2 views

Uploaded by Alias AKA

probset 10 mit

- Module 02 Physics Aircraft License. Com
- Decay models of nuclei
- Structure of Atoms
- Mock Test Physics Papers I and II Set 1
- A Level Physics 21 June2010
- Basic Chemistry 03
- Asignación 1 Inglés
- The Structure of Matter
- Atomic Structure
- 2.-AS-PHY310_AS-2012-SO-PHY310
- strong weapon
- FB 17 - GEAS
- Topic 12 Problem Set 2016
- is.1885.73.1.1993Physics and chemistry, Section 01 Physical concepts.pdf
- Atomic Structure
- physics
- Analysis
- ISM Chapter 08
- IJETR031569
- 1.2-MCsimulationRadiationTransport.pdf

You are on page 1of 10

Assignment 10

Readings

Read Cohen-Tannoudji, Chapter VIII and Griffiths Chapter 11.

Read Griffiths Chapter 9 on Time Dependent Perturbation Theory.

The rst six problems are your problem set. The last ve

problems will not be graded, but should help you to study time dependent perturba

tion theory for the nal exam. Solutions to all eleven problems will be provided.

In lecture we derived an expression for the scattering amplitude in the Born

approximation for the elastic scattering of a particle of mass m and charge -|e|

from a charge distribution |e|(r):

2me2

= 2 2

f (q) d3 reiqr

(r)

.

q

= 2|k| sin(/2). If the electrons

in the collision. For elastic scattering, q |q|

used in a scattering experiment are relativistic, k E/c.

point. f is therefore not exactly that for Rutherford scattering. The

charge distribution is roughly constant out to a radius R and then drops

rapidly to zero. A simple model is:

3Z

(r)

=

for r R

4R3

and = 0 for r > R. Calculate the cross section for electron scattering

from such a nucleus as a function of q 2 .

(b) The ratio of the actual amplitude for scattering from a point nucleus is

called the form factor. Sketch the form factor as a function of qR.

The form factor tells us about the shape of the charge distribution in a

nucleus, and thus tells us how the protons within a nucleus are arranged.

In our simple model, the form factor tells us the value of R. If nuclei

had precisely the shape we have used in our simple model, experimenters

would measure a form factor with precisely the functional form you have

calculated, and would then do a t to obtain a measurement of R, the

radius of the nucleus.

(c) For relativistic electrons with energy E, if you are able to count the scat

tered electrons at a variety of angles, ranging from close to zero to close

to , what range of q can you access? If you use electrons with E 1/R,

show that you will not be able to make an accurate determination of R.

You will not be able to resolve the fact that scattering o a nucleus

diers from Rutherford scattering.

The values of R for nuclei are around (27)1013 cm. Roughly how large

an electron energy do you need in order to do a reasonable measurement

of R?

First aside: The above problem uses a simple model, but it is not all that

far from the real thing. I am attaching copies of some gures of real data on

electron-nucleus scattering, along with the inferred nuclear charge distributions.

Second aside: The next step in the process of unveiling the structure of matter

on smaller and smaller length scales was the discovery that the protons and

neutrons that make up a nucleus have substructure. Electron beams with en

ergies appropriate for studying nuclear structure (ie the distribution of protons

within a nucleus, which youve been analyzing in this problem) cannot resolve

the substructure of a proton. Thus, the discovery of the quark structure of the

proton had to wait until the construction of the SLAC linear accelerator, which

began accelerating electrons to 18 GeV in the late 1960s. In 1967, Jerome

Friedman, Henry Kendall and Richard Taylor began the series of experiments

in which quarks were discovered. When an 18 GeV electron scatters at large

2

angles o a quark in a proton, the proton does not remain intact. This means

that the description of these experiments requires an understanding of inelastic

scattering. In an inelastic collision, the scattered electrons momentum changes

by q, and its energy also changes.

Suppose the scattering amplitude for a certain reaction is given by

1 k 2ik3 3

f () = + 3e sin 2k cos (1)

k k0 k ik

characteristic of the potential which produces

the scattering. Of course k = 2mE/2 is the deBroglie wavenumber.

What are the phase shifts in the active partial waves? Do they have the

proper behavior as k 0?

What is the dierential cross section, d/d for general values of k?

What are the partial wave cross sections, ?

Assume k03 1. Give an approximation to the total cross section (k)

for k k0 .

What is the total cross section for general values of k? What is the imagi

nary part of the forward scattering amplitude? Do they satisfy the optical

theorem?

Consider s-wave ( = 0) scattering from the potential

V (r) = (r R)

2mR

with a large positive constant. To nd the phase shift 0 (k) we have to solve

d2 u

2

+ k 2 u = (r R)u ,

dr R

with u = 0 at r = 0 and u = sin(kr + ) for r > R.

(b) By comparing u (r)/u(r) just inside and just outside r = R, nd a formula

to determine .

(c) Find the scattering length a, dened by limk0 0 = ka.

3

(d) Assume 1. Sketch (k). Show that for kR just below n, with n a

positive integer, (k) increases very rapidly by (as kR increases towards

n). Sketch the s-wave cross-section 0 . Show that the s-wave scattering

from this potential is the same as that from a hard sphere of radius R for

all values of kR except those such that kR is close to n. What is the

signicance of these values?

4. Ramsauer-Townsend Eect (8 points)

At very low energies only the s-wave contributes to scattering. If, for some

reason, the s-wave phase shift vanishes, then so does the scattering amplitude.

Under these circumstances a projectile can pass through material without any

scattering. This eect is known as the Ramsauer-Townsend Eect.

Consider a three dimensional square well,

V0 for r a

V (r) = (2)

0 for r > a

(a) Find the condition on 2 = 2mV0 a2 /2 such that the cross section for a

particle of mass m is zero at zero energy. Your answer should be in the

form of a set of values of 2 , specied graphically and with the rst few

numerical values given.

(b) As you can see from part (a), it is useful to think of the Ramsauer-

Townsend eect as a function of the depth of the potential. The existence

of bound states is also a function of the depth of the potential. Show that

if a square well which displays an exact Ramsauer-Townsend eect is made

a little deeper or shallower (you have to gure out which) it then has a

bound state at threshold.

5. Scattering in the Semiclassical Approximation (4 points)

The semiclassical approximation becomes better at high energies. For most

problems high energies means scattering as opposed to bound states. It is quite

straightforward to estimate the phase shift in the semiclassical approximation.

Consider scattering in the s-wave in three dimensions. The radial wavefunction

obeys

2m

u (k, r) + 2 V (r)u(k, r) = k 2 u(k, r) (3)

and u(k, 0) = 0.

In this problem we will assume that V (r) is smooth and slowly varying and that

r2 V (r) 0 as r and that V (r) is negative at all r. (Well change the last

assumption in the next problem.)

Recall from 8.05 (and show for yourself if you like) that as r , u(k, r)

sin(kr + 0 (k)), where 0 (k) is the phase shift.

4

Show that in the semiclassical approximation

2m

0 (k) = dr k 2 2 V (r) k (4)

0

Consider s-wave scattering for a particle of mass m o a potential V (r) which

vanishes at the origin, rises steadily as r increases from zero, reaches a maximum

at r = c, and then goes quickly to zero as r increases further.

For = 0, the radial wave function u(r) satises the same Schrodinger equation

as that for a particle in one dimension with potential V , subject to the boundary

condition u(0) = 0.

Consider scattering with energy E where 0 E V (c). The classical turning

points are at r = a and r = b with a < c < b.

(a) What is the semiclassical approximation to the wave function in the clas

sically allowed region, 0 r < a?

(b) What is the ratio of the amplitude of the wave function u(r) in the semi-

classical approximation in the region x > b compared to that in the region

x < a, for generic values of E?

(c) For some special values of E, there is a qualitative change in the ratio

of the amplitude for x > b to the amplitude for x < a, compared to its

generic value at other energies. What condition determines these special

values of E?

(d) Describe the qualitative behavior of the s-wave phase shift and s-wave

cross-section for energies in the vicinity of the special values of E.

REMEMBER: THIS PROBLEM AND THOSE BELOW SHOULD NOT BE

HANDED IN. THEY WILL NOT BE GRADED. THEY ARE INTENDED

AS A STUDY GUIDE TO HELP YOU UNDERSTAND TIME DEPENDENT

PERTURBATION THEORY. SOLUTIONS WILL BE PROVIDED.

Here is a simple enough time dependent perturbation of a simple enough system

that everything can be computed analytically.

Do Griths Problem 9.17.

A hydrogen atom is placed in an electric eld E(t) that is uniform and has the

time dependence,

E(t) =0 t<0

0 et

=E t>0 (5)

ground state, makes a transition to the 2p state?

The object of this problem is to calculate the lifetime of a charged particle

(charge q, mass m) in the rst p-state of the three dimensional harmonic oscil

lator (frequency ).

a) Write down an expression for the transition rate per unit time, (2p 1s),

for the particle to spontaneously emit electromagnetic radiation and make

a transition to the ground state. should depend on the frequency of the

emitted light and on the matrix element of the operator qr.

Note that the 1p state is three-fold degenerate: it has = 1 and can have

m = 1, 0, 1.

c) Finally, give a formula for (2p 1s) in terms of m, , q, and fundamental

constants.

d) What is the relationship between the transition rate per unit time and the

lifetime of the 2p state?

(a) Do Griths Problem 9.10. You may use any results from Griths sec

tion 9.3.3 without proving them (even though Problem 9.10 comes before

section 9.3.3).

(b) Do Griths Problem 9.13, part (a) only.

Consider a particle in one dimension moving under the inuence of some time-

independent potential, V (x). Assume that you know the energy levels and

corresponding eigenfunctions for this problem. We now subject the particle to

a traveling pulse represented by a space- and time-dependent potential,

wavefunction is x|i = ui (x). Find the probability for nding the system

in some excited state, with wavefunction x|f = uf (x) as t .

(b) (Note: you can skip part (b) and still do part (c). You may have to do

this, depending on exactly what I am able to cover in lecture.) Reinter

pret your result in part (a) as follows. Regard the -function pulse as a

superposition of harmonic perturbations, by recalling that the function

can be represented as a superposition of exponentials:

1

(x ct) = dei(x/ct) . (6)

2c

Show that if you treat each frequency component of the function sep

arately, using for each the result we obtained in lecture for a harmonic

perturbation (namely that there is a transition if and only if = f i

and the amplitude of that transition is the matrix element of the operator

coecient of the harmonic time dependence between the initial and nal

states) then you get the same result as in part (a).

The lesson is that the analysis we did in lecture with a harmonic time

dependence can be applied to very dierent dime dependences via Fourier

transformation.

(c) Apply the result of part (a) to the one dimensional (innite) square well,

= for x < 0 or x > d (7)

Express the probability to transition from the ground state to the rst

a

excited state as a function of the dimensionless parameters = c and

dE 2

3 2

= 2c , where E = 2md2 . Show that the transition probability has a

maximum for 1. Explain this in terms of the time it takes light to

cross the potential well and the natural timescale of the quantum system.

- Module 02 Physics Aircraft License. ComUploaded byPei Shuang Ch'ng
- Decay models of nucleiUploaded byPrasad Ravichandran
- Structure of AtomsUploaded byAnuragKshatri
- Mock Test Physics Papers I and II Set 1Uploaded bySayan Kumar Khan
- A Level Physics 21 June2010Uploaded byhongling24
- Basic Chemistry 03Uploaded byFalcoOon
- Asignación 1 InglésUploaded byJose Calderas
- The Structure of MatterUploaded byimanuelsukarno
- Atomic StructureUploaded byKamrul Alam Masum
- 2.-AS-PHY310_AS-2012-SO-PHY310Uploaded byluminousspace
- strong weaponUploaded byapi-296545554
- FB 17 - GEASUploaded byEmanuel Gabriel
- Topic 12 Problem Set 2016Uploaded byPaul Amezquita
- is.1885.73.1.1993Physics and chemistry, Section 01 Physical concepts.pdfUploaded byMukesh Kumar
- Atomic StructureUploaded byKiran Dherwani
- physicsUploaded bynallilatha
- AnalysisUploaded byernie lahaylahay
- ISM Chapter 08Uploaded by戴瑋志
- IJETR031569Uploaded byerpublication
- 1.2-MCsimulationRadiationTransport.pdfUploaded byAlejandro Bonet
- ChemistryUploaded bysinhapushpanjali
- Lukin, Alpatov. 1 Influence of a metal beam of a corrugated wall CATPID 2018Uploaded byAlexey
- Sang-Young Chung, Moohyun Yoon and Dong Eon Kim- Generation of Attosecond X-ray and gamma-ray via Compton backscatteringUploaded byPocxa
- tremaine 2002 0494Uploaded byParticle Beam Physics Lab
- Quantum MechanicsUploaded byGilbert Sigala
- AtomUploaded bySanjeev Chaudhary
- KM ScienceObservationLessonUploaded bykmotyka1
- Nature of MagnetismUploaded byKatelyn Green
- 38-39.docxUploaded bySuguna
- 5 Chapter Atomic Structure McqsUploaded byshamsul amin

- Law Exam ReviewerUploaded byNeilyn Rose Bongalan
- John Titor Time MachineUploaded bymiguelangelo1981
- 4502Uploaded byrohanmanimani
- Junction Buoy - PrintInspectionUploaded byLiz Shepard
- Tax2 - Real Property Tax ReviewerUploaded bycardeguzman
- General CNC InformationUploaded byCristopher Entena
- DH55TC Motherboard Product BriefUploaded bySuhas Lb Ngr
- Zahed, 2018Uploaded byAmalia Enggar Pratiwi
- Diffusion BackgroundUploaded byArvin Zulueta
- LEAP BrochureUploaded bydeepak_gupta_priti
- Graybar StoryUploaded byGraybarElectric
- Preliminary Research Proposal.docxUploaded byMerj
- Paper - Blind Deconvolution Through DSPUploaded byLuke_Robertson_3904
- Scuffmaster FDS STUploaded byflooring123
- Design of Wide Single 2+1 Roads - 2008Uploaded byWelly Pradipta bin Maryulis
- Nevion Sublime TelecomUploaded bykarkera
- Power Dip _failure Start Up Check ListUploaded byinnanje
- How Slabs June05Uploaded byandreiponova
- Nib Polypropylene Plastic Fittings Valves MsdsUploaded byMorris Morrison
- Norma EN50160Uploaded byluisosesti80
- Management of Variceal HemorrhageUploaded byFerry Sahra
- Site Visit NotesUploaded byLesambo N'shole Tychique
- Alien AbductionsUploaded byArcadius 08
- Collective NounUploaded bysaj7689
- ACUSUploaded byOsama.Shawky
- Silo Pressure Predictions Using Discrete-elementUploaded byNam Ngô Duy
- Energy TransformationsUploaded byapi-3710134
- Arby's NutritionUploaded byCassie White
- Parallel Transformer OperationUploaded byjoydeep_d3232
- Agile in Automotive – State of Practice 2015Uploaded byGhaziElKhamsa