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Running head: PREGNANCY 1




Pregnancy and Birth: Stages in the life cycle

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Subtopic (1):
Description of Concrete Experience:
Generalizations, Principles and Theories:
Testing and Application:

Concrete Experience

Pregnancy as a stage of human development

Pregnancy and the process of delivering a baby can be considered as supernatural

phenomena if given deep consideration. The entire process is inherently natural even though a

successful process characterized by healthy pregnancy and the eventual delivery of a healthy

child cannot be less than awe-inspiring. Perhaps, the delicateness of this segment of a womans

life is what makes the entire progression to be glorified and the expectant mother to be treated

with respect in the ancient and present civilizations. correct

When I was a child, I have received news of people having babies, from friends to family

members and even to neighbors. The closest contact I had with a pregnancy experience was I

was pregnancy, and I had earlier not known that it would be my life changing moment. Correcr I

got pregnant at the age of 36 years which is four years ago, and the same feeling I saw in my

coursing was all in me, or even more. The two closest experiences with pregnancy, made me

learn a lot about this excellent experience.

Growth and development of the fetus

Sounds strange The period of my pregnancy has been teaching moment about the growth

process of gestation from the psychological to the physical changes. One observation that I made

was that in the first phase of the pregnancy, there is no physical evidence. However, the

emotional changes are very evident. For instance, I would have the morning sickness, crave for

ice-cream and cold drinks even as the pregnancy kept growing (Moore, 2015). In the second and

the third trimester, the pregnancy began to be evident because I started seeing my belly swell and

when the sixth and the seventh months arrived, the most amazing thing during pregnancy began

to happen, and that was watching the baby kick and move.

Effects of pregnancy on the other family members

News of my pregnancy was welcomed with celebration, and everyone in the family was

ecstatic about it. Everyone tried to play their part in ensuring that I was secure and well taken

care of. The older and experienced members of the family especially the women, kept their

advice flowing in. Even though my husband was ever a busy man, he was doing his best to give

closer attention to me more than ever before. He kept checking on my diet, my attire and even

my general health and hygiene just to ensure that all was well for the welfare of me and the

pregnancy. Anytime we were invited by friends or relatives for a visit; I was given particular

attention than never before. The experience revealed that pregnancy affects even the family

members because they become concerned and supportive to the pregnant mother to be.

Health risks of mom and baby

One of the main reasons as to why the family members and friends close to the pregnant

mother take excellent care of her is because of the present risks of the mother and the baby. My

family stopped me from using any alcohol, un-prescribed drugs, tobacco and caffeine as they

were considered harmful to the baby and me in the womb. Any manufactured and shelved foods

were closely monitored especially by my husband before putting them in the shopping basket. I

was also cautioned on taking processed foods without double checking the contents to avoid any

possible allergy as well as harmful ingredients to the pregnancy. A visit to the doctor became a

lifestyle. Mostly my husband would find time to accompany me to the doctor, but some other

time I went with my sister-in-law who was always around. I had to visit the doctor at least once

every week to check the health of the baby and to get any further advice from the physician.

Societal and ethical issues

Even as I was having a good time waiting for my baby, there were instances when I

would come across some issues about pregnancy that raised ethical concerns. Even though I have

never had contact with a person who has had or attempted abortion, I have heard it over the news

and read about it in books. Such occurrences are issues that should be looked into by the society

to prevent them. Other pregnancy related issue that I have come across are teenage pregnancy,

fertility treatment, miscarriages and adoptions which require societal attention to address them to

avoid their effects.

Implications of genetic selection and counseling

While the above mentioned ethical issues have been common in the society, there are

ethical issues on pregnancies that have also come with the advancement of science. One of these

scientific issues that came to my attention and that which is currently an issue of debate is the

progress in genetic engineering that can enable pre-birth enhancement (Moore, 2015).There are

those people that believe that it is Gods role to determine the child that will be born. However,

there are others that feel that scientific processes such as baby enhancement are good for the

welfare of the child. Such scientific issues are expected to be an influence in the pregnancies to



Pregnancy as a stage in human development


Pregnancy is a developmental stage for both the mother and baby. However, it is more

fundamental to the child because it is the first point of the babys development. The baby during

this process is getting bigger and progressing in growth for each passing trimester. This is the

period when the babys organs are shaped, and it is the beginning of a journey that may result in

the child living a great life. Typically, pregnancy is a very significant stage in the life of the baby.

Not only is this step necessary for the baby, but to the mother, it is equally important

because this is the time when she comes to terms with the fact that she has a paramount role in

carrying the child to its full term of nine months. The mother also has to accept the fact that she

has more than just one responsibility as a human. Further, she is coming to terms with the long

journey that she has to undertake during this period, a trip full of excitement, but also heavy


The responsibility does not end with the mother alone but stretches over to the father

also. The father also feels the immense responsibility of caring for a bigger family and the fact

that the next baby will depend on him as much as possible. The child sets forth an atmosphere

that demands that the man acts and lives responsibly as an adult. The father has the role of

ensuring that he behaves in a manner that reflects him as a father figure, a role model and a hero

to the child. All the factors signify that pregnancy triggers development for all parties concerned.

Growth and development of the fetus

An observation of my pregnancy made me realize that the fetus grew quite faster during the

second and third trimester and the physical changes are very evident. I desired to have in-depth

biological knowledge of the growth process of the fetus.

Effect of pregnancy on family members


In as much as pregnancy has been indicated as a moment of development for both the

father and the mother, and that they should prepare for the responsibility before them, sometimes

it can be too much for them. Such a case occurs when the tow is not psychologically prepared for

the coming baby. It is thus advisable that young people should seek counseling in case they

desire to be parents or else they may not experience the joy that comes with pregnancy and


Health risk of the mother and baby

There is a mentality that pregnancy and childbirth is a common thing and because there

are many instances where mothers get pregnancy and have babies, then that makes the process an

evident and reasonable scenario. This, however, is not the case because many things may go

wrong in case the mother or the doctor becomes negligent. Keeping off from alcohol and other

substances is crucial. Moreover, household equipment that seems harmless may be agents of

destruction to the mother and the baby.

Societal and ethical issues

Pregnancies among young people, together with unwanted pregnancies and abortion are

ethical issues that often arise because of lack of adequate sex education. There may be cases

when some of these pregnancies are as a result of sexual abuse, and sometimes abortion cannot

be avoided. Even in cases where the mothers life is in danger, abortion has to be done. While

there are those that consider abortion as an action against God, such ethical concerns should be

put aside in cases where abortion is required to save a mothers life.

Fertility treatment is a scientific discovery that has brought joy to the couple because

there are those that have not been able to get children. This is a vast improvement in this area of


Genetic selection and counseling

The debate about this area of science about pregnancy is quite broad, and there is the

grave concern as much as there are benefits of the same. In its initial inception, this process has

been designed to help parents have their children given enhanced qualities that will help in

withstanding diseases and health risks. However, sometime later, parents may wish that their kids

be improved with other qualities they want, such as IQ and the like which will make having

babies a process of fulfilling dreams or desires. Again, this process is very expensive, and so the

poor people will be disadvantaged.

Genetic selection should, therefore, an area that required regulation so that while these

procedures are made available to people of all social classes, it should also be regulated so that it

is ethically used only for what it is meant for and that is protecting the fetus from infections.

Generalization / Theories / Principles

Pregnancy as a stage of human development

From a biological definition, pregnancy is a result of the fusion of the female ova with

the male sperm. While the biological understanding of pregnancy seems dispassionate, it is

important as discussed that the parents to be are well prepared psychologically, to enjoy the

pregnancy and childbearing process.

Growth and development of fetus

After the fusion of the sperm and the ova and fertilization takes place, an embryo is

formed, and it immediately begins to develop through cell multiplication. This mostly happens in

the first month. In the second month, the mass of cells starts to take the shape of a human, and by

the end of the second month, the ears, the eyes, and the eyelashes are formed. Additionally, at

this point, the brain of the baby has started feeling pain, pleasure and the growing baby can even

move their limbs (Moore, 2015). When the third month comes, the placenta grows and attaches

the mother and the baby for the sake of nutrition from the mothers meal. The umbilical code

forms the lifeline of the baby even as it approaches the fourth month when the heartbeat is

evident. From my experience, this is the month that I experienced a craving for strange things

such as ice cream and cold drinks. By the fifth month, the babys sense organs become manifest

and are fully grown. In the sixth and the seventh month, the most vital organs develop and the

baby starts to form shape and size at a very fast rate. Moreover, this is the point when the babys

internal organs are almost entirely grown because some organs such as the heart and the lungs

are not fully developed but can complete their growth under special care. In the eighth months,

the baby is bigger in size and dimension and when the 9th-month sets in, the baby weighs

between 3 to 5 kgs and is ready to come into the world through birth that is induced naturally by

labor pain.

Effects of pregnancy on family

A newly born baby has a lot of demands that go far beyond time and care but also

increased attention and endless patience of the mother and father. It is a vital time in the

relationship between the parent and the child. In some case, the parents may feel burdened by the

fact that the baby has taken a lot of their time while it may be frustrating for the mother due to

endless chores and lack of sleep. Such conditions may cause a tensed atmosphere full of

arguments and tempers there is thus a need for the parents to be understanding and mature. This

again is a call for psychological preparedness.

Health risks of the mother and the baby

Some of the biggest risks that are likely to affect the mother and the baby are the things

that the mother consumes and passes on to the child. Alcohol intake, passive smoking, narcotic

drug, and caffeine are poisonous substances for the foetus. The reason why these materials are

denied is that alcohol, for instance, affect the healthy cell development and oxygen supply in the

fetus. Worse of all is that the baby may develop Fetal Alcohol Syndrome which may cause severe

handicaps, underweight and small size of the baby. Worse of all, the baby may have mental

retardation and hence require lifelong medical attention.

There are also common household items that are capable of causing harm to pregnancy,

for instance, types of fish solvents and chemicals, nail polish, and neurotoxins (Moore, 2015).

All these are things that people rarely think of as harmful, but it is important that to consider

keeping off these things. The best step, however, is to talk to the doctor about the potential risks

of these substances.

Societal and ethical issues

Abortion, unwanted pregnancies, and teenage pregnancies are unfortunate events in the

lives of women. However, they can be avoided through comprehensive sex education and

through the use of scientific methods such as ovulation indicators that can come into use when

the woman has irregular ovulation. It is, however, important that childbirth should be avoided in

the case where the pregnant woman is at a younger age and if it has to be done, it should be

under the care of experts.

Other scientific processes that are effect in the area of pregnancy are the fatality

treatments that may be used to help childless couples. The first is the Artificial Insemination that

is all about artificially inducing the fertilization of sperm and ova. Assisted Reproductive

Technology is yet another method in where the female ova is taken out of the body and

fertilization is artificially induced externally. It can be categorized as IVF, GIFT, and ZIFT.

Genetic selection and counseling


As indicated earlier in the discussion, science has made it possible that shortly, parents

will be able to select the qualities of their babies before they are born. For instance, the childs

health capabilities, hair color, skin tone, height and even intelligent capabilities and the like

(Moore, 2015). There are also ethical concerns that come with this, which has been discussed

earlier. As observed, the technology is promising, but it has to be approached with caution and

ethical consideration because the excessive use without control may be of disadvantage to some

group of individuals.

Testing And Application

Pregnancy as a stage of human development

One insight that I might have overlooked throughout this study is the practical

importance of the pregnancy process. Form my experience as a pregnant mother I have had a

different perception to pregnancy, that it is not just enjoyable moments but a moment with

weighty responsibilities. Am hence equipped to handle pregnancies and even advice pregnant

women to handle pregnancy with maturity and preparedness.

Growth and development of the fetus

Throughout the study, it is clear that fetus grows gradually at a fast pace in the initial

stages and rapidly in the rest of the process. Monitoring the growth of the fetus is fundamental

and in case any abnormally is noticed, visiting a physician is mandatory.

Effects of pregnancy on family

All family members must be psychologically prepared for the newborn baby and should

be understanding when parents are giving too much attention and time to the child. I would like

advice family members and friend to understand such circumstances when they arise.

Through the study, I have learned that alcohol and other psychotropic drugs are very

harmful to the baby and even to the pregnant mother. With this knowledge, I will advise the other

pregnant women and family members, but also it would be a guide for me if I get pregnant a

second time or a friend gets pregnant, I will carefully select what I give them as gifts. I also

would prefer attending programs that help in the knowledge of such matters.

Societal and ethical issues

As a mother and having once been pregnant, I intend to use my knowledge to assist

teenage mother facing the challenges mentioned such as teenage pregnancy, unwanted

pregnancy, and abortion. I would like to join programs on the same to increase my knowledge

even as I assist these young mothers and fellow pregnant women (Moore, 2015). I would also

use my influence and resources available to sensitize the society to look at such issues from an

empathetic perspective and not to be judgmental.

While there are fertility treatments, there are many people who are still unaware and

other have taboos against them. These people should first of all be made to realize that these

solutions are available and myths and taboos should be clarified.

Genetic selection and counseling

It is further important it realizes that there are cases where the child may need to be enhanced

before birth to help the child survive against some infections and further for the sake of the

survival of the child through genetic selection. In such cases I would highly support this

technology, even so, there are areas of concern for this technology, especially in the case where

parents may misuse it for self-benefits. Such cases should-should not be allowed to happen.


Moore., G., (2015) The Nation's Most Influential Source Book On Pregnancy. Lulu Press Inc. Print