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FIRST AID TRAINING for Capitol workers, brgy.

health workers eyed

Barangay health workers (BHW) and Capitol personnel will undergo first aid training
and seminars as response preparation for emergencies in barangays across Bohol,
said a board member.

According to Board Member Jade Bautista, chair of the Sangguniang Panlalawigan

(SP) committee on health and public sanitation, they are planning to teach
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation to BHWs, the initial healthcare providers in some

Bautista said that Capitol employees such as drivers who frequent far-flung areas
will also be trained to provide first aid treatment.

The neophyte board member noted that she will work with other government
officials and agencies including the Provincial Health Office to set the plan in

She also intends to meet BHWs in the province to get firsthand information on their
needs and challenges in carrying out their duties.

Some villages reportedly do not have adequate equipment for providing basic
healthcare needs such as a sphygmomanometer, an instrument for measuring
blood pressure.

Bautista said that measures will be put in place to address the lack in equipment
and she intends to have first aid kits placed in each of the Capitols vehicles, but
noted that this would require a large budget.

Why is First Aid Important?

First Aid knowledge is invaluable for both you as the individual and for your
community. It enables you to assist persons who become injured in the event of an
accident or emergency situation until help arrives. First Aid skills can be applied in
the home, the workplace or in public locations, therefore the more First Aid certified
people there are in a community the safer that community becomes.

Becoming First Aid certified not only benefits you as an individual but it extends to
your family, friends, co-workers and even the community as a whole. As unpleasant
as it is to talk about, accidents and emergency situations are not completely
preventable or unavoidable.

If an accident happens in the workplace, in your home or in a public space, being a

helpless witness to an emergency situation can potentially worsen the situation.
This is why it is very important for as many people as possible to have at least a
basic knowledge of First Aid.

In its most basic form, First Aid is the initial assistance given to a victim of injury or
illness. Basic First Aid knowledge is comprised of relatively simple techniques and
procedures that can be performed with limited equipment and is typically carried
out until professional medical assistance arrives.

The importance of First Aid is hard to overestimate. The largest benefits of

First Aid are:

1. It allows those trained with the potentially life saving ability to assist an
injured or ill person during a variety of emergency situations. In situations
such as someone ingests a harmful substance, suffers from a heart attack, a
seizure or stroke, is involved in a motor vehicle accident or is caught in a
natural disaster, a person trained and knowledgeable in even the very basics
of First Aid can be of extreme importance in assisting the injured person(s)
until emergency responders arrive. The more people that are First Aid trained
and knowledgeable the more the community as a whole benefits.

2. Knowledge in First Aid benefits the individuals themselves regardless of

whether an emergency affects them directly or involves people they live and
work with. First Aid can and often lessens the severity of an emergency in a
given time and place.

3. While everyone can benefit from First Aid knowledge and training it is an
even greater benefit to those working or living with individuals who require
ongoing special attention or treatment such as children, persons with
physical or mental disabilities, persons with chronic illness, persons with
disorders such as epilepsy, the elderly, persons involved in recreational
activities such as swimming or people working in dangerous environments
such as a factory or construction site.

Many businesses require all or a minimum amount of employees to be trained in

First Aid and the type and extent of the training depends on the specifics of the job.
However, anyone working in high-risk environments should have basic First Aid
knowledge regardless of employer requirement.

Accidents will always happen despite any measure of preventative procedure and
care. Because of this, individuals who are properly trained and with the the correct
equipment are a huge help in ensuring better safety for everyone. Without proper
First Aid, a simple injury could become severe and in some cases fatalities can occur
as a result of lack of immediate medical treatment. First Aid does not just promote
faster recovery it helps save lives.
The good health and resulting productivity of employees is one area that is often
overlooked as a means of improving a company's profitability. The size of this
opportunity is indicated by a National Safety Council estimate that in 1997, there
were more than 80 million lost workdays due to unintentional injuries. The
astounding cost to American businesses was $127 billion, or an average of $980 per

Whether employees work in a high-hazard or low-hazard environment, they face a

variety of risks. Shock, bleeding, poisonings, burns, temperature extremes,
musculoskeletal injuries, bites and stings, medical emergencies and distressed
employees in confined spaces are just a sampling of the first aid emergencies which
might be encountered in your business. These risks are compounded when
employees don't feel well. Their lack of concentration can result in costly injuries.

If your employees aren't prepared to handle these types of injuries on all shifts and
their coworkers are left untreated until an ambulance arrives, a victim's condition
may worsen and injuries can become far more debilitating, which leads to greater
medical costs and lost productivity.

It makes good business sense to provide first aid and appropriate training to all your
employees. By making such a minimal investment in keeping your employees safe
and well-trained, you could net big returns, along with a competitive advantage.
Moreover, it's the law.

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires businesses to

provide first aid and CPR training to employees in the absence of a nearby clinic or
hospital. While safety always begins with prevention, not every work-related injury
can be prevented. Your primary first aid training goal should be to give employees
the necessary tools and information they need to care for an ill or injured person, if
necessary, until advanced help arrives.

"The outcome of occupational injuries depends not only on the severity of the
injury, but also on the rendering of first aid care," writes OSHA in its 1991 Guidelines
for Basic First Aid Training Programs. "Prompt, properly administered first aid care
can mean the difference between life and death, rapid vs. prolonged recovery, and
temporary vs. permanent disability." Since each site is so different, OSHA requires
first aid training to be specific to the needs of the workplace. Proper training varies
with the industry, number of employees and proximity to emergency care.

Although OSHA's 1991 guidelines specify the requirements for a first aid program,
OSHA does not teach or certify programs. Therefore, employers are faced with
numerous programs to choose from, and the choice can be difficult. Because of this,
a consensus group comprised of a panel of government and private experts
developed the National Guidelines for First Aid in Occupational Settings in 1997.
This new and detailed curriculum identifies the skill training that makes a workplace
first aid responder competent to provide care. Responding to OSHA's requirement
that every employer provide first aid assistance in the workplace, these guidelines
document the minimum knowledge and skills necessary for an individual to provide
basic life support care to an ill or injured person until professional emergency
response arrives.

While starting a first aid program can be simple and inexpensive, it involves several
essential steps:

Recognize that it is your responsibility as an employer to determine the

requirements for your first aid program. As you assess your workplace, be
mindful of the jobsite or work process that could cause illness or injury to
employees. What types of accidents could reasonably occur in your workplace?
Consider such things as falls, hazardous machinery and exposure to harmful
substances. Be sure to put your evaluation in writing for reference purposes.
Remember that, while OSHA does not recommend nor approve programs, it may
evaluate your program's adequacy during an inspection.

Assess the location and availability of a medical facility to your workplace.

If a hospital, clinic or other such emergency response is not readily available, for
instance, within three to four minutes, you must have at least one employee trained
in first aid and CPR per shift. There is no recommended number of trained
employees to have on staff; it largely depends on your facility's size and type of
operations. Responding in a timely manner can mean the difference between life
and death, so it is crucial that you have an appropriate number of employees

For organizations in multiple sites, such as construction operations, a larger number

of employees must be trained. Many experts believe all employees should know
how to provide first aid and CPR to ensure that help is always at hand. At a
minimum, each department or location should have a responder available on each

Make sure you have suitable first aid supplies readily available at all
times. Effective Aug. 17, 1998, OSHA added an Appendix A to its very basic First
Aid and Medical standard found in 29 CFR 1910.151. It requires the employer to
reference ANSI Z308.1-1978, Minimum Requirements for Industrial Unit-Type First
Aid Kits.

According to OSHA, the contents of the kit listed in the ANSI standard should be
adequate for small worksites. However, larger or multiple operations should
consider the need for additional first aid kits and additional types of first aid
equipment and supplies in larger quantities. OSHA suggests consulting a local fire
and rescue department appropriate medical professional or first aid supplier for
assistance in these circumstances.

OSHA recommends you periodically assess your kit and increase your supplies as
needed. Place your first aid supplies in an easily accessible area, and inform all your
employees of its location. Along with a well-stocked, workplace-specific first aid kit,
other basic supplies normally include emergency oxygen, blankets, stretchers,
directional signs, eyewash stations and burn stations.

In addition to these items, if blood-related incidents are anticipated, you must

provide appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) as mandated in OSHA's
Bloodborne Pathogens standard (29 CFR 1910.1030). It lists specific PPE for this
type of exposure, such as gloves, gowns, face shields, masks, and eye protection.

On-site safety inspections, review of hazards and emergency dispatch,

assessment, implementation, escape and treatment should be discussed
in your training program. Employees must be trained to act and think quickly to
avoid delayed treatment during an emergency. Ask yourself, whether each
employee knows how to report an injury or illness.

Outline the accident investigating and reporting procedures and relay that to your
employees as part of your company's policy. Early recognition and treatment of an
injury or illness is essential.

Employees must be aware of emergency contact information. It is best to post

emergency procedures and emergency office contact numbers with your first aid
supplies or in another highly visible and accessible area. Make sure that your field
personnel also have suitable supplies and office contact numbers readily available.
Appoint an employee in each department to watch for hazards and evaluate its
current first aid status. Set a deadline to report any hazards or first aid needs to a
manager or supervisor for improvement or correction.

Since people tend to forget their first aid training over time, OSHA recommends
refresher training be conducted to recharge employees' knowledge of first aid
procedures. At a minimum, employees should be certified annually to perform CPR
and once every three years to perform first aid. If such training sounds burdensome,
consider that it can produce safer work practices and fewer incidents among

Keeping the workplace safe involves three basic elements: steps to prevent or
minimize accidents, adequate first aid supplies and proper first aid training. The
employer uses training to make sure its employees know what to do, how to do it
and who is in charge in case a first aid or emergency situation occurs. Proper first
aid training not only satisfies OSHA requirements, but fosters good will among
employees, who recognize the care that their company expends to provide a safe
and healthy environment for its most valuable asset: its employees.

Health Care Training of Barangay Health Care Workers and Parent Leaders

San Vicente is a local municipality in the Philippines that is comprised of nine

villages. The local health unit is understaffed with only 15 health workers and very
limited resources. Due to financial and political obstacles, the volunteer health
workers have not been re-certified over the years, causing the community to seek
medical care elsewhere, either far from home or with traditional medicine.

Through comprehensive health workshops, this project will re-certify village health
workers as well as twenty five Parents Leaders, who visit their neighbors homes to
check up on them as part of a national poverty alleviation program. The health
workers and Parent Leaders will participate in a five day training, which will cover
maternal/child care, herbal medication, common medical concerns, reproductive
health, hygiene and nutrition. This project will also provide medical equipment, such
as blood pressure monitors, scales, and thermometers for the health unit.

Project Update

Village health workers and Parent Leaders successfully completed a five day
training led by health center staff, college professors, and First Aid representatives.
Through interactive workshops and discussions, the women learned about maternal
and infant health, proper hygiene and nutrition, and alternative medicine. As a
result of the training, the village health workers are now officially certified and
can be employed at their local health center, providing additional income to support
their families. The village health workers are collaborating with the Parent Leaders
to hold educational workshops in their respective neighborhoods to
continue educating the community on important health topics.


I have used my stethoscope to help a community member with checking blood

pressure. Since the training, I feel confident as a parent leader and am able to help
other parents within the community. Leony, Project Participant

Without the training, I would not have known this important information or be able
to respond to health concerns. Agnes, Project Participant


Planning the waste management and recycling for all of the rubbish produced in this
country is an enormous task which involves both logistical planning and scientific
knowledge and understanding in order to balance the impact on the environment
and the cost effectiveness of the process.

Waste management and recycling companies are also feeling an extra pressure to
perform their role in the greenest ways possible. It is important to remember that
the UKs resources and landfill sites are limited and this has a major bearing on the
kind of activities that are carried out.

Waste collection and rubbish disposal play an extremely important role in the global
cleanliness and sustainability drive, with peoples health and the conservation of
resources being the responsibility of every government. To ease the pressure on
government agencies, numerous privately-managed organisations also play a part
in these waste management and recycling programs. In many cities it means that
local government agencies have been left with the responsibility of overseeing the
work done by these privately held organisations.

Thousands of years ago humans simply dug a hole and buried their refuse and
waste. This was an effective technique for these early people because their
population was relatively small and they did not produce waste on the same scale
or with the levels of complexity that modern humans do. Burying the rubbish helped
to prevent bugs and rodents from becoming a nuisance and spreading diseases.

In the modern world burying all of our rubbish is not a sustainable solution. While
primitive humans produced very little waste, and that which was produced would
biodegrade quickly, modern humans produce much larger amounts of waste, much
of which is not biodegradable. Additionally, many types of waste may be damaging
to the soil, ground water and surrounding habitat.

The most important reason for waste collection is the protection of the environment
and the health of the population.

Rubbish and waste can cause air and water pollution. Rotting garbage is also known
to produce harmful gases that mix with the air and can cause breathing problems in
people. By inspecting the vegetation around landfill sites carefully you can
determine the damage that can be caused by garbage and waste if left untreated in
the open. To address this problem modern waste management professionals place
garbage in lined holes and use bacteria to help facilitate its rapid decomposition.
Rotting garbage and waste emanates a foul smell that can cause nausea among
people who come into contact with it. It can also be a source for waterborne
diseases such as cholera and abdominal conditions and discomfort. Since water
sources need to be protected the role of waste disposal companies is very
important. These organisations should make it a priority to secure their landfill sites
so that water bodies are not affected by the garbage and waste collected from
homes and commercial establishments.

Waste collection companies also sort the garbage into recyclable columns, as
recycling the products that leave our homes is of utmost importance. Recycling not
only helps in conserving our natural resources but also reduces the cost of
production of many products. Products such as glass, oil, plastic, paper can all be
recycled which will ultimately put less pressure on the natural resources used to
manufacture these products.

Lastly, waste management and recycling collection can help conserve our planets
natural beauty which can be flawed by thoughtless disposal of waste, fly-tipping and
senseless littering. Landscapes can be ruined through littering and places of tourist
interest can lose their attraction; it is also a blight for those who live in areas where
waste collection and recycling is not managed effectively and responsibly. Natural
beauty is a legacy and a right for future generations and conserving it, as well as
our natural resources, for their benefit is our responsibility today.

There are many challenges facing the waste management and recycling industry
but there is also a lot of excellent work going on to ensure that this is an industry to
be proud of and one that will continue to secure effective, sustainable and
ecologically sound waste management and recycling for many years to come.

A Barangay Health Worker (BHW) is one of the front-liners who provide health
care services for the members of the barangay. It is an individual who went through
training programs under any accredited government or non-government
organization to provide basic, safe, and effective health care services to the people
of the district. Barangay health workers are vital in Barangay Health Centers
because they provide assistance and support to physicians, dentists, nutritionists,
public health nurses, and midwives. Collectively, they are considered guardians of
the nation's health.

Duties and responsibilities

A Barangay Health Worker is qualified to provide primary health care services in the
community it is serving based on the guidelines given by the (DOH). Here are just a
few responsibilities of a barangay health worker:

First aid

Equipment sterilization

Assisting in health center activities

Collecting vital statistics

Maintaining records and making reports

Participating in community meetings

Assisting in nutrition education, monitoring and feeding

Assisting in immunization education, monitoring, and dispensing

Assisting in family planning services

Assisting in sanitation and hygiene promotion and education

Training and practice

Barangay Health Workers are accredited to function as such by the local health
board in accordance with the guidelines promulgated by the Philippines Department
of Health, as defined in Sec. 3 of Republic Act No. 7883. [2]

Each volunteer receives about five weeks of training. [1] Barangay Health Workers
live in the communities they serve, and act as change agents in their communities.
They provide information, education and motivation services for primary health
care, maternal and child health, child rights, family planning and nutrition. They
may administer immunizations and regular weighing of children. They often assist
midwives in providing birthing services. [3]

On average, each Volunteer is expected to work with around 20 families in their

community.[1] However the scarcity of trained individuals has narrowed down the
number of volunteers, especially in some remote areas, where now one or two
volunteers service an entire barangay.

The role of community health workers (CHWs) in health promotion research: ethical
challenges and practical solutions.

This article aims to describe the role of community health workers (CHWs) in health
promotion research and address the challenges and ethical concerns associated
with this research approach. A series of six focus groups are conducted with project
managers and investigators (n = 5 to 11 per session) who have worked with CHWs
in health promotion research. These focus groups are part of a larger study funded
by the National Institutes of Health titled "Training in Research Ethics and
Standards" (Project TRES). Participants are asked to describe their training needs for
CHWs with respect to human subject protections as well as to identify associated
challenges regarding research practice (i.e., recruitment, random assignment,
protocol implementation, etc.). Findings reveal a number of challenges that
investigators and project managers encounter when working with CHWs on research
projects involving the community. These include characteristics inherent to CHWs
such as education level and personal beliefs about their own community and its
needs, institutional regulations regarding research practice, and problems inherent
to research studies such as training materials and protocols that cannot account for
the complexity of conducting research in community settings. Investigators should
carefully consider the role that CHWs have in their communities before creating
research programs that depend on the CHWs' existing social networks and their
propensity to be natural helpers. These strengths could lead to compromises in
research requirements for random assignment, control groups, and fully informed