe, offers some of the world's
first exam questions

Babylonian astronomers name many of the constellations and identify the planets

The Babylonians introduce an important step in the story of arithmetic - the concept of place
value in numbers
c. 1300 BCE

The earliest known suit of armour, made of bronze, survives from a tomb in Mycenaean
Greece
c. 1100 BCE

Phoenician sailors use the pole star for navigational purposes


753 BCE

This year is later selected by Roman scholars as the date of the founding of Rome, becoming
the first year (AUC 1) in Roman chronology
585 BCE

Thales of Miletus, traditionally the first philosopher, is credited with the prediction of a solar
eclipse
c. 570 BCE

Anaximander, a pupil of Thales, develops bold theories about the formation of the earth and
the beginning of life
c. 550 BCE

The Greeks develop the Babylonian theme of the zodiac, naming it the zodiakos kyklos or
circle of animals

The Indian physician Susruta pioneers plastic surgery of the nose

41
Indian medical theory maintains that the body consists of three humours - spirit, phlegm and
bile
c. 529 BCE

The Greek mathematician Pythagoras establishes himself, along with his followers, in
southern Italy
c. 510 BCE

Hecateus, a geographer in Miletus, produces a map showing the Greek idea of the known
world
c. 500 BCE

The Greeks are intrigued by the iron-attracting property of a mineral which they find in the
district of Magnesia

The Greeks observe the strange effect of electricity, seen when amber (known to them as
electron) is rubbed
c. 450 BCE

Empedocles states that all matter is made up of four elemental substances - earth, fire, air and
water

The followers of Pythagoras maintain that the earth revolves on its own axis and moves in an
orbit
c. 420 BCE

The Greek philosopher Democritus declares that matter is composed of indivisible and
indestructible atoms
c. 400 BCE

Hippocrates, on the Greek island of Kos, founds an influential school of medicine


c. 380 BCE

A Greek text, attributed to Polybus, argues that the human body is composed of four humours
c. 350 BCE

Eudoxus of Cnidus proposes the concept of transparent spheres supporting the bodies visible
in the heavens
c. 330 BCE

Aristotle tackles wide-ranging subjects on a systematic basis, leaving to his successors an


encyclopedia of contemporary thought
c. 300 BCE

The Greek author Theophrastus writes On the History of Plants, the earliest surviving work
on botany

Euclid, teaching at the museum in Alexandria, writes what becomes Europe's standard
textbook on geometry

42
Epicurus postulates a universe of indestructible atoms in which man himself is responsible
for achieving a balanced life
c. 280 BCE

The Alexandrian school of medicine develops an alarming form of clinical anatomy human
vivisection
c. 270 BCE

On the small Greek island of Samos an astronomer, Aristarchus, comes to the startling
conclusion that the earth is in orbit round the sun
c. 250 BCE

Archimedes (it is said) leaps out of his bath shouting eureka ('I have found it') when he
perceives how to test for relative density

The first alchemists, working in Alexandria, are also the world's first experimental chemists

The digits known now as Arabic numerals make their first tentative appearance in India

The Romans evolve a system of numerals which, until the end of the Middle Ages, is a
handicap to western arithmetic
c. 220 BCE

The Greek mathematician Eratosthenes calculates the circumference of the world with the
help of shadows and camels
c. 140 BCE

The Greek astronomer Hipparchus is credited with the invention of the astrolabe, measuring
the angle of sun or star above the horizon
c. 130 BCE

The Greek astronomer Hipparchus, mapping the stars, observes but cannot explain the
precession of the equinoxes

Hipparchus proposes a grid of 360 of latitude and longitude for mapmaking


129 BCE

Hipparchus completes the first scientific star catalogue, mapping some 850 stars
c. 100 BCE

The practice of acupuncture is described in Nei Qing, a Chinese medical text


c. 50 BCE

The Maya independently develop the concept of place value in numbers, previously
pioneered in Babylon

The Maya introduce a calendar which has a cycle of fifty-two years, known as the Calendar
Round
45 BCE

43
Julius Caesar's new calendar is introduced, at a time when its predecessor has become out of
step with the seasons by three months
CE 1

Christians decide (though not until AD 525) that this is the year of Christ's birth, making it
AD 1 in the Christian chronology
c. 50

The Roman surgeon Cornelius Celsus describes in De Medicina how to cut stones from a
patient's bladder
c. 150

Ptolemy writes in Alexandria an encyclopedic account of Greek scientific theory in


cosmology, astronomy and geography
158

A new doctor, Galen, is appointed to look after the gladiators at Pergamum


c. 800

The use of zero, essential in practical mathematics, is now familiar in India and is adopted in
Baghdad
801

Chia Tan produces an ambitious map for the emperor, some 30 by 33 feet in size, showing the
entire T'ang empire
921

The Jewish calendar, deriving originally from the example of Babylon, is given its lasting
form
c. 950

Medieval Europe's first institute of higher education is established, with the founding of the
medical school at Salerno
c. 1000

The first illustrated manual of surgery is written by Abul Kasim, an Arab physician in
Cordoba
c. 1040

A Chinese manual on warfare includes the earliest known description of gunpowder


1054

Astronomers in China and Japan observe the explosion of the supernova which is still visible
as the Crab Nebula
1066

Halley's comet, appearing in the Normans' annus mirabilis, is later depicted in the Bayeux
tapestry
c. 1489

44
Leonardo da Vinci begins an unprecedented series of detailed anatomical drawings, based on
corpses dissected in Rome
c. 1500

Leonardo argues that fossils in rocks far above the sea imply not the effects of the Flood but a
change in the level of an ancient sea bed
1530

German botanist Otto Brunfels publishes Living images of plants, the first serious work of
natural history with printed illustrations
1543

Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus publishes a book suggesting that the earth moves
round the sun

Flemish anatomist Andreas Vesalius publishes a seven-volume work which for the first time
lays bare human anatomy
1545

Ambroise Par, the greatest surgeon of his day, publishes an account of how to treat gunshot
wounds
1560

Tobacco is grown in Europe's physic gardens for its medicinal qualities


c. 1576

Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe builds Uraniborg, on the island of Hven, and makes it the
world's leading observatory
1582

The new and more accurate Gregorian calendar is introduced by Gregory XIII in the papal
states
1596

Tycho Brahe enters the service of the emperor Rudolf II in Prague, where he invites Johannes
Kepler to join him

Swiss botanist Gaspard Bauhin begins work classifying 6000 plants on a new binomial
system of nomenclature
1600

William Gilbert, physician to Queen Elizabeth, concludes that the earth is a magnet and coins
the term 'magnetic pole'

Electricity is given its name (in the Latin phrase vis electrica) by the English physician,
William Gilbert
1609

45
Johannes Kepler, in Prague, puts forward the radical proposition that the planets move in
elliptical rather than circular orbits
1610

Galileo, with his new powerful telescope, observes the moons of Jupiter and spots moving on
the surface of the sun
1613

Galileo publishes his evidence, from sun spots, proving Copernicus right and Ptolemy wrong
on the solar system
1620

In his Novum Organum Francis Bacon introduces a modern philosophy of experimental


science
1628

William Harvey publishes a short book, De Motu Cordis, proving the circulation of the blood
1632

The Inquisition convicts Galileo of heresy and he denies the truth of Copernicus - on being
shown the instruments of torture
1638

Galileo's Discorsi, published in Leiden, lays the groundwork for mathematical physics
1646

With the help of his more robust brother-in-law, Blaise Pascal provides physical proof that
atmospheric pressure varies with altitude
1648

The Dutch chemist Jan Baptist van Helmont suggests that there are insubstantial substances
other than air, and coins a name for them - gases
1654

Otto von Guericke uses sixteen horses to demonstrate in Regensburg the power of a vacuum
1655

Christiaan Huygens, using a home-made telescope, describes accurately the rings of Saturn
and discovers the planet's largest moon, Titan
1658

Samuel Pepys has a two-ounce stone cut from his bladder, in an operation carried out at home
in the presence of his family
1661

Italian doctor Marcello Malpighi discovers the capillaries, thus completing the evidence for
the circulation of the blood
1662

46
British chemist Robert Boyle defines the inverse relationship between pressure and volume in
any gas (subsequently known as Boyle's Law)

An academy of English scientists is given a royal charter by Charles II and becomes the
Royal Society
1665

The first recorded attempt at blood transfusion, at the Royal Society in London, proves that
the idea is feasible

Isaac Newton spends a creative period in Lincolnshire, at home in Woolsthorpe Manor,


apples or no apples
1667

The first successful human blood transfusion is achieved in Paris by Jean Baptiste Denis,
apparently saving the life of a 15-year-old boy
1672

Giovanni Domenico Cassini, working in the Paris royal observatory, calculates the distance
from the earth to the sun and is only 7% out

Isaac Newton's experiments with the prism demonstrate the link between wavelength and
colour in light
1674

The Dutch scientist Anton van Leeuwenhoek builds a microscope powerful enough for him to
observe and describe the red corpuscles in blood
1676

Ole Roemer, a Danish astronomer working with Cassini in Paris, calculates the speed of light
with an error of only 25%
1677

With his powerful new microscope Leeuwenhoek observes spermatozoa in the semen of a
dog
1678

Christiaan Huygens expounds the theory that light consists of a vibration forming a ripple of
waves
1680

A comet intrigues Edmund Halley, who works out that it has been around before
1686

English naturalist John Ray begins publication of his Historia Plantarum, classifying some
18,600 plants in 'mutual fertility' species
1687

Newton publishes Principia Mathematica, proving gravity to be a constant in all physical


systems

47
1702

German chemist Georg Stahl coins the name phlogiston for the substance believed to be
released in the process of burning
1714

Fahrenheit perfects the mercury thermometer and decides on a 180-degree interval between
the freezing and boiling points of water
1717

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, observing the Turkish practice of inoculation against smallpox,
submits her infant son to the treatment
1735

Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus publishes a 'system of nature', capable of classifying all
living things

Swedish chemist Georg Brandt discovers a new metallic element, which he names cobalt
1742

Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius proposes 100 degrees between the freezing and boiling
points of water
1745

The principle of the Leyden jar is discovered by an amateur German physicist, Ewald Georg
von Kleist, dean of the cathedral in Kamin
1751

The Swedish chemist Alex Cronstedt identifies an impurity in copper ore as a separate
metallic element, which he names nickel
1752

English obstetrician William Smellie introduces scientific midwifery as a result of his


researches into childbirth

Benjamin Franklin flies a kite into a thunder cloud to demonstrate the nature of electricity
1754

Scottish chemist Joseph Black identifies the existence of a gas, carbon dioxide, which he calls
'fixed air'
1758

A comet returns exactly at the time predicted by English astronomer Edmond Halley, and is
subsequently known by his name
1761

Scottish chemist and physicist Joseph Black observes the latent heat in melting ice

Austrian physician Joseph Leopold Auenbrugger describes his new diagnostic technique
percussion, or listening to a patient's chest and tapping

48
Italian anatomist Giovanni Battista Morgagni publishes De Sedibus, the work that introduces
scientific pathology
1766

English chemist Henry Cavendish isolates hydrogen but believes that it is phlogiston
1769

Captain Cook observes in Tahiti the transit of Venus, the primary purpose of his voyage to the
Pacific
1773

Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele isolates oxygen but does not immediately publish his
achievement
1774

English chemist Joseph Priestley isolates oxygen, but he believes it to be 'dephlogisticated air'
1775

Captain Cook publishes his discovery of a preventive cure against scurvy, in the form of a
regular ration of lemon juice
1781

William Herschel discovers Uranus, the first planet to be found by means of a telescope, and
names it the Georgian star
1784

Benjamin Franklin, irritated at needing two pairs of spectacles, commissions from a lens-
grinder the first bifocals
c. 1785

French physicist Charles Augustin de Coulomb begins publishing his discoveries in the field
of electricity and magnetism

James Hutton describes to the Royal Society of Edinburgh his studies of local rocks ,
launching the era of scientific geology

William Withering's Account of the Foxglove describes the use of digitalis for dropsy, and its
possible application to heart disease
1787

French chemist Antoine Laurent Lavoisier publishes a system for classifying and naming
chemical substances
1796

In Berkeley, Gloucestershire, Edward Jenner inoculates a boy with cowpox in the pioneering
case of vaccination

French astronomer Pierre-Simon Laplace publishes his nebular hypothesis, arguing that the
planets formed from a mass of incandescent gas

49
German physician Samuel Hahnemann coins the term 'homeopathy' and describes this new
approach to medicine
1799

Napoleon's soldiers discover a black basalt slab, the Rosetta Stone, near the village of Rashid
in Egypt

English surveyor William Smith compiles a manuscript, Order of the Strata, revealing
chronology through fossils in rocks
1800

Italian physicist Alessandro Volta describes to the Royal Society in London how his 'pile' of
discs can produce electric current
1803

English chemist John Dalton reads a paper describing his Law of Partial Pressure in gases
(discovered in 1801)

At the end of his Partial Pressure paper, John Dalton makes brief mention of his radical
theory of differing atomic weights
1807

English chemist Humphry Davy uses electrolysis to isolate the elements sodium and
potassium
1809

French chemist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac shows that when gases combine they do so in
simple ratios by volume (later known as his Law of Combining Volumes)

French biologist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck argues in Zoological Philosophy that creatures can
inherit acquired characteristics
1811

A 12-year-old Dorset child, Mary Anning, discovers at Lyme Regis a 21ft (6.4m) fossil of an
ichthyosaur

Italian chemist Amedeo Avogadro publishes a hypothesis, about the number of molecules in
gases, that becomes known as Avogadro's Law
1812

French scientist Georges Cuvier introduces scientific palaeontology with his Research on the
Fossil Bones of Quadrupeds
1816

Ren Lannec, reluctant to press his ear to the chest of a young female patient, finds a
solution in the stethoscope
1817

German physicist Joseph von Fraunhofer observes and draws dark lines in the solar spectrum

50
1820

French physicist Andr Marie Ampre begins his researches into the links between electricity
and magnetism
1821

French physicist Augustin Jean Fresnel publishes the theory that light is a transverse wave,
thus explaining polarization effects
1822

Egyptian hieroglyphs are deciphered by French Egyptologist Jean Franois Champollion,


using the Rosetta stone
1827

German physicist Georg Simon Ohm formulates his law about the proportionality of current
flowing in an electric conductor
1828

William Burke and William Hare murder 16 victims and sell their bodies to the Edinburgh
Medical School for anatomical study
1831

HMS Beagle sails from Plymouth to survey the coasts of the southern hemisphere, with
Charles Darwin as the expedition's naturalist
1832

English scientist Michael Faraday reports his discovery of the first law of electrolysis, to be
followed a year later by the second

English mathematician Charles Babbage builds a sophisticated calculating machine, which he


calls a 'difference engine'

The USA suffers the first of several cholera epidemics, spanning the sixty years to 1892
1835

French zoologist Flix Dujardin identifies protoplasm, the viscous translucent substance
common to all forms of life
1836

HMS Beagle reaches Falmouth, in Cornwall, after a voyage of five years, and Charles
Darwin brings with him a valuable collection of specimens

Louis Agassiz builds a hut on the Aar glacier in Switzerland and succeeds in recording
gradual movement of the ice
1840

Swiss scientist Louis Agassiz argues, in his Study on Glaciers, that much of Europe was
recently in the grip of an ice age
1842

51
Austrian physicist Christian Doppler explains the acoustic effect now known by his name
1843

Swiss naturalist Louis Agassiz completes his pioneering Poissons Fossiles ('Fossil Fish'),
classifying more than 1500 categories
1845

British archaeologist Henry Layard, in his first month of digging in Iraq, discovers the
Assyrian city of Nimrud
1846

A dentist in Boston, William Morton, uses ether as an anaesthetic while surgeon John Collins
Warren removes a tumour in a patient's neck
1847

Scottish obstetrician James Simpson uses anaesthetic (ether, and later in the year chloroform)
to ease difficulty in childbirth

English mathematician George Boole describes Boolean algebra in his pamphlet


Mathematical Analysis of Logic
1848

Scottish physicist William Thomson, later Lord Kelvin, proposes the 'absolute' scale of
temperature
1851

An American clergyman, L.L. Langstroth, discovers the 'bee space', which becomes a
standard feature of the modern beehive

German physicist Hermann von Helmholtz invents the ophthalmoscope, making it possible
for a doctor to examine the inside of a patient's eye

French physicist Lon Foucault demonstrates the rotation of the earth by means of a long
pendulum suspended in the Pantheon in Paris
1852

Scottish physicist William Thomson formulates the second law of thermodynamics,


concerning the transfer of heat within a closed system
1853

Hormuzd Rassam discovers the magnificent lion-hunt reliefs in the palace of Ashurbanipal at
Nineveh

The hypodermic syringe with a plunger is simultaneously developed in France and in


Scotland
1854

Austrian monk Gregor Mendel begins his study of pea plants in the garden of the Abbey of St
Thomas in Brno

52
William Baikie, on an expedition up the Niger, protects his men from malaria by
administering quinine

English physician John Snow proves that cholera is spread by infected water (from a pump in
London's Broad Street)

Florence Nightingale, responding to reports of horrors in the Crimea, sets sail with a party of
twenty-eight nurses
1855

Jamaican-born nurse Mary Seacole sets up her own 'British Hotel' in the Crimea to provide
food and nursing for soldiers in need
1856

The first Neanderthal man to be discovered is unearthed by quarry workers in the Neander
valley, near Dsseldorf

English chemist William Henry Perkin accidentally creates the first synthetic die, aniline
purple (now known as mauve)
1857

French chemist Louis Pasteur proves the existence of micro-organisms by showing that a
liquid will only ferment if exposed to contamination from the air
1858

Charles Darwin is alarmed to receive in his morning post a paper by Alfred Russell Wallace,
outlining very much his own theory of evolution
1859

Charles Darwin puts forward the theory of evolution in On the Origin of Species, the result of
20 years' research
1860

Florence Nightingale opens a training school for nurses in St Thomas's Hospital, establishing
nursing as a profession
1861

English chemist and physicist William Crookes isolates a new element, thallium

Hungarian physician Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis publishes his discovery that deaths from
puerperal fever can be dramatically reduced by a strict hand-washing routine
1862

Louis Pasteur uses heat to destroy the micro-organisms in liquid food, in the process that
becomes known as pasteurization
c. 1864

Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell presents to the Royal Society his discoveries in the
field of electromagnetics, now known collectively as Maxwell's Equations
1865

53
Gregor Mendel reads a paper to the Natural History Society in Brno describing his
discoveries in the field of genetics

English surgeon Joseph Lister introduces the era of antiseptic surgery, with the use of carbolic
acid in the operating theatre
1867

Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel patents dynamite, making the volatile explosive nitroglycerine
safer by combining it with kieselguhr
1869

Dmitry Mendeleyev reads to the Russian Chemical Society in St Petersburg his formulation
of the periodic table
1871

US anthropologist Lewis Henry Morgan inaugurates kinship studies with his massive
Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family
1875

Nikolai Przewalski discovers in western Mongolia a surviving example of the wild breed
from which the horse was domesticated

An outbreak of measles in Fiji, brought to the islands by British visitors, kills a quarter of the
population
1878

William Crookes develops a special tube, now known as the Crookes tube, for the study of
cathode rays
c. 1882

German bacteriologist Robert Koch announces his discovery of the bacillus that causes
tuberculosis
1883

English polymath Francis Galton publishes Inquiries in Human Faculty, developing the theme
of eugenics and coining the term
1884

Greenwich becomes accepted internationally as the prime meridian, or 0 longitude

German mathematician Gottlob Frege publishes Grundlagen der Arithmetik ('Foundations of


Arithmetic'), linking mathematics and logic
1885

Louis Pasteur uses rabies inoculation to save the life of 9-year-old Joseph Meister, bitten by a
rabid dog
1887

54
A German physiologist, Adolf Fick, grinds a pair of lenses to fit snugly in contact with a
patient's eyeballs
1894

Wealthy US astronomer Percival Lowell builds an observatory at Mars Hill in Flagstaff,


Arizona

Scottish physicist William Ramsay isolates argon, following Rayleigh's discovery that an
undiscovered gas combines with nitrogen in the air
1895

Scottish chemist William Ramsay isolates the element helium

German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen discovers rays that can penetrate light-proof barriers,
and names them x-rays because their nature is as yet unknown
1896

French physicist Antoine Henri Becquerel discovers in uranium salt the phenomenon of
natural radioactivity
1897

English physicist Joseph John Thomson, working at the Cavendish laboratory in Cambridge,
discovers the existence of the electron

British physician Ronald Ross identifies the Anopheles mosquito as the carrier of malaria
1898

British chemists William Ramsay and Morris Travers isolate the element Kr

British chemists William Ramsay and Morris Travers isolate the element neon

British chemists William Ramsay and Morris Travers isolate the element xenon

Marie Curie and her husband Pierre isolate a new element which they name polonium in
honour of her native Poland

Marie and Pierre Curie isolate the element radium, working without any protection because
unaware of the danger of radioactivity
1900

The Bayer company in Germany sells aspirin in the form of water-soluble tablets, the first
medication of its kind

Sigmund Freud publishes one of his most significant works, The Interpretation of Dreams

German physicist Max Planck proposes the revolutionary concept of the quantum theory

The Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov keeps dogs alive almost indefinitely by severely
curtailing their bodily functions
1901

55
Photographer Eadweard Muybridge extends the range of his studies with Human Figure in
Motion

A stele is found at Susa, in Iran, giving the text of the Code of Hammurabi
1902

A.E. Kennelly and Oliver Heaviside independently see the link between the atmosphere and
the behaviour of radio waves
1903

German surgeon Georg Clemens Perthes discovers, in Leipzig, that X-rays can inhibit cancer

In a paper to a congress in Madrid, on the 'psychology and psychopathology of animals', Ivan


Pavlov announces his discovery of the conditioned reflex

Ernest Rutherford and Frederick Soddy identify the phenomenon of radioactive half-life

Dutch physiologist Willem Einthoven invents the galvanometer, or electrocardiograph, for


recording the electrical impulses within the heart muscle
1904

The US consul in Mexico, Edward Herbert Thompson, begins a very profitable excavation at
the Mayan site of Chichn Itz

Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud publishes The Psychopathology of Everyday Life


1905

Albert Einstein explains the photoelectric effect as a flow of discreet particles (quanta) of
electromagnetic radiation

German biologists Fritz Schaudinn and Erich Hoffmann discover the micro-organism
Treponema pallidum which causes syphilis

In his special theory of relativity Albert Einstein reconciles the apparent clash between
relativity and electromagnetic theory

French psychologists Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon develop a scale by which to measure
the 'mental age' of children

English physiologists William Bayliss and Ernest Starling coin the word 'hormone' for
glandular secretions into the bloodstream

Albert Einstein relates mass and energy in the equation e = mc2


1906

English biologist William Bateson uses the word 'genetics' to describe the phenomenon of
heredity and variation

56
Frederick Soddy observes his first examples of chemically identical elements with differing
atomic weights, to which he later gives the name isotopes

German immunologist August von Wasserman develops a diagnostic test to reveal the
presence of the syphilis spirochaete in the blood

Belgian physiologists Jules Bordet and Octave Gengou identify Bacillus pertussis, the
bacterium causing whooping cough

A paediatrician in Vienna, Clemens von Pirquet, describes a condition for which he coins the
term 'allergy'

German physicist Walther Nernst establishes the Third Law of Thermodynamics, dealing
with temperatures close to absolute zero

The German neuropathologist Alois Alzheimer identifies physical symptoms in the brain of a
dead woman who had presenile dementia
1907

Austrian scientist Clemens von Pirquet discovers a diagnostic test to identify tuberculosis in a
patient

A fossilized human jaw, probably at least 500,000 years old, is found near Heidelberg in
Germany
1908

German physicist Hans Geiger, working in England with Rutherford, develops an instrument
that can detect and count alpha particles
1909

French biologist Charles Nicolle discovers that epidemic typhus is transmitted by the body
louse

US physicist Robert A. Millikan devises an oil drop experiment that determines the charge of
an electron

Karl Landsteiner classifies the main human blood groups as A, B, AB and O


1910

Chicago cardiologist James Herrick publishes the first account of the cells causing sickle-cell
anaemia

US geneticist Thomas Hunt Morgan establishes the chromosome theory of heredity through
his study of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster
1911

Charles Wilson, using his cloud chamber to detect the passage of charged particles, obtains
his first photographs of alpha and beta rays

57
Ernest Rutherford proposes the concept of the nucleus as a positively charged mass at the
centre of an atom

Alfred Adler ends his association breaks with Sigmund Freud and forms his own school of
psychology
1912

Charles Dawson claims to have found the fossilized skull of an early man (named in his
honour Eoanthropus dawsoni in a gravel pit at Piltdown

German scientist Alfred Wegener, impressed by the neat fit between the coasts of Africa and
South America, proposes the theory of continental drift

Carl Jung breaks with Freud and introduces the concept of the collective unconscious
1913

Albert Einstein formulates the law of photochemical equivalence, a fundamental principle of


chemical reactions induced by light

English geologist Arthur Holmes publishes The Age of the Earth, offering evidence that the
planet is at least 1.6 billion years old

Lawrence Bragg and his father, William, together develop X-ray crystallography, based on
the diffraction patterns of crystals

French physicists Charles Fabry and Henri Buisson discover the ozone layer in the
stratosphere

The Danish physicist Niels Bohr uses quantum theory as a key to understanding the structure
of the atom

Frederick Soddy uses the term 'isotope' (Greek for 'same place') to describe observed
anomalies in the periodic table

English physicist Henry Moseley proposes that the atomic number of an element is a physical
reality, thus laying the basis for the modern periodic table
1914

Martha, 29 years old and the last passenger pigeon in the world, dies in the Cincinnati zoo in
Ohio
1915

The nearest star to earth, the red dwarf Proxima Centauri 4.22 light years away, is discovered
by Robert Innes, Scottish director of the Johannesburg Observatory

Typhoid-carrier Mary Mallon is detained in New York after leaving a trail of destruction

Einstein submits a paper, The field equations of gravitation, containing the sums required to
explain the general theory of relativity

58
March - a typhus epidemic sweeps through Serbia, severely weakening the nation's armed
forces
1916

New Zealand surgeon Harold Gillies sets up a plastic surgery unit at Aldershot, a British
military base
1918

August - a world-wide pandemic of influenza breaks out, and within the space of a year kills
30 million people
1920

New Zealand surgeon Harold Gillies publishes a pioneering text book, Plastic Surgery of the
Face
c. 1921

The first traces are found of a major but entirely forgotten civilization in the Indus valley

Alfred Adler, in Vienna, opens the first of many child-guidance clinics


1922

Linus Pauling, a graduate student at the California Institute of Technology, begins theoretical
work on the nature of the chemical bond

Howard Carter exposes a flight of steps in the Valley of the Kings and comes to a barrier
bearing the name Tutankhamun

Canadian physiologists Frederick Banting and Charles Best isolate insulin from the pancreas
for the treatment of diabetes
1923

Sigmund Freud proposes a new interpretation of the mind in his book The Ego and the Id
1924

US astronomer Edwin Hubble proves that the nebula Andromeda is vastly further away than
other stars and can only be a separate galaxy
1925

23-year-old German physicist Werner Heisenberg publishes his ground-breaking theory of


quantum mechanics

Austrian physicist Wolfgang Pauli formulates his exclusion principle, stating that no two
electrons in an atom can have the same four quantum numbers

Biology teacher John Scopes is prosecuted for breaking state law by teaching evolution to his
class of children in Dayton, Tennessee
1926

To explain the irregular movement of stars, Swedish astronomer Bertil Lindblad proposes the
theory that our galaxy rotates

59
British astrophysicist Arthur Eddington compares mass and luminosity in The Internal
Constitution of the Stars
c. 1927

British archaeologist Leonard Woolley discovers the treasures of the royal cemetery at Ur

Werner Heisenberg publishes his Uncertainty Principle, declaring that it is impossible to


define precisely the position and momentum of a sub-atomic particle

The fossilized tooth of a human, half a million years old and known now as Peking Man, is
discovered at a site near Beijing

Austrian zoologist Karl von Frisch demonstrates that bees communicate the whereabouts of
food by means of a dance
1928

English psychologist Henry Havelock Ellis completes a thirty-year project, his 7-volume
Studies in the Psychology of Sex

An Aerial Medical Service is launched in Queensland, Australia, subsequently becoming the


Flying Doctor Service

Scottish bacteriologist Alexander Fleming accidentally discovers a mould that selectively


kills bacteria, and calls it penicillin

US anthropologist Margaret Mead makes much of trouble-free sex among natives, in Coming
of Age in Samoa, but her findings are subsequently disputed
1929

US astronomer Edwin Hubble uses the red shift of light from galaxies to demonstrate that
they are receding from each other and the universe is expanding
1930

Wolfgang Pauli announces his mathematical proof of the existence of the particle
subsequently known as the neutrino

British theoretical physicist Paul Dirac predicts the existence of an anti-particle of the
electron, first observed two years later and named the positron
1931

On his first expedition to the Olduvai Gorge, Louis Leakey finds the oldest object now in the
British Museum - the chopping tool from about 1.8 million years ago
1932

John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton are the first to split an atom, by bombarding it with
accelerated protons

British physicist James Chadwick shows that the behaviour of subatomic particles can be
explained by the existence of neutrons, or particles with no electrical charge

60
A deeply flawed experiment with African American syphilis patients is launched in Tuskegee,
Alabama
1934

Frdric and Irne Joliot-Curie discover artificial radioactivity


1935

US seismologist Charles Richter devises a scale for measuring the magnitude of earthquakes

The Austrian zoologist Konrad Lorenz describes his experiments on young geese, with their
capacity to imprint on human beings
1936

British mathematician Alan Turing writes an influential paper On Computable Numbers, with
an Application to the Entscheidung Problem
1937

German-born British scientist Hans Krebs discovers the biochemical cycle that becomes
known by his name

Alan Turing describes the properties of a logically possible computer that becomes known as
the Turing Machine

British biochemist Max Perutz begins the analysis of haemoglobin


1938

Lord Nuffield donates to Commonwealth hospitals 'iron lungs', built at his Morris Oxford
factory
1939

German physicists, led by Otto Hahn, announce their discovery of nuclear fission

US chemist Linus Pauling publishes his collected discoveries on The nature of the chemical
bond

Archaeological treasures are discovered in an Anglo-Saxon ship burial at Sutton Hoo, in


Suffolk

August 2 - German-born US physicist Albert Einstein writes to President Roosevelt, warning


of the potential of an atomic bomb

September - Alan Turing joins the code-breaking team working on Enigma at Bletchley Park
1940

British biologists Ernst Chain and Howard Florey develop penicillin as a safe and useful
antibacterial drug

Radar masts along the coasts of Britain give early warning of German air attacks

61
Schoolboys, out hunting, discover paintings in a cave at Lascaux after their dog falls into a
hole
1942

A rich hoard of Roman silver is unearthed near Mildenhall, in Suffolk

June - US physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer is appointed director of the Manhattan Project to


develop a nuclear weapon

December 2 - Enrico Fermi and his team in Chicago achieve the first nuclear chain reaction
1943

Colossus Mark I, the world's first computer, goes into decoding service at Bletchley Park in
Britain
1945

British chemist Dorothy Hodgkin describes the molecular structure of penicillin

July 16 - US scientists succeed in exploding an atom bomb at Alamogordo, a test site in the
New Mexican desert

August 6 - an atom bomb is dropped on Hiroshima, destroying four square miles of the city
and killing 80,000 people
1946

The first of about 20 US tests of atomic and hydrogen bombs is carried out on Bikini Atoll, in
the Pacific
1947

Hungarian-born British engineer Dennis Gabor creates the first three-dimensional image from
reflected light, subsequently known as a hologram

An Arab boy, herding goats in the Qumran desert, finds the first of the Dead Sea Scrolls

The first transistor is produced in the Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey
1948

US zoologist Alfred Charles Kinsey publishes some unexpected findings in his Sexual
Behaviour in the Human Male

In the title of a new book US mathematician Norbert Wiener popularizes a term that he has
coined, Cybernetics

British astronomer Fred Hoyle puts forward a 'steady-state' theory of the universe, in which
matter is continually created

A 200-inch telescope goes into service at the Mount Palomar Observatory in California

US psychologist B.F. Skinner trains laboratory rats to use their brains in his 'Skinner box'
1949

62
Exceptional Scythian remains are found in frozen burial mounds at Pazyryk, in the Altai
region of Siberia

The first Soviet atomic bomb, called by the Americans Joe One, is successfully tested in
Kazakhstan

Karl von Frisch demonstrates that bees make use of the polarized light of the sun to calculate
direction

French anthropologist Claude Lvi-Strauss publishes Elementary Structures of Kinship

The technique of radiocarbon dating is developed by US chemist Willard Libby


1950

In response to the Soviet atom bomb, President Truman announces a crash programme to
develop a hydrogen bomb

A prehistoric victim of strangling is found in Tollund Moss in Denmark, with part of the
noose still round his neck

The Medical Research Council in Britain produces a report, by Austin Hill and Richard Doll,
linking smoking and lung cancer
1951

Syntex, a small chemical company in Mexico City, develops the first oral contraceptive

The first hydrogen bomb is successfully tested by the US at Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall
Islands
1952

X-ray crystallographer Rosalind Franklin, working at King's College in London, photographs


DNA

British scholar Michael Ventris deciphers Linear B, the script of Mycenae, proving it to be an
early form of Greek
1953

US microbiologist Jonas Salk announces the discovery of an effective vaccine against polio

Alfred Charles Kinsey completes his study of human sexuality with the publication of Sexual
Behaviour in the Human Female

The first Soviet hydrogen bomb is successfully tested at the Semipalatinsk Test Site in
Kazakhstan

Improved methods of testing prove conclusively that Piltdown Man was constructed by
Charles Dawson from a human skull and the jaw of an ape

63
Molecular biologists Francis Crick and James Watson announce their discovery of the
double-helix structure of DNA
c. 1955

Archaeologists at Olympia excavate the workshop of the Greek classical sculptor Phidias
1957

Fred Hoyle, William Fowler, and Margaret and Geoffrey Burbidge explain stellar
nucleosynthesis

In Syntactic Structures Noam Chomsky proposes the revolutionary theory that humans inherit
an innate universal grammar

The USSR launches Sputnik, the world's first artificial satellite

The success of the USSR in launching Sputnik prompts the establishment of NASA in the
USA

The Russian spacecraft Sputnik II puts into space a living creature, the dog Laika
1959

Soviet spacecraft Luna 1 goes into orbit round the sun, between the orbits of Earth and Mars

Mary Leakey finds in the Olduvai Gorge the first specimen of a new hominid species, now
known as Australopithecus Boisei

Soviet spacecraft Luna 2 successfully strikes the moon, in the Palus Putredinus region

Soviet spacecraft Luna 3, passing by the moon at a distance of some 40,000 miles, is able to
photograph the far side
1960

The birth control pill wins FDA approval in the US and goes on sale
1961

Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin becomes the first human to travel in space, orbiting the earth
once in Vostok 1

US astronaut Alan Shepard becomes the first American in space, with a suborbital flight in
Freedom 7

The drug Thalidomide, synthesized in West Germany, is shown to have been the cause of
severe defects in about 12,000 children born in 46 countries

President Kennedy commits the US to placing a man on the moon and bringing him back
safely by 1970
1962

British surgeon John Charnley pioneers the technique of joint replacement, giving a patient a
new hip in a small hospital in Wrightington

64
1963

US environmentist Rachel Carson publishes Silent Spring, an impassioned warning of


ecological disaster

Soviet cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova becomes the first woman in space, flying solo in
Vostok 6
1964

Louis Leakey and his team discover in the Olduvai Gorge the first known specimen of the
species Homo Habilis, named for its supposed tool-making abilities

US physicists Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson discover cosmic background radiation,
lending strong support to the Big Bang theory

Surgeons Michael Bakey in the USA and Vasilii Kolesov in the USSR pioneer coronary
bypass surgery, using the patient's mammary artery
1965

Soviet cosmonaut Aleksei Leonov is the first to walk in space, moving round outside the
Voshkod 2 spacecraft for more than ten minutes
1966

The Soviet spacecraft Luna 9 is the first to achieve a soft-landing on the moon and to send
back photographic data from the surface

Scientists at the US Geological Survey develop the theory of plate tectonics as the
explanation of continental drift

The Soviet spacecraft Luna 10 orbits the moon and broadcasts the Internationale to the 23rd
Congress of the Communist Party
1967

British research student Jocelyn Bell and her Cambridge supervisor Antony Hewish identify
the first known pulsar

South African surgeon Christiaan Barnard, in Cape Town, transplants the heart of a young
woman into a 55-year-old grocer, Louis Washkansky
1968

Peter Nzube finds the oldest skull yet discovered in the Olduvai Gorge and names the
specimen Twiggy, after the British fashion model of the time

Three US astronauts become the first humans to leave the earth's orbit, reaching the moon
and going into its orbit in Apollo 8

The US astronauts in Apollo 8 are the first humans to see (and photograph) the sight of the
earth rising above the moon's horizon
1969

65
Neil Armstrong, commander of the US space mission Apollo 11, sets foot on the moon and
says: 'That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.'

Paintings discovered on stone slabs in a cave in Namibia are dated to about 28,000 years ago

British scientists Patrick Steptoe and Robert Edwards fertilize in a test-tube eggs removed
from human ovaries
1971

The Soviets put into orbit the first space station, Salyut 1, but the crew of three die on
returning to earth

In the Apollo 15 mission US astronauts David Scott and James Irwin drive the vehicle Rover-
1 on the surface of the moon
1972

The Tuskegee syphilis experiment in Alabama becomes a major scandal after a whistle-
blower reveals the details
1974

British physicist Stephen Hawking describes how black holes can emit radiation, a process
now known as 'Hawking radiation'

More than 7000 life-size terracotta solders are unearthed at Xi'an, placed to guard the tomb of
the third century BC Chinese emperor Shi Huangdi

Donald Johanson and Tom Gray find an almost complete Australopithecus female skeleton at
Hadar in Ethiopia, and nickname her Lucy after the Beatles song Lucy in the Sky with
Diamonds
1975

Astronauts Tom Stafford and Aleksei Leonov shake hands when their Apollo and Soyuz craft
successfully dock in space

Excavation of the 5200-year-old passage grave at Newgrange in Ireland is completed


1976

Mary Leakey and her team find footprints, about 3.6 million years old, of bipedal hominids
walking upright at Laetoli in Tanzania

The landing section of the US spacecraft Viking 1 detaches from the orbiter and makes a
successful landing on Mars

333 days after leaving Earth, the landing section of the US spacecraft Viking 2 touches down
on Mars and begins sending back photographs
c. 1977

Royal tombs are excavated at Vergina, in Macedonia, probably including that of Philip of
Macedon
1978

66
Louise Brown, born in England, is the first test-tube baby, having been conceived by IVF (In
vitro fertilization)
1979

The Global Commission for the Eradication of Smallpox announces that the world is free of
the disease
1981

AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) is described for the first time in a US
medical journal
1982

8,000-year-old human remains are found in a waterlogged burial site at Windover, in Florida
1983

Luc Montagnier, at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, discovers a new human retrovirus that he
names LAV (later changed to HIV)
1984

The Turkana Boy, the most complete known skeleton of Homo erectus, is found near Lake
Turkana by Kamoya Kimeu in Richard Leakey's team

Genetic (or DNA) fingerprinting is invented and developed by British geneticist Alec Jeffreys
1985

The Human Genome Project begins in the US Department of Energy, with the aim of
sequencing the whole of human DNA
1986

The US Space shuttle Challenger explodes with seven on board less than two minutes after
lift-off

The Soviets launch the first module (the living quarters) of their Mir Space Station

The drug AZT (azidothymidine) offers hope as a way of inhibiting the progression from HIV
to AIDS

Mad Cow Disease (BSE, or bovine spongiform encephalopathy ) is identified and described
in Britain
1988

British physicist Stephen Hawking explains the cosmos for the general reader in A Brief
History of Time: from the Big Bang to Black Holes
1989

The US unmanned spacecraft Galileo is launched from a space shuttle on a six-year voyage
to Jupiter

67
At CERN, in Geneva, Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau build ENQUIRE, a first step
towards the future World Wide Web
1990

British primatologist Jane Goodall publishes Through a Window, exposing violence and
brutality in chimpanzees

The Hubble Space Telescope is launched from a space shuttle and goes into orbit 370 miles
(600 km) above the earth

Tim Berners-Lee, working at CERN in Geneva, publishes the first formal proposal for the
World Wide Web
1991

Tim Berners-Lee, using CERN computers, puts online the first website at http://info.cern.ch

A man found frozen high in the Alps turns out to be a neolithic hunter from about 5000 years
ago

The US spacecraft Galileo provides scientists with close-up photographs of two asteroids,
Gaspra and Ida
1994

The fossilized skeleton of an Ardipithecus female, nicknamed Ardi and 4.4 million years old,
is found in the Awash valley region of Ethiopia

Potholers discover the world's oldest known paintings in the Chauvet cave in southern France
1995

British mathematician Andrew Wiles publishes, in Annals of Mathematics, his proof of


Fermat's Last Theorem

An atmospheric probe, released from the US spacecraft Galileo, enters the atmosphere of the
planet Jupiter
1996

A fatal variant CJD (Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease) is first identified in Britain, linked to BSE but
capable of infecting humans

Dolly the Sheep is cloned in an epoch-making experiment at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh
1997

Sojourner, a robot roving vehicle, detaches from Mars Pathfinder to analyse the surface of the
planet
1998

Coastal erosion reveals Seahenge, a 4,000-year-old circle of oak posts in Norfolk

The drug Viagra wins government approval in the USA as a treatment for male impotence

68
The first module is launched of the International Space Station, a cooperative venture by five
space agencies (USA, Russia, Japan, Canada, Europe)
1999

Chromosome 22 becomes the first human genome to be fully sequenced, at the Sanger
Institute in Cambridge, England
2000

A White House ceremony celebrates a full draft of the human genome completed by two rival
projects

At the turn of the century, it is calculated that 36 million people worldwide are infected with
the HIV virus
2003

Michael Rogers, in a team led by Sileshi Semaw, discovers the world's oldest known chipped
stone tool, at Gona in Ethiopia

The US space shuttle Columbia disintegrates, with seven on board, when re-entering the
earth's atmosphere

A deadly new form of pneumonia, SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) is first
reported in Hanoi and soon spreads globally
2005

Two years after its first appearance, the World Health Organization announces that the deadly
disease SARS has been 'eradicated'

French surgeon Bernard Devauchelle and his team in Amiens carry out the first human face
transplant
2006

The International Astronomical Union demotes Pluto to the new category of 'dwarf planet'

A team from the University of Tbingen find a tiny figurine of a mammoth, at that time the
earliest known piece of European figurative sculpture
2008

Archaeologists from Tbingen discover the Hohle Fels Venus, about 38,000 years old and the
earliest known figurative sculpture in Europe
2009

CERN restarts the Large Hadron Collider, which has been shut down since a serious failure in
September 2008
2010

Geneticist Craig Venter announces that his team have inserted the genome of a bacterium into
a cell to create the world's first synthetic life form
2011

69
Surgeons in Sweden achieve the first artificial living organ transplant, after using the patient's
own stem cells to coat a plastic replica of his windpipe
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Europe Timeline

http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780191736155.timeline.0001
from 1900 (see link for further back)

https://www.scribd.com/document/326458846/Philosophy-Timeline-General-The-Basics-of-
Philosophy

70
71
72
h

ttps://cfrees.files.wordpress.com/2014/10/timeline-orig.pdf

https://cfrees.files.wordpress.com/2014/10/timeline-orig.pdf
http://www.ntslibrary.com/PDF%20Books/History%20of%20Western%20Philosophy.pdf

azor
Metaphysical

73
Nominalism
Natural Law
Theory
Aquinas
Five Ways
The Commentator
Ontological Argument
Cartesian Scepticism
Cartesian Dualism
Pascals
Wager
Continental
Rationalism
Occasionalism
Modern
Natural Law
Utilitarianism
Kantianism
Social Contract
Theory
British
Empiricism
Moral Science
Ideal
Utilitarianism
Ethical
Intuitionism
Emotivism
Logical
Positivism
Two Concepts
of Liberty
Naturalism
(Quinean)
Ethical
Prescriptivism
Theory
of Justice
Woman
as Other
The Myth
of the Given
Libertarianism
Philosophy
as Therapy
Logical
Atomism
Logicism
Pragmatism
Phenomenology
German Idealism Existentialism
Asceticism
Sophists
Sophistes

74
75