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THE LORD'S PRAYER AND THE EUCHARIST.

THE SYRIAN TRADITION

EMMANUEL J. CUTRONE

After completing his explanation of the eucharistic prayer


to the neophytes, Cyril of Jerusalem continues his mystagogy in
this fashion, Then, after this, we recite that prayer which the
Savior delivered to His own disciples, with a clear conscience
designating God as our Father, saying: Our Father who are in
heaven .1 This gives the first clear evidence of the Our Father
in the eucharistic liturgy anywhere. In the West there is no
witness until the De Sacramentis, V of Ambrose who dedicates
the second part of this lecture to the Lord's Prayer. Even Apos-
tolic Constitutions VIII, 13, a late fourth century Syrian docu-
ment, makes no reference to the Our Father in the communion
service. 2 But from the earliest times at least some of the peti-
tions of the Lord's Prayer have been interpreted as referring to
the Lord's Supper and this has led some to suggest a much
earlier inclusion of the prayer in the eucharistic liturgy. 3 What
follows is a review of the biblical witness on the relationship of
the Our Father to the eucharistic themes and liturgy, and a
suggestion on why the Lord's Prayer enters into the Syrian
eucharistic liturgy in the middle of the fourth century.

1 Mystagogical Catechesis V, 11. Translation from ANTHONY A. STEPHEN-


SON, The Works of Saint Cyril of Jerusalem, vol. II (The Fathers of the
Church, 64) Edited by Leo McCauley and Anthony Stephenson, Washing-
ton, D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press, 1970, 198.
2 ROBERT F. TAFT, How Liturgies Grow: The Evolution of the Byzan-
tine Divine Liturgy , Beyond East and West: Problems in Liturgical Under-
standing, Washington: The Pastoral Press, 183-184. 4-

3 Taft, however, clearly favors a later entrance. So all we can say


with certainty is that the Our Father is a later addition, and that previous
to its introduction the litany just before communion may have been fol-
lowed by only one prayer . Ibid. 184.
94 Emmanuel J. Cutrone The Lord's Prayer and the Eucharist. The Syrian tradition 95

1. The Biblical evidence Lord's Prayer is introduced by contrasting fasting of the hypo-
crites with that of the christians, and then prayer is different
Two separate issues need to be addressed in considering from the hypocrites when christians pray as the Lord taught
the biblical witness of the relationship of the Lord's Prayer to them. It concludes with the directives to pray the Our Father
eucharistic worship. The first has to do with whether or not three times a day.
any of the petitions of the Our Father, as given by Jesus, Jeremias divides the prayer into {( Thy-petitions and
included a reference to eucharistic worship - either directly or {( We-petitions . 5 There are two {( Thy-petitions in Luke: Hal-
by implication. The second, quite different from the first, asks lowed be Thy name, and Thy kingdom come. A third is added
whether the Our Father was one of the prayers actually used by in Matthew: Thy will be done. In Luke there are three We-
the early church when it gathered in eucharistic worship. If so petitions : give us bread, forgive our sins, and lead us not into
what structural role did it play in the liturgy of the assembly? temptation. Matthew adds a fourth {( we-petition : deliver us
On both points, of course, information is quite limited forcing from evil.
an exegesis which does not bring forth much certainty. Still Since the eucharist is described as the breaking of the
there is enough evidence to forge plausible theories. bread in the early church (Acts 2.42), it is quite natural to
First, do any of the petitions refer directly to the eucharist? begin by asking if the petition for daily bread has a direct
The Lord's Prayer is found in two places in the New Testament, eucharistic reference. The exact petition in Matthew, {( Give us
a shorter version in Luke 11.2-4, and a longer version with today our daily bread, or {( our bread for tomorrow, give us
some variation in Matthew 6.9-13. There is also the extra bibli- today, 6 has a definite eschatological focus. The bread for
cal text in Didache 8 which is virtually the same as Matthew tomorrow is a reference to the future kingdom, so it seems to
6.9-13. In Luke, Jesus gives the prayer in response to the look more to the future than to the present, more to the king-
request of the disciples, {( Lord, teach us to pray (Lk. 11.2), dom than temporal food or ritual meals. 7 Even though Jere-
and continues with a catechesis on prayer. This account seems mias interprets this petition in an eschatological manner, he
to be concerned with establishing the right kind of prayer. 4 In feels it also includes the ritual meals of the apostolic commu-
Matthew there is no request, but the prayer is given as part of nity - especially in those communities identified as the Jewish
the Sermon on the Mount where it is proposed as a prototype Christian church. 8. Further, Rordorf also proposes that this
for all christian prayer. Jesus begins his teaching on prayer by eschatological petition undergoes a transformation {( ... into a
contrasting his prayer with that of the {( hypocrites . Proper realized eschatology (or, perhaps better, a self-realizing escha-
prayer should not be done as a public display, but in such a tology) precisely because of the Church's liturgical life, in
way that {( ... your Father who sees all that is done in secret which the Lord's Prayer was anchored .9 He seems to be of
will reward you (Mt. 6.6). Further, prayer should not multiply
many words, but it should address a Father who knows your
needs before you ask (Mt. 6.8). The final petition for forgive- 5 Ibid., 89-91.
6 Ibid., 99-102.
ness is extended with further admonitions that forgiveness will
7 WILLY RORDORF, The Lord's Prayer in the Light of its Liturgical Use
be given by the Father in proportion to the manner in which in the Early Church , Studia Liturgica 14 (1980-81) 6-7.
the individual forgives. The Sermon on the Mount continues 8 . their daily fellowship meals were the customary meals for suste-
with directives on the proper way to fast (Mt. 6.16-18). Didache nance, and yet at the same time they were a 'Lord's Supper' (I Cor. 11:20)
VIII contains many of the same themes found in Matthew: the which mediated fellowship with Him and linked in fellowship with one
another those sitting at table (I Cor. 10:16-17). In the same way, for all his
followers, every meal is a meal in his presence. He is the host who fills the
4 JOACHIM JEREMIAS, The Prayers of Jesus (Studies in Biblical Theology, hungry and thirsty with the fullness of his blessings . Jeremias, 102.
6) Alec R. Allenson, Inc., 1967, p. 87. 9 Rordorf, 9.
96 Emmanuel J. Cutrone The Lord's Prayer and the Eucharist. The Syrian tradition 97

the opinion that the Our Father was always prayed before com- Biblical scholars, then, do find direct connection between
munion, or at least from a very early time. 10 several of the petitions of the Lord's Prayer and eucharistic
The Thy-petitions}) for the sanctification of the Name worship. Further, Jeremias identifies the Matthean version as
and the coming of the kingdom are also primarily eschatologi- richly liturgical but does not give any details as to the precise
cal. I Cor. 15.26 connects communion with the eschatological nature of its liturgical use. 14 Rordorf argues aggressively for a
focus of the early church so there are several petitions of the very early inclusion of the Our Father as a prayer said by the
Lord's Prayer which connect with eschatological themes of assembly prior to communion. Apart from thematic connec-
eucharistic worship. 11 tions between the petitions, direct evidence is lacking for an
Finally, the petition for forgiveness of sins also has a early inclusion of the prayer in eucharistic worship.
strong relationship with eucharistic worship. Mk 11.25 con- This leads to the second question: is there any liturgical
nects proper prayer with forgiveness of ... whatever you have evidence for inclusion of the Our Father in eucharistic wor-
against anybody, }) and Mt 5.23-24 puts the condition of for- ship? Heinemann's use of a form critical method is perhaps the
giveness prior to offering at the altar. Didache XIV makes it best indication of how the early church used the Lord's Prayer
clear that these biblical passages were very much on the minds in formal worship. 'Form' in the widest possible sense serves
of early christian communities because forgiveness is a condi- as a clear indication of the character of any particular prayer
tion for the purity of the sacrifice. 12 Rordorf finds liturgical and helps us to answer questions like: to what category does a
implications in the different versions of the petition for forgive- prayer belong? and what purpose did it serve in the liturgy? An
ness, and the location of the kiss of peace implying an early attempt to assign the Prayer of Jesus its proper place must take
liturgical usage of both the lucan and matthean versions of the account not only of Jewish prayer which may employ similar
Our Father. 13 turns of phrase and share some motifs and ideas expressed in
it but, first and foremost, of matters of style and liturgical
function . 15
10 The first commentators on the Lord's Prayer confirm, therefore,
once again what we already knew from liturgical research and from the Heinemann considers three possible categories of Jewish
study of the eucharistic exegesis on the fourth petition which we have prayers which relate to the text of the Lord's Prayer as it
just made - i.e. that the Lord's Prayer was prayed before Communion . appears in the gospels. The three categories of Jewish prayer
Ibid., 11.
11 Ibid., 6.
are: 1) the statutory liturgy of the regular synagogue service;
12 On the Lord's day of the Lord, come together, break bread, and
2) private worship; and 3) prayers associated with the public
give thanks, having first confessed your transgressions, that your sacrifice
may be pure. But let none who has a quarrel with his companion join
which imposes no conditions on the one who would wish to receive for-
with you until they have been reconciled, that your sacrifice may not be
giveness from God, but emphasizes the result flowing from that forgive-
defiled . Didache XIV.
ness: Forgive us our sins; and, lo! - we ourselves forgive (i.e., in our
13 Do not the Liturgical traditions of East and West, which we have
turn) anyone who is indebted to us ,,? Rordorf, 13.
been able to distinguish, reflect the two Greek versions of the fifth petition
of the Lord's Prayer? In other words, is not the Eastern liturgy, which puts 14 Bradshaw finds a liturgical use of the Lord's Prayer in the develop-

the exchange of the kiss of Peace before the recitation of the Lord's Prayer, ment of the divine office, and not euch~rist. PAUL F. BRADSHAW, Daily Prayer
the concrete expression of the Matthaean version, which stresses the duty in the Early Church: A study of the Origin and Early Development of the
of reconciliation with one's brethren before asking God for the forgiveness Divine Office, New York: Oxford University Press, 1982, 27-28.
of one's own sins: Forgive us our trespasses, as we have forgiven those 15 JOSEPH HEINEMANN, The Background of Jesus' Prayer in Jewish
who have trespassed against us ? And is not the Western liturgy, which Liturgical Tradition", The Lord's Prayer and Jewish Liturgy, Edited by
puts the exchange of the Kiss of Peace after the recitation of the Our Jakob Petuchowski and Michael Brocke, New York: The Seabury Press,
Father, the concrete expression of the version in the Gospel of Luke, 1978, 81.
98 Emmanuel J. Cutrone The Lord's Prayer and the Eucharist. The Syrian tradition 99

sermon (which was also frequently given in the synagogue, Eighteen Benedictions . 23 In either case, the synagogue
but did not constitute an integral part of the prescribed ser- prayers do not correspond to the prayers of the ritual meals.
vice). 16 An identification of the source of the Our Father in a syna-
The prayers of the regular synagogue service employed gogue setting would in no way suggest that it is a form of
strict rules and regulations for their content, structure and pre- prayer which would have any setting or use in the meal service
cise formulae. They always followed a definite pattern. 17 At the and thus no use in the Lord's Supper would be likely.
heart of the synagogue service is the Eighteen Benedictions . Another prayer which shows great affinity to the Lord's
These prayers were recited during the weekday service along Prayer is the Kaddish. This prayer opens with the words, Glo-
with the Shetna. They functioned as the most important rified and sanctified be His great name throughout the world
prayers of the statutory synagogue service, and were also part which He has created according to His will. May He establish
of the statutory prayers to be said by the individual even if he His kingdom in your lifetime and during your days... speedily
did not attend the synagogue. 18 It has been suggested that the and soon; and say, Amen. The Kaddish did not take the
eighteen benedictions has directly influenced the composi- important role it presently plays in Synagogue service until the
tion of the Our Father. 19 Jesus' prayer shows some similarity end of the Talmudic period in the fifth century. 24 But, at the
to the Eighteen Benedictions in that it opens with an time of Jesus, it did function as a prayer at the conclusion of
the sermons. Such prayers given in connection with the ser-
expression of praise prior to a series of petitons and concludes
mon were not considered an integral part of the synagogue
with brief words of praise and adoration. 20 Heinemann con-
service. There were no fixed patterns to the prayers associated
cludes, In this respect, then, (but not in others), Jesus' prayer
with the sermon but... a number of favorite patterns are seen
appears to have been modelled upon the pattern employed in to emerge. Prayers following the sermon - of which the Kad-
the set synagogue prayers, especially the Eighteen Benedic- dish (in its original function) is a prominent example - mostly
tions . 21 But, he finds that the prayer does not sufficiently strike the messianic note and contain fervent petitions for
correspond to the strict pattern of prayers for the synagogue redemption and the establishment of the eschatological King-
either in the forms of address or in its thematic content and dom of God: these arise organically out of the messianic prom-
thus rejects the connection. 22 Bahr, on the other hand, pro~ ises with which the sermons themselves concluded most
poses that the first Christians made direct use of this prayer frequently. 25 Despite the similarites between the opening of
form because they used Our Father as a substitution for the the Kaddish and the Our Father, Heinemann rules it out as a
source for the Our Father because of stylistic differences. 26
16Ibid., 82.
17Ibid., 82. 23 These observations suggest that the primitive church uses the
18 JAKOB J. PETUCHOWSKl, The Liturgy of the Synagogue The Lord's Lord's Prayer in exactly the same way as the contemporary synagogue
Prayer and Jewish Liturgy, Edited by Jakob Petuchowski and Michael used the Eighteen Benedictions . Bahr, 154.
Brocke, New York: The Seabury Press, 1978, 55. 24 Heinemann, 81.
19 For two developments of this theory see, ROGER BECKWITH, Daily and 2S Ibid., 82.
Weekly Worship: Jewish to Christian, (Alcuin/Grow Liturgical Study, 1) 26 It has been claimed, with some justification, that there is 'com-
Bramcote, Notts.: Grove Books Limited, 1987, 23. Also GORDON J. BAHR, plete conformity of the Paternoster with Jewish norms of prayer', and that
The Use of the Lord's Prayer in the Primitive Church , The Lord's Prayer Matt. 6:9c-lOa 'have their exact equivalent in the Kaddish, except for the
and Jewish Liturgy, 152-154. difference of person'. But the Kaddish, in spite of the prominent place
20 Jeremias, 85. which it occupies in the prayers of the synagogue today, did not do so
21 Heinemann, 86. until the end of the Talmudic period in the fifth century CE; hence it can
22 Ibid. hardly be considered an example of 'Jewish norms of prayers' in the first
100 Emmanuel J. Cutrone The Lord's Prayer and the Eucharist. The Syrian tradition 101

Once again, even if the Kaddish is the prayer form on which precede the giving of the Our Father (Matt. 6.5-6), Jesus actu-
the Lord's Prayer was patterned, its proper liturgical setting is ally gives his unequivocal approval of the tradition of private
not within a meal context, making it unlikely that the early prayer. Such a prayer is ... intimate and inward-directed in
christian assembly prayed it within the celebration of the place of a public prayer; a brief prayer in place of a long series
Lord's Supper. of benedictions; the simple popular style of private prayer in
The final prayer form which Heinemann considers is pri- place of the more formal and elaborate style of the synagogue
vate prayer. This type of prayer is limited in scope and usually prayer; a prayer in the vernacular Aramaic tongue in place of
lacks elaborate structures. Two or three specific requests con- the literary semi-Scriptural style, in which the common folk
stitute the prayer, not a lengthy, complex series. The language were not .sufficiently fluent; a prayer which every man can
is normally Aramaic and there is an absence of prescribed for- recite for himself, rather than one which he must hear recited
mulae. 27 Certain styles and patterns were eventually preferred, by the Prayer leader: that is the force of Jesus' instructions to
especially those which emphasize an intimate, personal rela- his disciples and of his exemplary prayer . 31
tionship with God. 28 Using these characteristics Heinemann
If Heinemann is correct in this analysis of the origins of
concludes, There can be no doubt that the prayer of Jesus in
the Our Father, there certainJy is no meal context for the reci-
Matt. 6.9 displays all of the characteristics of Jewish private
tation of such a prayer. These private prayers would not be
prayer: it opens with an address employing one of the epithets
used frequently in private petitions; 29 it addresses God in the compatible with the ritual meals which have their set of formu-
second person; its style is simple; it is quite brief, as are its las, be they the weekly sabbath meals, or the more solemn
component sentences; it lacks the form of the 'liturgical bene- feasts throughout the year - such as passover. The similarities
diction' . 30 Heinemann points out that in the words which between Jewish prayer forms and the Our Father onJy enforce
the position that the prayer was not part of eucharistic worship
because the prayer forms which are suggestive of the Our
century. And 'the difference of person' is hardly a negligible quantity when Father are not the type found in a ritual meal. This is further
one prayer addresses God directly and unhesitatingly in the second per-
son, and another speaks of Him indirectly and without even identifying
supported by Didache VIII which is an instruction on the
Him by name or epithet - especially when, in place of the Paternoster's proper manner of prayer, but is not a commentary on eucha-
direct address of God, we find the Kaddish turning to the congregation in ristic prayer. The command to pray the Lord's Prayer three
the second person plural ('and say [ye], Amen') . Ibid., 81. times a day suggests private prayer, or congregational prayer
27 Ibid., 83.
which is independent of eucharistic worship. Didache XIV does
28 The favorite one is undoubledly the opening formula 'May it be
connect the Lord's Supper with forgiveness of one's brethren,
Thy will [literally: May it be the will from before Thee], 0 Lord, my God
and the God of my fathers .. .' In this pattern, adonai is used invariably,
and even though this is a theme similar to one of the petitions
followed by the additional epithet, elohai, 'my God' (with the first person of the Lord's Prayer, there is nothing suggestive of actual inclu-
pronominal suffix), and God is addressed in the second person. All of the sion of the prayer in the meal service.
foregoing points emphasize the intimate, personal relationship with God The conclusion from the biblical evidence is that there are
of which the worshipper is conscious . Ibid., 83.
some thematic similarities between the petitions of the Our
29 No special importance should be attached to the fact that God is
addressed as 'Father' or as 'our Father' at the opening of Jesus' prayer - Father and eucharistic worship. There is also some evidence of
instead of the address, 'Master' or 'God', often used in Jewish private structural parallels between the our Father and Jewish prayers.
prayer . Ibid., 88. The most likely candidate is the prayer form of private devo-
30 It is true that the phrase, 'hallowed be Thy name, Thy Kingdom tion. If there were some christian adaptation of Jewish rituals,
come', is analogous to the opening of the Kaddish, which does not belong
to the category of private prayers. But we should not forget that this style
also occurs in private prayer... . Ibid., 88. 31 Ibid., 88-89.
102 Emmanuel J. Cutrone The Lord's Prayer and the Eucharist. The Syrian tradition 103

more support is found for the word service. Nowhere is there we also forgive our debtors (Didache VIII), but this falls into
anything suggestive of a prayer form which could function the category of similar themes rather than an actual command
within a meal, making the likelihood of early eucharistic use to use the prayer.
very remote. Didache IX, X treat eucharistic praying directly. Is there a
possible connection with the Lord's Prayer here? Some have
2. Witness of the Syrian tradition suggested that the Lord's Prayer was offered more as an exam-
ple of how to pray, rather than a prayer formula to be used by
In the Syrian liturgical tradition the Our Father is men- the worshipping assemply. The assumption that the Lord's
tioned in Didache, Apostolic Constitutions, and then by Cyril of Prayer is an outline for prayer may be lurking behind the word
Jerusalem. Didache VIII, which gives the text of the Our Father Outos which is often used to introduce the text of the prayer.
and the command to pray the prayer three times a day, Origen (18,1) uses it, and before him Didache (8,2), and before
appears to be the last in the sequence of baptismal instruc- that, the Gospel according to Matthew. (6:9) ... I would suggest
tions. This is an instruction on how to pray, and a definite that it is an example of the ideal prayer in the sense that it is
point is made to contrast the discipline of the christian with an outline of the parts which the ideal prayer should contain
that of the Jews, both as to the time of the fast, and the con- and of the items which the ideal prayer should include . 35 The
tent of the prayer. 32 The command to pray three times a day presumption here is that this thematic suggestion applies to
can be a direct parallel with the synagogue service, or another all prayers, both private, as well as the prayers offered within
spacing of daily prayer, 33 but there is no evidence of any meal the assembly. Many years ago Richardson suggested that the
context for this prayer. Didache XIV does describe a meal ser- basis forthe eucharistic prayers in Didache IX-X is really the
vice on the Lord's Day with the exhortation to reconciliation Our Father. 36 In this article Richardson does not propose that
and confession of transgression so that the sacrifice may not be the Our Father was the actual text of the eucharistic prayer,
defiled. 34 Here is the first definite passage which relates to one but that the petition themes of prayer are actually the same as
of the petitions in the Our Father: and forgive us our debts as those found in the Our Father. While there is some plausibility
in his presentation, this theory never received much accep-
32 Your fasts should not coincide with those of the hypocrites. They tance, especially in light of the commonly accepted position
fast on Mondays and Thursdays; you should fast on Wednesdays and Fri- that the Jewish meal prayers function as the model of the
days. And do not pray as the hypocrites do, but pray as the Lord has eucharistic prayer. 37
commanded in the Gospel: Our Father... Say this prayer three times a
day". Didache, VIII. In the Apostolic Constitutions (Syrian document from the
33 C. W. DOUGMORE, The Influence of the Synagogue upon the Divine 4th century) the Our Father is given in two places. Book III
Office (Alcuin Club Collections,S) Faith Press Ltd, 1944, 61-62. PAUL F. and again in Book VII. AC, Book Ill, 18 deals with the baptized
BRADSHAw, Daily Prayer in the Early Church: A study of the Origin and Early and the qualities of the person who prays. Thus, it is here as
Development of the Divine Office, New York: Oxford University Press, 1982,
25-26. part of the baptismal instructions, and there is no mention of
34 On the Lord's day of the Lord, come together, break bread, and
eucharist. AC, Book VII, 24 is based upon Didache - expand-
give thanks, having first confessed your transgressions, that your sacrifice
may be pure. But let none who has a quarrel with his companion join
with you until they have been reconciled, that your sacrifice may not be 35 Bahr, 150.
defiled. For this is that which was spoken by the Lord, 'In every place, and 36 R.D. RrCHARDSON, The Lord's Prayer as an Early Eucharist", Angli-
at every time, offer me a pure sacrifice; for I am a great king, says the can Theological Review 39 (1957) 123-130.
Lord and my Name is wonderful among the nations'. (Malachi l:11b) ". 37 T.J. TALLEY, Sources and Structure of the Eucharistic Prayer",
Didache, XIV. Reforming Tradition, Washington, DC: The Pastoral Press, 1990, 11-34.
104 Emmanuel J. Cutrone The Lord's Prayer and the Eucharist. The Syrian tradition 105

ing and gIVlllg further comment. 38 So what was said about pation and share in the mystery of Christ in such a way that
Didache VIII above also applies here. As in the Didache there is the faithful identify with Christ by ritually undergoing the same
the instruction, Pray thus thrice in a day... , followed with saving events He did. Elsewhere I have described this as an
exhortations on proper attitude and worthiness for the prayer. eikon-mimesis theology. 41 This leads Cyril to find in the rituals
Both instructions seem to continue to reflect private devotion as close an identification with the deeds of Christ as.possible. I
rather than a liturgical setting. Apostolic Constitutions VIII, 13, have argued that until the time of Cyril the eucharistic prayer
which gives a detailed description of the meal service and the did not know an institution narrative, and it was primarily
communion service, makes no mention of the Our Father under the influence of his eikon-mimesis theology which places
before communion. a high priority on the very words of Jesus that the narrative
So the Syrian tradition provides no evidence of the pres- finds its way into the Jerusalem anaphora by the end of the
ence of the Lord's Prayer in eucharistic worship before Cyril of fourth century. 42
Jerusalem, and from the investigation given above there is no
This same eikon-mimesis liturgical theology can also
reason to propose its presence until the middle of the fourth
explain the introduction of the Our Father into the Jerusalem
century. Cyril describes the order of the meal service in his
eucharistic liturgy. Cyril certainly knew the tradition, which
fifth mystagogical catechesis. The hand washing is followed by
goes back to the gospels, of identifying certain petitions of the
the kiss of peace. Then the dialogue and the eucharistic prayer.
Lord's Prayer with eucharistic worship. But despite this tradi-
Immediately following the eucharistic prayer is the Our Father,
tion, the Our Father was still said as a private prayer, or per-
Holy things to the holy, and the communion. The service
closes with a final prayer. haps as part of the daily prayer of the assembled church. Cyril,
however, articulates a new liturgical attitude which models
Cyril begins his instruction on the Lord's Prayer indicating
prayers and ritual actions as closely as possible to what Jesus
clearly that it was a prayer said by all, We recite that prayer
actually said and did. 43 This provides a rationale and a motive
which the Savior delivered to His own disciples... , 39 When he
to eventually introduce the institution narrative into the Jerus-
comments on who art in heaven he says, They also are a
'heaven' who bear the likeness of the heavenly man, since God alem anaphora. 44 The same rationale could be responsible for
is dwelling in them and mingling with them. 40 Here, as in the introduction of the Our Father into eucharistic worship.
other places throughout his mystagogy Cyril uses a theology of The commentaries offered by Tertullian, Origen, and Cyprian
comparison - here the word likeness. This is reflective of expanded the relationship between the Lord's Prayer and
his whole approach to ritual activity which he sees functioning
as an imitation of the Image, who is Christ. In MC Il, 5 and 41 EMMANUEL CUTRONE, Cyril's Mystagogical Catecheses and the Evo-
again in MC Ill, 1 Cyril describes the rituals as a real partici- lution of the Jerusalem Anaphora", OCP 44 (1978) 52-64.
42 Ibid.
43 This seems to be a pervasive attitude in Jerusalem in the fourth
38 Didache is the source of AC 7:1-32. L. O'Leary has analyzed the century. Egeria continually states that prayers and readings were done
redaction of the Didache in AC 7.1-32. The compiler has; (1) inserted which were proper to the place.
scriptural (especially OT) quotations and illustrations; (2) used more con- 44 The absence of the institution narrative in Syrian anaphoras is
temporary liturgical formulae and practices; (3) softened difficulties. There indicated as early as the Anaphora of Addai and Mari, and Mazza argues
is no doubt that the same hand was at work here as in AC books one that as late as Theodore of Mopsuestia there is still evidence of a Syrian
through six ". DAVID A. FIENSY, Prayers Alleged to be Jewish: An Examination eucharistic prayer which did not contain an institution narrative. See my
of the Constitutiones Apostolorum (Brown Judaic Studies, 65) Scholars article, The Anaphora of the Apostles: Implications of the Mar Esa ya
Press, 1985, 22. Text", Theological Studies 34 (1973) 624-642; and E. MAZZA, La struttura
39 Mys. Cat. V, 11.
dell'Anafora nelle Catechesi di Teodoro di Mopsuestia", Presiedere alla
40 Mys. Cat. V, 11. Carita, ed. by E. MAZZA e D. GIANOTTI, Genova: Marietti, 1988.
106 Emmanuel J. Cutrone

eucharist. But prior to the fourth century the evidence from the
Syrian tradition indicates that it was sufficient to have the rit-
ual actions sustain this relationship without actually introduc-
ing the words of the prayer itself. The ritual meal was under-
stood as the daily bread, and the eschatological banquet. The
petition for forgiveness was associated with the kiss of peace, a
ritual Taft describes as ... one of the most primitive rites of
the Christian liturgy . 45 Patristic commentaries had associated
the petition for forgiveness in the Our Father as a necessary
preparation for communion, but, as Taft states, the kiss of
peace functioned as a ritual realization seeking forgiveness
from one's neighbor. The pax was left proximate to the ana-
phora because of its interpretation by almost all commentators
as a preparation for offering at the altar according to the text
of Matthew 5:23-24 .46 But, for Cyril this was not sufficient.
His eikon-mimesis liturgical theology wanted the actual verba
of Jesus in addition to the traditional ritual actions. Cyril, then,
is the first and clearest spokesman of a liturgical evolution
which actually establishes within eucharistic worship the pres-
ence of the Our Father because of its relation to communion.
Driven by. an eikon-mimesis theology of the ritual, for the first
time there is a felt need for the actual saying of the Our Father
within the meal service.

45 See the full development Taft gives of the Kiss of Peace in chapter
XI. ROBERT F. TAFT, The Great Entrance: A History of the Transfer of Gifts
and other Preanaphoral Rites of the Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, (OCA
200) Rome 1978, 374-377.
46 Ibid., 377.