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OCE 3016 Name:________________________

Fall 2001 Date:_________________________
Quiz 6
Coastal Structures

1. Define the following:
a. Seawall (12 Points)

A large control structure constructed on the open coast for the purpose of protecting property
(land, roads, buildings, etc.) from ocean waves, currents and storm surge (meteorological
tides). Usually constructed of steel reinforced concrete.

b. Filter Material (as it pertains to coastal structures) (12 Points)

Many coastal structures, such as jetties, groins, seawalls, etc. are constructed of layers of
stone. The stone size increases from the base layer to the outer (armor) layer. A woven
synthetic fabric material is placed between the layers to prevent the smaller stone from
leaching through the voids in the outer layer.

c. Groin (12 Points)

A “jetty-like” structure constructed on the open coast (usually normal to shore) for the
purpose of trapping longshore sediment transport and preventing erosion. Similar in shape to
a jetty but usually smaller in cross-section and length. Can cause erosion problems “down
drift” from the structure.

d. Bulkhead (12 Points)

A structure similar to a seawall in appearance and purpose but located where there is some
protection from the full force of the waves. This usually means that there is a wide beach
separating the structure and the ocean. The beach dissipates a portion of the wave energy
prior to the waves reaching the bulkhead.

Consider the detached breakwater shown in the Figure 1 below. etc. Modified Hudson’s Equation. groin. The purpose of this structure is to 1) reduce the erosion of the coastline shoreward of the structure and 2) provide wave protection for small watercraft. breakwater. The mass density of the stone that is available for armor for the breakwater is 170 lbm/ft3 and the mass density of the water is 64 lbm/ft3. α ( ) 1/ 3 H s2 L p f. N s = .e. (12 Points) ρ  D50  s − 1  cot (α)  ρw  An equation for estimating the stability of the armor layer on a coastal structure such as a jetty. Jetty (12 Points) A structure used to stabilize a tidal inlet or a river mouth. Ns= modified Hudson Stability Number Hs= significant wave height Lp= wave length corresponding to Tp Tp= wave period at peak of wave energy density spectrum 1  m50  3 D50= median stone diameter =  ρ   s  m50= median mass of stone ρs= mass density of rock (stone) ρw= mass density of water tan α= slope of structure 2. It protects vessels from waves and helps maintain the channel free of sediment deposition. Its construction is like that shown in the figure. The slopes of the structure are to be 1/3 (ocean side) and 1/2 (shore side). . The water depth at the breakwater is 30 ft and the design significant wave heights and peak periods are 8 ft and 12 s (ocean side) and 2 ft and 5 s (shore side).

Note that you can make use of the attached plot to obtain wave lengths instead of solving the equations given on the handout. 3) Set Ns= 6 and solve for D50 for a) the ocean side and b) the shore side of the breakwater. knowing the water depth and peak period. (14 Points) 1) Determine the length of the waves with maximum energy. . Tp. Top View of a detached breakwater located parallel to the shore. a. b. Compute the armor stone median diameters for 1) the ocean side and 2) the shore side of the breakwater. 2) Solve for D50 in the Modified Hudson Equation. Ocean Shore Side Side Figure 2. Outline the steps required to compute the median diameter (D50) of the armor stone for the structure if there is to be no damage ( N s ≤ 6 ). Lp. Use the equation for wave length in the handout or the plot of gT2/d versus d/L. A cross-section of the breakwater (Section A-A) is shown in Figure B below. Cross-section (Section A-A) of the detached breakwater shown in Figure 1. (14 Points) A A Ocean Shore Detached Breakwater Figure 1.

875 6 170 .39 ft D50 =  19.988 ft D50 = 0.1 3 64 ) 29. Tp= 5 s .b) 1) Ocean side ( ) 1/ 3 H s2 L p Ns = ρ  D50  s − 1  cot (α)  ρw  Here: Hs= 8 ft . d= 30 ft d = ( 30 ) = 3.6 ft )  3   = 7. ρs = 170 3 ρ w = 64 m ft ft 3 So: 1 ( 8 ft )2 ( 400 ft )  3   = 29. tanα = 1 .174 )( 5) From the Figure: d = 0. tan ( α ) = 3 . cotα = 3.174 )(144 )  ( )  s2  From the Figure: d = 0.255. cotα = 2 Lp p 0. L 30 ft 1 lb m lb L p = 0.73 x 10-2 2 2 gT ( 32.777 ft = 0.075. Tp= 12 s . d= 30 ft d = 30 ft = 30 = 6.391 ft D50 = 0.47 x 10-3 gT 2   32.99 ft D50 =  ( 6 170 . L = 30 ft = 117.6 ft.47 = 0.174 ft 12s 2 ( 32.81 2) Shore side Here: Hs= 2 ft .075 = 400 ft.1 2  64  .255 2 So: 1 ( 2 ft )2 (117.