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# Current, Resistance, and Electromotive Force 25-3

EVALUATE: The field is quite weak, since the potential would drop only a volt in 70 m of wire.
(b) IDENTIFY: Take the ratio of the field in silver to the field in copper.
SET UP: Take the ratio and solve for the field in silver: ES = EC(S/C)
EXECUTE: ES = (0.0143 V/m)[(1.47)/(1.72)] = 1.22 102 V/m
EVALUATE: Since silver is a better conductor than copper, the field in silver is smaller than the field in copper.
EJERCICIO 1 25.11. IDENTIFY: First use Ohms law to find the resistance at 20.0C; then calculate the resistivity from the resistance.
Finally use the dependence of resistance on temperature to calculate the temperature coefficient of resistance.
SET UP: Ohms law is R = V/I, R = L/A, R = R0[1 + (T T0)], and the radius is one-half the diameter.
EXECUTE: (a) At 20.0C, R = V/I = (15.0 V)/(18.5 A) = 0.811 . Using R = L/A and solving for gives =
RA/L = R(D/2)2/L = (0.811 )[(0.00500 m)/2]2/(1.50 m) = 1.06 106 m.
(b) At 92.0C, R = V/I = (15.0 V)/(17.2 A) = 0.872 . Using R = R0[1 + (T T0)] with T0 taken as 20.0C, we
have 0.872 = (0.811 )[1 + ( 92.0C 20.0C)]. This gives = 0.00105 (C) 1
EVALUATE: The results are typical of ordinary metals.
EJERCICIO 2 25.12. IDENTIFY: E = J , where J = I / A . The drift velocity is given by I = n q vd A.
SET UP: For copper, = 1.72 108 m . n = 8.5 1028 / m3 .
3.6 A
EXECUTE: (a) J = I = = 6.81105 A/m 2 .
A (2.3 103 m) 2
(b) E = J = (1.72 108 m)(6.81 105 A/m 2 ) = 0.012 V m.
(c) The time to travel the wires length l is
l ln q A (4.0 m)(8.5 1028 m3 )(1.6 1019 C)(2.3 103 m) 2
t= = = = 8.0 104 s.
vd I 3.6 A
t = 1333 min 22 hrs!
EVALUATE: The currents propagate very quickly along the wire but the individual electrons travel very slowly.
25.13. IDENTIFY: E = J , where J = I / A.
SET UP: For tungsten = 5.25 108 m and for aluminum = 2.75 108 m.
I (5.25 108 m)(0.820 A)
EXECUTE: (a) tungsten: E = J = = = 5.16 103 V m.
A ( 4)(3.26 103 m) 2
I (2.75 108 m)(0.820 A)
(b) aluminum: E = J = = = 2.70 103 V m.
A ( 4)(3.26 103 m) 2
EVALUATE: A larger electric field is required for tungsten, because it has a larger resistivity.
25.14. IDENTIFY: The resistivity of the wire should identify what the material is.
SET UP: R = L/A and the radius of the wire is half its diameter.
EXECUTE: Solve for and substitute the numerical values.
([0.00205 m]/2 ) (0.0290 )
2

= AR / L = ( D / 2) 2 R / L = = 1.47 108 m
6.50 m
EVALUATE: This result is the same as the resistivity of silver, which implies that the material is silver.
25.15. (a) IDENTIFY: Start with the definition of resistivity and use its dependence on temperature to find the electric
EJERCICIO 3 field.
I
SET UP: E = J = 20 [1 + (T T0 )] 2
r
EXECUTE: E = (5.25 108 m)[1 + (0.0045/ C )(120C 20C)](12.5 A)/[(0.000500 m)2] = 1.21 V/m.
(Note that the resistivity at 120C turns out to be 7.61 108 m.)
EVALUATE: This result is fairly large because tungsten has a larger resisitivity than copper.
(b) IDENTIFY: Relate resistance and resistivity.
SET UP: R = L/A = L/r2
EXECUTE: R = (7.61 108 m)(0.150 m)/[(0.000500 m)2] = 0.0145
EVALUATE: Most metals have very low resistance.
(c) IDENTIFY: The potential difference is proportional to the length of wire.
SET UP: V = EL
EXECUTE: V = (1.21 V/m)(0.150 m) = 0.182 V
EVALUATE: We could also calculate V = IR = (12.5 A)(0.0145 ) = 0.181 V , in agreement with part (c).
Current, Resistance, and Electromotive Force 25-5

EXECUTE: The ratio of the current at 20C to that at the higher temperature is (0.860 A) (0.220 A) = 3.909.
RT
= 1 + (T T0 ) = 3.909 , where T0 = 20C.
R20
RT / R20 1 3.909 1
T = T0 + = 20C + = 666C.
4.5 103 (C) 1
EVALUATE: As the temperature increases, the resistance increases and for constant applied voltage the current
decreases. The resistance increases by nearly a factor of four.
25.23. IDENTIFY: Relate resistance to resistivity.
SET UP: R = L/A
EXECUTE: (a) R = L/A = (0.60 m)(0.25 m)/(0.12 m)2 = 10.4
(b) R = L/A = (0.60 m)(0.12 m)/(0.12 m)(0.25 m) = 2.4
EVALUATE: The resistance is greater for the faces that are farther apart.
L
25.24. IDENTIFY: Apply R = and V = IR .
A
SET UP: A = r 2
RA VA (4.50 V) (6.54 104 m) 2
EXECUTE: = = = = 1.37 107 m.
L IL (17.6 A)(2.50 m)
EVALUATE: Our result for shows that the wire is made of a metal with resistivity greater than that of good
metallic conductors such as copper and aluminum.
EJERCICIO 4 25.25. IDENTIFY and SET UP: Eq. (25.5) relates the electric field that is given to the current density. V = EL gives the
potential difference across a length L of wire and Eq. (25.11) allows us to calculate R.
EXECUTE: (a) Eq. (25.5): = E / J so J = E /
From Table 25.1 the resistivity for gold is 2.44 108 m.
E 0.49 V/m
J= = = 2.008 107 A/m 2
2.44 108 m
I = JA = J r 2 = ( 2.008 107 A/m 2 ) ( 0.41 103 m ) = 11 A
2

## (b) V = EL = ( 0.49 V/m )( 6.4 m ) = 3.1 V

(c) We can use Ohms law (Eq. (25.11)): V = IR.
V 3.1 V
R= = = 0.28
I 11 A
EVALUATE: We can also calculate R from the resistivity and the dimensions of the wire (Eq. 25.10):
L L ( 2.44 10 m ) ( 6.4 m )
8

## R= = 2= = 0.28 , which checks.

A r ( 0.42 103 m )
2

25.26. IDENTIFY and SET UP: Use V = EL to calculate E and then = E / J to calculate .
V 0.938 V
EXECUTE: (a) E =
= = 1.25 V/m
L 0.750 m
E 1.25 V/m
(b) E = J so = = = 2.84 108 m
J 4.40 107 A/m 2
EVALUATE: This value of is similar to that for the good metallic conductors in Table 25.1.
25.27. IDENTIFY: Apply R = R0 1 + (T T0 ) to calculate the resistance at the second temperature.
= 0.0004 ( C ) (Table 25.1). Let T0 be 0.0C and T be 11.5C.
1
(a) SET UP:
R 100.0
R0 = = = 99.54
( )
EXECUTE:
1 + (T T0 ) 1+ 0.0004 ( C )1 (11.5 C )

= 0.0005 ( C )
1
(b) SET UP: (Table 25.2). Let T0 = 0.0C and T = 25.8C.

EXECUTE:
( 1
)
R = R0 1 + (T T0 ) = 0.0160 1+ 0.0005 ( C ) ( 25.8 C ) = 0.0158

EVALUATE: Nichrome, like most metallic conductors, has a positive and its resistance increases with
temperature. For carbon, is negative and its resistance decreases as T increases.