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The Ten Bornean Datus and the Purchase of Panay

The Maragtas is a work by Pedro Alcantara Monteclaro titled (in English translation)
History of Panay from the first inhabitants and the Bornean immigrants, from which
they descended, to the arrival of the Spaniards. The work is in mixed Hiligaynon and
Kinaray-a languages in Iloilo in 1907. It is an original work based on
written and oral sources available to the author.

The Maragtas is an original work by the author, which purports to be based on written
and oral sources of which no copy has survived. The author makes no claim that the
work contains a transcription of particular pre-hispanic documents. The work consists
of a publishers introduction by Salvador Laguda, a Forward by the author, six
chapters, and an epilog. The first chapter describes the former customs, clothes,
dialect, heredity, organization, etc. of the Aetas of Panay, with special mention of
Marikudo, son of old Chief Polpulan; the second chapter begins a narrative of the ten
datus flight from Borneo and the tyranny of Datu Makatunaw there, and their
purchase of the island of Panay from Marikudo; the third chapter tells of the romance
of Sumakwel, Kapinangan and her lover Gurung-garung; the fourth chapter concludes
the tale of the ten datus, telling about their political arrangements and their
circumnavigation of the island; the fifth chapter describes language, commerce,
clothing, customs, marriages, funerals, mourning habits, cockfighting, timekeeping
techniques, calendars, and personal characteristics; the sixth and final chapter gives a
list of Spanish officials between 1637 and 1808; the epilog contains a few eighteenth-
century dates

Although the Dinagyang Festival focuses on the Santo Nio, Ati-Atihan traces its
roots to the barter or purchase of Panay Island by the 10 Bornean datus from Ati King
Marikudo during the first half of the 13th Century in Sinugbuhan, San Joaquin in
southern Iloilo.

Injustice, tyranny, and cruelty drove the ten datus of Borneo to flee from their
countryescaping the oppressive rule of the despotic Sultan Makatunao. They silently
and secretly boarded their binidays (boats) and sailed along the coasts of Paragua
(Palawan). In the course of their northward journey, they sighted the island of Panay
and steered their boats towards it until they reached the mouth of Sirwagan River
north of the hamlet of Sinugbuhan which was the abode of King Marikudo. There
they saw an Ati fishing in the creek from whom they learned about Marikudo, his
kingdom and his people.

The Borneans gained audience with Marikudo, who first acted with caution and
restraint having had undesirable experiences with Moro pirates. Datu Puti, however,
expressed his desire to befriend the natives and their intention to settle in the land
permanently, possibly at the site of Marikudos settlement.
The offer interested Marikudo who gathered his men to discuss the terms of the offer
and ordered them to prepare a feast. When everything was ready, a banquet was held
in which the Borneans and the natives danced their sinulog and displayed their
dinapay to the accompaniment of their lantoy and tipano made of light bamboo.
They beat their drums and played on their mangmang, gurong-gurong and
subling. In return, the Negritos danced their urokoy and their undok-undok.

When the feast was over, Marikudos elders and the ten datus sat down to discuss the
terms of the purchase. The famous barter was then held at Embidayan at the seashore
near the mouth of the Sinugbuhan River, in the neighborhood of what is now the
Tiolas-Dao inter-provincial road.

The new settlers moved in three days after the barter, with the exception of Datu
Paiburong and his wife and followers, who settled separately in a place now called
Lang in Dueas, Iloilo.

From Sinugbuhan, the datus spread out to different places of Madia-as, the -name
they substituted for Aninipay (Panay). To Datu Sumakwel was assigned Hamtik
(Antique); Datu Bangkaya, Aklan; and Datu Paiburong , Irong-Irong (Iloilo). Datu
Puti returned to Borneo and fought Datu Makatunao.

Marikudos territory costs one golden saduk, a sort of helmet or broad-rimmed hat
which gives protection to the face from sun and rain; and one golden necklace which
Marikudos wife Maniwantiwan preferred over the gold basin Datu Puti first offered.
There are contentions, however, that the price was not a golden saduk but rather a
saduk full of gold. Followers of this point of view say that it was rather impractical
for the Borneans to be wearing a golden hat which was heavy.