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Submitted in partial fulfilment for the requirement of

Bachelor of Business Administration


Mr Intsar Ali
(Assistant Professor)

ENROLLMENT NO. - 50990101715


Affiliated to Guru Govind Singh Indraprastha University,
FIMT Campus, Kapashera,
New Delhi -110037


I, Ankita Rawat, do hereby declare that this project work entitled STRESS
an outcome of my study and is submitted in partial fulfilment of the
requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Business
Administration, Indraprastha University, Delhi.

Further, I also declare that this report has not been submitted by me fully or
partially for the award of my degree, diploma, title, recognition or any other
fellowship of any other university before.



This is to certify that the project report on the STRESS MANAGEMENT

of Ms. Ankita Rawat, of BBA(G) 3rd Semester, and has been duly completed
under my guidance and supervision upto my satisfactory level.

This work has been done in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award
of the degree of BBA(G) from FAIRFIELD INSTITUTE OF
submitted earlier anywhere in any other university for the award of her degree.

(Signature of the guide)

Intsar Ali
(Assistant Professor)


It is a pleasure to acknowledge many people who knowingly and unwittingly

helped me, to complete my project. First of all let me praise God for all the

First and foremost, I would like to express my regards to Mr. Intsar Ali, his
constant encouragement and support. I would like to express my immense
gratitude towards all the lecturers of our college for providing the invaluable
knowledge, guidance extended during the completion of this project.

I extend my sincere gratitude to all my teachers and guide who made

unforgettable contributions. Due to their sincere efforts I was able to excel in
the work entrusted upon me.

Last but not the least; I am grateful to my parents, my friends and all well-
wishers for their moral support and encouragement during last three months.

Ankita Rawat


I have completed this project titled Stress Management Of Employees In The Banking
Industry . The main objective of the study was to know the level of stress and effect of
stress among the employees.

This project gives us a detailed idea of what is stress and also the definition of stress is been
defined. For more detailed study the types of the stress is also defined. By looking at the
starting of the project you will find:

Introduction to Human resource

Introduction and Definition of stress
Stress in biological terms
What is stress?
Coping with stress at work place.
Stress management
Workplace stress
Reducing of stress



Title page
Student Declaration
Certificate by guide iii
Acknowledgement iv
Executive Summary v
Table of content vi
List of figure vii


1 Introduction 1-24
Cover view of industry 25-28

2 29-31
Literature Review


Research Methodology 32
Scope of the study 33
Objective of the study 34
Methodology 35-38
Limitations of the study 39

Data analysis and interpretations 40-50

Findings, Suggestions & conclusion 51-55

Bibliography 56

Questionnaire 57-58


1 41
2 42






6 46












20th century has been regarded as the period of incredible change in human history.
Philosophers and scientists have been various names to this period. Peter Drucker has
called it The Age of Discontinuity, John Galbraith has called it The Age of Future
Shock and Hari Albrecht called it The Age of Anxiety.

Stress has become the 21 century buzz word, from the high pervading corporate echelons to
the bassinets of teaching infants nurseries we find this world liberally used. Stress is part of
modern life. Various events in life cause stress, starting with the birth of a child and
enduring with the death of a dear one.

Urbanization, industrialization and the increase scale of operations in society are some of
the reasons for rising stress. It is an inevitable consequence of socio-economic complexity
and to some extent, its stimulant as well. People experience stress as they can no longer
have complete control over what happen in their lives. The telephone goes out of order,
power is shut down, water supply is disrupted, children perform poorly at school etc, we
feel frustrated and then stressed.

The word stress is derived from a Latin word stringere, meaning to draw tight. From the
view point of physical sciences, the phenomena of stress are evident in all materials when
they are subjected to force, pressure, strain or strong-front. Every material steel, rock or
wood has its own limit up to which it can withstand stress without being damaged.
Similarly human beings can tolerate certain level of stress. Stress is highly individualistic in
nature. Some people have high levels of stress tolerance for stress and thrive very well in
the face of several stressors in the environment. In fact, some individuals will not perform
well unless they experience a level of stress which activates and energizes then to put forth
their best results.

For every individual there is an optimum level of stress under which he or she will perform
to full capacity. If the stress experience is below the optimum level, then the individual gets
bored, the motivational level of work reaches a low point and it results to careless mistakes,
forgetting to do things and thinking of things other than work during work hours and also
leads to absenteeism which may ultimately lead to turnover. If on the other hand, stress
experience is above the optimum level, it leads to too many conflicts with the supervisor or
leads to increase of errors, bad decisions and the individual may experience insomnia,
stomach problems, and psychosomatic illness.

The present world is fast changing and there are lots of pressures and demands at work.
These pressures at work lead to physical disorders. Stress refers to individuals reaction to a
disturbing factor in the environment. It is an adaptive response to certain external factor or
situation or what can be called environmental stimuli as reflected in an opportunity,
constraint, or demand the outcome of which is uncertain but important. In short stress is a
response to an external factor that results in physical, emotional, behavioural deviations in a


Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity,

demand or resource related to what the individual desires and for which the outcome is
perceived to be both uncertain and important. This is a complicated definition.

Stress is not necessarily bad in and of itself. Although stress is typically discussed in a
negative context, it also has a positive value. Its an opportunity when it offers potential
gain. Consider for example, the superior performance that an athlete or stage performer
gives in clutch situations. Such individuals often use stress positively to rise to the
occasion and perform at or near their maximum. Similarly, many professionals see the
pressures of heavy workloads and deadlines as positive challenges that enhance the quality
of their work and the satisfaction the get from their job.

But it is different in the case of bank employees. The bank employees are the people who
also have to achieve the certain target and so for the non achievement of target the
employees remain stressed and tensed. The employees who have the simple table work also
have to face the problem of stress. Due to recession the banking sector is also facing the
problem of employee cut-offs and so the work load of the existing employees increases and
the feel stressed.

Stress refers to the strain from the conflict between our external environment and us,
leading to emotional and physical pressure. In our fast paced world, it is impossible to live
without stress, whether you are a student or a working adult. There is both positive and

negative stress, depending on each individuals unique perception of the tension between
the two forces. Not all stress is bad. For example, positive stress, also known as eustress,
can help an individual to function at optimal effectiveness and efficiency.

Hence, it is evident that some form of positive stress can add more color and vibrancy to
our lives. The presence of a deadline, for example, can push us to make the most of our
time and produce greater efficiency. It is important to keep this in mind, as stress
management refers to using stress to our advantage, and not on eradicating the presence of
stress in our lives.

On the other hand, negative stress can result in mental and physical strain. The individual
will experience symptoms such as tensions, headaches, irritability and in extreme cases,
heart palpitations. Hence, whilst some stress may be seen as a motivating force, it is
important to manage stress levels so that it does not have an adverse impact on your health
and relationships.

Part of managing your stress levels include learning about how stress can affect you
emotionally and physically, as well as how to identify if you are performing at your optimal
stress level (OSL) or if you are experiencing negative stress. This knowledge will help you
to identify when you need to take a break, or perhaps seek professional help. It is also your
first step towards developing techniques to managing your stress levels. Modern day
stresses can take the form of monetary needs, or emotional frictions. Competition at work
and an increased workload can also cause greater levels of stress. How do you identify if
you are suffering from excessive stress? Psychological symptoms commonly experienced
include insomnia, headaches and an inability to focus. Physical symptoms take the form of
heart palpitations, breathlessness, excessive sweating and stomachaches.

What causes stress? There are many different causes of stress, and that which causes stress
is also known as a stressor. Common lifestyle stressors include performance, threat, and
bereavement stressors, to name a few. Performance stressors are triggered when an
individual is placed in a situation where he feels a need to excel. This could be during
performance appraisals, lunch with the boss, or giving a speech. Threat stressors are usually
when the current situation poses a dangerous threat, such as an economic downturn, or from
an accident. Lastly, bereavement stressors occur when there is a sense of loss such as the
death of a loved one, or a prized possession.

Thus, there are various stressors, and even more varied methods and techniques of dealing
with stress and turning it to our advantages. In order to do so, we must learn to tell when we
have crossed the line from positive to negative stress.


The different types of stress are as follows:


Stress (physics), the average amount of force exerted per unit area.
Yield stress, the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically.

Compressive stress, the stress applied to materials resulting in their compaction.


Stress (biological), physiological or psychological stress; some types include:

Chronic stress, persistent stress which can lead to illness and mental disorder
Eustress, positive stress that can lead to improved long-term functioning
Workplace stress, stress caused by employment


Stress (game), card game

Stress (linguistics), phonological use of prominence in language


Stress (physics)

Stress is a measure of the average amount of force exerted per unit area. It is a measure of
the intensity of the total internal forces acting within a body across imaginary internal
surfaces, as a reaction to external applied forces and body forces. It was introduced into the
theory of elasticity by Cauchy around 1822. Stress is a concept that is based on the concept
of continuum.

In general, stress is expressed as


is the average stress, also called engineering or nominal stress, and

is the force acting over the area .

Chronic Stress

Chronic stress is stress that lasts a long time or occurs frequently. Chronic stress is
potentially damaging. Symptoms of chronic stress can be:

upset stomach






In the most severe cases it can lead to panic attacks or a panic disorder.

There are a number of methods to control chronic stress, which include, exercise, healthy
diet, stress management, relaxation techniques, adequate rest, and relaxing hobbies.

Ensuring a healthy diet containing magnesium may help control or eliminate stress, in those
individuals with lower levels of magnesium or those who have a magnesium deficiency.
Chronic stress can also lead to a magnesium deficiency, which can be a factor in continued
chronic stress, and a whole host of other negative medical conditions caused by a
magnesium deficiency.

It has been discovered that there is a huge upsurge in the number of people who suffer from
this condition. A very large number of these new cases suffer from insomnia.

In a review of the scientific literature on the relationship between stress and disease, the
authors found that stress plays a role in triggering or worsening depression and
cardiovascular disease and in speeding the progression of HIV/AIDS.

Compressive stress:

Compressive stress is the stress applied to materials resulting in their compaction

(decrease of volume). When a material is subjected to compressive stress, then this material
is under compression. Usually, compressive stress applied to bars, columns, etc. leads to

Loading a structural element or a specimen will increase the compressive stress until the
reach of compressive strength. According to the properties of the material, failure will occur
as yield for materials with ductile behavior (most metals, some soils and plastics) or as
rupture for brittle behavior (geometries, cast iron, glass, etc).

In long, slender structural elements -- such as columns or truss bars -- an increase of

compressive force F leads to structural failure due to buckling at lower stress than the
compressive strength.

Compressive stress has stress units (force per unit area), usually with negative values to
indicate the compaction. However in geotechnical engineering, compressive stress is
represented with positive values.


Stress management is the need of the hour. However hard we try to go beyond a stress
situation, life seems to find new ways of stressing us out and plaguing us with anxiety
attacks. Moreover, be it our anxiety, mind-body exhaustion or our erring attitudes, we tend
to overlook causes of stress and the conditions triggered by those. In such unsettling
moments we often forget that stressors, if not escapable, are fairly manageable and

Stress, either quick or constant, can induce risky body-mind disorders. Immediate disorders
such as dizzy spells, anxiety attacks, tension, sleeplessness, nervousness and muscle cramps
can all result in chronic health problems. They may also affect our immune, cardiovascular
and nervous systems and lead individuals to habitual addictions, which are inter-linked with

Like "stress reactions", "relaxation responses" and stress management techniques are some
of the body's important built-in response systems. As a relaxation response the body tries to
get back balance in its homeostasis. Some hormones released during the 'fight or flight'
situation prompt the body to replace the lost carbohydrates and fats, and restore the energy
level. The knotted nerves, tightened muscles and an exhausted mind crave for looseness.
Unfortunately, today, we don't get relaxing and soothing situations without asking. To be
relaxed we have to strive to create such situations.


As mentioned previously, stressors can come in a variety of forms, including extreme heat
or lighting, lack of sleep, risk of injury or death, or time pressure. The description of
stressors and their impact on behaviour is an open-ended task, and current research
considers an increasing number of events and conditions to be stressors. Although stressors
can be
physical (biological or chemical demands on the body) or
cognitive (threat of death, personal assault)
in form, they are always external and produce similar physiological responses within the
body. These physiological effects, defined as a stress response, can include increased blood
pressure, dilated pupils and increased heart rate.


It is important to recognize whether you are under stress or out of it. Many times, even if
we are under the influence of a stressful condition and our body reacts to it internally as
well as externally, we fail to realize that we are reacting under stress. This also happens
when the causes of stress are there long enough for us to get habituated to them. The body
constantly tries to tell us through symptoms such as rapid palpitation, dizzy spells, tight
muscles or various body aches that something is wrong. It is important to remain attentive
to such symptoms and to learn to cope with the situations.

We cope better with stressful situation, when we encounter them voluntarily. In cases of
relocation, promotion or layoff, adventurous sports or having a baby, we tend to respond
positively under stress. But, when we are compelled into such situations against our will or
knowledge, more often than not, we wilt at the face of unknown and imagined threats. For
instance, stress may mount when one is coerced into undertaking some work against one's


Workplace stress is the harmful physical and emotional response that occurs when there is
a poor match between job demands and the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker.
Stress-related disorders encompass a broad array of conditions, including psychological
disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder) and other types of
emotional strain (e.g., dissatisfaction, fatigue, tension, etc.), maladaptive behaviors (e.g.,
aggression, substance abuse), and cognitive impairment (e.g., concentration and memory
problems). In turn, these conditions may lead to poor work performance or even injury. Job
stress is also associated with various biological reactions that may lead ultimately to
compromised health, such as cardiovascular disease.

Stress is a prevalent and costly problem in today's workplace. About one-third of workers
report high levels of stress. One-quarter of employees view their jobs as the number one
stressor in their lives. Three-quarters of employees believe the worker has more on-the-job
stress than a generation ago. Evidence also suggests that stress is the major cause of
turnover in organizations.

Health and Healthcare Utilization

Problems at work are more strongly associated with health complaints than are any other
life stressor-more so than even financial problems or family problems. Many studies
suggest that psychologically demanding jobs that allow employees little control over the
work process increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. On the basis of research by the
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and many other organizations, it is
widely believed that job stress increases the risk for development of back and upper-
extremity musculoskeletal disorders. High levels of stress are associated with substantial
increases in health service utilization. Workers who report experiencing stress at work also
show excessive health care utilization. In a 1998 study of 46,000 workers, health care costs
were nearly 50% greater for workers reporting high levels of stress in comparison to low
risk workers. The increment rose to nearly 150%, an increase of more than $1,700 per
person annually, for workers reporting high levels of both stress and depression.

Additionally, periods of disability due to job stress tend to be much longer than disability
periods for other occupational injuries and illnesses.


Job stress results from the interaction of the worker and the conditions of work. Views
differ on the importance of worker characteristics versus working conditions as the primary
cause of job stress. The differing viewpoints suggest different ways to prevent stress at
work. According to one school of thought, differences in individual characteristics such as
personality and coping skills are most important in predicting whether certain job
conditions will result in stress-in other words, what is stressful for one person may not be a
problem for someone else. This viewpoint leads to prevention strategies that focus on
workers and ways to help them cope with demanding job conditions. Although the
importance of individual differences cannot be ignored, scientific evidence suggests that
certain working conditions are stressful to most people. Such evidence argues for a greater
emphasis on working conditions as the key source of job stress, and for job redesign as a
primary prevention strategy. Personal interview surveys of working conditions, including
conditions recognized as risk factors for job stress, were conducted in Member States of the
European Union in 1990, 1995, and 2000. Results showed a trend across these periods
suggestive of increasing work intensity. In 1990, the percentage of workers reporting that
they worked at high speeds at least one-fourth of their working time was 48%, increasing to
54% in 1995 and to 56% in 2000. Similarly, 50% of workers reported they work against
tight deadlines at least one-fourth of their working time in 1990, increasing to 56% in 1995
and 60 % in 2000. However, no change was noted in the period 19952000 (data not
collected in 1990) in the percentage of workers reporting sufficient time to complete tasks.
A substantial percentage of Americans work very long hours. By one estimate, more than
26% of men and more than 11% of women worked 50 hours per week or more in 2000.
These figures represent a considerable increase over the previous three decades, especially
for women. According to the Department of Labor, there has been an upward trend in hours
worked among employed women, an increase in extended work weeks (>40 hours) by men,
and a considerable increase in combined working hours among working couples,
particularly couples with young children.


Mood and sleep disturbances, upset stomach and headache, and disturbed relationships with
family; friends and girlfriends or boyfriends are examples of stress-related problems. The
effects of job stress on chronic diseases are more difficult to see because chronic diseases
take a long time to develop and can be influenced by many factors other than stress.
Nonetheless, evidence is rapidly accumulating to suggest that stress plays an important role
in several types of chronic health problems-especially cardiovascular disease,
musculoskeletal disorders, and psychological disorders.


A combination of organizational change and stress management is often the most useful
approach for preventing stress at work.

How to Change the Organization to Prevent Job Stress

Ensure that the workload is in line with workers' capabilities and resources.
Design jobs to provide meaning, stimulation, and opportunities for workers to use
their skills.

Clearly define workers' roles and responsibilities.

Give workers opportunities to participate in decisions and actions affecting their


Improve communications-reduce uncertainty about career development and future

employment prospects.

Provide opportunities for social interaction among workers.

Establish work schedules that are compatible with demands and responsibilities
outside the job.

Discrimination inside the workplace. (e.g. nationality and language )

St. Paul Fire and Marine Insurance Company conducted several studies on the effects of
stress prevention programs in hospital settings. Program activities included (1) employee
and management education on job stress, (2) changes in hospital policies and procedures to
reduce organizational sources of stress, and (3) establishment of employee assistance
programs. In one study, the frequency of medication errors declined by 50% after
prevention activities was implemented in a 700-bed hospital. In a second study, there was a
70% reduction in malpractice claims in 22 hospitals that implemented stress prevention
activities. In contrast, there was no reduction in claims in a matched group of 22 hospitals
that did not implement stress prevention activities.


With the rapid advancement of technology, the stresses faced at work have also increased.
Many people dread going to work, hence the term Monday Blues. What is the reason for
this? There is partly the fear from being retrenched in bad times, leading to greater job
insecurity on the part of those who remain. Undoubtedly, occupational stress is one of the
most commonly cited stressors faced by people all over the world.

Stress refers to the pressure and reactions to our environment which results in psychological
and physical reactions. Whilst some stress is good for motivation and increasing efficiency,
too much stress can result in negative impacts such as reduced effectiveness and efficiency.
More and more people are feeling isolated and disrespected at work, and this has led to
greater occupational stress. Many companies have taken to consulting experts and
professionals on ways to increase connectedness and motivation of their employees.

Some companies organize parties and make their employees feel valued at work. These are
measures to motivate employees and help them to feel secure at their jobs, translating into
greater productivity. However, not all companies have such measures in place, and some
have not gotten it quite right. Hence, it is up to you to make sure that you can cope with
stress at your workplace, and use it to help you work better. Here are 3 simple steps to help
you with coping with stress in the workplace.

Step 1: Raising Awareness

Help yourself to identify when you are facing rising levels of stress, tipping the scales from
positive to negative. This is important, as being able to identify signs of being stressed can
help you to take steps to ensure that your overall quality of life does not drop. If left
unacknowledged, the problem will only snowball, leading to disastrous consequences to
your health and overall wellbeing.

You can identify if you are feeling stressed by checking if you have any physical or
psychological reactions, such as excessive sweating or heart palpitations, or the onset of
headaches, irritability or the need to escape. If you experience any of these reactions,
identify if you are feeling any overwhelming negative emotions, and if you are constantly

Step 2: Identify the Cause

You need to be able to analyze the situation and identify what is causing the rise in stress.
These stressors can be external and internal. External stressors refer to things beyond your
control, such as the environment or your colleagues at work. Internal stressors refer to your
own thinking and attitude. Often, we only start reacting to stress when a combination of
stressors working together exceeds our ability to cope.

Keep a diary or a list of events that have caused you to feel strong negative emotions, or
that are likely stressors. This will help you to identify the causes of your stress. Whilst it is
not always possible to eradicate them, we can change the way that we cope with it.

Step 3: Coping with Stress

In order to deal with the situation that is causing you stress, you need to calm your mind
and body so as to stave off the reactions and cope with it in a positive way. This can be
through different methods, such as taking time off. If a situation is triggering your stress
and you are unable to calm down, remove yourself from it. Go outside and take a walk to
calm down. Alternatively, you can try implementing relaxation techniques such as deep
breathing. If it is an internal stressor, stop your thought process until you are able to deal
with it logically.

The key to making these 3 steps work for you is to practice them. These are not
instantaneous solutions, and you need to condition your mind and practice them so that you
can implement it when you are feeling stressed.


1. Job analysis:

We have all experienced that appalling sense of having far too much work to do and too
little time to do it in. We can choose to ignore this, and work unreasonably long hours to
stay on top of our workload. The risks here are that we become exhausted, that we have so

much to do that we do a poor quality job and that we neglect other areas of our life. Each of
these can lead to intense stress.

The alternative is to work more intelligently, by focusing on the things that are important
for job success and reducing the time we spend on low priority tasks. Job Analysis is the
first step in doing this.

The first of the action-oriented skills that we look at is Job Analysis. Job Analysis is a key
technique for managing job overload an important source of stress.

To do an excellent job, you need to fully understand what is expected of you. While this
may seem obvious, in the hurly-burly of a new, fast-moving, high-pressure role, it is
oftentimes something that is easy to overlook.

By understanding the priorities in your job, and what constitutes success within it, you can
focus on these activities and minimize work on other tasks as much as possible. This helps
you get the greatest return from the work you do, and keep your workload under control.

Job Analysis is a useful technique for getting a firm grip on what really is important in your
job so that you are able to perform excellently. It helps you to cut through clutter and
distraction to get to the heart of what you need to do.

2. Rational & Positive Thinking:

You are thinking negatively when you fear the future, put yourself down, criticize yourself
for errors, doubt your abilities, or expect failure. Negative thinking damages confidence,
harms performance and paralyzes mental skills.

Unfortunately, negative thoughts tend to flit into our consciousness, do their damage and
flit back out again, with their significance having barely been noticed. Since we barely
realize that they were there, we do not challenge them properly, which means that they can
be completely incorrect and wrong.

Thought Awareness is the process by which you observe your thoughts and become aware
of what is going through your head.

One approach to it is to observe your "stream of consciousness" as you think about the
thing you're trying to achieve which is stressful. Do not suppress any thoughts. Instead, just

let them run their course while you watch them, and write them down on our free worksheet
as they occur. Then let them go.

Another more general approach to Thought Awareness comes with logging stress in your
Stress Diary. When you analyze your diary at the end of the period, you should be able to
see the most common and the most damaging thoughts. Tackle these as a priority using the
techniques below.

Here are some typical negative thoughts you might experience when preparing to give a
major presentation:

Fear about the quality of your performance or of problems that may interfere with it;

Worry about how the audience (especially important people in it like your boss) or
the press may react to you;

Dwelling on the negative consequences of a poor performance; or

Self-criticism over a less-than-perfect rehearsal.

Thought awareness is the first step in the process of managing negative thoughts, as you
cannot manage thoughts that you are unaware of.

Rational Thinking

The next step in dealing with negative thinking is to challenge the negative thoughts that
you identified using the Thought Awareness technique. Look at every thought you wrote
down and challenge it rationally. Ask yourself whether the thought is reasonable. What
evidence is there for and against the thought? Would your colleagues and mentors agree or
disagree with it?

Looking at the examples, the following challenges could be made to the negative thoughts
we identified earlier:

Feelings of inadequacy: Have you trained yourself as well as you reasonably

should have? Do you have the experience and resources you need to make the
presentation? Have you planned, prepared and rehearsed enough? If you have done
all of these, you've done as much as you can to give a good performance.

Worries about performance during rehearsal: If some of your practice was less
than perfect, then remind yourself that the purpose of the practice is to identify areas
for improvement, so that these can be sorted out before the performance.

Problems with issues outside your control: Have you identified the risks of these
things happening, and have you taken steps to reduce the likelihood of them
happening or their impact if they do? What will you do if they occur? And what do
you need others to do for you?

Worry about other people's reactions: If you have prepared well, and you do the
best you can, then you should be satisfied. If you perform as well as you reasonably
can, then fair people are likely to respond well. If people are not fair, the best thing
to do is ignore their comments and rise above them.

When you challenge negative thoughts rationally, you should be able to see quickly
whether the thoughts are wrong or whether they have some substance to them.
Where there is some substance, take appropriate action. However, make sure that
your negative thoughts are genuinely important to achieving your goals, and don't
just reflect a lack of experience, which everyone has to go through at some stage.

Positive Thinking & Opportunity Seeking

By now, you should already be feeling more positive. The final step is to prepare rational,
positive thoughts and affirmations to counter any remaining negativity. It can also be useful
to look at the situation and see if there are any useful opportunities that are offered by it.

By basing your affirmations on the clear, rational assessments of facts that you made using
Rational Thinking, you can use them to undo the damage that negative thinking may have
done to your self-confidence.

Continuing the examples above, positive affirmations might be:

Problems during practice: "I have learned from my rehearsals. This has put me in
a position where I can deliver a great performance. I am going to perform well and
enjoy the event."

Worries about performance: "I have prepared well and rehearsed thoroughly. I am
well positioned to give an excellent performance."
Problems issues outside your control: "I have thought through everything that
might reasonably happen and have planned how I can handle all likely
contingencies. I am very well placed to react flexibly to events."

Worry about other people's reaction: "Fair people will react well to a good
performance. I will rise above any unfair criticism in a mature and professional

Make sure that identifying these opportunities and focusing on them is part of your positive


During stress, the adrenal gland releases corticosteroids, which are converted to cortical in
the blood stream. These have an immunosuppressive effect. Dr. Lee Berk and fellow
researcher Dr. Stanley Tan at Loma Linda University School of Medicine have produced
carefully controlled studies showing that the experience of laughter lowers serum cortical
levels, increases the amount and activity of T lymphocytesthe natural killer cells.
Laughter also increases the number of T cells that have suppresser receptors.

What Laughter Can Do Against Stress And Its Effects?

Laughter lowers blood pressure and reduces hypertension.

It provides good cardiac conditioning especially for those who are unable to
perform physical exercise.

Reduces stress hormones (studies shows, laughter induces reduction of at least four
of neuroendocrine hormonesepinephrine, cortical, dopac, and growth hormone,
associated with stress response).

Laughter cleanses the lungs and body tissues of accumulated stale air as it empties
more air than it takes in. It is beneficial for patients suffering from emphysema and
other respiratory ailments.

It increases muscle flexion, relaxation and fluent blood circulation in body.

Boosts immune function by raising levels of infection-fighting T-cells, disease-
fighting proteins called Gamma-interferon and disease-destroying antibodies called

Laughter triggers the release of endorphinsbody's natural painkillers.

Produces a general sense of well-being.



Modern Western economic and financial history is usually traced back to the coffee houses
of London. The London Royal Exchange was established in 1565. At that time
moneychangers were already called bankers, though the term "bank" usually referred to
their offices, and did not carry the meaning it does today. There was also a hierarchical
order among professionals; at the top were the bankers who did business with heads of
state, next were the city exchanges, and at the bottom were the pawn shops or "Lombard's.
Some European cities today have a Lombard street where the pawn shop was located.

After the siege of Antwerp trade moved to Amsterdam. In 1609 the Amsterdamsche
Wisselbank (Amsterdam Exchange Bank) was founded which made Amsterdam the
financial centre of the world until the Industrial Revolution.

Banking offices were usually located near centers of trade, and in the late 17th century, the
largest centers for commerce were the ports of Amsterdam, London, and Hamburg.
Individuals could participate in the lucrative East India trade by purchasing bills of credit
from these banks, but the price they received for commodities was dependent on the ships
returning (which often didn't happen on time) and on the cargo they carried (which often
wasn't according to plan). The commodities market was very volatile for this reason, and
also because of the many wars that led to cargo seizures and loss of ships.


1602 - First joint-stock company, the Dutch East India Company founded.
1720 - The South Sea Bubble and John Law's Mississippi Scheme, which caused a
European financial crisis and forced many bankers out of business.

1781 - The Bank of North America was found by the Continental Congress.

1930-33 In the wake of the Wall Street Crash of 1929, 9,000 banks close, wiping
out a third of the money supply in the United States.

1986 - The "Big Bang" (deregulation of London financial markets) served as a

catalyst to reaffirm London's position as a global centre of world banking.

2008 - Washington Mutual collapses. It was the largest bank failure in history.


The first bank in India, though conservative, was established in 1786. From 1786 till today,
the journey of Indian Banking System can be segregated into three distinct phases.
They are as mentioned below:
Early phase from 1786 to 1969 of Indian Banks
Nationalisation of Indian Banks and up to 1991 prior to Indian banking sector

New phase of Indian Banking System with the advent of Indian Financial &
Banking Sector Reforms after 1991.

Phase I

The General Bank of India was set up in the year 1786. Next came Bank of Hindustan and
Bengal Bank. The East India Company established Bank of Bengal (1809), Bank of
Bombay (1840) and Bank of Madras (1843) as independent units and called it Presidency
Banks. These three banks were amalgamated in 1920 and Imperial Bank of India was
established which started as private shareholders banks, mostly Europeans shareholders.

In 1865 Allahabad Bank was established and first time exclusively by Indians, Punjab
National Bank Ltd. was set up in 1894 with headquarters at Lahore. Between 1906 and
1913, Bank of India, Central Bank of India, Bank of Baroda, Canara Bank, Indian Bank,
and Bank of Mysore were set up. Reserve Bank of India came in 1935.

During the first phase the growth was very slow and banks also experienced periodic

failures between 1913 and 1948. There were approximately 1100 banks, mostly small. To
streamline the functioning and activities of commercial banks, the Government of India
came up with The Banking Companies Act, 1949 which was later changed to Banking
Regulation Act 1949 as per amending Act of 1965 (Act No. 23 of 1965). Reserve Bank of
India was vested with extensive powers for the supervision of banking in India as the
Central Banking Authority. .

During those days public has lesser confidence in the banks. As an aftermath deposit
mobilisation was slow. Abreast of it the savings bank facility provided by the Postal
department was comparatively safer. Moreover, funds were largely given to traders.

Phase II

Government took major steps in this Indian Banking Sector Reform after independence. In
1955, it nationalised Imperial Bank of India with extensive banking facilities on a large
scale specially in rural and semi-urban areas. It formed State Bank of India to act as the
principal agent of RBI and to handle banking transactions of the Union and State
Governments all over the country....................................................................................

Seven banks forming subsidiary of State Bank of India was nationalised in 1960 on 19th
July, 1969, major process of nationalisation was carried out. It was the effort of the then
Prime Minister of India, Mrs. Indira Gandhi. 14 major commercial banks in the country
was nationalised. Second phase of nationalisation Indian Banking Sector Reform was
carried out in 1980 with seven more banks. This step brought 80% of the banking segment
in India under Government ownership.

The following are the steps taken by the Government of India to Regulate Banking
Institutions in the Country:

1949 : Enactment of Banking Regulation Act.

1955 : Nationalisation of State Bank of India.

1959 : Nationalisation of SBI subsidiaries.

1961 : Insurance cover extended to deposits.

1969 : Nationalisation of 14 major banks.

1971 : Creation of credit guarantee corporation.

1975 : Creation of regional rural banks.

1980 : Nationalisation of seven banks with deposits over 200 crore.

After the nationalisation of banks, the branches of the public sector bank India rose to
approximately 800% in deposits and advances took a huge jump by 11,000%.
Banking in the sunshine of Government ownership gave the public implicit faith and
immense confidence about the sustainability of these institutions.

Phase III

This phase has introduced many more products and facilities in the banking sector in its
reforms measure. In 1991, under the chairmanship of M Narasimham, a committee was set
up by his name which worked for the liberalisation of banking practices.

The country is flooded with foreign banks and their ATM stations. Efforts are being put to
give a satisfactory service to customers. Phone banking and net banking is introduced. The
entire system became more convenient and swift. Time is given more importance than

The financial system of India has shown a great deal of resilience. It is sheltered from any
crisis triggered by any external macroeconomics shock as other East Asian Countries
suffered. This is all due to a flexible exchange rate regime, the foreign reserves are high, the
capital account is not yet fully convertible, and banks and their customers have
limited foreign exchange exposure.




A review on the previous studies on stress among the employees is necessary to know the
areas already covered. This will help to find our new areas uncovered and to study them in
depth. The earlier studies made on stress among the employees are briefly reviewed here.

The research study of Jamal. M* finds that job stressors were significantly related to
employees psychosomatic problems, job satisfaction, unproductive time at the job, and
absenteeism. Type A behaviour was found to be an important moderator of the stress
outcome relationship.

Hans Selye was one of the founding fathers of stress research. His view in 1956 was that
stress is not necessarily something bad it all depends on how you take it. The stress of
exhilarating, creative successful work is beneficial, while that of failure, humiliation or
infection is detrimental. Selye believed that the biochemical effects of stress would be
experienced irrespective of whether the situation was positive or negative.

The most commonly accepted definition of stress (mainly attributed to Richard S Lazarus)
is that stress is a condition or feeling experienced when a person perceives that
demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize.
In short, it's what we feel when we think we've lost control of events.

Brief. A. P. and J. M. Atieh*, argues that it is not safe to assume that job conditions that
have an adverse impact on affective reactions to the job will also have a negative impact on
overall subjective well-being.

Fienmann views stress as a psychological response state of negative effect characterized by

a persistent and a high level of experienced anxiety or tension.

* Jamal M. Job stress-prone Type A behaviour, personal and organizational
consequences, Canadian Journal Administration Sciences, 1985. pp 360-74.

* A. P and J. M. Atieh, Studying job stress: Are we making mountains out of molehills?
Journal of occupational behavior, 1987 pp115-26.

Hans Seyle, the endocrinologist, whose research on General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS),
for the first time, revealed how human beings adapt themselves to emotional strives and
strains in their lives. According to him emotional stress occurs in three important stages. 1.
Alarm reaction stage 2. Resistance stage 3. Exhaustion stage.

Alarm reaction is caused by physical or psychological stressors. Resistances are brought

about by ACTH hormone of the body. Exhaustion follows when ACTH dwindles as a result
of continual stress. (ACTH-Aprinocorticotropic).

According to Stephen .P. Robbins*, stress related headaches are the leading cause of loss of
work time in U. S. industry.

Cooper and Marshall* visualize stress as characteristics of both the focal individual and his
environment. They designate the internal and external consultive forces as pressures or
stressors and the resulting stalk of the organism on stress.

Recent research into the interaction between the mind and body show that we may place
our body on stress alert quite unconsciously, because of our psychological and emotional
attitudes to stress. Anticipatory emotions like impatience, anxiety, and anger can produce
the same nerve impulses and chemical reactions as being faced with a concrete challenge.
So when faced with a stressful situation, we must either use up the energy created by the
body to challenge or learn how to turn off, the response using a conscious relaxation






The world today is fast changing and every individual faces a lot of pressure and demand at
work. These pressures at work lead to mental and physical disorders. Stress refers to an
individuals response to a disturbing factor in the environment and the consequences of
such a reaction. This study will help organizations know what causes stress and how to
reduce the same in employees since it is a well known fact that a healthy and sound
employee is a productive employee.


Primary objective:

To undergo an in-depth study about the existence of stress among the employees of
the BANKING INDUSTRY Post - Recession.

Secondary objective:

To identify the factors causing stress among the employees.

To find out the level of stress among the employees of different age groups.
To study about the effects of stress on employees in BANKING INDUSTRY.
To identify the coping strategies to manage stress.


Research is defined as hum an activity based on intellectual application in the investigation

of matter. The primary purpose for applied research is discovering, interpreting, and the
development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide
variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. Research can use the scientific
method, but need not do so.

Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. The research
methodology in the present study deals with research design, data collection methods,
sampling methods, survey, analysis and interpretations.


Descriptive approach is one of the most popular approaches these days. In this approach, a
problem is described by the researcher by using questionnaire or schedule. This approach
enables a researcher to explore new areas of investigation.


A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a
manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.

A well structured questionnaire is framed.

Data is collected from the employees in the BANKING INDUSTRY.
Findings are made and necessary suggestions and recommendations are given.


There are two types of data collection namely primary data collection and secondary data


The primary data is defined as the data, which is collected for the first time and fresh in
nature, and happen to be original in character through field survey.


The secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone else and have
been passed through statistical process.


The data collection method used in this research is questionnaire method. Here the data are
systematically recorded from the respondents.


A structured questionnaire has been prepared to get the relevant information from the
respondents. The questionnaire consists of a variety of questions presented to the
respondents for their despondence.


Sampling is that part of statistical practice concerned with the selection of individual
observations intended to yield some knowledge about a population of concern, especially
for the purposes of statistical inference. Each observation measures one or more properties
(weight, location, etc.) of an observable entity enumerated to distinguish objects or
individuals. Survey weights often need to be applied to the data to adjust for the sample
design. Results from probability theory and statistical theory are employed to guide


The employees of the BANKING INDUSTRY are the sample unit in the survey.


The sample size chosen for this study is 30 as instructed by the department since it is a


Sampling methods are classified as either probability or non probability. In probability

samples, each member of the population has a known non-zero probability of being
selected. Probability methods include random sampling, systematic sampling, and stratified

sampling. In non probability sampling, members are selected from the population in some
nonrandom manner. These include convenience sampling, judgment sampling, quota
sampling, and snowball sampling. The advantage of probability sampling is that sampling
error can be calculated. Sampling error is the degree to which a sample might differ from
the population. When inferring to the population, results are reported plus or minus the
sampling error. In non probability sampling, the degree to which the sample differs from
the population remains unknown.

In this research, the sampling methods used are Convenience sampling and Snowball

Judgment sampling is a common non-probability method. The researcher

selects the sample based on judgment. This is usually an extension of
convenience sampling. For example, a researcher may decide to draw the
entire sample from one "representative" city, even though the population
includes all cities. When using this method, the researcher must be confident
that the chosen sample is truly representative of the entire population.

Snowball sampling is a special non-probability method used when the desired

sample characteristic is rare. It may be extremely difficult or cost prohibitive
to locate respondents in these situations. Snowball sampling relies on referrals
from initial subjects to generate additional subjects. While this technique can
dramatically lower search costs, it comes at the expense of introducing bias
because the technique itself reduces the likelihood that the sample will
represent a good cross section from the population.


Percentage analysis
Pie diagrams


Percentage refers to a special kind of ratio. Percentages are used in making comparison
between two or more series of data. Percentage is used to describe relative terms the
distribution of two or more series of data.

No. of Respondents

Percentage of Respondents = ------------------------ X 100

Total Respondent


In spite of the precautions, vigilance and scrupulousness taken by the investigator to make
the study objective, it cannot be denied that there are certain limitations.

The questionnaires were filled be 10 employees working in various bank. So the

scope of sample findings was less.

The questionnaire was filled by 10 employees of different designations. So the

point of view of employees differs as per their designations.

The employees from whom the questionnaires are filled are in a heavy workload
so some of the questionnaires filled by the employees who are in stress cannot
be called reasonable.

The responses of the employees cannot be accurate as the problem of language

and understanding arises. (These problems are not in all cases.)

As the study was done within a limited time, investigator could not select a
sufficiently large sample for the study.

The employees were reluctant to give correct information.





Q1. Do you suffer with difficulty in sleeping?

From the above table, it is understood that 26.7% of the employees rarely have any trouble
in sleeping ,23.3% find it difficult sometimes ,16.7% face the problem very often and 6.7%
of the employees find extreme difficulty in sleeping.
Therefore, it is observed that for most parts, the employees do not have any problems with

Q2. Do you find it difficult to concentrate?

It is clear that 16.7% of the employees have absolutely no difficulty in concentrating,36.7%
of them rarely have a problem ,33.3% sometimes and only a small group of 13.3% find it
difficult to concentrate at work.
Therefore, it can be said that mostly the employees have no trouble in concentrating at

Q3. Do financial problems get you down?

The table shows that, 40% of the employees feel that financial problems put them down
sometimes, 30% felt that it did not affect them at all and 26.7% of them felt that very often
it caused them problems. Therefore, it is identified that financial trouble does put down
people sometimes.

Q4. Do you find yourself 'self-medicating' with additional alcohol, nicotine or other

This table indicates that 26.7% of the employees self medicate quite often, 23.3% resort
to alcoholism etc very frequently to relieve stress while 23.3% of them do not resort to
substance abuse at all . It shows that most employees give into excessive alcoholism or
some other forms of self medication most times to reduce stress

Q5. Do you get angry quickly?

40% of the employees claim that they sometimes get angry often while 33.3% feel that they
do not get angry very often. Also 26.7% of them say that they get very angry most of the
Therefore, it is inferred that most of the employees are relatively calm and get angry only

Q6. Do you find you are prone to negative thinking about your job?

The table clearly shows that the employees have no negative thoughts about their job since
40% of them feel that it happens only rarely and 33.3.% say that it never happens.
Therefore, the rate of job pessimism or negative thinking about ones job is very low.

Q7. When you have been ill with relatively minor illnesses, does it take you a long time
to recover?


From the table, it is seen that most of the employees (36.7%) recuperate pretty quickly from
an illness while only 26.7% of them say that sometimes a long slow recovery period is
It is inferred that most of the employees get back to their feet pretty soon after an illness
and do not stay in bed for excessive periods of time.

Q8. Do you feel you are isolated, with no-one to talk to?


This table shows that majority of the people do not feel isolated or lonely. 46.7% of them
do not feel any isolation while 33.3% say it happens rarely.
Therfore,it is seen that most of the employees have someone to talk to and relate with and
are not isolated or alone.

Q9. Do you feel out of control and as if you're not in the driving seat of your life and


This table shows that most of the employees have control of their lives and are in the
driving seat of their own lives while only 20% felt that they are being controlled by others
and not themselves.

Q10. Do you feel misunderstood or unappreciated by your colleagues, friends or
family members?

Here again, most of the employees are satisfied and not misunderstood or unappreciated by
their colleagues or family members. Only 20% feel that at certain times they are





1. Most of the respondents have many years of long association with the
2. Most of the employees feel that they have no time for themselves and
their personal lives because of work overload.
3. The respondents are sociable and have no problems interacting with
their colleagues.
4. Employees are satisfied with the working conditions.
5. Role overload is the major cause of stress.
6. The respondents face a moderate level of stress

The employees must give importance to time management techniques there by they
can complete their work within the specified time.

Many tasks can be delegated to subordinates without losing effectiveness so that we

can reduce the overload of work.

Introduce Flexi time

Organisations must introduce recreational zones within the premises for the
employees to unwind.

Adopt the work to home transition strategy. It means instead of carrying the
pressures of the work to home, the suggestion is to start the unwinding process
during the work day and enter the home in a relaxed and peaceful mind.

Counselling the employees when they face problems, because counselling is the
discussion of a problem that usually has emotional content with an employee in
order to help the employee cope better.

The organization must introduce Employee Assistance Programmes (EAPs) and

stress control workshops accordingly to the level of employees, because there is a
strong relation between the level of stress and level of employees. EAP includes
counselling employees who seek assistance on how to deal with alcohol and drug
abuse, managing personal finances, handling conflicts at the work place, dealing
with marital and other family problems, and coping with health problems.

Engaging the bored employee in aerobic exercise, because it stimulates the brain
and the body. Also the employee must practice meditation and yoga regularly.

This project consists of the information about the employees, working in the
banking industry, who are undergoing stress. So considering this factor, the topic
becomes one of the most important part of the project as it consists of the opinion of
the employees who work in the banks. The response of employees from major
banks in the city was marvellous as they gave their valuable opinion about reducing
stress as a result of the last question included in the questionnaire. The opinion of
the employees were as follows:

Just smile away An employee- HDFC Bank
Just believe in yourself and just do what your heart wants An employee- HDFC
Talking to family member - Watching TV or listening good music, - Going for a
walk or long drive An employee- HDFC Bank
Believe in God An employee- Bank of Baroda
Respect yourself and give time to yourself An employee- CitiBank
Working in environment welfares, lot of positive attitude. Positive attitude is only
that reduces stress and achieves success. Most of the people frustrate due to lack of
positivity and stress level climbs up due to that. So get positive attitude about work,
about life, and forget the stress An employee- CitiBank
We should do such activities from which we get happiness and also make others
happy. Pass your time with your close friends and relatives. An employee- ICICI
Play and watch cricket An employee- ICICI Bank
Listen music and spend time with family An employee- Deutsche Bank
Get adjusted with others, Find and spend time for prayer, Study the scriptures, See
oneness in all, All are manifested of the supreme GOD An employee- Deutsche


Stress in the work place has become the black plague of the present century. Much of the
stress at work is caused not only by work overload and time pressure but also by lack of
rewards and praise, and more importantly, by not providing individuals with the autonomy
to do their work as they would like.

Organization must begin to manage people at work differently, improve physical work
environment, treat them with respect and value their contribution. If we enhance the
psychological well being and health of the employees, the organizational revenue increases
and there is employee retention as well. Because it is said that,

A Healthy Employee is a Productive Employee



1. Jamal M. Job stress-prone Type A behaviour, personal and organizational

consequences, Canadian Journal Administration Sciences, 1985. pp 360-74.
2. A. P and J. M. Atieh, Studying job stress: Are we making mountains out of
molehills? Journal of occupational behavior, 1987 pp115-26.
3. PaulHersey, Kenneth H. Blanchard, Dewey E. Johnson Organizational Behavior,
Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd, 1998.
4. Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behavior, Prentice Hall, U .K. 1999.
5. Cooper. C. L. and Marshall. J, Understanding Executive Stress, The McMillan
Press Ltd, 1978 p 4.
6. K. Aswathappa, Organizational Behavior,Himalaya Publishing House






1 Do you suffer with difficulty in sleeping?

a. Not at all b. Rarely c. Sometimes d. Often

e. Very Often

2 Do you find it difficult to concentrate?

a. Not at all b. Rarely c. Sometimes d. Often

e. Very Often

3 Do financial problems get you down?

a. Not at all b. Rarely c. Sometimes d. Often

e. Very Often

4 Do you find yourself 'self-medicating' with additional alcohol, nicotine

or other substances?

a. Not at all b. Rarely c. Sometimes d. Often

e. Very Often

5 Do you get angry quickly?

a. Not at all b. Rarely c. Sometimes d. Often

e. Very Often

6 Do you find you are prone to negative thinking about your job?

a. Not at all b. Rarely c. Sometimes d. Often

e. Very Often

7 Do you feel you are isolated, with no one to talk to?

a. Not at all b. Rarely c. Sometimes d. Often

e. Very Often

Do you feel out of control, as if you are not in the driving seat of your life and

a. Not at all b. Rarely c. Sometimes d. Often

e. Very Often

9 When conflict arises at work or at home, do you tend to over-react?

a. Not at all b. Rarely c. Sometimes d. Often

e. Very Often

Do you feel that there is more work to do than you realistically have the capacity
to do?

a. Not at all b. Rarely c. Sometimes d. Often

e. Very Often