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History Notes: period 5 "1700 CE to 1900 CE"

5.1 Industrialization and Global Capitalism

Industrialization altered the production of goods, and had effects on the global economy,
cultures, and socially
18th and 19th centuries
Became global
Key terms: industrialization: development of industries on a wide scale
Industrial revolution: period of rapid growth in industrialization
Consumerism: protection of the interest of consumers
Global economy: international spread of capitalism
Globalization: making something spread all over the world
Urbanisation: making things industrialized and modern
Raw goods: materials used for producing goods
Fossil fuels: a natural fuel like coal or gas, formed from the remains of living organisms in
Factors leading to industrialization included europe's location in atlantic ocean, distribution of
coal, iron, timber, euro demographic changes, urbanization, improved ag. Productivity, legal
protection of private property, rivers, canals, foreign resources
Machines - specifically engines- connected us with new sources of energy from fossil
fuels (coal, oil) this was called the fossil fuels revolution and increased energy access
to societies
Factories concentrated labor in single locations and led to specialization
Industrialists sought raw materials and new markets for the array of goods they
produce *shift from earlier periodization (before=empires/ now=private companies)
Production of natural resources like cotton, rubber, palm oil, sugar, wheat, meat,
guano, metals
Second industrial rev. led to new methods to produce steel, chemicals, electricity,
and precision machinery *2nd half of 19th century
It became more common in europe, and spread to U.S., japan and russia

5.2 development and spread of global

Key terms:
Utopian - an idealistic world with no problems
Socialism - equal division of money (discordant of capitalism)
Anarchism - radicals that were neither left nor right
Capitalism: Private companies collecting all the money they produce
Totalitarianism - system requiring subservience to the state
Marxism - just like socialism
Gold standard - governments valuing based on gold
Liberalism - having liberal views
Adam Smith: philosopher and political pioneer from scotland
Robber Barons: greedy men who did not pay workers well in factories, but made a huge profit
from mass production
- Global trade and production led to global businesses which relied on financial
instruments like stock markets, insurance, gold standard, limited-liability corporations
- Economic changes was caused by capitalism and classical liberalism w/ adam smith
and john mill
- Henry ford ->american industrialist who created ford motor company and started the
assembly line for mass production
- Captains of industry claim...Public response
Captains of industry (good) - create jobs, increase production, build nation (typically the
viewpoints they had on themselves)
Robber Barons (bad) - exploited workers, greedy, bribed for political favors
- ANDREW CARNEGIE led expansion of steel production in 19th century. Role as a
philanthropist US and British empire
- JOHN ROCKEFELLER industrialist and philanthropist, co founder of Standard Oil
Company which dominated oil industry and was first great US business trust.
- Trust: organization of business designed to operate like a monopoly (bosses all have
the same big boss)
- Trust busting: presidents that try to eradicate monopoly trusts
- Spread of capitalism led to diff responses: Utopian socialism, Anarchism, Industrialism
in Communist states
- LEFT WING -> Socialism and liberalism, communism RIGHT WING->Conservative,
monarch, nazism

China and Ottoman emp.: members of these govs resisted economic change (like

In a couple states, members promoted their own state-sponsored industrialism:

- Economic reforms in japan
- Factories and railroads in Tsarist Russia
- Cotton textile in Eqypt

Reform took place b/c of the negative, unfair parts of capitalism

State pensions and public health in germany
Expansion of suffrage (voting) in britain
Public education in many nation-states

5.3 Nationalism, Revolution, and Reform

The 18th cent. Marked period of rebellion against greedy governments, and reformers
established new nation-states around the world
- Enlightened thought and resistance of colonies to imperial centers shaped the
1. Resulted in new states
2. And new ideologies
The new ideologies in turn stimulated the revolution
Key Terms:
Difference between revolution and rebellion: revolution is a major change and movement in
the way something is done, and a rebellion is an aggressive resistance against leadership
Difference between socialism and capitalism: socialism allows for private property but higher
taxes for the rich, and is less intense than communism, which takes money from citizens and
distributes it evenly, no exceptions. Also, communism is controlled by an authority, socialism
is a democracy.
The enlightenment era: intellectual and scientific movement of 18th century Europe which was
characterized by a scientific approach to religious, social, political, and economic issues.
Anti imperialism: did not like big controlling governments and wanted more free thinking and
self governing
Nationalism: loyalty and devotion to a nation, sense of superiority
Monarchy: inherited leadership of one person
Suffrage: voting rights
Hierarchies: ranks of people based on status
Global capitalist economy: nations compete and try to leverage resources
Unindustrialized societies: not having developed manufacturing economy
Migrants:a worker who moves from place to place to do seasonal work.
- European states that built empires included: British, Dutch, French, German, Russian
Enlightenment: enlightenment thought questions traditions in all areas of life, and started
rebellions and revolutions against governments
Some traditions included social relations, which helped expand their rights (expanded
suffrage, abolition of slavery, end of serfdom)
Enlightenment philosophers included: Voltaire - freedom of religion, freedom of expression,
separation of church and state
Montesquieu - Separation of Powers
Locke - identity and self, classical republicanism and liberal are reflected in Declaration of
Rousseau: Theory of natural human, also joining civil society but remaining free
Hobbes - social contract theory
*their ideas influenced resistance to political authority (revolutionary documents - The
American Declaration of Independence, The French Declaration of the Right of Man and
Citizen, Bolivars Jamaica letter)
New Communities: beginning of 18th cent., peoples around world found sense of
commonality based on language, religion, etc.
- New national communities linked identity with borders of the state, while governments
used it to unite diverse populations
Examples of nationalism included: German, Italian, Filipino, and Argentine nationalism

Rebellions: global spread of European social and political thought led to rebellions such as
slave resistance, anti-colonial rebellions and nationalism
Discontent: discontent with imperial rule led to revolutionary movements which led to
independent states.
Ex: Latin American indep. Movements
French people rebelled against their monarchy
The American and Haitian revolution
Relocation: caused permanent change in where people lived when masses of migrants who
were transported there.
Changes included diversity which had negative and positive reactions