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is that when flow saturated vapours properly will reduction and expansion to super. which may be Failure to extract the gases and to supersonic velocity. A along with associated saturated ing-diverging nozzle where its fundamental principle for steam and hydrocarbon vapours. where high velocity is tion column cracked and inert gases isentropically across a converg. such as light or heavy principle follows compressible flow sonic. The system produces and treating or repurposing of the gases.eptq. The ejector nozzle is lower than the distillation converging-diverging diffuser system extracts the gases at sub-at. thereby vacuum. and reduce steam. The throat of the LVGO and HVGO yield. right. is the energy source that passes through another converg- uum. velocity increasing residuum while lowering exiting the converging-diverging actually decreases. referred to as continually extract from the distilla. The ejector system will performs the work and creates the ing-diverging conduit. While they have been used widely in distilla- tion service for decades. converted back to pressure. bottom left. The performance of an ejector system correlates directly to vacuum gas oil yield and refinery profitability. variables impacting performance. vacuum. referred to as suction load or flow maintains sub-atmospheric pressure to the first stage ejector. The operating the combined flow remains super- components. typically less than 300 psig sonic mixture of load and motive the amount of lower valued resid. an understanding of best practices for specifying an ejector system and the important factors that affect ejector system performance are not always well known. Steam is expanded a diffuser. vacuum distillation column vacuum distillation service. compressible flow vacuum gas oils (LVGO and theory. Operating vacuum distillation ejector systems Best practices and opportunities to deliver reliable ejector system performance and reduce performance risk JIM LINES Graham Corporation R eliable ejector system perfor- mance is critical for every refiner. Both charge rate and fractionation are impacted when distillation or fractionation operat- ing pressure is not met. This article provides a deeper review of ejector system performance.com PTQ Q4 2016 33 . respectively). Again. (43 kPag). column pressure. thereby inducing section of the ejector is where cross- www. specify an ejector system for first stage condenser. This pressure counter-intuitive. The suction (a vacuum) within the distillation An ejector load is entrained by and mixes with column to permit fractionation of Ejectors are static equipment with the high velocity motive steam. Medium or low pressure theory is applied where the super- HVGO. and crude oil into its various important no moving parts. pressure is reduced and converted compressible flow. is supersonic and the cross- result in an increase in distillation sonic flow is what creates the sectional area of a flow path is column operating pressure. first stage ejector. and best practices to Figure 1 An ejector system for a US Gulf Coast refiner: top left. mospheric pressure and compresses flow from the column and pulling Ejector system them to a pressure typically above the cracked gases and inerts plus An ejector system is a combination atmospheric pressure where they saturated vapours into the ejector. of ejectors and condensers arranged enter another refinery process for The vacuum column discharge is in series. The low pressure region progressively reduced.

and also pres. longer present. vapour equivalent load at 15 torr. and 250 psig. A dashed line and therefore distillation column pressure may surge or become unstable once the shock wave is no Typical first stage ejector performance curve maximum discharge pressure (MDP). for a given suction load. which serves to boost pressure. Suction pressure 40 and the MDP an ejector is antici- 30 pated to operate against. the ejector will not cause the condenser to operate at a higher pressure. If the pres- sure of the condenser is below the discharge capability of the ejector. The 80 MDP at 240 psig two most important variables to 70 MDP at 230 psig understand and have correct for MDP at 220 psig Torr 60 proper performance are: motive Broken suction pressure 50 steam pressure and temperature. Motive steam provides the energy necessary to compress and flow the mixture of motive and load to the operating pressure of a Velocity profile downstream condenser. If ity exiting the converging-diverging performance of the ejector breaks motive steam pressure is 230.eptq. Higher pressure bility is greater. the shock wave is lost. discharge pressure in operation lb/hr VE rising above MDP.com PTQ Q4 2016 35 . 20 Performance frustration and lost 10 profit for a refiner stem most often Design suction load 0 from motive steam pressure falling 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 below a minimum pressure or from HEI equivalent water vapour load at 70ºF. Notice that. there is an abrupt First stage ejector suction pressure vs suction load 30 Suction pressure. unlike a piston reduc. 120 An ejector performance curve 110 provides critical information about 100 Suction pressure and 90 MDP at 250 psig variables affecting performance. motive will increase the motive tor.sectional area is the smallest and a shock wave is established. negative change in performance. Figure 3 5 Three parallel 1/3-capacity ejectors shows a typical ejector performance 0 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 curve. In either of these two conditions. therefore. lb/hr VE increases with higher motive steam pressure. MDP capability HEI equivalent water vapour load at 70ºF. This particular ejector is designed for 7213 lb/h of water Figure 3 Typical ejector performance curve www. Pressure profile ing volume to increase pressure. Conversely. 113 or 117 torr. the MDP capability at 7213 expansion increases. 240 or nozzle and. An ejector. Figure 2 Motive Mixture steam illustrates pressure and velocity 220 psig 104 Torr profiles across an ejector with a clear step up in pressure at the Suction throat where a shock wave is load 15 Torr established. MDP < 104 Torr sure surging may occur. 25 25% above design suction load with distillation column operating 20 Design suction load Torr pressure rising above its design 15 25% below suction load operating pressure. thus with typically suction pressure moves lb/h of load is 109. energy from down. does not create a discharge pres- sure. 10 Motive steam 220 psig. Suction pressure respectively. referred to as a maximum discharging up to 104 torr when mass flow rate along with the veloc- discharge pressure (MDP). higher motive pressure MDP capa- sharply higher. if the operat- ing pressure of a condenser Figure 2 Pressure and velocity profiles within an ejector downstream of an ejector is above the discharge capability of that ejec. the motive steam is at 220 psig.

eptq. The down and compression is nega. while system are positioned between ejec. There is steam to perform the required non-ideally miscible condensates to essentially a doubling of the compression. the tively impacted. extracting of non-condensibles (see discharge pressure exceed MDP. should compression across the ejector. and reduce pressure loss higher the discharge pressure. A vacuum condenser may also serve as a pre-condenser positioned between a vacuum column and an ejector system. However. ing segmental or double segmental A similar break in performance Vacuum system condensers baffling in order to reduce pressure arises when motive steam pressure Condensers within an ejector loss and appropriately manage is below 220 psig for example. handling operation exceeded MDP. vapour-liquid equilibrium discharge pressure must be 104 torr. The shock wave ensure correct vapour-liquid equi- vacuum column discharge pressure. Distinct differences from That jump in pressure increases motive pressure below design cause conventional shell and tube heat vacuum residuum. the shock wave to move out of the exchangers are: ing LVGO and HVGO cuts.com . mance is a result of insufficient condensing vapours with non- sure if the discharge pressure in energy available from the motive condensibles present. thereby lowering energy usage in the form of motive steam required by that ejector. The throat and into the converging • Open areas above the tube actual broken suction pressure will section where it ultimately breaks bundle to permit flow distribution depend on discharge pressure. although it externally appears no different. resulting in loss of librium and to permit continual from 15 torr to 30 torr. thereby reduc. breaks down. the internal for venting non-condensibles configuration is different due to operating under a vacuum. • Lack of conventional flow direct- higher the broken suction pressure. tor stages to condense steam and • Extracting non-condensible gases In each case the break in perfor. requirements for the system. shows an estimated suction pres. It has similar construction features that follow Tubular Exchanger Manufacturer Association (TEMA) or American Petroleum Institute API 660 guide- Figure 4 Cross-section of a TEMA “X” shell vacuum condenser with a longitudinal baffle lines. A condenser within an ejector system is unlike a typical shell and tube heat exchanger. By condensing steam and vapours it will reduce the load- ing to a downstream ejector. vapours in order to reduce energy within a tube bundle. in most cases. Discharge pressure above MDP or Figure 4). TEMA ‘E’ shell TEMA ‘X’ shell TEMA ‘X’ shell Large crossflow section with Cross flow with longitudinal Cross flow with condensate final baffled flow section for baffle for condensate separation separation external to tube bundle condensate separation and and final vapour cooling final vapour cooling Vapour inlet Vapour inlet Vapour inlet Vapour outlet Vapour Condensate outlet Vapour outlet outlet Condensate Condensate outlet outlet Figure 5 Three types of TEMA shell vacuum condensers 36 PTQ Q4 2016 www.

must be below. Cooling water temperature change Hcondensing will vary based on whether steam or hydrocarbons are Inert gases: 300 lb/h Hydrocarbon vapours Steam: 5000 lb/h condensing at a given temperature only are condensing Hydrocarbon vapours: 16000 lb/h or if both are condensing at that 600 WMTD 63ºF temperature. Figure 5 Tube wall shows the three types. hydrocar. and c) occur. BtU/h be at or below the local vapour dew point for condensation to Figure 7 Vacuum column precondenser condensing curve and tube bundle www. across condensate film and tube wall condensing coefficient for the steam and for the hydrocarbons. Figure 6 illustrates the temperature gradient for heat and 0 mass transfer. formula for the shell side heat trans. actual compositional make-up of the top of the tube field to the Figure 7 illustrates the challenge the loading to the ejector system bottom due to the increasing mole when a mixture of hydrocarbon exiting the vacuum column. and miscible Outside tube wall Condensate film condensate concerns related to temperature temperature vapour-liquid equilibrium. A third common performance issue 1 1 1 hshellside =   + + and a thicker for ejector systems in refinery ℎ??????????  ??????  ???????????? ℎ???????????????????? ℎ????????????????????  ???????? condensate film vacuum distillation service is the hgases and vapours will decrease from results in greater resistance as well. Hydrocarbon condensate has a much lower thermal conductivity. the top of the tube field to the bottom steam. have a higher dew point than crude oil itself. where hydrocarbon condensate Specifying the distillation overhead fer coefficient is: provides higher resistance to heat loading to the ejector system !?? transfer than water. amount and type of condensable hydrocarbon vapours. in this example.5% hgases and vapours and hcondensate film with Temperature. conden. The shell side heat transfer coefficient is influ- enced by a) cracked gas. ºF Outlet mol fraction inerts: 45% 400 each varying throughout the heat exchanger tube bundle and becom- 300 ing the lowest near the exit of a Steam and hydrocarbon vapours are condensing condenser due to the volume of 200 gases being the highest and the condensate film thickness the great. A condensate film varies with condense. There are three typical configura- tions and the choice will depend Vapour and gas Vapours and gases temperature upon the operating pressure. Moreover. the actual perfor- hcondensate film will decrease from the steam and will condense before mance of the fired heaters. generalised resistance proration condensate physical properties. Importantly. column’s performance.eptq. inerts and uncondensed vapour. The fraction of gases that are present as vapours and steam must condense. Outside diameter Inside diameter Inside tube wall Vacuum column vapours are temperature Cooling generally condensed shell side with water Cooling water temperature condensing occurring on the outside Condensate film diameters of the tubes. Temperature across the 118°F (48°C) before steam will the condensate film coefficient.com PTQ Q4 2016 37 . hydro. resulting in a lower ability to affect temperature change across the Shellside temperature change condensate film’s thickness. Steam dewpoint 100 est.and typically hydrocarbon vapours back to process simulation of the ing volume fraction of the gases).performance of the atmospheric due to the increasing thickness of bon condensate film temperature distillation column. 0 2×106 4×106 6×106 8×106 10×106 12×106 14×106 sate film surface temperature must Duty. The vacuum carbon condensate forms a higher resistance to effective heat transfer than steam condensate. As Figure 7 shows. Initial dewpoint 566ºF The controlling coefficients are 500 Inlet mol fraction inerts: 1. performance issue is often traced the vapours are condensed (increas. or the vacuum condensate film. b) the Figure 6 Temperature gradient hot side to cold side.

for example.6 diameters. No two would predict and potentially over. distillation assay information along hydrocarbon loading. the www. load a downstream ejector. normal boil point distribution. C6 atmospheric column hydrocarbons or lighter. 10% of the liquid volume to condense with a molecular impactful to ejector system opera- is vaporised at 220°F (104°C) and weight of 151. molecular weight for the hydrocar. the Heat mation is important: is it true with pseudo-component normal Exchange Institute (HEI) water boiling point. Conventional thinking is how much of the crude oil is vapor. if loading from Table 1 crude oil is characterised. Consequently. to varying bons is 151. process licensors efficiency sible within the ejector system. 340°F 3000 150 400°F 3000 165 Typically. Steam used to maintain velocity in the fired heaters and for Ejector suction pressure 15 torr Suction temperature 200°F controlling partial pressure of Composition of suction load hydrocarbons in the distillation Component #/hr MW column. 3. for example.column overhead load to an ejector Vacuum distillation column overhead loading to an ejector system system is typically broken down as: 1. ous sensitivity analysis for ‘what if’ ier hydrocarbons that. and the 280°F 3000 125 amount of velocity steam. however. This is generally predicta. ASTM D-86. with normal boiling point. 220°F 750 110 ture of the fired heaters. that the amount of condensible water vapour equivalent. in operation was 30 000 lb/h of condensable sweet. Condensible hydrocarbon example. Steam 12 200 18 ble due to mass flow rate being set Inerts (cracked gases) 1500 28 Hydrocarbon vapours 15 000 151. This notion stems from an by 250°F (120°C) 30% is vaporised. that more lower normal boiling that excess hydrocarbon loading is ised at various temperatures. Best to follow its performance curve. HEI steam equivalent 21 640 2.com PTQ Q4 2016 39 . understanding the method used to practice is to provide ASTM D-86 With 100% more condensible provide the distillation assay infor. For point hydrocarbons are predicted unimportant or not materially example. 460°F 3000 190 ture. Hereto. where Cautionary considerations related • Vacuum column top temperature molecular weight is less than 90 lb/ to condensable hydrocarbon • LVGO vapour pressure lb-mole. Also. will condense within the actuality molecular weight varies ble hydrocarbon loading in ejector system. the vacuum distillation process is at sub-atmospheric Table 1 conditions. To may provide simply an average • LVGO pumparound entrainment add safety.4 versus.4 by the supply pressure and orifice Total 28 700 34. crude slate affects how a point 220°F (104°C) pseudo-compo. are grouped as cracked loading • Vacuum column stripping gases and considered non-conden. The operation. molecular weights. from Table 1. would expect the first stage ejector crude oils are alike. column exceed the design basis. Moreover. tion.4 lb/lb-mole while in factors that could impact condensa- degrees. C7 or C8 hydrocarbons molecular weight for the condensi. Too often. Cracked gases are generated in Load to each 1/3 first stage ejector 7213 the fired heater.eptq. therefore ingress of air into the system must be considered vacuum distillation column over. the higher the tempera. plant engineering unique characterisations. heavy sour. the greater the level of cracked 550°F 1500 220 gases. • Damaged stripping trays in the cracked gases. the average It is desirable to conduct a rigor- vapours are generally C7 and heav. Condensible hydro. 110 lb/lb-mole for a normal boiling ejector performance curve where. Most often. 24 torr typical compositional breakdown of causes for this: is not realised. first ejector suction pressure to rise Table 1 shows an example of a There are a number of possible to 24 torr. Therefore sion from one assay basis to hydrocarbons exiting a vacuum plant engineering anticipates another. the operating tempera. The amount of Hydrocarbon vapour normal boiling point breakdown Normal boiling point #/hr MW cracked gases will vary with the 150°F 750 100 crude slate. lb/h or approximately 35% more tion? Software or API Technical Data A common finding in operation is than design 21 640 lb/h of HEI Book may be used for inter-conver. • Atmospheric column over-flash and this is usually grouped with head loading to an ejector system. For expediency. ASTM boiling points with corresponding vapour equivalent load is 29 300 D-1160 or ASTM D-2887 informa. • Varying crude slate or lighter may be considered as ble hydrocarbons along with • Slop oil or recovered oil non-condensible gases. Light nent. and then safely specify carbons are developed using directional impact of this seemingly that loading for ejector system standard techniques that assess straightforward simplification is design. light tight shale more hydrocarbon vapours exit a hydrocarbons instead of the design and crude blends will all have vacuum condenser than simulation 15000 lb/h. For processing.

150 operating pressure increases. How has it changed the dew 300 point and thus the log mean Temperature.com . The fundamen- tal equation Q=U*A*LMTD is 350 followed. in the field. and if overall heat Temperature. consequently. 300% hydrocarbon loading The following evaluates a case 45 000 lb/h hydrocarbon vapour + 53 500 lb/h steam + 1500 lb/h inserts where design basis was 15 000 lb/h 28 000 lb/h of hydrocarbon vapour condensed of condensible hydrocarbon load- before reaching steam dewpoint. 300 Moreover. which 100 may result in the operating pres- 50 sure exceeding the MDP capability of the ejector and. 0 0 10×106 20×106 30×106 40×106 50×106 60×106 70×106 suction pressure breaks and is Duty. the amount of 100 hydrocarbons that have condensed 50 before steam reaches its dew point. To drive higher LMTD. The extent of hydrocar- bon condensate cooling that must 0 occur before the condensate film is 0 10×106 20×106 30×106 40×106 50×106 60×106 below the steam dew point can Duty. the base inter- 40 PTQ Q4 2016 www. Duty 300 (Q) is known. Hydrocarbon vapour dewpoint is 167.4ºF 400 There are two aspects to consider with added hydrocarbon loading: 350 1. ºF bon loading had higher percentages 250 of higher molecular weight/higher 200 normal boiling point hydrocarbons. Often the effective over- 30 000 lb/h hydrocarbon vapour + 53 500 lb/h steam + 1500 lb/h inserts all heat transfer rate for the 16 600 lb/h of hydrocarbon vapour condensed condenser drops measurably and as before reaching steam dewpoint. BtU/h materially alter condenser thermal 200% hydrocarbon loading capability. and the additional inter-condenser 0 0 10×106 20×106 30×106 40×106 50×106 60×106 70×106 surface area needed to address Duty. requiring ing from the vacuum column.0ºF 400 was found to be two to three times more vapour based on oil meas- 350 ured from the condensate receiver. ºF temperature difference (LMTD)? 250 2. the loading Hydrocarbon vapour dewpoint is 216. sure of the condenser rises in order Hydrocarbon vapour dewpoint is 203. Why? 15 000 lb/h hydrocarbon vapour + 53 500 lb/h steam + 1500 lb/h inserts What occurs in practice is that condensing efficiency in the first 4430 lb/h of hydrocarbon vapour condensed before reaching steam dewpoint. requiring a consequence the operating pres- 14 010 ft2 of interconnector surface area. How will the greater hydrocar- 200 bon film thickness on the heat Steam dewpoint transfer tubes reduce heat transfer? 150 In most cases hydrocarbon vapours 100 condense before steam reaches its 50 dewpoint. however.4ºF 400 to increase LMTD. requiring inter-condenser is reduced due to 8750 ft2 of interconnector surface area. Figure 8 Effects of varying hydrocarbon loading In this case. ºF transfer rate (U) is lowered due to 250 excess hydrocarbon loading then 200 LMTD must rise to balance the Steam dewpoint equation.eptq. BtU/h observed as a sharp rise above its predicted value. the greater hydrocarbon loading. the excessive hydrocar- Temperature. 17 360 ft2 of interconnector surface area. BtU/h hydrocarbon condensing before steam begins to condense. Area (A) is fixed. Base design hydrocarbon loading pressure rises to 30-40 torr. Steam dewpoint See Figure 8 for differences in the 150 heat release curve.

11 Torr higher higher for 30 000 lb/h or 45 000 lb/h of 80 hydrocarbon vapour loading the condenser is 20% or 33% under-sur. Therefore. equilibrium. 3. sure. Be careful to select conserva- operating pressure surpasses the Hydrocarbon partial pressures are tively the normal boiling boil MDP of the ejector that precedes it not straightforward because distribution for the pseudo-compo- – in this example. to mance outcomes. because surface area is now fixed. the mass flow results in less that will condense Predicting and specifying design rate of vapour is directly propor. The greater the fractionation service mance relates to a distillation level of inerts. If weighting of higher normal boiling Specifying conservatively the there is twice as much of the point pseudo-components will design cracked gas load is wise. A greater cracked gas load tional to the amount of inerts. within the ejector system.condenser design was 26 240 ft2 (2438 m2). At this required operating pressure. At a given temperature load for an ejector downstream. saturation pressure corresponding ing the mass flow rate. 100 150 200 250 300 Design point Hydrocarbon vapour loading.com PTQ Q4 2016 41 . condenser oper- ating pressure. The and potential column top tempera- curve. ???? − ??????????  ????  ???????????? ∗ ??????????????  ????????????????  ????  ℎ???????????????????? ?? ∗ ????  ????  ℎ????????????????????(??) =   the vacuum column pressure rises ??????????????????  ???????????????? − ??????????????????  ????  ??????????????  ????????????????  ????  ??????  ??????????????????????  ?????????? appreciably and potentially is unstable. suppressing the overall heat trans- steam and hydrocarbon vapours Best practices for specifying ejector fer performance. why the first stage ejector is not ture because steam is immiscible in vacuum column stripping efficiency simply tracking its performance hydrocarbon condensate. The root cause is the partial pressure of a hydrocarbon is tures to understand the upper suppression of heat transfer in the the product of its mole fraction in range for hydrocarbon vapour exit- first inter-condenser due to the the condensate multiplied by an ing the top of the vacuum column. the first stage ejector ????????  ????????????????  ????  ?????????? =   ???? − ??????????  ????  ???????????? ∗ ??????????????  ????????????????  ????  ?????????? ∗ 18 ??????????????????  ???????????????? − ??????????????????  ????  ??????????????  ????????????????  ????  ??????  ??????????????????????  ?????????? MDP is surpassed by 18 torr and. The process team wonders why The partial pressure of steam is (normal boiling point) information the added hydrocarbon loading is typically the saturation pressure 2. Run sensitivity analyses for affecting the system this way and corresponding to a given tempera. Regardless of the boiling point pseudo-components complicated formula. Provide pseudo-component column’s simulated performance. atmospheric column overflash. twice the condenser. Cracked gas and inerts should www. Figure 9 First intercondenser response to hydrocarbon loading must rise 18 torr for the 45 000 lb/h case. To effect an increase in LMTD. Understand the impact condense. the Operating pressure. D-2887 or D-1160 analyses. If true and various ‘what if’ sensitivity Simplified equations for the boiling point. for each pseudo-component. excessive hydrocarbon loading that activity coefficient multiplied by its Be conservative (overstate) regard- leads to a rise in its operating pres. Once first inter-condenser to a given temperature. LMTD must rise 60 to balance the fundamental equa. the first stage ejector ????????  ????????????????  ????  ℎ???????????????????? ?? breaks performance. area cannot be added to MDP of preceding an installed condenser that was ejector is 83 Torr 90 18 Torr designed for 26 240 ft2. Put 100 differently. the greater the 1. therefore. Consider field are directly correlated to the systems in crude oil vacuum experience for how actual perfor- amount of inerts. therefore. Torr required surface area is 31 500ft2 110 (2926 m2) to 34 850 ft2 (3238 m2). MDP is 83 torr – condensates that form follow nents. of greater hydrocarbon loading on and pressure within a condenser. vapours that saturate the inerts and with individual molecular weight LVGO pumparound entrainment. to define range of perfor- amount of vapour that saturates assay information is available. 70 faced. in this example. Consequently. % tion Q = U*A*LMTD.eptq. For two to three times 120 the hydrocarbon vapour load. cracked gases. in amount of steam and hydrocarbon normal boiling point breakdown particular stripping efficiency. As a result. inerts gases are: avoid uncertainty convert it to D-86 4. there will be twice result in more condensing of Cracked gases are inerts within an as much vapour exiting the hydrocarbons in the first stage ejector system and will not condenser and. exit the condenser as vapours. A general guideline is that a vacuum column pressure abruptly non-ideal miscibility vapour-liquid greater weighting of lower normal rises higher.

com 42 PTQ Q4 2016 www. for example. This is important to set motive pressure to establish a for field measurements. This practice will eliminate the plant water system can be as performance. Do not permit condenser ejector discharge and downstream designs where flow directing condenser operating pressure. is completed and. cracked gases presents problems stream condenser. Email: jlines@graham-mfg. date up to 150% of design cracked ture of the steam and the orifice consuming or frustrating iterations gases and inerts. baffles are used. Batavia. Provide overlap between an 9. Motive steam supply conditions possible that the site will experi. if 10. however. should be considered the highest the second and third stages should 6. For the first stage ejectors sure. A safe practice that will use an ejector system at the suction and discharge of each somewhat greater steam. Steam loading to the ejector torr. warm at 88°F (31°C). along with cooling are non-ideally miscible and years’ experience in heat transfer and vacuum water inlet temperature fluctuations require a configuration supporting system design and holds a BS degree in and fouling within the condensers integral condensation where aerospace engineering from the University at where overlap provides a margin vapours and condensate remain in Buffalo. remaining in the vapour phase. the entire length of the Jim Lines is President and CEO of Graham and inlet to a downstream tubing. pressure increases dramatically. frustration and costly profit short. A few degrees 12 Absolute best practice is to falls when vacuum column error can result in several weeks of involve an ejector system supplier pressure increases due to insuffi. to 95% of minimum supply pres. concept to establish utility is possible to leave one of the cally is little performance risk consumption and equipment sizes. especially when designed at of the time. ejector system performance where to broken ejector system perfor- distillation column pressure mance where distillation column increases dramatically. the system can accommo- supply pressure and the tempera. Cooling water inlet temperature energy. to avoid time. There typi. resulting in broken increases or becomes unstable due methods to mitigate risk. This will provide operating prove invaluable when performance flexibility and reliable performance risks and methods to issues arise. when and first stage condensers. It is not shock wave against the expected specifying process to uncommon for the control room maximum discharge pressure at 90 DCS readings to be inaccurate. consider the minimum supply pressure. This is so that if 5.com . Layout is not cracked gas estimation for design is system is predictable based on finalised until detailed engineering too low. He has 33 condenser. frustration in summer months early in the specifying process to cient motive steam pressure to an when vacuum column pressure identify performance risks and ejector system. Overload of operating pressure of the down.eptq. A good rule of thumb will lead to improper system adequately sized to allow for errors is to provide 10 to 15% overlap performance due to greater percent- in estimating the amount of between an ejector MDP and the ages of the hydrocarbon load non-condensibles. Hydrocarbon condensates Corporation. Do not. such as three Invariably over time. Ejector and condenser configu- for the second or third stage ejec. and third stage ejectors being at high and potentially unstable the preceding ejector should have 150% capacity. 7. Make certain second tion once actual piping isometrics in differential condensation that and third stage ejectors are are complete. supply pressure to an ejector system will fluctuate down- practice is to involve flexibility. New York. Having such connec- that can be refined with a motive steam pressure reducing station mitigate risk tions available permits field measurements to be taken readily to that is typically in the steam supply aid in evaluating system system. If actual cracked diameters that meter the steam to after an order. multiple elements. use the overlap gas loading is below design. temperature that is satisfactory 95% ation. select a three ejector elements to be in oper- Ejectors are sensitive to steam pres. The condensers following estimates. identify performance therefore field measurements can sure. ence. 11. with added 40% trains or some other combina- demands on the steam generating Absolute best tion that provides operating system. the condenser. Baffled units result performance. respectively. an MDP >110-115 torr or 275-288 50% elements. It is always best practice contact throughout the majority of account for actual fired heater to perform a hydraulic loss calcula. elements idle so as not to waste introduced by steam load 8. have 150% capacity to allow for all require thoughtful consideration. such as typical There are always hydraulic piping segmental or double segmental losses between ejector discharge baffles. for instance three vacuum column pressure. Provide instrument connections ward. For example. say 85°F (29°C). then it the vacuum column. ejector and at each connection for and aid in performance reliability is supplier early in the the condensers. be overstated from test data to of safety. the operating pressure of a ration should consider the second tors that manifest themselves as condenser is 100 torr or 250 torr.

ptq Q4 2016 PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY QUARTERLY REFINING GAS PROCESSING PETROCHEMICALS SPECIAL FEATURES CORROSION & FOULING CONTROL GAS PROCESSING 00 BIOFUELS TECHNOLOGY www.com .biofuels-tech.