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The National University Commission (NUC), has

released the latest ranking of Nigerian universities.


According to the list obtained by Nigerian Pilot, the University of Ibadan (UI), Oyo state, is Nigerias top
tertiary institution for the year under review as Covenant University remains Nigerias best private
university.

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University of Ibadan is Nigerias top tertiary institution for year 2015.

Check out the full list below:

1. University of Ibadan, UI

2. University of Lagos, Unilag

3. University of Benin, Uniben

4. Obafemi Awolowo University, OAU


5. Ahmadu Bello University, Abu

6. University of Ilorin, Unilorin

7. University of Jos, Unijos

8. University of Port Harcourt, Uniport

9. University of Maiduguri, Unimaid

10. University of Agriculture, Abeokuta,

11. Lagos State University, Lasu

12. Federal University of Technology, Futo

13. Covenant University, CU

14. University of Nigeria, UNN

15. Federal University of Technology, Futa

16. Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Unizik

17. Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Esut

18. Pan African University

19. Ladoke Akintola University of Technology. lautech

20. Modibbo Adama University of Technology

21. African University of Science and Technology

22. University of Uyo, Uniuyo

23. Bayero University Kano, Buk

24. Ambrose Alli University, AAU

25. Redeemers University,

26. Babcock University

27. Federal University of Technology,

28. University of Calabar, Unical

29. Michael Okpara University of Agriculture,

30. Ajayi Crowther University

31. Bowen University

32. Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Rsust


33. Lead City University

34. Crawford University

35. Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, ATBU

36. Abia State University, Absu

37. Usmanu Danfodio University,

38. Igbinedion University

39. Imo State University, Imsu

40. Niger Delta University

41. Bells University of Technology

42. Kwara State University

43. Nasarawa State University

44. Caleb University

45. Obong University Obong

46. Adekunle Ajasin University

47. Ekiti State University,

48. American University of Nigeria

49. Joseph Ayo Babalola University

50. Veritas University Abuja

51. Afe Babalola University

52. Kaduna State University Kaduna

53. Osun State University Oshogbo

54. Umaru Musa YarAdua University Katsina

55. Federal University, Ndufu-Alike Ndufu-Alike

56. Salem University Lokoja

57. Novena University Ogume

58. Achievers University, Owo Owo

59. Benson Idahosa University Benin City

60. Ebonyi State University Abakaliki


61. University of Abuja Abuja

62. University of Mkar Mkar

63. Madonna University Okija

64. Bingham University Auta Balifi

65. Plateau State University Bokkos

66. Federal University of Petroleum Resources Effurun

67. Federal University, Dutse Dutse

68. Nigerian Turkish Nile University Abuja

69. Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University Lapai

70. Landmark University Omu-Aran

71. Delta State University, Abraka Abraka

72. University of Agriculture, Makurdi Makurdi

73. Renaissance University Enugu

74. Federal University, Otuoke Otuoke

75. Tai Solarin University of Education Ijebu-Ode

76. Federal University, Oye-Ekiti Oye

77. Kano State University of Technology Wudil

78. Tansian University Umunya

79. Akwa Ibom State University Uyo

80. Baze University Abuja

81. Kebbi State University of Science and Technology Aliero

82. Benue State University Makurdi

83. Adeleke University Ede

84. Ondo State University of Science & Technology Okitipupa

85. Kogi State University Anyigba

86. Western Delta University Oghara

87. Federal University, Wukari Wukari

88. Paul University Awka


89. Caritas University Enugu

90. Federal University, Lafia Lafia

91. Cross River University of Science & Technology Calabar

92. Fountain University Oshogbo

93. Al-Hikmah University Ilorin

94. Godfrey Okoye University Ugwuomu-Nike

95. Oduduwa University Ile Ife

96. Anambra State University Uli

97. Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago Iwoye

98. Federal University, Lokoja Lokoja

99. Federal University, Kashere Kashere

100. Rhema University Obeama-Asa

Between aptitude and attitude


By Jideofor Adibe | Publish Date: Feb 3 2016 10:18PM | Updated Date: Feb 3 2016 10:23PM

NYSC DG, Brigadier-General Johnson Bamidele Olawumi

This reflection was inspired by a paper presented on behalf of Mike Omeri, the Director-General of the
National Orientation Agency (NOA) at the Annual Management Meeting of the National Youth Service
Corps (NYSC) held in Asaba, Delta State on January 27 2016. The idea of a relevant lead paper and a panel
of experts to discuss such paper was one of the innovations introduced by Brigadier-General Johnson
Bamidele Olawumi, the DG of the NYSC, to this years Conference of the body. Brigadier-General
Olawumi said the aim was to allow ideas from outside experts to challenge and interrogate the ways the
NYSC does things.
The lead paper by Mike Omeri was entitled Effecting Attitudinal Change in the Nigerian Youth: A Case
Study of the NYSC. I was on a three-man panel that discussed the paper. I took my point of departure from
posing a question I felt was central to the theme of the paper, namely, why do we (not just the youth) need
attitudinal change?

To properly situate a discussion on attitude, I felt it would be more useful if it was done in comparison to its
near opposite: aptitude. What is aptitude and how does it relate to attitude?
To answer the question, I decided to first define the two concepts and reflect on the relationship between
them and second to develop two broad hypotheses about how the mix between attitude and aptitude can
affect our quest for success in life.
Aptitude and Attitude
Your aptitude is your capacity, skill-set and ability to carry out a given task. This ability is either innate or
acquired, often through formal education. In contrast to your aptitude, your attitude is your behaviour
towards accomplishing a given task. It is also the way you look at things. A good illustration of a positive
attitude which made a very strong impression on me was from the late George Edafe Menta, the lead
character in the sitcom Cockcrow at Dawn, which was very popular in the early 1980s. Mr Menta played
the role of Papa Bitrus, a gentleman par excellence. I recall one of the episodes when his son Bitrus ran to
him to complain angrily that a neighbour called him (Papa Bitrus) stupid. Bitrus had obviously expected
his father to get furious but his father, very unfazed by the apparent insult, calmly asked him: And do you
believe I am stupid? When his son answered in the negative, Papa Bitrus replied, So why should that
bother you that he said I am stupid? The moral I took away from that episode of the sitcom was that it is not
what people say about us that can hurt us but the way we react to it. You can say Papa Bitrus had a positive
attitude. Another person might have decided that the neighbour who called him stupid was trying to
embarrass him or bring him to public ridicule and therefore deserved to be taught a lesson or two.
To succeed in any enterprise attitude and aptitude have to be mixed in the right proportion. Many people in
fact believe that attitude rather than aptitude is the driver of success. If we look at the most successful people
around us, we will discover that they are often not the most academically brilliant or those who have the
most impressive academic qualifications. For example people who have consistently supported President
Buhari in the years that he sought for the presidency of this country never marketed him on the basis of his
academic qualifications or even his competence (aptitude). Rather they always talked about his integrity or
incorruptibility (attitude). Similarly many people suspect that Jonathan was chosen as running mate to the
late Umaru Yaradua because of the loyalty he showed when his boss Diepreye Alamieyeseigha was about to
be impeached in December 2005. Jonathan was later to become the countrys President. I dont think that
even Jonathans most fanatical supporters would market him on the basis of his academic brilliance or
competence.
Former world heavyweight boxing champion Muhammed Ali must have had the tension between aptitude
and attitude in mind when he said: Champions arent made in gyms. Champions are made from something
they have deep inside them - a desire, a dream, a vision. They have to have the skill, and the will. But the
will must be stronger than the skill. The late American author Zig Ziglar (1912-2012) expressed the same
sentiment in a different way when he said: Your attitude, not your aptitude, will determine your altitude.
Another American writer Denis Waitley said the same thing using different words: The winners edge is not
in a gifted birth, a high IQ or in talent. The winners edge is all in the attitude. Attitude is the criterion of
successes.
Two hypotheses on the relationship between aptitude / attitude and success
Based on the above, it is possible to formulate two broad hypotheses on the relationship between aptitude
and attitude on the one hand and success on the other hand.
Hypothesis 1: In most tasks in life, your attitude, rather than your aptitude will determine how far you can
go. This is consistent with our reflections so far on the relationship between aptitude/ attitude and attaining a
desired outcome. This partly explains why the cleverest people in class may not always be the most
successful - ten to twenty years down the line. It takes more than brilliance to climb the ladder of success.
Let me tell a story that further illustrates this point.
Some years ago veteran columnist Sonala Olumhense published an article in The Guardian about a certain
young man who graduated with First Class Honours in Philosophy from Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka,
Anambra State. The young man had claimed that an extant University rule of employing those who
graduated with First Class Honours as teaching assistants was denied him - for no reason. Eventually the
young man found job as a clerk or something of that nature in a clearing and forwarding company in
Lagos. Many Nigerians, especially those living in the Diaspora, were touched by the story. A number of
people wrote to strongly condemn a system which would allow such a huge talent to be wasted. Like
many others, I reached out to Sonala Olumhense and eventually got in contact with the young man. My
publishing firm Adonis & Abbey Publishers was at that time trying to set up an office in Nigeria. We already
had a bookshop in Bode Thomas Lagos so I offered the man a job, which he was to start immediately at the
bookshop in Lagos while we worked out the logistics of the office, which was to be set up in Enugu. As far
as I can remember I paid him about three month salary as a lump sum up front. But as quickly as he got the
money and some books that were sent to him he stopped picking up my calls. He made several promises to
show up in the office and resume work which he never kept. I later learnt he was working in the
governorship campaign of Dr Chris Ngige. I also learnt he had issues with that campaign and was
disengaged. So we can argue that despite the young mans academic brilliance, he lacked the requisite
attitude for success. In essence when we say a graduate is unemployable, it could either mean that he does
not possess the requisite skills or that he or she lacks the sort of attitude that potential employers will be
comfortable with.
Hypothesis 2: Aptitude trumps attitude only in careers where the trajectory is short or where the returns
from managing the character deficit is huge.
We all know that some hugely talented sports people and creative artists (musicians, authors etc) can be
extremely difficult to handle or even relate with. Some call this artistic temperament. However a football
coach may be willing to overlook the character deficit of a player only because of the value the player can
add during 90 minutes of play. After all, if such an attitude-challenged player helps the team to win, the
coach also gets a big part of the credit. We saw the same deliberate overlooking of character deficits by those
who promoted Mike Tysons bouts in his hey days as world heavyweight boxing champion.
In essence, we need both aptitude and the right attitude to excel. While aptitude deficiency can be bridged
with training and education, attitudinal change is much more difficult to effect because the motivation for
such change must necessarily have to come from the individuals concerned.

Read more at http://www.dailytrust.com.ng/news/thursday-column/between-aptitude-and-


attitude/132113.html#zEYupqhczOsbbmOX.99
Why Large Amounts of Fruit May Not Be Healthy
November 29, 2008 | 87,739 views

The editorial linked below appeared in the American Journal of


Clinical Nutrition. It traces the rise in fructose consumption, and the rise in chronic diseases
that have come in its wake.

Fructose is a simple sugar found in honey, fruit, table sugar, and high-fructose corn syrup
(HFCS). Because of the increase in the consumption of these sweeteners, fructose intake
worldwide has quadrupled since the early 1900s.

Over the past three decades, there has been an even greater acceleration in consumption, in
part because of the introduction of HFCS. The increase in fructose consumption parallels the
rise in obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and kidney disease.

Studies in animals have shown that fructose can induce insulin resistance, elevated
triglycerides, abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, inflammation, oxidative stress,
endothelial dysfunction, microvascular disease, hyperuricemia, glomerular hypertension and
renal injury, and fatty liver. The consumption of large amounts of dietary fructose also can
rapidly induce insulin resistance.

Fruits contain antioxidants, vitamins and minerals, which is why eating a small amount of
them is fine for healthy people. However, I would conservatively estimate that 75 percent of
the population needs to restrict fruit intake, and this is directly related to its fructose content.

Fructose, a simple sugar found in fruit, is preferentially metabolized to fat in your liver, and
eating large amounts have been linked to negative metabolic and endocrine effects. So if you
eat large amounts of fruit, or, worse, drink large amounts of soda or juice, or eat a lot of
processed foods (both of which usually contain high-fructose corn syrup), you may be
increasing your risk of:

Insulin resistance
Impaired glucose tolerance
High insulin levels
High triglycerides
High blood pressure

Leptin resistance
Obesity
Metabolic syndrome
Oxidative stress

How Fructose Wreaks Havoc in Your Body

Your body absorbs fructose differently than other sugars, and while this doesnt sound like a
very big deal, it causes a cascade of problems.

If you eat glucose, for instance, your production of insulin increases so that sugar in your
blood can be taken to cells and used for energy. Eating glucose also increases production of
leptin, which regulates your appetite and fat storage, and decreases production of ghrelin,
which helps regulate your food intake. The idea is that when you eat glucose, your body
knows it should feel less hungry.

With fructose, this is not the case. Eating fructose does not stimulate insulin or leptin
production, and it does not suppress ghrelin. This is why fructose may contribute to weight
gain, and the host of problems that go along with it.

Fructose also gets converted into triglycerides more efficiently than glucose, which is a big
negative since elevated triglycerides are linked to an increased risk of heart disease. Fructose
also interferes with the balance of magnesium in your body, which may accelerate bone loss.

The Largest Source of Fructose in the American Diet?

While fruit does contain fructose, eating fruit in moderation is not the problem. The biggest
culprit, by far, is the consumption of high-fructose corn syrup, especially in the form of soda,
fruit juice and other beverages, as that is now the number one source of calories in the U.S.

Food and beverage manufacturers began switching their sweeteners from sucrose (table
sugar) to corn syrup in the 1970s when they discovered that HFCS was not only cheaper to
make, it was also about 20% sweeter.

HFCS is either 42% or 55% fructose, while sucrose is 50% fructose, so it's really a wash in terms of
sweetness.
Still, it is a switch that has drastically altered the American diet.

As I said, the number one source of calories in the United States is not meat, veggies or even
bread -- its high-fructose corn syrup from soda.

The fact that most fructose is consumed in a liquid form significantly magnifies its negative
metabolic effects. Since this is such a pervasive problem in the United States, we could make
radically outrageous improvements in our health as a culture if we just simply stopped
everyone from drinking soda!

So, in order of importance, if youre trying to reduce the amount of fructose in your diet,
which is, by the way, a very wise move, you should focus on eliminating:
1. Soda
2. Fruit juice and other sweetened beverages
3. Processed foods that contain HFCS

Should You Also Eliminate Fruit?

Fruit is definitely a source of fructose, and one that can harm your health if you eat it in vast
quantities. However, eating small amounts of whole fruits, in accordance to your nutritional
type, is fine if you are healthy.

Those who need to be careful about their fruit intake are people with high insulin levels. You
can measure your fasting insulin level to find out for sure, but if you have any of the following
problems it is highly likely you have insulin resistance syndrome:

Overweight
High Cholesterol
High Blood Pressure
Diabetes
Yeast Infections

Some of the best fruits to eat are small berries. They are even better if you can use a high-
speed blender like a Vita Mixer, which pulverizes the seeds and releases the stored
antioxidants, polyphenolic bioflavonoids, that are stored there. Most people dont realize that
most of the healthy constituents of the fruit are stored in the skin and the seeds.

However, if youre trying to reach optimal health, I highly suggest you eat fruit in accordance
with your nutritional type.

For example, if youre a protein type, fruits are generally not beneficial for you with the
exception of coconut, which has a higher fat content that is beneficial for protein types.

On the other hand, carbohydrate types tend to fare well with fruit and can safely consume
moderate amounts. This is an important distinction, and everyone should try to eat primarily
the specific fruits that are best for their unique biochemistry.

Bbbuzz
September 18, 2015

From Mrs Vatsa


On 23 December 1985, the Vatsa family had just concluded plans to travel to Calabar because, usually, they
spent the yuletide in the Cross River State capital, (Sufiya is Efik), the Id-el-Fitri in Minna, Niger State
(Vatsa is Nupe) and the Id-el Kabir in Kaduna. After the necessary packing for the trip, the family waited for
the return of General Vatsa from the Armed Forces Ruling Council, (AFRC), meeting he had attended. He
returned home late, so the trip was postponed till the following day. At about 12 midnight, while Sufiya was
watching a movie in her bedroom, her husband, who was working in his study, rushed in to tell her that IBB
had sent for him. The wife protested that it was too late in the night and that Vatsa should phone his boss to
shift the meeting to the following morning.

As this debate was going on, Lt. Col. U.K. Bello led a team of soldiers to Vatsas home at Rumens Street,
Ikoyi, Lagos. The soldiers, who came with armored vehicles and military vans, surrounded the house. Vatsa
told his wife who was upstairs to peep through the window. Unable to contain her fear, she rushed
downstairs and insisted that if the soldiers would take away her husband, then she had to follow them.
Sufiya insisted on driving Vatsa in her own Pengeot 404. At this point, Vatsa directed that the children be
woken up, and he kissed them one after the other. Haruna, the first son, who was in the Nigeria Military
School, Zaria, followed them downstairs, weeping. While UK Bello drove in the fore of the convoy, Sufiya
and Vatsa were chauffeur-driven in their own car in what later turned out to be a merry-go-round about
Lagos till about 2 a.m when they stopped at 7 Cameron Road, Ikoyi. Vatsa was ordered out of the car. As he
made to enter the building, Sufiya ran after him but she was rudely pulled back by the soldiers. The General
turned and gave his wife a bear hug, an embrace that was their last. He urged his wife to take care of their
children, Haruna, Fatima, Jibrin and Aisha.

Sufiya returned home dejected. To her shock, the military authorities had withdrawn the official domestic
staff. At 5a.m, she prepared breakfast of fried yam and pawpaw, drove to her husbands detention centre but
was told she could not bring in any food.

Another surprise awaited Vatsas wife. A soldier came in and said: Madam, Ogas wife, Mrs Mariam
Babangida, said I should carry General Vatsas telephone handset to her. Fatima, Vatsas daughter, clung to
the gadget. A struggle ensued between the 15-year-old girl and the soldier, whose muscles bulged like the
biceps of Michaelangelos statues. Sufiya asked her daughter to let go of the probably bugged set.

Worse still, some gruff, fierce-looking soldiers, led by Vatsas former Aide-de-Camp (ADC), Captain Maku,
an intelligence officer of Idoma extraction, had led other soldiers in laying siege to the familys house.
Madam, no visitors, no phone calls, no going out, Maku snapped as he reclined on a settee in the living
room, an improvised toothpick, peeping out of a corner of his mouth. When Sufiya protested that the family
needed to buy foodstuff, Maku, whose friendly disposition when he was Vatsas batman had changed,
commanded that the woman and her children must manage.

After three days of captivity, Sufiya could not endure it any longer. She told Maku: Look, I am going to the
market. If you refuse me, it means between you and I, somebody will die. I will show you I am a soldiers
wife. She took her car, and without bothering about the soldiers, who cocked their guns menacingly at her,
rammed it into the gate, which gave way as the soldiers scattered capriciously in different directions. She got
to Falomo, bought bread and eggs, and decided to see one of her husbands friends, General Gado Nasko.
Before the visit to Nasko, however, Sufiya had driven home and, since her daughter was, coincidentally, at
the gate, had dropped the food and driven to the Naskos.

Sufiyas mission was to ask Nasko to fix a meeting between her and IBB to find a way to settle the matter.
Although soldiers at Naskos house gave her the cold shoulder, her persistence worked.

Nasko, who said he was aware of the problem and would try to arrange the meeting, asked Sufiya to see him
in the evening. Her hope soared. The reason was the special relationship between her family and IBBs.
When we got married, Sufiya was reported as saying, I thought IBB and my husband were of the same
family. The two wore the same size of dress and pair of shoes. IBB would drop his dirty wears in our house
and put on my husbands. When IBB traveled out, for a further military training my husband took care of
Mariam and her children. General Vatsa, apart from mounting the horse when IBB married Mariam, bought
their first set of furniture from Leventis on hire purchase.

IBB was also my husbands best man during our wedding. Whenever Maryams Mercedez car broke down,
she used to drive my Peugeot 404. We were close. All these, to Babangida, did not count in the field of
realpolitik. Nasko told Sufiya later in the day that the military President was not ready to see her.

Another disappointment awaited Sufiya when she returned to her Rumens Street residence, Ikoyi. A soldier
from Bonny Camp was waiting for her with an order that the family should vacate the house. Another
military officer said the car should be taken to Army Headquarters for security check after which they broke
into the cars glove compartment and confiscated Vatsas manuscripts. In frustration, Sufiya hired a trailer
and moved the familys belongings to Kaduna. She and Fatima, however, returned and stayed in Nwakana
Okoro, her brother-in-laws house at Queens Drive, Ikoyi. When the military authorities bugged Okoros
telephone, the lawyer, a Senior Advocate, of Nigeria, became jittery.

All attempts by Sufiya to see her husband were frustrated by the military authorities. It was only Fatimas
trick that worked a bit. Posing as a lawyer, she would follow other counsels into Vatsas detention centre and
trial venue. Vatsa, however, sent Sufiya a note from Kirikiri, saying: Do not beg Babangida. He is after my
life. Take care of the children. I know it is not easy but God will help you.

When he was to be executed, Vatsa requested that his wrist watch and wedding ring be given to Sufiya. But
by the time they brought the watch and the wedding ring, the ring wasnt my wedding ring, so I rejected it.
Till today, they have not returned the ring to me, Sufiya was quoted by a family source.
Sufiya was, therefore, left in the cold, without any wealth to fall back on. Vatsa had only one plot of land in
Abuja, but it was taken over by the late despot, General Sani Abacha. At a point, Sufiya approached General
Jeremiah Useni, one-time Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Minister, in a bid to reclaim the land. Useni called
for the file and told Vatsas wife to pay for the land rent. She, however, complained to Useni: When my
husband was a minister in FCT, he refused to allocate land to me, his wife. He said it would be immoral for
him to give me land. He said his successor would give me. Useni looked the other way while Sufiya and
her family were deprived of the land.

Not all of Vatsas friends abandoned the family, however. One of his friends came to our aid. Sufiya once
said. Every other person that was dining and wining with my husband immediately switched over to IBB.
Even my children today are not identified with.

To keep body, soul and the family together, Sufiya, of Efik descent, would travel to Calabar, in Cross River
State, and bring food from her people to take care of her children in Kaduna where she has vowed to remain.
Apart from buying and selling, Sufiya used to engage in poultry and cattle rearing. In fact, she injected life
into her Sava Farm, which she set up in 1971 after the civil war. But robbers ruined the business.

Sufiya believed her husband was innocent of the crime for which he was executed. She once lamented to her
husbands family: It is painful that my husband was executed as a coup plotter even when he was not. And
till this moment, we dont know where he was buried. That Gen. Domkat Bali interview published in
TheNews magazine is one of the good things God has done to us in the Vatsa family. Before, some people
did not believe that Vatsa was not a coup plotter; but Balis confession explained it all. They should release
the corpse of my husband to me so that he can be given a befitting burial. That is my prayer.

It was for this reason that Sufiya wrote a letter, dated 15 June 2006, to President Olusegun Obasanjo, where
she stated: Although there was no iota of evidence linking my husband with the phantom coup, he was
convicted and sentenced to death by the Special Military Tribunal which purportedly tried him and other
coup suspects. My husbands appeal to the Armed Forces Ruling Council against his illegal conviction was
yet to be considered when the Head of State, General Babangida had him secretly executed along with the
other coup convicts.

She claimed in the letter that Bali confirmed her husbands innocence in TheNEWS interview when he said:
My regret is that up till now, I am not sure whether Vatsa ought to have been killed because whatever
evidence they amassed against him was weak. My only regret is that I could not say, dont do it. I am not so
sure whether we were right to have killed Vatsa. Sufiya, therefore, requested the Obasanjo administration to
prosecute General Babangida for the murder of my husband, General Vatsa.

Born on 3 December 1940, Major General Mamman Vatsa attended the Government Secondary School,
Bida, Niger State. He enlisted in the Nigerian Army on 10 December 1962 and was trained at the Nigerian
Military Training College, Kaduna and the India Military Academy. Vatsa was in charge of the 21 Battalion
during the Nigerian Civil War, after which he became an instructor at the Nigerian Defence Academy,
Kaduna. Apart from his position as Principal Staff Officer at Army Headquarters, he commanded the 30
infantry Brigade (Ogoja) until July 1975. As the Commander of the Brigade of Guards, a post he held until
1979, Vatsa oversaw the movement of its headquarters from Dodan Barracks to Kofo Abayomi Street,
Victoria Island, Lagos.

One proof of his loyalty to his Commander-in-Chief was when, as Commander, Brigade of Guards, Calabar,
he was the first to go on air to kick against the 13 February 1976 coup, led by Lt. Col Buka Dimka. During
the trial of suspects involved in that coup, he was the Tribunal Secretary. Thereafter, he was appointed the
Commander, Brigade of Guards under General Olusegun Obasanjo. Mrs. Vatsa once revealed: My husband
drove General Obasanjo to his Ota farm after he handed over power to the civilians in 1979.

As Nowa Omoigui wrote, Vatsa was Commandant of the Nigerian Army School of Infantry (NASI) from
1979. He, along with Lt. Col Bitiyong, developed the Special Warfare Wing and established the doctrinal
basis for the establishment of the 82nd Composite Division of the Nigerian Army in Enugu. In fact, it was
Vatsa who suggested that the Division be called the 82nd Division after the 82nd West African Division,
Burma.

As an accomplished poet and writer, Vatsa was able to publish eight poetry collections for adults and 11 for
younger ones. Some of his book titles are Back Again At Watergate (1982), Reach For The Skies (1984), and
Verses for Nigerian State Capitals (1973). His pidgin poetry collection is Tori for Geti Bow Leg (1981). His
pictorial books are Bikin Suna and Stinger the Scorpion.
His literary interests transcended merely reeling out volumes of verse. He organized writing workshops for
soldiers and their families, assisted the Childrens Literature Association with funds, as well as allocating a
piece of land in Abuja for a writers village for the Association of Nigerian Authors. Vatsa was so pre-
occupied with creativity that he always carried jotters to the toilet, dining table and the bedroom. There were
books strewn around in the familys apartment so much that, Sufiya once threatened to throw these books
out.

Vatsas journey to the great beyond started on 17 December 1985 when the military authorities arrested over
100 officers from the Army, Navy and the Air Force. Vatsa was picked up seven days later. They were, for
two weeks, investigated by the Brigadier-General Sani Sami-led Preliminary Special Investigation Panel.
After this, 17 of them were dragged before a Special Military Tribunal, set up by Bali, at the Defence
Minister, at the Brigade of Guards Headquarters, Lagos. The accused officers were Lt.-Cols. Musa Bitiyong,
Christian A. Oche, Micheal A Iyorshe, M. Effiong; Majors D.I Bamidele, D.E. West, J.O Onyeke and Tobias
G Akwashiki. Others were Captain G.I L Sese, Lt. K.G. Dakpa, Commodore A.A. Ogwiji, Wing
Commanders B.E. Ekele, Adamu Sakaba; Squadron Leaders Martin Luther, C. Ode and A Ahura.

The tribunal, chaired by Major General Ndiomu, tried the officers under the Treason and Other Offences
(Special Military Tribunal) Decree 1 of 1986. Other members of the tribunal were Brigadier Yerima Yohanna
Kure, Commodore Murtala Nyako, Col. Rufus Kupolati, Col E. Opaleye, and Lt. Col. D. Muhammed. Alhaji
Mamman Nassarawa, a commissioner of police and Major A Kejawa, the Judge Advocate, were also
members. The IBB regime accused Vatsa of trying to overthrow it by hiding behind a farming loan to Lt-Col
Bitiyong, a charge which the general denied.

As Nowa Omogui, a military analyst explains in his essay, The Vatsa Conspiracy, Bitiyong was allegedly
tortured to implicate Vatsa by making reference to certain private political conversations they had, which
Vatsa denied.

There were further allegations that Luther, Oche, Ogwiji and Bitiyong held a meeting at the Lagos Sheraton
Hotel and Towers in November 1985. Iyorchie, Bitiyong, Oche, Ekele, Sakaba and Bamidele also allegedly
met in Makurdi. Allegations such as the diversion of the presidential jet to a pre-arranged location by pilots
in the executive fleet (Luther and Ahura), as Omogui put it, were floated. Oche allegedly held a meeting
with Major Akwashiki, Commander of the 6th Battalion, Bonny Camp, and Onyeke, after a game of squash
in Lagos and spoke about the International Monetary Fund (IMF) loan. Akwashiki was sentenced to death,
but this was commuted to life imprisonment. He was however released 10 years later by the Abacha regime.
Oche, it was also alleged, mentioned the plot to his nephew, Peter Odoba, a young lieutenant of the Brigade
of Guards who, as Omogui wrote, informed then Lt. Hamza al-Mustapha, an intelligence officer to the Chief
of Army Staff. Obada was charged with concealment, recommended for dismissal and a long jail term.

On 6 March 1986, however, Vatsa, Iyorshe, Bamidele, Ogwiji, Ekele, Sakaba, Luther, Akura were
executed.Vatsa had taken his trial and sentence with cheerful equanimity like the writer that he was. His
vintage smiles revealed more than his words. I leave you with smiles as smiles surprise people. But I will
tell members of the Nigerian Army that the day you start insulting yourselves, others begin to join you, he
said.

To buttress his position that there was rivalry between IBB and Vatsa, Omogui referred to an interview that
Eniola Bello of THISDAY had with IBB in 2001 when he turned 60. Babangida said it was after Vatsas
coup was foiled that he realized his childhood friend and classmate planned the coup in line with a deep-
seated personal rivalry, going back to their days as young officers. He said that unconsciously, he and Vatsa
had been great competitors; that as a young officer, whatever he did Vatsa equally did and whatever Vatsa
achieved, he also went after. He said it was Lt. Gen. T.Y. Danjuma who pointed this out to him from their
military records. Babangida gave this rationalization to justify his refusal to pardon Vatsa. He said when he
first heard his childhood friend was planning a coup, he decided to do nothing but monitor him. He added,
however, that Vatsa came to him to complain thus: You heard I was planning a coup and couldnt even ask
me. What kind of friend are you? To this, Babangida said he replied: I didnt believe it, or are you planning a
coup? He said Vatsa replied in the negative and the matter was forgotten until there was evidence of the plot.
Babangida said he instructed that Vatsa be arrested and detained to prevent him from impeding investigation
into the matter.

Babangida argued: However, Vatsa tried to escape through the air conditioner hole. I couldnt understand
why he was trying to escape if he was not involved in a coup plot. But while watching the video of his
execution, I turned my eyes away when I saw him remove his watch and ask a soldier to give his wife. I
couldnt continue watching. Babangida added that he couldnt retire or imprison Vatsa because he believed
the guy could still have planned a coup either in retirement or in prison. Rawlings did it in Ghana and you
know Vatsa was very stubborn, IBB said.

Omogui, however, lamented the tragedy that befell Vatsa: Vatsa maintained to the very end that the money
was for farming. Others alleged, however, that after being tortured for two days, Bitiyong implicated Vatsa
by making reference to certain private political conversations they had, which Vatsa denied. But Vatsa was
accused of harbouring bad blood against his friend and classmate Babangida, dating back to the Buhari
regime and possibly earlier. He was also obliquely accused of reporting Babangidas coup plot to Buhari
before he left the country for pilgrimage along with Major General Tunde Idiagbon in August, 1985. Actions
he later took as a Minister to accelerate many military applications for certificates of occupancy for land in
Abuja, came to be viewed as efforts to buy the support of one or two of the plotters. Rumors that a civilian
had introduced him at a party as Nigerias next President were even aired. All of this was, of course,
circumstantial. But they took him to the stake, which was quite an anti-climax to the career of a brilliant man
who never took part in any coup in Nigeria. Indeed, Mamman Vatsa was the first to go on air in Calabar to
denounce the Dimka coup, and was later the Secretary of the Obada panel that tried Dimka and others in
1976. This little detail may have earned him some latent enmity in certain circles of the Army which later
contributed to his death.

There is also a very strong belief that Vatsa may have been a victim of political intrigues because of his
intellectual sagacity, being a writer and soldier-poet, and his significant indifference to the military politics
at that time. In fact, his ordeal had attracted three leading Nigerian literary icons, Chinua Achebe, Wole
Soyinka and John Pepper Clark Bekederemo, who had gone to plead with Babangida for clemency, only to
be shocked by news of his execution few minutes after departing Dodan Barracks, venue of the meeting.

Hajia Sufiya Vatsa, wife of the late former Minister of the Federal Capital Territory, General Mamman Vatsa,
was at the forefront of the struggle to ensure that justice is done in the Vatsa case. Her campaign was cut
short in the early hours of Monday, 21 May 2007 when the grim riper came calling.
She handed over the mantle to her son Jubrin who broke the news news of her demise.

Hajia Sufiya Vatsa, widow of the late former Minister of the Federal Capital Territory, General Mamman
Vatsa, died aged 56, but looked older than her age. She has been through a whole lot of psychological
trauma.
Hajia Safiya died in the early hours of Monday, May 21, 2007 at her residence in Kaduna after a brief
illness.

Jibrin, son of the late Mrs. Vatsa, who broke the news of his mother's death to Daily Sun on telephone, said
Hajia Sufiya took ill early last week and was getting better when she passed on. He said the deceased's
remains were buried on Monday in her farm, according to Islamic rites.

Only recently, Hajia Vatsa petitioned President Olusegun Obasanjo demanding a review of the circumstance
surrounding the execution of her husband in 1986 by the General Ibrahim Babangida military
administration. President Obasanjo later had an audience with her during which she was said to have stated
her case.

Until her death, Hajia Vatsa lived in her husband's farm in Kaduna. She vowed never to step foot in Minna
for the rest of her life after her husband, Vatsa was executed by the military junta.

Sufiya, was both Father and Mother to her kids who she brought up on a shoe-string budget. Haruna, whom
Vatsa asked to be withdrawn from the Nigerian Military School, Zaria, because of the way the Army treated
him, is now married with two children. Fatima, who is a Medical Doctor, is in London with her husband,
while Jubrin, who studied law, lived in Minna, Niger State until he died yesterday, September 13 in Calabar
after a brief illness. Aisha the baby of the house is a US-based pilot.

Of all the Vatsas, only Jubrin lived in Minna after Sufiya relocated the family to Kaduna. He wanted to be
closer to his Father who was very fond of him.

General Vatsa on page 74 in his book of Poetry REACH FOR THE SKIES has this to say about his son
Jubrin:
"Jib Boy
O, Jib boy
You give me joy
You look so much like me
But what else could it be!"
Pg 74, REACH FOR THE SKIES (1985) by Gen Mamman Jiya Vatsa

Jibrin Mamman Jiya Vatsa the third child of General Mamman Jiya Vatsa and Sufiya slept in the Lord in the
early hours of Sunday, September 13, 2015 after a brief illness in Calabar. Jubrin finally made the journey to
Calabar which was aborted on 23rd December, 1985 when the junta led by the "Evil Genius" took away his
source of joy.

Alas Father, Mother and Son reunited by the grim riper. These things are beyond anything we've seen before,
and I am afraid that William Shakespeare was spot on in his epic, Julius Caesar where he posited thus:
When beggars die there are no comets seen; the heavens themselves blaze forth the death of princes."
- William Shakespeare

Subject: Knee Med


Arthritis can cause chronic inflammation, pain, and stiffness in the fingers, hands, knees, elbows, hips, jaw,
and any other joint in the body. It cannot be cured, but you can get relief from its symptoms.
For thousands of years, apple cider vinegar has been commonly recognized as the most effective natural
remedy for arthritis pain. Youre about to find out how its many healing properties can help you live a
fulfilling life in spite of your arthritis.

How Does Apple Cider Vinegar Relieve Arthritis Pain?

Mineral deficiencies can exacerbate joint pain. Apple Cider Vinegar contains the calcium, magnesium,
potassium, and phosphorus your body needs to dull that pain.
The magnesium in apple cider vinegar helps bones absorb calcium, which is essential to bone strength.
Apple cider vinegar also contains antioxidants, beta-carotene, and acetic acid. Anti-oxidants block the
damaging effects of free radicals, preventing the cell and tissue damage characteristic of degenerative
conditions like arthritis.
It is rich in enzymes and acids that promote proper digestion and the absorption of the nutrients essential to
healthy joints.
Arthritis pain is partially caused by metabolic waste that is stored in connective tissues. The pectin, acetic
acid, and mallic acid in apple cider vinegar help absorb toxins and flush them out of the body.
When consumed, apple cider vinegar reduces the pain and stiffness of arthritis by dissolving the acid crystals
that build up in the joints.
Once it is processed, apple cider vinegar leaves behind an alkaline residue that helps balance the bodys pH.
How to Use Apple Cider Vinegar as an Arthritis Remedy

Below are several of the most common and most effective methods for using apple cider vinegar to relieve
arthritis pain and stiffness. Try them all until you find the one that works best for you.

1. Apple Cider Vinegar and Cherry Juice

Cherries are rich in anthocyanins, which battle inflammation.

Mix 1 teaspoon apple cider vinegar into a glass of cherry juice.


Drink 2 times daily to relieve arthritis pain.
Include apple cider vinegar and cherries in your healthy diet to enhance energy and boost the immune
system.
2. Apple Cider Vinegar and Water

Mix 1-3 teaspoons apple cider vinegar into 8 ounces water.


Drink 3 times daily, preferably before meals.
To improve flavor, add honey.
You can also use this mixture as an external pain relief ointment.
3. Apple Cider Vinegar Soak

Mix 1 cup apple cider vinegar into 6 cups warm water.


Submerge painful joints and soak for at least 30 minutes.
Use this topical solution whenever you are in pain.
4. Apple Cider Vinegar with Carrier Oils

Mix 2 tablespoons apple cider vinegar with 1 tablespoon coconut or olive oil.
Massage directly into arthritic joints for a few minutes and leave on.
Repeat regularly for pain relief.
5. Apple Cider Vinegar Tonic

Prepare a 10 oz. glass of peppermint tea.


Mix in 1 tablespoon apple cider vinegar, 1 teaspoon honey, and 1 teaspoon cinnamon.
Drink once daily to relieve arthritis pain.
Note: This tonic is anti-bacterial and anti-fungal, and it serves as an antacid.
6. Apple Cider Vinegar Bath
Run a hot bath and pour in 1-2 cups apple cider vinegar.
Soak for 30-35 minutes, massaging the entire body.
Start with the feet and work your way up each leg one at a time.
Next, massage the torso, arms, and neck.
Lightly stroke the face without pulling skin downward.
After your bath, do a dry massage and remember to rub the ears.
Do this regularly.
7. Apple Cider Vinegar with Apple and Grape Juices

Mix 1 part apple cider vinegar with 3 parts apple juice and 5 parts grape juice.
Drink cup per day.
8. Apple Cider Vinegar Poultice

Add 1 cups water and cup apple cider vinegar to a pan.


Heat until the liquid is comfortably hot to the touch.
Soak a clean washcloth in the mixture and wring it out.
Place the soaked cloth on the painful joint.
Wrap it with a dry towel to retain heat.
Leave on 10-15 minutes.
When the cloth cools, re-soak it, wring it o

CWUR 2016 - World University Rankings


Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
d Institution Location nal Employm of
Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

100.0
1 Harvard University USA 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3
0

2 Stanford University USA 2 9 2 2 5 3 3 3 7 98.25

Massachusetts Institute of
3 USA 3 2 12 3 15 2 2 2 1 97.12
Technology

United
4 University of Cambridge 1 3 10 6 12 8 14 12 45 96.13
Kingdom

United
5 University of Oxford 2 7 13 10 6 11 6 9 19 95.39
Kingdom

6 Columbia University USA 4 13 6 9 14 12 15 14 2 94.12

University of California,
7 USA 5 6 21 5 11 4 8 6 21 91.35
Berkeley

8 University of Chicago USA 6 11 14 8 17 16 11 17 83 90.72

9 Princeton University USA 7 4 15 4 82 25 26 37 109 88.72

10 Yale University USA 8 8 26 11 18 6 31 18 41 85.83

California Institute of
11 USA 9 5 338 7 67 13 20 25 9 83.74
Technology

12 Cornell University USA 10 12 19 19 24 15 27 23 13 81.74

13 University of Tokyo Japan 1 14 3 31 13 20 31 31 8 79.51

14 University of Pennsylvania USA 11 22 4 26 8 18 12 11 11 77.60

University of California, Los


15 USA 12 35 28 13 7 14 10 8 6 75.23
Angeles

16 Johns Hopkins University USA 13 18 89 16 4 10 4 4 4 70.44


Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
d Institution Location nal Employm of
Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

University of California, San


17 USA 14 27 594+ 18 16 5 16 16 16 67.59
Diego

University of California, San


18 USA 15 378+ 594+ 14 23 7 18 10 55 66.97
Francisco

19 University of Michigan USA 16 25 20 139 3 19 5 12 12 66.60

20 Kyoto University Japan 2 23 17 27 33 43 84 65 15 66.53

21 Northwestern University USA 17 176 11 75 28 36 31 26 40 66.14

22 New York University USA 18 38 24 20 47 30 27 32 43 66.11

Swiss Federal Institute of Switzerla


23 1 17 61 17 46 27 41 72 51 64.98
Technology in Zurich nd

South
24 Seoul National University 1 378+ 9 235+ 27 148 184 106 9 64.92
Korea

University of Wisconsin
25 USA 19 29 29 32 22 24 23 27 14 64.04
Madison

Hebrew University of
26 Israel 1 16 196 15 127 103 324 149 28 63.52
Jerusalem

27 University of Washington USA 20 41 112 23 10 9 8 5 25 63.38

28 Rockefeller University USA 21 32 594+ 12 395 28 136 81 240 61.64

29 Duke University USA 22 80 33 46 21 23 13 15 24 61.32

30 University of Toronto Canada 1 47 70 24 2 17 7 6 230 60.79

United
31 University College London 3 21 442 33 9 22 21 20 85 60.54
Kingdom

32 University of Texas at Austin USA 23 66 31 28 51 53 29 68 37 60.17

33 Keio University Japan 3 300 5 235+ 312 249 380 280 70 60.08

University of Illinois at
34 USA 24 24 76 22 44 45 39 79 51 59.83
UrbanaChampaign

United
35 Imperial College London 4 99 72 37 19 26 19 20 29 59.40
Kingdom

36 cole Polytechnique France 1 101 7 184 339 301 200 296 207 59.09

37 Waseda University Japan 4 302 8 235+ 422 428 436 371 196 57.97

University of North Carolina


38 USA 25 134 74 61 32 29 17 22 30 57.40
at Chapel Hill

cole normale suprieure -


39 France 2 10 529 69 386 160 818+ 300 912+ 57.30
Paris

40 University of Virginia USA 26 220 18 129 105 82 78 103 63 56.86

Weizmann Institute of
41 Israel 2 20 594+ 21 256 67 240 144 34 56.57
Science

42 McGill University Canada 2 34 38 54 37 55 39 35 103 56.45

43 Rutgers University USA 27 112 42 29 68 59 57 60 68 56.08

44 University of Southern USA 28 164 62 35 63 60 84 56 22 55.89


Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
d Institution Location nal Employm of
Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

California

45 University of Minnesota USA 29 62 130 64 20 34 29 27 58 55.85

46 Ohio State University USA 30 82 101 57 30 49 31 33 39 55.72

47 University of Pittsburgh USA 31 85 169 235+ 25 58 22 24 38 55.60

48 Osaka University Japan 5 46 37 78 59 62 160 98 18 55.52

49 University of California, Davis USA 32 45 262 63 31 32 37 51 53 55.18

50 Dartmouth College USA 33 48 16 235+ 254 165 200 173 79 55.16

Washington University in St.


51 USA 34 111 98 74 42 21 25 18 104 55.15
Louis

Pennsylvania State
52 USA 35 272 60 67 38 39 41 42 68 54.48
University

53 National Taiwan University Taiwan 1 69 22 235+ 50 206 113 201 763 54.40

Pierre-and-Marie-Curie
54 France 3 26 439 96 29 35 51 54 141 54.03
University

United
55 University of Edinburgh 5 49 146 39 52 38 54 40 167 54.03
Kingdom

56 Purdue University USA 36 72 41 48 77 94 84 118 30 54.03

University of British
57 Canada 3 78 312 95 26 37 38 33 73 53.89
Columbia

University of California,
58 USA 37 107 303 36 119 65 43 48 54 53.86
Santa Barbara

59 University of Florida USA 38 219 244 98 41 75 75 56 5 53.85

60 Peking University China 1 162 34 235+ 48 106 126 115 46 53.75

United
61 University of Manchester 6 110 93 76 45 70 23 45 144 53.74
Kingdom

62 Boston University USA 39 319 57 89 70 46 35 39 92 53.49

National University of
63 Singapore 1 378+ 86 235+ 36 119 78 81 26 53.30
Singapore

64 University of Paris-Sud France 4 33 394 30 72 89 109 99 403 53.23

University of Colorado
65 USA 40 61 82 42 99 41 46 68 151 53.21
Boulder

66 University of Utah USA 41 102 104 70 98 64 75 87 20 53.06

67 Carnegie Mellon University USA 42 28 140 25 216 219 101 155 122 53.04

University of Maryland,
68 USA 43 54 189 50 60 44 35 59 203 52.99
College Park

69 University of Copenhagen Denmark 1 132 153 68 34 31 43 30 303 52.92

70 Karolinska Institute Sweden 1 108 594+ 41 49 50 51 35 558 52.76

71 Vanderbilt University USA 44 92 83 111 56 57 63 45 67 52.68

72 University of Rochester USA 45 63 48 114 118 112 90 87 42 52.47


Quality Broa
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of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
d Institution Location nal Employm of
Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

73 University of Arizona USA 46 146 50 87 84 42 46 55 161 52.46

74 Tsinghua University China 2 325 53 235+ 53 133 64 121 44 52.36

University of Texas
75 USA 47 70 594+ 40 140 33 57 40 159 52.32
Southwestern Medical Center

Ludwig Maximilian University


76 Germany 1 40 125 71 61 54 57 47 182 52.27
of Munich

Lomonosov Moscow State


77 Russia 1 15 174 53 275 256 324 352 763 52.15
University

Katholieke Universiteit
78 Belgium 1 378+ 190 235+ 35 84 49 50 80 52.10
Leuven

79 Emory University USA 48 378+ 143 126 71 61 71 37 60 52.09

Switzerla
80 University of Geneva 2 36 221 38 120 81 75 78 347 52.02
nd

81 Tel Aviv University Israel 3 68 90 49 102 109 160 149 36 51.94

Ruprecht Karl University of


82 Germany 2 43 398 59 65 63 64 42 222 51.85
Heidelberg

Netherlan
83 Utrecht University 1 88 193 115 39 48 57 48 234 51.84
ds

84 Tohoku University Japan 6 51 142 191 81 144 126 127 23 51.78

University of Texas MD
85 USA 49 378+ 594+ 82 95 69 49 27 61 51.76
Anderson Cancer Center

Georgia Institute of
86 USA 50 152 68 117 112 161 78 108 34 51.75
Technology

87 Brown University USA 51 75 39 77 122 73 64 103 203 51.74

University of California,
88 USA 52 240 594+ 45 89 56 64 51 91 51.70
Irvine

89 University of Melbourne Australia 1 93 124 139 40 66 54 63 237 51.69

90 Sapienza University of Rome Italy 1 59 192 34 91 173 126 119 285 51.62

Erasmus University Netherlan


91 2 378+ 43 202 88 147 78 51 155 51.45
Rotterdam ds

United
92 King's College London 7 31 173 116 73 100 84 68 192 51.45
Kingdom

Switzerla
93 University of Zurich 3 125 358 88 57 47 43 58 141 51.44
nd

94 University of Notre Dame USA 53 230 25 154 250 245 218 233 291 51.42

95 University of Sydney Australia 2 116 231 164 43 92 54 81 89 51.41

Swiss Federal Institute of Switzerla


96 4 378+ 73 117 123 108 46 95 65 51.35
Technology in Lausanne nd

97 Tufts University USA 54 71 44 182 170 159 84 95 77 51.14

98 Texas A&M University USA 55 352 96 47 86 113 64 138 95 50.94

99 University of Queensland Australia 3 285 284 143 58 77 90 95 71 50.74


Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
d Institution Location nal Employm of
Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

100 University of Oslo Norway 1 56 310 44 106 128 95 101 210 50.59

101 University of Alberta Canada 4 174 149 152 66 114 78 100 99 50.39

102 Arizona State University USA 56 378+ 287 91 141 96 90 155 27 50.32

South
103 Yonsei University 2 378+ 45 235+ 134 329 324 228 32 50.25
Korea

Technical University of
104 Germany 3 42 127 178 100 86 144 91 138 50.22
Munich

Netherlan
105 University of Groningen 3 328 210 212 54 93 64 76 403 50.21
ds

106 Michigan State University USA 57 106 134 235+ 94 120 71 117 78 50.20

107 University of Helsinki Finland 1 64 521 110 76 78 84 60 502 50.14

Case Western Reserve


108 USA 58 58 255 211 144 102 57 81 97 50.03
University

109 Mines ParisTech France 5 297 23 168 952 373 818+ 907 856 49.93

110 Aarhus University Denmark 2 327 203 102 78 83 101 91 146 49.93

Netherlan
111 University of Amsterdam 4 120 367 229 64 85 113 63 240 49.89
ds

Netherlan
112 Leiden University 5 143 594+ 103 85 90 101 66 153 49.88
ds

Radboud University Netherlan


113 6 130 270 235+ 87 125 64 60 315 49.87
Nijmegen ds

114 Rice University USA 59 53 121 97 271 151 51 155 74 49.84

115 Baylor College of Medicine USA 60 378+ 594+ 133 115 40 109 42 161 49.83

Netherlan
116 VU University Amsterdam 7 378+ 430 235+ 74 118 57 76 536 49.81
ds

University of New South


117 Australia 4 187 67 209 93 175 95 144 131 49.77
Wales

118 University of Montreal Canada 5 339 191 235+ 83 101 95 66 257 49.74

119 Nagoya University Japan 7 39 289 56 143 154 171 200 66 49.72

Paris Diderot University -


120 France 6 94 594+ 83 103 51 95 79 523 49.72
Paris 7

121 Georgetown University USA 61 145 32 235+ 305 317 295 215 138 49.69

122 University of Barcelona Spain 1 378+ 230 235+ 55 111 136 81 240 49.68

Indiana University -
123 USA 62 109 36 177 181 136 171 204 221 49.66
Bloomington

124 Kyushu University Japan 8 288 52 235+ 152 190 268 215 47 49.65

125 University of Iowa USA 63 128 294 165 111 91 101 111 72 49.63

126 Uppsala University Sweden 2 55 298 73 97 72 144 105 841 49.63

127 Lund University Sweden 3 148 454 168 92 135 71 68 883 49.57

128 Tokyo Institute of Technology Japan 9 177 47 131 186 191 160 204 64 49.55
Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
d Institution Location nal Employm of
Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

United
129 University of Bristol 8 207 195 93 96 74 95 101 315 49.51
Kingdom

University of Colorado
130 Denver | Anschutz Medical USA 64 378+ 594+ 139 133 97 113 72 81 49.40
Campus

131 Royal Institute of Technology Sweden 4 206 30 107 223 292 324 300 841 49.39

United
132 University of Glasgow 9 253 106 235+ 126 142 78 87 378 49.36
Kingdom

133 Ghent University Belgium 2 137 332 148 80 146 90 121 116 49.34

Nanyang Technological
134 Singapore 2 378+ 569 235+ 104 336 171 160 48 49.33
University

135 McMaster University Canada 6 232 292 160 124 139 71 72 197 49.30

136 Free University of Berlin Germany 4 81 522 106 109 80 144 91 338 49.17

Technion Israel Institute of


137 Israel 4 52 188 58 193 208 218 238 62 49.15
Technology

138 University of So Paulo Brazil 1 316 84 235+ 62 183 144 166 704 49.15

United
139 University of Nottingham 10 144 118 84 114 185 113 127 135 49.12
Kingdom

South
140 KAIST 3 378+ 162 235+ 199 290 541 272 17 49.11
Korea

South
141 Korea University 4 378+ 54 235+ 171 400 295 268 55 49.01
Korea

Southern Methodist
142 USA 65 189 27 235+ 634 611 436 606 745 49.01
University

143 Monash University Australia 5 293 145 235+ 79 132 184 146 113 49.00

144 University of Tbingen Germany 5 57 471 105 139 121 160 113 126 48.95

Icahn School of Medicine at


145 USA 66 378+ 594+ 235+ 157 68 144 72 112 48.92
Mount Sinai

Western University
146 (University of Western Canada 7 378+ 40 235+ 160 210 144 201 230 48.92
Ontario)

University of Alabama at
147 USA 67 378+ 553 235+ 145 116 184 87 89 48.88
Birmingham

148 University of Miami USA 68 378+ 218 235+ 172 126 101 109 86 48.85

149 Humboldt University of Berlin Germany 6 309 594+ 180 107 79 144 81 456 48.82

University of California,
150 USA 69 184 594+ 66 255 52 136 91 303 48.81
Santa Cruz

151 Aix-Marseille University France 7 229 416 235+ 90 71 136 121 234 48.77

152 University of Bonn Germany 7 60 240 85 149 117 113 133 342 48.68

153 University of Southampton United 11 343 100 188 113 141 113 149 187 48.67
Quality Broa
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of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
d Institution Location nal Employm of
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Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

Kingdom

154 Stony Brook University USA 70 193 594+ 51 179 88 184 155 99 48.63

155 Wake Forest University USA 71 280 75 235+ 262 228 144 130 116 48.58

Switzerla
156 University of Basel 5 87 282 65 158 98 113 138 456 48.57
nd

157 University of Padua Italy 2 296 594+ 235+ 101 124 113 111 391 48.54

United
158 University of Birmingham 12 76 156 223 117 169 218 130 199 48.51
Kingdom

United
159 University of Leeds 13 67 165 235+ 132 140 184 133 229 48.49
Kingdom

Australian National
160 Australia 6 126 377 43 135 104 295 198 356 48.44
University

Oregon Health & Science


161 USA 72 378+ 594+ 131 195 107 101 106 129 48.44
University

Albert Ludwig University of


162 Germany 8 159 128 217 151 105 200 130 120 48.43
Freiburg

163 Yeshiva University USA 73 214 594+ 235+ 207 87 113 109 105 48.40

164 University of South Florida USA 74 378+ 383 235+ 238 244 200 177 49 48.39

165 University of Cincinnati USA 75 147 108 235+ 154 166 113 138 210 48.38

166 Shanghai Jiao Tong University China 3 349 116 235+ 75 247 200 194 197 48.38

167 Grenoble Alpes University France 8 153 581 117 110 99 171 138 173 48.30

Technical University of
168 Denmark 3 363 495 219 213 217 171 198 50 48.30
Denmark

Hong
169 University of Hong Kong 1 304 97 235+ 128 200 171 149 203 48.29
Kong

170 University of Hamburg Germany 9 329 144 136 148 134 136 124 547 48.26

171 University of Milan Italy 3 168 401 182 116 180 160 113 273 48.24

United
172 University of Sheffield 14 157 224 212 136 155 126 146 135 48.22
Kingdom

173 University of Calgary Canada 8 378+ 103 235+ 146 177 109 153 821 48.21

University of Maryland,
174 USA 76 378+ 594+ 235+ 177 143 218 119 86 48.19
Baltimore

175 Trinity College, Dublin Ireland 1 299 66 215 291 220 126 177 155 48.14

University of the South


176 1 73 35 172 419 232 295 407 315 48.11
Witwatersrand Africa

177 University of Gttingen Germany 10 44 175 176 168 137 240 174 281 48.11

178 Stockholm University Sweden 5 138 88 200 194 95 101 183 883 48.11

University of Massachusetts
179 USA 77 378+ 594+ 81 303 76 240 133 93 48.10
Medical School

180 Universit libre de Bruxelles Belgium 3 182 115 72 240 214 113 174 175 48.06
Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
d Institution Location nal Employm of
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Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

Switzerla
181 University of Lausanne 6 90 412 235+ 227 123 95 115 523 48.06
nd

182 Goethe University Frankfurt Germany 11 123 239 90 182 150 200 126 356 48.03

183 Hokkaido University Japan 10 215 251 136 156 179 380 259 59 47.97

184 Zhejiang University China 4 378+ 277 235+ 69 255 664 225 169 47.88

University of Illinois at
185 USA 78 378+ 564 235+ 128 186 160 192 82 47.85
Chicago

Indiana University-Purdue
186 USA 79 378+ 474 235+ 190 176 218 133 107 47.76
University Indianapolis

United
187 Cardiff University 15 335 228 144 180 157 126 160 182 47.76
Kingdom

188 Louisiana State University USA 80 294 161 235+ 174 172 160 170 141 47.76

189 University of Cologne Germany 12 378+ 132 216 203 149 144 146 507 47.74

190 Wayne State University USA 81 378+ 151 235+ 202 250 113 177 123 47.73

Pohang University of Science South


191 5 378+ 594+ 235+ 306 334 295 286 32 47.73
and Technology Korea

192 Fudan University China 5 378+ 197 235+ 108 223 268 192 190 47.72

193 University of Ottawa Canada 9 231 182 235+ 164 178 200 133 516 47.72

University of Erlangen-
194 Germany 13 243 577 235+ 169 195 160 127 295 47.61
Nuremberg

195 University of Strasbourg France 9 77 594+ 52 192 138 218 228 285 47.60

196 University of New Mexico USA 82 378+ 594+ 235+ 229 167 90 170 119 47.59

Switzerla
197 University of Bern 7 194 552 230 153 122 101 166 429 47.59
nd

198 University of Bologna Italy 4 362 346 235+ 131 279 160 155 315 47.59

Queen Mary University of United


199 16 113 378 235+ 225 174 240 124 273 47.54
London Kingdom

200 University of Mnster Germany 14 100 417 174 165 192 171 170 227 47.49

United
201 University of Liverpool 17 191 212 225 150 164 144 177 387 47.48
Kingdom

202 University of Montpellier France 10 303 483 168 147 130 109 177 584 47.47

203 Paris Descartes University France 11 208 523 235+ 161 127 240 138 482 47.47

204 University of Georgia USA 83 96 170 172 187 129 171 263 94 47.45

205 Iowa State University USA 84 306 185 109 162 187 136 194 303 47.44

206 University of Kansas USA 85 241 110 235+ 214 163 113 228 146 47.42

George Washington
207 USA 86 201 59 235+ 301 236 324 233 417 47.38
University

University of Massachusetts
208 USA 87 140 133 158 206 198 268 187 261 47.37
Amherst

209 University of Missouri USA 88 264 91 100 226 226 218 263 150 47.36
Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
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Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

Columbia

210 TU Dresden Germany 15 378+ 594+ 235+ 185 199 160 183 120 47.32

211 University of Turin Italy 5 326 435 160 204 274 200 138 461 47.30

Claude Bernard University


212 France 12 378+ 572 235+ 130 131 240 196 172 47.29
Lyon 1

University of Western
213 Australia 7 129 331 193 138 168 436 185 429 47.26
Australia

North Carolina State


214 USA 89 183 219 235+ 166 205 144 253 101 47.26
University

Karlsruhe Institute of
215 Germany 16 368 180 189 189 294 126 233 115 47.24
Technology

United
216 Newcastle University 18 378+ 258 235+ 191 158 268 166 338 47.23
Kingdom

University of California,
217 USA 90 258 594+ 235+ 222 115 184 166 215 47.23
Riverside

Moscow Institute of Physics


218 Russia 2 19 347 235+ 871 668 818+ 1000 856 47.21
and Technology

Netherlan
219 Maastricht University 8 378+ 594+ 235+ 176 327 171 163 363 47.20
ds

220 RWTH Aachen University Germany 17 369 199 189 197 372 126 208 165 47.19

South
221 Sungkyunkwan University 6 378+ 155 235+ 184 305 171 249 109 47.16
Korea

Autonomous University of
222 Spain 2 378+ 594+ 235+ 137 218 240 187 295 47.14
Barcelona

University of Science and


223 China 6 378+ 177 235+ 125 260 324 215 558 47.10
Technology of China

Complutense University of
224 Spain 3 89 63 232 215 316 240 337 253 47.10
Madrid

225 University of Connecticut USA 91 317 253 235+ 178 184 218 201 159 47.10

South
226 Hanyang University 7 378+ 123 235+ 284 470 380 387 57 47.08
Korea

Paul Sabatier University -


227 France 13 378+ 594+ 235+ 155 110 218 187 547 47.06
Toulouse III

Chinese University of Hong Hong


228 2 122 472 117 159 321 218 212 170 47.06
Kong Kong

229 Brandeis University USA 92 37 319 55 572 204 324 337 271 47.03

230 University of Kiel Germany 18 203 468 214 237 182 200 163 391 47.02

United
231 Durham University 19 79 245 80 244 222 184 243 370 47.02
Kingdom

University of Texas Health


232 USA 93 378+ 594+ 154 247 153 184 174 253 47.01
Science Center at Houston

233 University of Houston USA 94 378+ 49 235+ 307 258 436 347 155 47.00
Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
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Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

234 Laval University Canada 10 308 261 235+ 221 264 184 208 133 46.99

University of Texas Health


235 Science Center at San USA 95 378+ 594+ 235+ 323 216 200 153 237 46.99
Antonio

236 University of Manitoba Canada 11 141 94 154 268 293 324 272 146 46.98

United
237 University of Leicester 20 378+ 594+ 235+ 266 145 268 163 350 46.95
Kingdom

238 University of Gothenburg Sweden 6 267 275 117 205 188 126 212 912+ 46.91

University of Tennessee,
239 USA 96 334 120 235+ 208 193 240 228 412 46.90
Knoxville

240 University College Dublin Ireland 2 254 119 235+ 280 297 126 238 273 46.89

Julius-Maximilian's University
241 Germany 19 119 389 167 210 181 324 196 363 46.87
of Wrzburg

242 Nanjing University China 7 355 363 235+ 121 328 200 249 240 46.87

Universit catholique de
243 Belgium 4 257 267 99 294 322 144 208 264 46.87
Louvain

Johannes Gutenberg
244 Germany 20 305 594+ 210 218 194 184 187 384 46.84
University of Mainz

London School of Hygiene & United


245 21 378+ 594+ 197 277 299 268 160 644 46.84
Tropical Medicine Kingdom

246 Medical University of Vienna Austria 1 378+ 594+ 235+ 249 225 200 177 370 46.79

National Cheng Kung


247 Taiwan 2 378+ 51 235+ 175 490 541 420 523 46.77
University

248 University of Dsseldorf Germany 21 199 594+ 235+ 297 207 136 185 447 46.77

249 University of Vienna Austria 2 202 183 112 234 156 200 228 547 46.76

250 Oregon State University USA 97 154 250 235+ 267 152 144 225 281 46.74

251 University of Florence Italy 6 341 339 94 220 269 240 215 523 46.73

New
252 University of Auckland 1 248 330 235+ 252 267 184 238 113 46.73
Zealand

253 Sun Yat-sen University China 8 378+ 211 235+ 142 355 240 272 253 46.70

University of Naples Federico


254 Italy 7 344 449 235+ 173 309 218 204 841 46.69
II

Delft University of Netherlan


255 9 321 269 235+ 228 266 295 257 111 46.67
Technology ds

256 Florida State University USA 98 239 307 235+ 209 189 160 225 378 46.67

United
257 University of Dundee 22 179 594+ 235+ 364 202 200 187 230 46.67
Kingdom

Wageningen University and Netherlan


258 10 312 492 175 198 170 184 215 420 46.65
Research Centre ds

Virginia Commonwealth
259 USA 99 378+ 437 150 269 237 240 212 187 46.60
University

260 Virginia Polytechnic Institute USA 100 298 137 235+ 211 241 436 290 151 46.57
Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
d Institution Location nal Employm of
Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

and State University

261 University of Oklahoma USA 101 378+ 163 235+ 246 248 240 249 261 46.57

262 University of Waterloo Canada 12 378+ 114 235+ 188 350 295 280 659 46.55

United
263 University of Sussex 23 160 232 60 367 268 144 320 471 46.53
Kingdom

264 Drexel University USA 102 378+ 202 235+ 371 339 324 290 83 46.52

South
265 University of Cape Town 2 117 154 147 313 252 324 259 332 46.51
Africa

Czech
266 Charles University in Prague 1 251 584 187 230 235 171 222 644 46.49
Republic

United
267 University of Aberdeen 24 372 308 171 274 213 295 215 321 46.47
Kingdom

268 University of Kentucky USA 103 345 291 235+ 201 233 380 243 273 46.46

United
269 University of Reading 25 266 58 235+ 380 351 295 365 611 46.46
Kingdom

Norwegian University of
270 Norway 2 277 164 79 281 360 268 290 295 46.45
Science and Technology

271 University of Ulm Germany 22 378+ 447 133 290 211 380 204 507 46.43

272 University at Buffalo USA 104 245 395 235+ 212 280 240 263 167 46.42

273 University of Bergen Norway 3 378+ 594+ 235+ 232 201 218 222 502 46.41

274 University of Tsukuba Japan 11 211 594+ 108 245 261 240 253 220 46.40

275 University of Lisbon Portugal 1 351 425 222 167 324 200 259 625 46.39

276 University of Duisburg-Essen Germany 23 378+ 484 235+ 283 257 268 208 342 46.39

277 Thomas Jefferson University USA 105 166 594+ 235+ 351 337 184 215 303 46.35

278 University of Valencia Spain 4 378+ 500 235+ 219 366 240 233 471 46.35

279 Okayama University Japan 12 378+ 286 235+ 365 330 324 328 76 46.33

United
280 University of Warwick 26 217 302 126 200 231 171 296 251 46.33
Kingdom

281 Northeastern University USA 106 330 117 235+ 360 281 218 352 96 46.33

282 Colorado State University USA 107 236 526 194 236 212 295 243 267 46.32

283 Lehigh University USA 108 250 46 235+ 647 527 436 536 440 46.28

284 University of Louisville USA 109 378+ 465 235+ 359 396 295 276 102 46.28

285 University of Pisa Italy 8 286 461 235+ 235 346 200 243 547 46.26

286 Vrije Universiteit Brussel Belgium 5 121 594+ 235+ 309 276 200 249 338 46.25

287 Queen's University Canada 13 336 166 117 270 286 268 290 291 46.25

288 Tulane University USA 110 338 152 235+ 382 300 268 268 290 46.24

Rensselaer Polytechnic
289 USA 111 103 150 235+ 434 357 184 313 185 46.24
Institute
Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
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Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

290 University of South Carolina USA 112 378+ 321 196 261 364 144 276 326 46.22

291 University of Genoa Italy 9 378+ 594+ 235+ 292 338 171 238 584 46.21

292 University of Delaware USA 113 333 355 136 285 308 218 296 132 46.21

293 Hannover Medical School Germany 24 378+ 594+ 235+ 321 230 380 222 374 46.21

294 City College of New York USA 114 30 215 235+ 696 442 541 617 363 46.18

295 Ruhr University Bochum Germany 25 378+ 234 235+ 243 262 380 268 745 46.16

Autonomous University of
296 Spain 5 378+ 443 235+ 231 253 240 263 391 46.16
Madrid

National and Kapodistrian


297 Greece 1 378+ 204 235+ 242 412 324 276 912+ 46.16
University of Athens

298 Leipzig University Germany 26 340 594+ 226 282 254 324 243 401 46.13

299 Ume University Sweden 7 378+ 594+ 185 273 197 218 257 912+ 46.12

Medical University of South


300 USA 115 378+ 594+ 235+ 324 347 240 243 356 46.10
Carolina

301 Dalhousie University Canada 14 269 168 235+ 288 246 324 286 440 46.09

United
302 London School of Economics 27 84 81 92 502 749 218 566 912+ 46.09
Kingdom

303 University of Bordeaux France 14 366 594+ 235+ 317 291 218 253 391 46.07

304 University of Antwerp Belgium 6 378+ 557 235+ 263 303 218 263 491 46.06

305 Nankai University China 9 348 139 235+ 278 447 295 313 491 46.04

University of Rome Tor


306 Italy 10 378+ 580 235+ 276 277 268 259 461 46.03
Vergata

United
307 University of St Andrews 28 163 494 235+ 310 196 436 272 240 46.03
Kingdom

308 Medical College of Wisconsin USA 116 378+ 594+ 235+ 350 271 324 238 719 46.03

Vita-Salute San Raffaele


309 Italy 11 378+ 594+ 235+ 435 259 268 233 912+ 46.03
University

United
310 University of York 29 378+ 594+ 235+ 272 209 136 300 263 46.02
Kingdom

311 University of Lige Belgium 7 155 594+ 145 318 251 184 286 288 46.02

Hong Kong University of Hong


312 3 378+ 335 235+ 265 489 324 286 199 46.01
Science and Technology Kong

313 University of Trieste Italy 12 378+ 462 235+ 409 295 240 253 611 45.96

314 Hiroshima University Japan 13 378+ 594+ 235+ 325 288 541 306 123 45.94

United
315 University of Exeter 30 281 422 235+ 286 171 324 279 447 45.93
Kingdom

United
316 Queen's University Belfast 31 190 382 235+ 297 287 324 300 182 45.91
Kingdom

317 University of Regensburg Germany 27 378+ 326 235+ 302 242 268 280 461 45.91

318 Xiamen University China 10 378+ 92 235+ 316 469 664 381 547 45.90
Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
d Institution Location nal Employm of
Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

319 University of Adelaide Australia 8 228 431 235+ 224 227 324 308 288 45.90

320 Chulalongkorn University Thailand 1 378+ 56 235+ 591 710 664 588 912+ 45.89

321 Kobe University Japan 14 97 241 117 378 278 295 328 326 45.88

University of Nebraska
322 USA 117 175 217 235+ 293 239 240 320 387 45.87
Lincoln

Dalian University of
323 China 11 378+ 107 235+ 300 648 436 375 264 45.87
Technology

324 University of Navarra Spain 6 378+ 65 235+ 560 662 664 494 625 45.85

325 University of Vermont USA 118 209 278 235+ 362 275 436 296 257 45.84

326 Rush University USA 119 378+ 594+ 235+ 436 407 240 268 420 45.84

Federal University of Rio de


327 Brazil 2 139 135 235+ 299 342 436 357 303 45.81
Janeiro

328 University of Stuttgart Germany 28 86 171 185 407 379 380 347 332 45.81

South
329 Stellenbosch University 3 378+ 79 235+ 511 474 324 481 285 45.81
Africa

United
330 University of East Anglia 32 210 594+ 179 347 215 144 308 558 45.80
Kingdom

331 University of Porto Portugal 2 98 318 153 258 370 324 342 391 45.80

332 University of Jena Germany 29 378+ 594+ 231 260 270 380 290 523 45.80

333 University of Perugia Italy 13 378+ 594+ 126 393 310 380 280 704 45.78

334 Tianjin University China 12 378+ 77 235+ 331 860 436 547 332 45.78

335 University of Ferrara Italy 14 378+ 594+ 235+ 428 385 218 280 719 45.73

336 York University Canada 15 378+ 102 235+ 377 423 240 389 883 45.72

Kyungpook National South


337 8 378+ 410 235+ 366 613 295 403 88 45.71
University Korea

338 Boston College USA 120 378+ 99 235+ 577 367 218 396 363 45.70

339 University of Pavia Italy 15 311 350 232 333 390 268 300 659 45.70

340 University of Marburg Germany 30 320 594+ 234 336 240 664 300 271 45.70

National Autonomous
341 Mexico 1 246 541 235+ 217 221 436 334 425 45.69
University of Mexico

342 University of Oregon USA 121 358 594+ 235+ 391 234 268 290 516 45.68

Hong Kong Polytechnic Hong


343 4 378+ 167 235+ 248 808 664 387 230 45.67
University Kong

Eindhoven University of Netherlan


344 11 378+ 359 199 315 536 324 317 295 45.67
Technology ds

New
345 University of Otago 2 378+ 376 235+ 304 318 324 308 447 45.67
Zealand

346 St George's, University of United 33 378+ 594+ 235+ 575 435 268 280 644 45.66
Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
d Institution Location nal Employm of
Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

London Kingdom

347 CentraleSuplec France 15 378+ 55 235+ 814 841 818+ 846 790 45.65

348 Saint Louis University USA 122 378+ 259 219 474 296 324 317 347 45.63

349 University of Victoria Canada 16 378+ 594+ 235+ 330 348 240 308 735 45.62

350 Colorado School of Mines USA 123 378+ 69 235+ 683 603 380 588 644 45.62

351 Washington State University USA 124 378+ 336 133 308 229 295 352 215 45.61

Justus Liebig University


352 Germany 31 378+ 594+ 235+ 334 356 324 313 332 45.60
Giessen

353 Kansas State University USA 125 142 236 235+ 387 335 200 352 312 45.60

Indian Institute of Technology


354 India 1 378+ 64 235+ 631 953 818+ 706 690 45.59
Delhi

355 Technical University of Berlin Germany 32 83 257 235+ 363 455 436 389 225 45.59

356 University of Innsbruck Austria 3 205 386 113 431 243 295 324 491 45.59

Huazhong University of
357 China 13 378+ 206 235+ 183 586 664 430 356 45.57
Science and Technology

Ben-Gurion University of the


358 Israel 5 378+ 594+ 235+ 289 377 436 407 106 45.57
Negev

359 University of Bari Aldo Moro Italy 16 378+ 594+ 235+ 361 323 436 306 576 45.57

360 Linkping University Sweden 8 378+ 265 235+ 320 391 436 328 912+ 45.56

Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-
361 France 16 378+ 594+ 235+ 438 238 268 308 883 45.54
Yvelines University

362 Simon Fraser University Canada 17 378+ 594+ 235+ 287 298 436 327 412 45.54

University of Texas Medical


363 USA 126 378+ 594+ 235+ 413 306 295 328 207 45.54
Branch at Galveston

Hong
364 City University of Hong Kong 5 378+ 594+ 235+ 253 851 380 335 440 45.52
Kong

365 Shandong University China 14 378+ 433 235+ 196 593 436 365 576 45.52

366 University of Turku Finland 2 378+ 558 235+ 319 307 436 320 611 45.52

367 Jilin University China 15 223 322 235+ 233 454 664 352 644 45.51

Tokyo Medical and Dental


368 Japan 15 378+ 594+ 235+ 463 314 380 328 194 45.51
University

369 University of Eastern Finland Finland 3 378+ 594+ 235+ 370 368 240 320 856 45.51

Chinese Academy of Medical


370 Sciences & Peking Union China 16 378+ 594+ 235+ 341 289 380 337 203 45.50
Medical College

University of Chinese
371 China 17 378+ 452 235+ 163 365 380 403 802 45.50
Academy of Sciences

372 University of Buenos Aires Argentina 1 135 514 205 279 358 436 342 912+ 45.49

Catholic University of the


373 Italy 17 378+ 525 235+ 419 460 324 313 763 45.49
Sacred Heart
Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
d Institution Location nal Employm of
Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

374 Wesleyan University USA 127 104 71 235+ 992 568 818+ 846 856 45.47

375 College of William and Mary USA 128 378+ 87 235+ 615 461 324 536 821 45.47

376 San Diego State University USA 129 262 216 235+ 479 313 295 346 437 45.47

Scuola Normale Superiore di


377 Italy 18 279 594+ 62 570 521 324 481 883 45.46
Pisa

University of Southern
378 Denmark 4 378+ 594+ 235+ 396 325 380 324 401 45.46
Denmark

379 University of Milan - Bicocca Italy 19 378+ 594+ 235+ 381 359 380 324 440 45.45

380 Temple University USA 130 287 480 235+ 326 315 664 347 210 45.45

Pontifical Catholic University


381 Chile 1 356 131 235+ 440 320 541 396 471 45.45
of Chile

382 Wuhan University China 18 378+ 235 235+ 264 549 664 381 633 45.42

383 Innsbruck Medical University Austria 4 378+ 594+ 235+ 459 406 664 317 592 45.42

Harbin Institute of
384 China 19 378+ 254 235+ 239 825 380 396 429 45.42
Technology

Darmstadt University of
385 Germany 33 74 385 235+ 389 499 324 407 374 45.41
Technology

386 University of Guelph Canada 18 378+ 518 235+ 328 282 184 357 387 45.40

University of Alabama -
387 USA 131 161 136 235+ 519 481 324 441 303 45.40
Tuscaloosa

388 Saarland University Germany 34 378+ 343 235+ 397 416 324 337 420 45.40

Polytechnic University of
389 Italy 20 114 181 206 354 516 380 489 222 45.39
Milan

390 Pompeu Fabra University Spain 7 378+ 594+ 235+ 417 162 436 335 633 45.37

391 National Tsing Hua University Taiwan 3 275 543 235+ 251 421 541 357 821 45.37

392 Beijing Normal University China 20 65 594+ 235+ 345 467 436 430 763 45.37

University of Santiago de
393 Spain 8 378+ 470 235+ 382 574 436 375 164 45.37
Compostela

394 University of Granada Spain 9 378+ 594+ 235+ 295 431 268 389 199 45.35

395 Nihon University Japan 16 314 589 235+ 618 594 664 648 75 45.35

396 University of Central Florida USA 132 378+ 496 235+ 401 409 664 371 170 45.35

397 George Mason University USA 133 378+ 594+ 100 456 388 268 381 374 45.35

398 University of Lorraine France 17 225 200 204 311 326 380 430 321 45.35

Grenoble Institute of
399 France 18 156 594+ 201 332 525 380 357 391 45.34
Technology

400 University of New Hampshire USA 134 378+ 313 104 565 284 295 381 576 45.34

United
401 Lancaster University 34 378+ 368 235+ 368 445 268 347 558 45.34
Kingdom

402 Xi'an Jiaotong University China 21 378+ 126 235+ 257 526 541 566 338 45.34
Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
d Institution Location nal Employm of
Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

National Chiao Tung


403 Taiwan 4 378+ 222 235+ 259 625 541 420 912+ 45.33
University

404 University at Albany, SUNY USA 135 188 550 162 426 389 218 357 558 45.33

405 University of Iceland Iceland 1 378+ 594+ 235+ 596 285 324 328 883 45.33

406 Central South University China 22 378+ 113 235+ 352 712 436 519 576 45.30

407 University of Campinas Brazil 3 378+ 594+ 235+ 296 530 436 389 207 45.30

408 University of Verona Italy 21 378+ 594+ 235+ 513 437 240 337 735 45.30

United
409 University of Bath 35 378+ 415 235+ 390 386 436 347 387 45.30
Kingdom

410 Miami University USA 136 378+ 85 235+ 742 597 541 648 856 45.30

University of Arkansas for


411 USA 137 378+ 594+ 235+ 517 565 664 342 281 45.29
Medical Sciences

412 Aalto University Finland 4 378+ 226 235+ 337 392 436 403 384 45.29

University of Nebraska
413 USA 138 378+ 594+ 235+ 469 387 380 342 378 45.28
Medical Center

Netherlan
414 University of Twente 12 378+ 490 235+ 346 484 268 371 363 45.27
ds

415 West Virginia University USA 139 342 147 235+ 453 430 436 452 600 45.25

South China University of


416 China 23 378+ 248 235+ 329 620 380 430 267 45.25
Technology

South
417 Pusan National University 9 378+ 397 235+ 353 502 541 430 155 45.24
Korea

418 Renmin University of China China 24 378+ 78 235+ 915 934 818+ 846 821 45.24

419 University of Delhi India 2 249 80 235+ 709 777 818+ 846 763 45.24

South
420 Chonnam National University 10 378+ 593 235+ 406 580 324 441 135 45.24
Korea

Gwangju Institute of Science South


421 11 378+ 594+ 235+ 583 590 324 519 98 45.23
and Technology Korea

422 Chiba University Japan 17 378+ 594+ 235+ 384 354 436 403 175 45.23

University of Hawaii at
423 USA 140 378+ 463 86 450 224 380 452 420 45.23
Manoa

424 University of Oulu Finland 5 290 371 235+ 439 344 295 365 536 45.23

425 University of Texas at Dallas USA 141 204 198 235+ 441 403 541 424 403 45.22

Swedish University of
426 Sweden 9 158 594+ 235+ 372 273 436 375 912+ 45.20
Agricultural Sciences

427 Sichuan University China 25 378+ 588 235+ 241 424 664 407 507 45.20

428 University of Rostock Germany 35 376 594+ 235+ 449 569 541 365 291 45.20

429 Jagiellonian University Poland 1 378+ 594+ 235+ 399 465 664 365 391 45.20

Saint Petersburg State


430 Russia 3 50 233 235+ 613 553 664 750 856 45.19
University
Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
d Institution Location nal Employm of
Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

431 University of Tampere Finland 6 378+ 353 235+ 528 399 664 357 735 45.18

Vienna University of
432 Austria 5 375 392 235+ 388 383 268 430 199 45.18
Technology

433 Loyola University Chicago USA 142 378+ 372 235+ 548 417 380 357 745 45.18

434 University of Savoy France 19 378+ 594+ 235+ 473 436 295 357 763 45.17

435 Brigham Young University USA 143 313 364 235+ 501 432 295 452 161 45.17

University of Modena and


436 Italy 22 378+ 556 235+ 448 458 295 365 745 45.17
Reggio Emilia

437 University of Siena Italy 23 378+ 508 235+ 423 381 324 371 491 45.17

438 University of Mississippi USA 144 378+ 594+ 235+ 379 411 324 375 471 45.17

Aristotle University of
439 Greece 2 378+ 594+ 235+ 356 698 380 375 763 45.16
Thessaloniki

440 University of Chile Chile 2 255 176 235+ 427 349 664 470 502 45.15

441 Tongji University China 26 181 141 235+ 322 456 664 588 516 45.15

South
442 Kyung Hee University 12 256 520 235+ 375 564 541 512 126 45.15
Korea

443 University College Cork Ireland 3 378+ 457 235+ 430 425 380 424 187 45.14

Chalmers University of
444 Sweden 10 373 329 235+ 369 441 664 389 821 45.14
Technology

445 Oklahoma State University USA 145 263 184 235+ 451 652 436 481 347 45.14

South
446 Ewha Womans University 13 378+ 594+ 235+ 461 571 664 452 146 45.14
Korea

East China University of


447 China 27 378+ 594+ 235+ 408 799 664 396 240 45.13
Science and Technology

448 Macquarie University Australia 9 378+ 348 235+ 374 333 436 396 471 45.13

449 University of Warsaw Poland 2 105 585 150 411 434 380 452 719 45.13

450 University of Seville Spain 10 378+ 590 235+ 338 519 436 547 118 45.13

451 Southeast University China 28 192 485 235+ 355 677 818+ 441 213 45.13

452 Kanazawa University Japan 18 378+ 403 235+ 494 429 541 407 213 45.13

453 University of Denver USA 146 324 109 235+ 881 515 541 588 507 45.10

454 University of Parma Italy 24 378+ 365 235+ 444 496 324 389 704 45.10

455 University of Wollongong Australia 10 378+ 271 235+ 416 439 380 430 440 45.08

United
456 University of Strathclyde 36 378+ 229 235+ 394 488 380 507 264 45.08
Kingdom

457 Syracuse University USA 147 149 209 235+ 466 498 664 494 403 45.08

458 Kumamoto University Japan 19 322 400 235+ 520 446 541 470 165 45.08

459 University of Zaragoza Spain 11 377 411 235+ 342 644 541 441 267 45.07

460 Brunel University United 37 378+ 285 235+ 510 670 436 407 536 45.07
Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
d Institution Location nal Employm of
Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

Kingdom

Polytechnic University of
461 Spain 12 378+ 594+ 235+ 398 520 541 470 173 45.07
Valencia

462 Augusta University USA 148 378+ 594+ 235+ 496 401 436 381 644 45.06

463 University of Udine Italy 25 378+ 594+ 235+ 602 404 664 375 523 45.06

Technical University of
464 Germany 36 378+ 594+ 235+ 468 523 380 396 356 45.06
Dortmund

cole normale suprieure de


465 France 20 378+ 594+ 207 475 203 541 396 558 45.05
Lyon

466 University of Dayton USA 149 360 95 235+ 997 907 436 776 461 45.05

South
467 University of KwaZulu-Natal 4 378+ 148 235+ 540 395 324 547 644 45.04
Africa

468 Ohio University USA 150 227 178 235+ 605 509 818+ 617 175 45.04

469 University of Saskatchewan Canada 19 350 325 235+ 343 438 380 470 350 45.04

South
470 University of Ulsan 14 378+ 424 235+ 405 563 664 407 437 45.04
Korea

471 Indian Institute of Science India 3 378+ 379 235+ 327 543 436 470 303 45.03

472 University of Newcastle Australia 11 378+ 594+ 235+ 392 494 541 424 312 45.03

473 Juntendo University Japan 20 378+ 594+ 235+ 654 503 541 381 704 45.03

Polytechnic University of
474 Spain 13 378+ 327 235+ 373 618 380 588 144 45.03
Catalonia

475 Bielefeld University Germany 37 378+ 594+ 235+ 493 393 436 389 690 45.02

476 University of Wyoming USA 151 378+ 281 235+ 538 311 380 463 321 45.02

477 University of Ljubljana Slovenia 1 378+ 594+ 235+ 348 405 324 424 584 45.02

478 University of Sherbrooke Canada 20 378+ 572 235+ 458 418 268 407 611 45.02

479 Concordia University Canada 21 378+ 122 235+ 541 768 664 627 745 45.02

Martin Luther University of


480 Germany 38 370 594+ 203 400 352 664 407 674 45.01
Halle-Wittenberg

481 University of Coimbra Portugal 3 371 559 235+ 412 419 664 407 482 45.01

Illinois Institute of
482 USA 152 291 105 235+ 773 702 664 719 841 45.01
Technology

483 University of Rennes 1 France 21 378+ 594+ 235+ 358 371 541 441 350 45.01

University of the Basque


484 Spain 14 378+ 583 235+ 314 382 541 481 295 45.00
Country

University of Nice Sophia


485 France 22 283 594+ 235+ 452 265 541 407 611 45.00
Antipolis

486 Osaka City University Japan 21 118 390 235+ 522 575 295 481 453 44.99

487 Georgia State University USA 153 378+ 369 235+ 447 450 436 441 350 44.99

488 Etvs Lornd University Hungary 1 95 594+ 117 574 452 268 525 802 44.99
Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
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Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

489 Clemson University USA 154 378+ 510 235+ 446 518 436 430 326 44.98

490 University of Nevada, Reno USA 155 378+ 426 235+ 551 384 380 420 491 44.98

491 Niigata University Japan 22 378+ 305 235+ 564 475 541 494 222 44.97

492 Texas Tech University USA 156 378+ 205 235+ 462 554 268 536 592 44.97

University of Maryland,
493 USA 157 378+ 594+ 235+ 612 397 541 407 417 44.96
Baltimore County

494 University of Akron USA 158 378+ 384 235+ 676 634 541 661 108 44.96

495 Lanzhou University China 29 378+ 567 235+ 334 629 664 452 719 44.95

496 University of Nantes France 23 378+ 594+ 235+ 477 453 541 420 547 44.95

497 Auburn University USA 159 185 213 235+ 492 582 380 606 250 44.95

University of Wisconsin
498 USA 160 237 225 235+ 518 463 664 507 912+ 44.95
Milwaukee

United
499 University of Hull 38 315 243 159 599 595 664 512 502 44.94
Kingdom

500 University of Hanover Germany 39 378+ 513 235+ 442 544 380 463 315 44.94

501 University of Catania Italy 26 226 594+ 235+ 445 697 380 430 841 44.94

502 University of Oviedo Spain 15 378+ 517 235+ 443 451 295 441 611 44.94

503 Bar-Ilan University Israel 6 295 432 235+ 410 402 541 470 346 44.94

Nara Institute of Science and


504 Japan 23 378+ 594+ 235+ 802 362 541 519 153 44.94
Technology

505 University of Konstanz Germany 40 378+ 594+ 235+ 476 319 380 430 471 44.94

506 University of Tartu Estonia 1 310 594+ 235+ 571 302 436 424 453 44.94

507 University of Brescia Italy 27 378+ 594+ 235+ 584 614 818+ 407 790 44.93

508 Nagasaki University Japan 24 318 220 235+ 626 679 664 566 227 44.93

509 Tokyo University of Science Japan 25 235 594+ 235+ 546 555 436 489 218 44.93

510 University of Bayreuth Germany 41 378+ 594+ 235+ 467 340 295 441 659 44.93

511 Panjab University India 4 346 187 235+ 741 797 324 536 821 44.92

512 University of Tasmania Australia 12 378+ 594+ 235+ 425 272 664 441 763 44.92

513 University of Crete Greece 3 378+ 594+ 235+ 504 512 664 424 883 44.91

South
514 Chonbuk National University 15 378+ 594+ 235+ 503 755 664 627 123 44.91
Korea

United
515 University of Surrey 39 222 288 235+ 433 562 818+ 525 332 44.91
Kingdom

University of Troms - The


516 Norway 4 378+ 594+ 235+ 486 413 324 441 745 44.91
Arctic University of Norway

Royal Holloway, University of United


517 40 378+ 536 235+ 582 332 436 430 644 44.90
London Kingdom

518 University of Bremen Germany 42 378+ 594+ 235+ 470 304 324 463 461 44.90
Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
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Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
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Federal University of Minas


519 Brazil 4 378+ 320 235+ 417 545 436 566 215 44.89
Gerais

Technical University of
520 Spain 16 221 249 235+ 472 739 541 759 138 44.89
Madrid

University of Science and


521 China 30 378+ 111 235+ 542 932 541 820 576 44.88
Technology Beijing

522 Mahidol University Thailand 2 378+ 594+ 235+ 457 345 541 452 883 44.88

523 Creighton University USA 161 378+ 594+ 235+ 835 724 380 441 411 44.88

University Lille 1: Sciences


524 France 24 378+ 594+ 235+ 376 410 380 489 491 44.88
and Technologies

Middle East Technical


525 Turkey 1 378+ 158 235+ 579 859 436 636 912+ 44.87
University

New
526 University of Canterbury 3 197 194 235+ 581 443 436 588 883 44.87
Zealand

527 Hunan University China 31 378+ 315 235+ 455 863 541 494 719 44.87

University of MissouriKansas
528 USA 162 323 414 235+ 634 427 664 452 704 44.86
City

529 Tokyo Metropolitan University Japan 26 378+ 446 235+ 607 482 324 463 633 44.86

530 University of Potsdam Germany 43 378+ 594+ 235+ 486 312 541 463 611 44.86

531 University of Palermo Italy 28 378+ 594+ 235+ 460 538 541 463 611 44.86

532 Baylor University USA 163 378+ 290 235+ 650 588 324 507 584 44.86

533 Medical University of Graz Austria 6 378+ 594+ 235+ 544 505 818+ 452 516 44.86

534 Aalborg University Denmark 5 378+ 427 235+ 521 631 324 494 350 44.86

South
535 Ajou University 16 378+ 453 235+ 634 687 664 661 126 44.86
Korea

536 University of Zagreb Croatia 1 378+ 594+ 235+ 556 506 436 452 763 44.85

Gyeongsang National South


537 17 378+ 594+ 235+ 641 686 541 627 133 44.85
University Korea

538 James Cook University Australia 13 378+ 594+ 235+ 491 263 541 470 719 44.85

539 University of Malaya Malaysia 1 378+ 157 235+ 498 822 664 719 342 44.85

National Chung Hsing


540 Taiwan 5 378+ 246 235+ 437 636 436 558 912+ 44.84
University

541 Yokohama City University Japan 27 378+ 260 235+ 703 369 664 536 374 44.84

International School for


542 Italy 29 378+ 594+ 235+ 640 415 541 452 821 44.84
Advanced Studies

543 University of Trento Italy 30 378+ 594+ 235+ 495 476 436 470 883 44.83

544 Curtin University Australia 14 378+ 586 235+ 402 380 541 494 558 44.83

545 NUI Galway Ireland 4 378+ 549 235+ 562 513 541 519 234 44.83

546 University of Tokushima Japan 28 115 594+ 235+ 682 473 818+ 588 225 44.82

547 University of Lbeck Germany 44 378+ 594+ 235+ 645 376 818+ 463 633 44.82
Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
d Institution Location nal Employm of
Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

548 Shinshu University Japan 29 378+ 539 235+ 608 598 436 494 312 44.82

549 National Central University Taiwan 6 234 594+ 235+ 402 444 436 507 883 44.82

550 East China Normal University China 32 378+ 256 235+ 421 616 818+ 566 659 44.82

Tokyo University of
551 Japan 30 378+ 594+ 235+ 666 810 541 673 129 44.82
Agriculture and Technology

552 Soochow University (Suzhou) China 33 378+ 594+ 235+ 357 721 818+ 512 592 44.82

United
553 Plymouth University 41 378+ 561 235+ 525 466 541 481 600 44.81
Kingdom

Otto-von-Guericke University
554 Germany 45 378+ 594+ 235+ 500 612 436 489 491 44.81
Magdeburg

555 University of Ioannina Greece 4 378+ 594+ 235+ 601 811 541 470 912+ 44.80

556 University of Cagliari Italy 31 378+ 594+ 235+ 531 556 541 481 735 44.80

Central China Normal


557 China 34 378+ 594+ 235+ 631 813 541 470 821 44.80
University

South
558 Catholic University of Korea 18 378+ 594+ 235+ 549 727 664 581 179 44.80
Korea

United
559 University of Portsmouth 42 378+ 509 235+ 780 691 240 494 841 44.80
Kingdom

Graduate University for


560 Japan 31 378+ 594+ 235+ 620 283 818+ 481 912+ 44.79
Advanced Studies

University of Arkansas -
561 USA 164 216 306 235+ 587 610 541 547 391 44.79
Fayetteville

562 University of Windsor Canada 22 378+ 129 235+ 782 900 818+ 790 704 44.79

SUNY Downstate Medical


563 USA 165 378+ 594+ 154 769 457 818+ 507 507 44.79
Center

564 Deakin University Australia 15 378+ 428 235+ 464 665 380 512 625 44.79

National Yang-Ming
565 Taiwan 7 378+ 594+ 235+ 344 504 818+ 525 821 44.79
University

566 New York Medical College USA 166 378+ 594+ 235+ 793 651 818+ 470 659 44.79

National Polytechnic Institute


567 France 25 378+ 237 235+ 481 637 541 606 456 44.79
of Toulouse

568 Kent State University USA 167 378+ 594+ 235+ 622 448 541 489 461 44.79

569 University of La Laguna Spain 17 378+ 594+ 235+ 511 353 436 494 735 44.78

University of Alaska
570 USA 168 378+ 407 235+ 641 378 541 494 763 44.78
Fairbanks

571 Chang Gung University Taiwan 8 378+ 594+ 235+ 340 591 818+ 536 883 44.77

572 Montana State University USA 169 378+ 512 235+ 584 331 324 512 471 44.77

573 Griffith University Australia 16 378+ 594+ 235+ 414 492 324 525 600 44.77

574 Yokohama National Japan 32 91 223 191 941 886 664 846 342 44.77
Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
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University

Federal University of Rio


575 Brazil 5 378+ 594+ 235+ 415 547 436 519 821 44.76
Grande do Sul

576 Second University of Naples Italy 32 378+ 594+ 235+ 550 632 664 494 883 44.76

577 New Mexico State University USA 170 378+ 460 235+ 727 643 436 494 912+ 44.76

578 University of Montana USA 171 365 459 235+ 722 343 324 512 659 44.75

579 Utah State University USA 172 171 362 235+ 566 408 380 566 440 44.75

580 China Agricultural University China 35 378+ 506 235+ 404 361 818+ 536 592 44.75

581 Universidade Nova de Lisboa Portugal 4 378+ 594+ 163 497 462 541 536 600 44.74

South
582 Inha University 19 378+ 351 235+ 586 787 380 581 295 44.74
Korea

United
583 University of Hertfordshire 43 378+ 594+ 235+ 799 420 541 494 790 44.74
Kingdom

Tata Institute of Fundamental


584 India 5 378+ 594+ 235+ 470 422 324 525 821 44.74
Research

585 University of Aveiro Portugal 5 378+ 594+ 235+ 423 694 541 558 363 44.73

586 University of Toledo USA 173 378+ 594+ 235+ 621 567 664 617 192 44.73

587 University of Rhode Island USA 174 378+ 264 235+ 685 375 541 627 350 44.72

Indian Institute of Technology


588 India 6 378+ 172 235+ 555 953 818+ 759 425 44.72
Madras

United
589 Cranfield University 44 378+ 160 235+ 767 818 664 776 429 44.72
Kingdom

590 University of Salamanca Spain 18 378+ 475 235+ 553 497 380 525 704 44.72

591 Carleton University Canada 23 378+ 563 235+ 505 744 380 525 912+ 44.72

University of Texas at
592 USA 175 378+ 594+ 235+ 506 546 541 547 384 44.71
Arlington

Tokyo Women's Medical


593 Japan 33 378+ 594+ 235+ 805 607 541 512 536 44.71
University

United
594 Bangor University 45 271 404 235+ 623 583 436 547 461 44.71
Kingdom

595 University of Minho Portugal 6 378+ 594+ 235+ 558 666 324 566 326 44.71

596 Shanghai University China 36 378+ 571 235+ 488 928 818+ 525 856 44.71

Indian Institute of Technology


597 India 7 378+ 356 235+ 840 938 324 547 912+ 44.70
Roorkee

University of Eastern
598 Piedmont "Amedeo Italy 33 378+ 594+ 235+ 663 624 436 519 719 44.70
Avogadro"

Memorial University of
599 Canada 24 378+ 554 235+ 573 542 436 525 659 44.70
Newfoundland

600 University of Graz Austria 7 361 476 221 580 589 818+ 525 659 44.70

601 Queensland University of Australia 17 378+ 582 235+ 454 741 664 558 425 44.70
Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
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Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

Technology

Saudi
602 King Saud University 1 378+ 186 235+ 513 478 818+ 759 429 44.70
Arabia

Florida International
603 USA 176 378+ 587 235+ 490 471 436 547 516 44.70
University

Southern Illinois University


604 USA 177 212 551 235+ 606 537 664 536 547 44.70
Carbondale

605 University of Belgrade Serbia 1 292 594+ 235+ 384 600 324 588 856 44.69

Switzerla
606 University of Fribourg 8 247 274 235+ 710 440 436 617 856 44.69
nd

South
607 Konkuk University 20 378+ 366 235+ 529 730 541 648 240 44.69
Korea

Paris-Est Crteil Val-de-Marne


608 France 26 378+ 402 235+ 705 640 818+ 536 883 44.69
University

Wuhan University of
609 China 37 378+ 527 235+ 694 938 436 525 735 44.69
Technology

Beijing University of
610 China 38 378+ 516 235+ 537 987 818+ 617 240 44.69
Chemical Technology

611 Fuzhou University China 39 378+ 391 235+ 702 987 436 547 611 44.68

United
612 City University London 46 378+ 138 235+ 783 909 818+ 907 461 44.68
Kingdom

Braunschweig University of
613 Germany 46 242 594+ 235+ 566 374 664 588 303 44.68
Technology

Indian Institute of Technology


614 India 8 378+ 237 235+ 508 978 818+ 673 704 44.68
Kharagpur

615 Gunma University Japan 34 378+ 594+ 235+ 662 539 541 606 251 44.67

616 Mississippi State University USA 178 165 227 235+ 604 560 541 733 491 44.67

617 Northern Illinois University USA 179 378+ 272 235+ 688 675 295 648 704 44.67

618 University of Cantabria Spain 19 378+ 546 235+ 610 596 295 566 600 44.66

619 Northeast Normal University China 40 378+ 594+ 235+ 667 779 818+ 536 912+ 44.66

Uniformed Services
620 University of the Health USA 180 378+ 594+ 235+ 630 486 436 547 912+ 44.66
Sciences

New
621 Massey University 4 378+ 478 235+ 561 528 664 558 719 44.66
Zealand

Federal University of So
622 Brazil 6 378+ 594+ 235+ 483 628 436 566 790 44.65
Paulo

623 Tokai University Japan 35 378+ 594+ 235+ 757 656 664 558 403 44.65

624 La Trobe University Australia 18 378+ 479 235+ 515 426 818+ 566 719 44.65

625 Donghua University China 41 378+ 594+ 235+ 781 972 240 581 763 44.65

626 Nagoya City University Japan 36 378+ 381 235+ 801 572 436 581 502 44.65
Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
d Institution Location nal Employm of
Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

University of Los Andes


627 Colombia 1 378+ 179 235+ 870 524 380 790 802 44.64
(Colombia)

Marche Polytechnic
628 Italy 34 378+ 594+ 235+ 686 664 818+ 547 790 44.64
University

629 University of Jyvskyl Finland 7 378+ 574 235+ 465 487 818+ 581 763 44.64

United
630 Open University (UK) 47 378+ 594+ 235+ 643 398 664 558 802 44.64
Kingdom

631 Semmelweis University Hungary 2 378+ 594+ 235+ 637 464 664 558 719 44.64

632 Flinders University Australia 19 133 594+ 235+ 509 540 818+ 636 674 44.63

633 University of New Orleans USA 181 378+ 594+ 235+ 989 829 295 566 841 44.63

634 rebro University Sweden 11 378+ 503 235+ 807 757 541 558 912+ 44.63

University of the Balearic


635 Spain 20 378+ 594+ 235+ 646 561 664 566 584 44.62
Islands

636 University of Idaho USA 182 378+ 594+ 235+ 681 480 541 566 600 44.62

Comenius University in Slovak


637 1 378+ 594+ 235+ 687 623 436 566 856 44.62
Bratislava Republic

638 University of Paris 13 France 27 378+ 594+ 235+ 673 751 541 566 690 44.62

University of Qubec at
639 Canada 25 378+ 418 235+ 532 550 541 606 912+ 44.62
Montreal

640 Rovira i Virgili University Spain 21 378+ 594+ 235+ 539 557 436 588 576 44.62

641 University of Toyama Japan 37 378+ 297 235+ 707 812 664 636 841 44.62

642 Kitasato University Japan 38 378+ 594+ 117 748 622 818+ 706 253 44.62

643 Old Dominion University USA 183 378+ 594+ 235+ 732 578 436 588 417 44.61

National Technical University


644 Greece 5 198 491 235+ 534 953 436 617 912+ 44.61
of Athens

Warsaw University of
645 Poland 3 357 568 235+ 698 788 268 606 856 44.61
Technology

646 Ehime University Japan 39 378+ 537 235+ 629 599 541 588 447 44.61

Hong
647 Hong Kong Baptist University 6 378+ 540 235+ 592 932 541 581 763 44.61
Kong

State University of New York


648 USA 184 378+ 594+ 235+ 797 604 380 581 576 44.61
Upstate Medical University

Birkbeck, University of United


649 48 196 594+ 166 737 341 664 627 883 44.61
London Kingdom

650 University of Patras Greece 6 378+ 594+ 235+ 529 735 541 588 763 44.61

651 American University of Beirut Lebanon 1 127 214 235+ 843 842 818+ 832 912+ 44.61

652 Istanbul University Turkey 2 224 429 235+ 692 534 818+ 606 912+ 44.61

UNESP, So Paulo State


653 Brazil 7 378+ 594+ 235+ 349 587 436 673 659 44.60
University

654 Binghamton University USA 185 378+ 242 235+ 720 658 818+ 706 674 44.60
Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
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Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

Polytechnic University of
655 Italy 35 378+ 594+ 235+ 478 825 541 661 295 44.60
Turin

Tampere University of
656 Finland 8 378+ 201 235+ 817 630 664 776 745 44.60
Technology

United
657 University of Essex 49 136 370 235+ 708 682 380 686 912+ 44.60
Kingdom

Czech
658 Palack University, Olomouc 2 378+ 594+ 235+ 706 558 436 588 507 44.60
Republic

659 Portland State University USA 186 378+ 247 235+ 796 601 818+ 706 547 44.60

Victoria University of New


660 5 332 276 235+ 593 495 664 695 547 44.60
Wellington Zealand

661 University of Debrecen Hungary 3 378+ 594+ 235+ 700 617 436 588 558 44.60

China Medical University


662 Taiwan 9 378+ 594+ 235+ 429 678 818+ 627 856 44.60
(Taiwan)

Czech Technical University in Czech


663 3 359 594+ 235+ 667 771 436 588 644 44.60
Prague Republic

664 University of Maine USA 187 378+ 594+ 139 795 433 436 686 370 44.59

Liverpool John Moores United


665 50 378+ 594+ 235+ 728 394 541 588 625 44.59
University Kingdom

666 Albany Medical College USA 188 178 594+ 235+ 913 801 818+ 606 735 44.59

667 Louisiana Tech University USA 189 378+ 208 235+ 975 891 541 776 690 44.59

668 Hacettepe University Turkey 3 378+ 594+ 235+ 657 606 664 588 912+ 44.59

Chungnam National South


669 21 378+ 594+ 235+ 480 566 664 648 378 44.59
University Korea

Swinburne University of
670 Australia 20 378+ 594+ 235+ 651 477 541 606 690 44.58
Technology

671 University of Girona Spain 22 378+ 594+ 235+ 637 828 541 606 690 44.58

United
672 Keele University 51 378+ 594+ 235+ 658 529 380 617 611 44.58
Kingdom

673 University of South Australia Australia 21 378+ 300 235+ 547 667 541 719 403 44.58

674 Banaras Hindu University India 9 252 280 235+ 762 923 664 695 912+ 44.58

Beijing Institute of
675 China 42 378+ 594+ 235+ 499 959 664 627 592 44.57
Technology

Indian Institute of Technology


676 India 10 378+ 533 235+ 523 855 664 673 315 44.57
Bombay

677 University of Burgundy France 28 233 594+ 235+ 516 514 664 636 659 44.57

678 Kagoshima University Japan 40 378+ 328 235+ 756 681 664 759 240 44.57

Sharif University of
679 Iran 1 124 594+ 235+ 568 963 436 695 912+ 44.57
Technology

Graz University of
680 Austria 8 378+ 594+ 235+ 678 765 436 636 403 44.57
Technology

681 Lille 2 University of Health France 29 378+ 594+ 235+ 777 570 818+ 606 674 44.56
Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
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Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

and Law

University Franois Rabelais,


682 France 30 213 594+ 235+ 651 500 818+ 627 704 44.56
Tours

Netherlan
683 Tilburg University 13 378+ 279 235+ 554 848 436 733 912+ 44.56
ds

New Jersey Institute of


684 USA 190 273 448 235+ 812 663 436 807 185 44.56
Technology

Kaiserslautern University of
685 Germany 47 378+ 548 235+ 684 548 818+ 617 659 44.56
Technology

United
686 University of Kent 52 378+ 421 235+ 614 414 541 648 558 44.56
Kingdom

Royal College of Surgeons in


687 Ireland 5 378+ 594+ 235+ 875 674 380 627 461 44.56
Ireland

688 Osaka Prefecture University Japan 41 378+ 387 235+ 716 789 818+ 719 257 44.56

689 University of L'Aquila Italy 36 378+ 594+ 235+ 671 689 664 617 790 44.56

690 University of Insubria Italy 37 378+ 594+ 235+ 715 581 818+ 617 912+ 44.55

University of Nevada, Las


691 USA 191 378+ 434 235+ 659 508 818+ 636 735 44.55
Vegas

692 University of Vigo Spain 23 378+ 594+ 235+ 589 817 436 636 644 44.55

United
693 Heriot-Watt University 53 378+ 317 235+ 609 585 818+ 719 412 44.55
Kingdom

University of Science,
694 Malaysia 2 378+ 594+ 235+ 654 883 436 759 218 44.54
Malaysia

695 University of Salerno Italy 38 378+ 594+ 235+ 545 837 541 648 523 44.54

University of Texas at San


696 USA 192 378+ 594+ 235+ 679 533 818+ 648 412 44.54
Antonio

South
697 University of Pretoria 5 378+ 295 235+ 597 552 436 733 611 44.54
Africa

698 Gifu University Japan 42 378+ 532 235+ 731 683 664 673 326 44.54

Rochester Institute of
699 USA 193 378+ 420 235+ 926 627 324 661 547 44.54
Technology

700 Istanbul Technical University Turkey 4 378+ 436 235+ 659 843 541 648 841 44.54

University of Picardie Jules


701 France 31 378+ 594+ 235+ 825 764 380 636 592 44.54
Verne

United
702 Loughborough University 54 378+ 594+ 235+ 535 861 541 661 491 44.54
Kingdom

703 Capital Medical University China 43 378+ 594+ 235+ 489 705 541 661 802 44.53

King Abdullah University of Saudi


704 2 378+ 594+ 129 598 479 664 807 273 44.53
Science and Technology Arabia

705 Beihang University China 44 378+ 354 235+ 432 855 818+ 750 471 44.53

706 Swansea University United 55 378+ 456 235+ 524 511 664 673 600 44.53
Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
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Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

Kingdom

King Fahd University of Saudi


707 3 378+ 159 235+ 939 936 664 989 912+ 44.53
Petroleum and Minerals Arabia

708 University of Szeged Hungary 4 378+ 594+ 223 676 715 818+ 648 482 44.53

709 University of Greifswald Germany 48 378+ 594+ 228 693 507 664 648 491 44.53

Johannes Kepler University of


710 Austria 9 378+ 375 235+ 791 654 541 673 558 44.53
Linz

711 Jichi Medical University Japan 43 378+ 594+ 235+ 923 641 541 636 592 44.52

712 Kaohsiung Medical University Taiwan 10 378+ 594+ 235+ 526 866 818+ 661 763 44.52

713 Loma Linda University USA 194 378+ 594+ 235+ 845 759 818+ 661 391 44.52

University of MissouriSt.
714 USA 195 378+ 316 235+ 908 541 664 706 558 44.52
Louis

715 University of Yamanashi Japan 44 282 594+ 235+ 901 913 664 733 249 44.52

Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for


716 India 11 378+ 594+ 146 893 647 664 706 471 44.52
Advanced Scientific Research

717 Roma Tre University Italy 39 378+ 594+ 235+ 643 635 541 648 763 44.52

718 Yamaguchi University Japan 45 378+ 594+ 235+ 788 784 664 832 179 44.52

719 Chongqing University China 45 378+ 263 235+ 589 902 664 790 856 44.52

720 Ankara University Turkey 5 378+ 357 235+ 766 688 541 686 912+ 44.52

University of vry Val


721 France 32 378+ 594+ 235+ 988 363 818+ 636 912+ 44.52
d'Essonne

722 University of Augsburg Germany 49 378+ 594+ 235+ 826 743 818+ 636 719 44.52

University of Alabama in
723 USA 196 378+ 594+ 235+ 937 449 664 636 763 44.52
Huntsville

724 Hasselt University Belgium 8 378+ 344 235+ 828 914 664 686 821 44.52

Paul Valry University,


725 France 33 378+ 594+ 235+ 855 573 218 706 912+ 44.51
Montpellier III

726 University of Mons Belgium 9 378+ 594+ 235+ 813 717 541 648 600 44.51

727 University of Tehran Iran 2 200 594+ 194 484 902 818+ 719 912+ 44.51

728 University of Alicante Spain 24 378+ 594+ 235+ 680 806 664 706 321 44.51

729 Sapporo Medical University Japan 46 378+ 594+ 235+ 985 849 818+ 661 429 44.51

National University of La
730 Argentina 2 378+ 534 235+ 557 551 664 673 912+ 44.51
Plata

Czech
731 Masaryk University 4 378+ 594+ 235+ 661 532 664 661 690 44.50
Republic

University of Natural
732 Resources and Life Sciences, Austria 10 378+ 594+ 235+ 752 650 436 661 644 44.50
Vienna

733 University of Messina Italy 40 378+ 594+ 235+ 627 819 664 661 912+ 44.50

734 Institut national des sciences France 34 378+ 594+ 235+ 558 714 541 686 523 44.50
Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
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Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

Appliques de Lyon

University of CastillaLa
735 Spain 25 378+ 594+ 235+ 619 765 664 673 536 44.50
Mancha

736 University of Mlaga Spain 26 378+ 594+ 235+ 649 850 541 750 273 44.50

737 University of Poitiers France 35 268 594+ 149 653 501 541 750 735 44.50

Second Military Medical


738 China 46 378+ 594+ 235+ 536 621 664 695 482 44.50
University

739 Vilnius University Lithuania 1 353 594+ 235+ 784 608 380 673 745 44.49

740 Kindai University Japan 47 378+ 594+ 235+ 694 695 436 686 482 44.49

741 Kurume University Japan 48 378+ 594+ 235+ 983 772 818+ 759 237 44.49

Rio de Janeiro State


742 Brazil 8 378+ 562 235+ 714 800 436 673 802 44.49
University

Missouri University of
743 USA 197 378+ 266 235+ 763 963 664 807 523 44.49
Science and Technology

San Francisco State


744 USA 198 284 594+ 208 899 579 541 673 912+ 44.49
University

North Dakota State


745 USA 199 180 594+ 235+ 717 802 818+ 790 273 44.49
University

Florida Institute of
746 USA 200 378+ 594+ 235+ 963 745 240 719 912+ 44.48
Technology

747 University of Haifa Israel 7 378+ 419 235+ 552 459 818+ 733 523 44.48

748 University of North Texas USA 201 378+ 594+ 235+ 699 669 541 695 482 44.48

749 Shizuoka University Japan 49 378+ 493 235+ 852 754 541 907 175 44.48

750 Blaise Pascal University France 36 378+ 594+ 218 710 684 664 686 659 44.48

751 East Carolina University USA 202 378+ 388 235+ 713 659 818+ 719 516 44.47

Kyoto Prefectural University


752 Japan 50 378+ 594+ 235+ 879 767 664 673 912+ 44.47
of Medicine

753 Marquette University USA 203 274 207 235+ 931 798 818+ 934 719 44.47

754 University of Crdoba (Spain) Spain 27 378+ 594+ 235+ 628 720 664 695 600 44.47

755 Jaume I University Spain 28 378+ 594+ 235+ 775 943 664 686 644 44.47

National Research Nuclear


756 Russia 4 331 594+ 235+ 911 725 436 686 912+ 44.47
University MEPhI

United
757 University of Ulster 56 378+ 594+ 235+ 750 893 436 733 363 44.47
Kingdom

University of Technology,
758 Australia 22 378+ 524 235+ 533 657 541 733 461 44.47
Sydney

759 Universit de Namur Belgium 10 172 440 235+ 889 703 664 733 763 44.47

United
760 Aston University 57 378+ 406 235+ 824 948 664 807 267 44.47
Kingdom

761 Ege University Turkey 6 378+ 594+ 235+ 788 823 380 695 883 44.47
Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
d Institution Location nal Employm of
Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

762 Jacobs University Bremen Germany 50 378+ 594+ 235+ 886 661 541 695 482 44.46

763 University of Salento Italy 41 378+ 594+ 235+ 688 713 541 695 763 44.46

National Sun Yat-sen


764 Taiwan 11 378+ 594+ 235+ 484 895 436 733 912+ 44.46
University

University of North Carolina


765 USA 204 378+ 311 235+ 757 716 541 790 558 44.46
at Charlotte

cole normale suprieure de


766 France 37 131 337 235+ 895 718 324 878 856 44.46
Cachan

Indian Institute of Technology


767 India 12 186 531 235+ 569 902 818+ 759 507 44.46
Kanpur

G. d'Annunzio University,
768 Italy 42 378+ 594+ 235+ 732 653 818+ 695 883 44.46
Chieti-Pescara

South
769 Sogang University 22 378+ 497 235+ 809 808 818+ 925 179 44.45
Korea

770 Zhengzhou University China 47 378+ 467 235+ 617 760 818+ 719 790 44.45

771 Cairo University Egypt 1 301 455 181 675 700 436 759 912+ 44.45

Michigan Technological
772 USA 205 354 488 235+ 806 774 541 719 491 44.45
University

773 Dublin City University Ireland 6 378+ 498 235+ 803 942 541 820 257 44.45

774 Saga University Japan 51 378+ 594+ 235+ 838 794 818+ 733 378 44.45

Switzerla
775 University of Neuchtel 9 364 594+ 235+ 884 676 818+ 695 674 44.45
nd

776 University of Salzburg Austria 11 378+ 293 235+ 928 753 818+ 807 856 44.45

Miguel Hernndez University


777 Spain 29 378+ 594+ 235+ 763 626 818+ 706 584 44.45
of Elche

778 University of Calabria Italy 43 378+ 594+ 235+ 576 820 436 733 674 44.45

779 Yamagata University Japan 52 378+ 594+ 235+ 790 750 818+ 706 600 44.44

780 bo Akademi University Finland 9 378+ 594+ 235+ 786 690 541 706 745 44.44

781 National Polytechnic Institute Mexico 2 347 594+ 235+ 595 584 436 733 719 44.44

782 University of Caen Normandy France 38 218 594+ 235+ 633 775 818+ 733 821 44.44

University of Electronic
783 Science and Technology of China 48 378+ 342 235+ 507 897 664 820 611 44.44
China

Northeastern University
784 China 49 378+ 268 235+ 745 978 818+ 860 611 44.44
(China)

785 Saitama Medical University Japan 53 378+ 594+ 235+ 991 602 664 706 536 44.44

United
786 University of Stirling 58 378+ 361 235+ 760 722 664 759 883 44.44
Kingdom

South
787 Kangwon National University 23 378+ 594+ 235+ 696 728 436 776 370 44.44
Korea

788 Jiangnan University China 50 378+ 594+ 235+ 724 922 818+ 719 633 44.43
Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
d Institution Location nal Employm of
Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

789 University of Hyogo Japan 54 378+ 594+ 235+ 858 483 436 719 841 44.43

Jikei University School of


790 Japan 55 378+ 594+ 235+ 972 731 664 706 841 44.43
Medicine

791 University of Hohenheim Germany 51 378+ 594+ 235+ 768 655 541 719 802 44.43

792 University of Memphis USA 206 378+ 345 235+ 787 761 664 790 516 44.43

793 Taipei Medical University Taiwan 12 378+ 594+ 235+ 482 884 818+ 759 790 44.43

794 Howard University USA 207 195 594+ 235+ 946 673 664 759 447 44.43

Norwegian University of Life


795 Norway 5 378+ 594+ 235+ 746 577 664 719 802 44.43
Sciences

796 Toho University Japan 56 378+ 594+ 197 844 836 818+ 733 856 44.42

797 Maynooth University Ireland 7 260 594+ 235+ 998 646 541 750 507 44.42

South
798 Chung-Ang University 24 378+ 481 235+ 611 834 436 878 273 44.42
Korea

799 University of Concepcin Chile 3 378+ 594+ 235+ 734 485 818+ 750 558 44.42

800 Tottori University Japan 57 378+ 352 235+ 927 738 541 832 403 44.41

South
801 Dongguk University 25 378+ 314 235+ 923 916 664 995 194 44.41
Korea

United
802 University of Bradford 59 378+ 252 235+ 892 770 818+ 925 523 44.41
Kingdom

South
803 Yeungnam University 26 378+ 349 235+ 742 987 818+ 878 332 44.41
Korea

804 University of Maribor Slovenia 2 378+ 594+ 235+ 895 835 541 733 802 44.41

Bowling Green State


805 USA 208 378+ 373 235+ 933 699 818+ 776 745 44.41
University

United
806 University of Brighton 60 378+ 594+ 235+ 839 833 818+ 733 704 44.41
Kingdom

Nanjing University of Science


807 China 51 378+ 360 235+ 739 953 541 807 674 44.41
and Technology

808 Chiang Mai University Thailand 3 378+ 570 235+ 834 762 436 750 883 44.41

United
809 Aberystwyth University 61 378+ 535 235+ 833 576 541 750 674 44.41
Kingdom

Magna Grcia University of


810 Italy 44 378+ 594+ 235+ 935 872 818+ 733 790 44.41
Catanzaro

811 University of Sassari Italy 45 378+ 594+ 235+ 752 615 818+ 750 821 44.41

Huazhong Agricultural
812 China 52 378+ 594+ 235+ 616 535 664 776 558 44.40
University

813 Boazii University Turkey 7 378+ 450 235+ 818 748 436 776 883 44.40

814 University of Regina Canada 26 378+ 594+ 235+ 861 692 436 759 644 44.40

815 Northwest University (China) China 53 378+ 594+ 235+ 866 803 324 776 883 44.40

816 Nanjing Medical University China 54 378+ 594+ 235+ 527 638 818+ 790 821 44.40
Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
d Institution Location nal Employm of
Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

817 University of Alcal Spain 30 378+ 594+ 235+ 726 639 664 759 690 44.40

818 University of Murcia Spain 31 378+ 594+ 235+ 543 729 541 807 536 44.40

AGH University of Science


819 Poland 4 278 299 235+ 704 868 664 902 558 44.40
and Technology

Tehran University of Medical


820 Iran 3 378+ 594+ 235+ 729 867 818+ 759 883 44.39
Sciences

821 Mie University Japan 58 378+ 594+ 235+ 849 854 664 776 456 44.39

Nanjing Agricultural
822 China 55 378+ 594+ 235+ 578 723 664 790 674 44.39
University

823 Northern Arizona University USA 209 378+ 565 235+ 917 468 664 759 674 44.39

Hefei University of
824 China 56 378+ 283 235+ 842 987 818+ 902 912+ 44.39
Technology

825 Wright State University USA 210 378+ 594+ 235+ 829 782 818+ 759 821 44.39

All India Institute of Medical


826 India 13 378+ 594+ 235+ 891 846 664 759 745 44.39
Sciences, New Delhi

University of Veterinary
827 Austria 12 378+ 594+ 235+ 851 649 436 776 659 44.39
Medicine Vienna

828 Bilkent University Turkey 8 378+ 499 235+ 776 795 818+ 776 912+ 44.39

Chungbuk National South


829 27 378+ 594+ 235+ 765 876 818+ 807 412 44.39
University Korea

830 University of Orlans France 39 378+ 545 235+ 751 493 664 776 883 44.39

831 Ocean University of China China 57 378+ 594+ 235+ 624 752 818+ 790 625 44.39

832 Putra University, Malaysia Malaysia 3 378+ 594+ 235+ 841 938 818+ 980 190 44.38

University of Massachusetts
833 USA 211 378+ 458 235+ 837 701 541 790 821 44.38
Boston

Nanjing University of
834 China 58 378+ 519 235+ 665 967 818+ 790 856 44.38
Aeronautics and Astronautics

835 Murdoch University Australia 23 378+ 502 235+ 814 517 541 790 633 44.38

University of Perpignan Via


836 France 40 167 594+ 235+ 986 609 436 832 912+ 44.38
Domitia

837 Jean Monnet University France 41 378+ 594+ 235+ 625 472 818+ 807 674 44.37

838 University of Oldenburg Germany 52 378+ 594+ 235+ 725 559 664 790 763 44.37

839 University of Angers France 42 378+ 594+ 235+ 836 790 818+ 790 558 44.37

840 Showa University Japan 59 378+ 594+ 235+ 977 773 818+ 776 763 44.37

841 Kchi University Japan 60 378+ 594+ 235+ 958 783 664 790 523 44.37

South
842 Inje University 28 378+ 594+ 235+ 823 885 818+ 832 378 44.37
Korea

843 University of Rouen France 43 374 594+ 235+ 712 709 818+ 807 558 44.37

Isfahan University of
844 Iran 4 378+ 594+ 235+ 672 895 380 820 912+ 44.37
Technology
Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
d Institution Location nal Employm of
Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

University of the Republic


845 Uruguay 1 378+ 591 235+ 804 605 818+ 790 883 44.37
(Uruguay)

846 Makerere University Uganda 1 378+ 594+ 235+ 830 642 664 790 912+ 44.37

University of Electro-
847 Japan 61 169 594+ 235+ 894 803 664 907 326 44.37
Communications

848 Western Sydney University Australia 24 378+ 594+ 235+ 600 522 818+ 820 704 44.37

849 University of Siegen Germany 53 378+ 555 235+ 867 776 436 807 763 44.36

Budapest University of
850 Hungary 5 265 594+ 235+ 749 786 664 820 644 44.36
Technology and Economics

851 University of Extremadura Spain 32 378+ 594+ 235+ 778 968 818+ 807 745 44.36

852 Brock University Canada 27 378+ 594+ 235+ 887 726 541 807 690 44.36

Fourth Military Medical


853 China 59 378+ 594+ 235+ 588 645 664 832 719 44.36
University

854 Sofia University Bulgaria 1 270 594+ 235+ 830 792 541 820 912+ 44.35

855 Southwest University China 60 289 594+ 235+ 639 897 664 832 745 44.35

856 University of Valladolid Spain 33 378+ 477 235+ 691 857 818+ 846 507 44.35

857 Gazi University Turkey 9 378+ 507 235+ 772 935 664 820 912+ 44.35

858 University of Miyazaki Japan 62 307 594+ 235+ 987 746 664 832 437 44.35

University of New England


859 Australia 25 378+ 273 235+ 921 696 664 959 802 44.35
(Australia)

860 Nanjing Normal University China 61 378+ 438 235+ 720 737 664 846 690 44.35

861 Shanghai Normal University China 62 378+ 486 235+ 904 953 818+ 820 912+ 44.35

862 University of South Alabama USA 212 378+ 594+ 235+ 980 742 664 820 536 44.35

Royal Veterinary College, United


863 62 261 594+ 235+ 917 531 541 832 633 44.35
University of London Kingdom

864 Florida Atlantic University USA 213 378+ 594+ 235+ 874 734 818+ 832 482 44.34

South
865 University of Seoul 29 378+ 594+ 235+ 970 881 541 878 356 44.34
Korea

South
866 Sejong University 30 378+ 594+ 235+ 800 861 818+ 832 536 44.34
Korea

867 University of Osnabrck Germany 54 378+ 594+ 235+ 850 633 664 820 841 44.34

University of Wales, Trinity United


868 63 378+ 594+ 235+ 1000 943 436 820 912+ 44.34
Saint David Kingdom

869 RMIT University Australia 26 378+ 528 235+ 667 916 818+ 846 633 44.34

China University of
870 China 63 378+ 511 235+ 902 707 541 832 802 44.34
Geosciences (Wuhan)

Manchester Metropolitan United


871 64 378+ 399 235+ 948 680 664 860 790 44.34
University Kingdom

South
872 Dankook University 31 378+ 594+ 235+ 862 962 664 887 356 44.33
Korea
Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
d Institution Location nal Employm of
Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

873 Fukuoka University Japan 63 378+ 594+ 235+ 975 911 818+ 846 453 44.33

874 Ritsumeikan University Japan 64 378+ 324 235+ 906 869 541 945 456 44.33

Hamamatsu University
875 Japan 65 378+ 594+ 235+ 990 897 664 860 420 44.33
School of Medicine

876 Hunter College USA 214 276 464 235+ 832 592 818+ 860 802 44.33

877 University of Pcs Hungary 6 378+ 594+ 235+ 949 827 818+ 832 633 44.33

Nanjing University of
878 China 64 378+ 594+ 235+ 738 987 818+ 887 391 44.33
Technology

Federal University of Santa


879 Brazil 9 378+ 594+ 235+ 602 925 818+ 860 790 44.33
Catarina

University of Southern
880 USA 215 378+ 594+ 235+ 938 832 818+ 832 719 44.33
Mississippi

881 University of Mannheim Germany 55 378+ 542 235+ 912 901 436 846 856 44.33

882 University of New Brunswick Canada 28 378+ 404 235+ 770 785 664 887 633 44.33

883 Jinan University China 65 378+ 323 235+ 735 830 818+ 945 745 44.32

884 Trent University Canada 29 378+ 489 235+ 919 777 436 860 821 44.32

National Chung Cheng


885 Taiwan 13 378+ 594+ 235+ 808 995+ 664 846 912+ 44.32
University

Ulsan National Institute of South


886 32 378+ 594+ 235+ 809 880 664 878 440 44.32
Science and Technology Korea

887 Clarkson University USA 216 378+ 380 235+ 959 978 818+ 887 763 44.32

Nicolaus Copernicus
888 Poland 5 378+ 594+ 235+ 869 781 664 846 802 44.32
University in Toru

889 Quaid-i-Azam University Pakistan 1 378+ 594+ 235+ 944 924 541 846 912+ 44.32

890 University of Wrocaw Poland 6 367 594+ 235+ 719 814 664 860 821 44.32

China University of
891 China 66 378+ 594+ 235+ 909 711 818+ 846 841 44.32
Geosciences (Beijing)

892 University of North Dakota USA 217 378+ 547 235+ 916 732 818+ 860 536 44.32

South China Normal


893 China 67 378+ 473 235+ 654 911 664 887 790 44.32
University

894 University of Cyprus Cyprus 1 378+ 594+ 235+ 811 864 541 860 856 44.32

Federico Santa Mara


895 Chile 4 378+ 594+ 235+ 956 936 268 907 674 44.32
Technical University

896 Tarbiat Modares University Iran 5 378+ 594+ 235+ 759 987 818+ 860 912+ 44.32

897 Saitama University Japan 66 170 393 235+ 983 672 664 959 482 44.31

898 University of the Ryukyus Japan 67 378+ 594+ 235+ 932 706 818+ 860 592 44.31

University of Western
899 France 44 378+ 594+ 235+ 888 708 664 860 674 44.31
Brittany

Chung Yuan Christian


900 Taiwan 14 259 309 235+ 785 972 818+ 980 912+ 44.31
University
Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
d Institution Location nal Employm of
Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

The Catholic University of


901 USA 218 378+ 441 235+ 978 619 541 887 690 44.31
America

902 Charles Darwin University Australia 27 378+ 594+ 235+ 867 693 664 860 912+ 44.31

903 University of Cdiz Spain 34 378+ 594+ 235+ 875 838 818+ 945 291 44.31

904 University of Basilicata Italy 46 378+ 594+ 235+ 955 871 541 860 883 44.31

905 University of Lleida Spain 35 378+ 594+ 235+ 889 865 818+ 860 745 44.31

906 Shimane University Japan 68 378+ 594+ 235+ 968 756 664 860 763 44.31

University of California,
907 USA 219 378+ 594+ 235+ 878 510 818+ 878 576 44.31
Merced

Harbin Engineering
908 China 68 378+ 594+ 235+ 936 972 664 860 856 44.31
University

909 University of Wuppertal Germany 56 378+ 594+ 235+ 965 858 664 860 763 44.31

910 Wilfrid Laurier University Canada 30 378+ 296 235+ 954 930 818+ 980 912+ 44.31

Fluminense Federal
911 Brazil 10 378+ 340 235+ 793 902 818+ 945 912+ 44.30
University

Third Military Medical


912 China 69 378+ 594+ 235+ 701 740 664 887 690 44.30
University

913 University of Braslia Brazil 11 378+ 413 235+ 791 685 664 907 856 44.30

914 Federal University of ABC Brazil 12 378+ 594+ 235+ 903 886 541 878 912+ 44.30

University of Massachusetts
915 USA 220 378+ 505 235+ 928 953 380 980 295 44.30
Lowell

Amirkabir University of
916 Iran 6 378+ 594+ 235+ 690 972 664 887 912+ 44.30
Technology

National Taiwan University of


917 Taiwan 15 378+ 594+ 235+ 594 951 818+ 902 856 44.30
Science and Technology

Nagoya Institute of
918 Japan 69 378+ 530 235+ 847 920 818+ 959 303 44.30
Technology

919 University of Thessaly Greece 7 378+ 594+ 235+ 853 987 818+ 878 912+ 44.30

920 Yangzhou University China 70 378+ 594+ 235+ 864 877 818+ 878 912+ 44.30

921 Jadavpur University India 14 378+ 538 235+ 821 995+ 541 887 821 44.30

Adam Mickiewicz University


922 Poland 7 151 594+ 235+ 670 852 818+ 969 745 44.30
in Pozna

923 University of Jan Spain 36 378+ 594+ 235+ 922 881 541 887 600 44.30

University of Central United


924 65 378+ 515 235+ 925 671 664 887 763 44.29
Lancashire Kingdom

University of Puerto Rico at Puerto


925 1 378+ 594+ 235+ 993 763 436 887 912+ 44.29
Mayagez Rico

926 Federal University of Paran Brazil 13 378+ 482 235+ 674 831 818+ 907 763 44.29

Shahid Beheshti University of


927 Iran 7 378+ 594+ 235+ 860 891 818+ 887 912+ 44.29
Medical Sciences

928 Queens College, City USA 221 337 374 235+ 982 718 818+ 934 704 44.29
Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
d Institution Location nal Employm of
Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

University of New York

Northwestern Polytechnical
929 China 71 378+ 334 235+ 563 949 818+ 992 856 44.29
University

930 Oakland University USA 222 378+ 594+ 235+ 898 793 818+ 887 883 44.29

931 University of Calcutta India 15 150 333 227 941 915 818+ 999 584 44.29

932 Kyoto Institute of Technology Japan 70 378+ 594+ 235+ 996 908 818+ 959 321 44.29

933 Teikyo University Japan 71 378+ 594+ 235+ 962 780 818+ 887 802 44.29

National Taiwan Normal


934 Taiwan 16 378+ 501 235+ 730 894 818+ 907 912+ 44.28
University

New
935 University of Waikato 6 378+ 451 235+ 949 916 664 925 547 44.28
Zealand

South
936 Pukyong National University 33 378+ 594+ 235+ 941 972 818+ 925 425 44.28
Korea

United
United Arab Emirates
937 Arab 1 378+ 544 235+ 995 873 818+ 902 644 44.28
University
Emirates

938 Southern Medical University China 72 378+ 594+ 235+ 718 758 818+ 907 735 44.28

South
939 Gachon University 34 378+ 594+ 235+ 857 844 818+ 907 523 44.28
Korea

940 University of Lethbridge Canada 31 378+ 594+ 235+ 979 746 541 902 856 44.28

National University of
941 Argentina 3 378+ 594+ 235+ 723 733 818+ 907 912+ 44.28
Crdoba

Beijing University of Posts


942 China 73 378+ 301 235+ 969 978 818+ 998 429 44.28
and Telecommunications

943 Shiraz University Iran 8 378+ 594+ 235+ 882 972 541 907 912+ 44.27

944 Tianjin Medical University China 74 378+ 594+ 235+ 821 840 818+ 907 802 44.27

South
945 Hallym University 35 378+ 594+ 235+ 858 931 818+ 907 690 44.27
Korea

University of North Carolina


946 USA 223 378+ 594+ 235+ 897 847 818+ 907 659 44.27
at Greensboro

947 Carlos III University of Madrid Spain 37 378+ 594+ 235+ 663 943 664 945 471 44.27

Federal University of So
948 Brazil 14 378+ 594+ 235+ 735 910 818+ 925 674 44.27
Carlos

National Taiwan Ocean


949 Taiwan 17 378+ 444 235+ 820 951 818+ 934 912+ 44.27
University

950 University of Almera Spain 38 378+ 594+ 235+ 967 978 664 907 659 44.27

951 University of Hyderabad India 16 378+ 594+ 235+ 882 929 818+ 907 883 44.27

952 Xiangtan University China 75 378+ 445 235+ 846 949 818+ 934 802 44.27

China Medical University


953 China 76 378+ 594+ 235+ 761 704 664 925 912+ 44.27
(PRC)

954 Dokuz Eyll University Turkey 10 378+ 594+ 235+ 949 960 818+ 907 912+ 44.27
Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
d Institution Location nal Employm of
Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

955 Jiangsu University China 77 378+ 578 235+ 747 902 818+ 945 471 44.27

Zhejiang University of
956 China 78 378+ 594+ 235+ 819 995+ 818+ 925 704 44.26
Technology

957 cole centrale de Lyon France 45 378+ 304 235+ 877 845 818+ 995 690 44.26

958 Hirosaki University Japan 72 378+ 487 235+ 980 821 664 934 584 44.26

959 Novosibirsk State University Russia 5 173 594+ 235+ 754 736 664 980 912+ 44.26

960 Ain Shams University Egypt 2 378+ 594+ 235+ 900 805 436 934 912+ 44.26

961 Hunan Normal University China 79 378+ 594+ 235+ 914 888 818+ 925 912+ 44.26

962 Federal University of Bahia Brazil 15 378+ 576 235+ 956 875 818+ 925 841 44.26

Wrocaw University of
963 Poland 8 378+ 408 235+ 798 943 664 969 802 44.26
Technology

National University of
964 Colombia 2 378+ 341 235+ 863 660 818+ 992 745 44.26
Colombia

South
965 Chosun University 36 378+ 594+ 235+ 947 978 818+ 994 281 44.26
Korea

Federal University of
966 Brazil 16 378+ 575 235+ 755 889 818+ 945 558 44.26
Pernambuco

967 University of Texas at El Paso USA 224 378+ 466 235+ 905 853 818+ 945 633 44.26

968 Ryerson University Canada 32 378+ 594+ 235+ 774 968 436 945 802 44.26

969 University of Silesia Poland 9 378+ 594+ 235+ 885 879 541 934 912+ 44.25

Federal University of Santa


970 Brazil 17 378+ 396 235+ 934 978 818+ 969 912+ 44.25
Maria

Beijing University of
971 China 80 378+ 594+ 235+ 770 963 818+ 945 625 44.25
Technology

972 University of Limerick Ireland 8 378+ 503 235+ 871 877 664 969 447 44.25

973 University of Camerino Italy 47 378+ 594+ 235+ 920 806 818+ 934 802 44.25

University of Pau and Pays


974 France 46 378+ 594+ 235+ 970 995+ 818+ 934 704 44.25
de l'Adour

Ca' Foscari University of


975 Italy 48 378+ 594+ 235+ 966 791 664 934 912+ 44.25
Venice

976 Yuan Ze University Taiwan 18 378+ 594+ 235+ 953 987 818+ 934 912+ 44.25

977 University of Bucharest Romania 1 238 594+ 235+ 865 815 664 959 912+ 44.25

978 Xidian University China 81 378+ 566 235+ 740 978 818+ 959 611 44.25

979 University of Fukui Japan 73 378+ 594+ 235+ 973 796 818+ 945 625 44.24

980 Babe-Bolyai University Romania 2 378+ 594+ 235+ 879 870 664 945 912+ 44.24

981 Public University of Navarre Spain 39 378+ 594+ 235+ 974 839 818+ 945 674 44.24

982 Qingdao University China 82 378+ 594+ 235+ 964 978 664 945 856 44.24

983 King Juan Carlos University Spain 40 378+ 594+ 235+ 855 927 818+ 959 719 44.23
Quality Broa
Worl Natio Alumni Quality
of Publicati Influen Citatio d Paten Scor
d Institution Location nal Employm of
Educati ons ce ns Impa ts e
Rank Rank ent Faculty
on ct

984 Ibaraki University Japan 74 378+ 594+ 235+ 999 491 664 959 674 44.23

985 Mansoura University Egypt 3 378+ 594+ 235+ 960 968 541 959 912+ 44.23

Chung Shan Medical


986 Taiwan 19 378+ 594+ 235+ 744 960 664 969 912+ 44.23
University

987 Shenzhen University China 83 378+ 409 235+ 873 769 541 995 429 44.23

988 Henan Normal University China 84 378+ 594+ 235+ 945 995+ 818+ 959 912+ 44.23

989 Harbin Medical University China 85 378+ 594+ 235+ 779 874 818+ 969 912+ 44.23

990 Feng Chia University Taiwan 20 378+ 423 235+ 940 995+ 818+ 989 856 44.23

University of Reims
991 France 47 378+ 560 235+ 930 889 541 980 536 44.23
Champagne-Ardenne

992 University of A Corua Spain 41 378+ 594+ 235+ 826 919 818+ 969 745 44.23

South China Agricultural


993 China 86 378+ 579 235+ 854 824 818+ 969 912+ 44.23
University

994 Zhejiang Normal University China 87 378+ 594+ 235+ 848 943 818+ 969 912+ 44.22

995 Alexandria University Egypt 4 244 592 235+ 960 921 818+ 980 912+ 44.22

University of Valenciennes
996 France 48 378+ 594+ 235+ 906 963 664 969 841 44.22
and Hainaut-Cambresis

997 Fu Jen Catholic University Taiwan 21 378+ 469 235+ 994 941 818+ 980 883 44.22

Chongqing Medical
998 China 88 378+ 594+ 235+ 910 925 818+ 969 856 44.22
University

999 Northwest A&F University China 89 378+ 594+ 235+ 648 816 818+ 989 883 44.22

China Pharmaceutical
1000 China 90 378+ 594+ 235+ 816 968 818+ 980 625 44.22
University

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July 29,1966 counter-coup: Africas bloodiest coup dtat


On July 29, 20169:00 amIn PoliticsComments By Chuks Iloegbunam

The first shots shattered the peace of the night at the Abeokuta Garrison of the Nigerian Army a few minutes
after midnight on July 29, 1966. Three casualties lay instantly dead in the persons of Lieutenant Colonel
Gabriel Okonweze, the Garrison Commander, Major John Obienu, Commander of the 2nd Reece Squadron,
and Lieutenant E. B. Orok, also of the Reece Squadron. It was the beginning of the much-touted revenge
coup of Northern Nigerian army officers and men against the regime of Major General Johnson Thomas
Umunnakwe Aguiyi-Ironsi. Coup

By August 1, when Lieutenant Colonel Yakubu Gowon assumed power in Lagos as Nigerias second
military Head of State, the bullet ridden bodies of both Ironsi and his host, Lieutenant Colonel Francis
Adekunle Fajuyi, the military Governor of Western Nigeria, lay buried in shallow graves at Iwo, outside
Ibadan. Within three days of the July outbreak, every Igbo soldier serving in the army outside the East was
dead, imprisoned or fleeing eastward for his life, observed Professor Ruth First in The Barrel of a Gun: The
Politics of Coups dEtat in Africa [Allen Lane The Penguin Press, London, 1970, p317.] But Africas
bloodiest coup did not stop at that stage, despite the shooting deaths of 42 officers and over 130 other ranks,
who were overwhelmingly Igbo. The killing sprees and ever-expanding killing fields spread like wild fire
across most of the country.

There were three phases to the coup the Araba/Aware massacres in northern Nigeria pre-July that called
for northern secession, the July Army bloodbath, and the ethnic cleansing that went on for months after
Ironsi had been assassinated and his regime toppled. The maelstrom prompted Colonel Gowon into making
a radio broadcast on September 29, 1966. This was the kernel of what he said: You all know that since the
end of July, God in his power has entrusted the responsibility of this great country of ours into the hands of
yet another Northerner. I receive complaints daily that up till now Easterners living in the North are being
killed and molested, and their property looted. I am very unhappy about this. We should put a stop to it. It
appears that it is going beyond reason and is now at a point of recklessness and irresponsibility.

Salutary intervention
But Gowons salutary intervention changed nothing, as the massacres continued unabated. Northern soldiers
and civilians went into towns, fished out Easterners and flattened them either with rapid gunfire or with
violent machete blows, leaving their properties looted or torched. According to the Massacre of Ndigbo in
1966: Report of the Justice G. C. M. Onyiuke Tribunal, [Tollbrook Limited, Ikeja, Lagos] between
45,000 and 50,000 civilians of former Eastern Nigeria were killed in Northern Nigeria and other parts of
Nigeria from 29th May 1966 to December 1967 and although it is not strictly within its terms of reference
the Tribunal estimates that not less than 1,627,743 Easterners fled back to Eastern Nigeria as a result of the
1966 pogrom.

Counter-coup
This is contemporary Nigerian history, only 50 years old. But when experts like Dr. Reuben Abati and
Professor Jonah Elaigwu write about it, they lose all sense of numeracy and statistical acuity, and glibly state
that the July 29, 1966 counter-coup cost many Igbo lives. Well, the truth is that the July 29 counter-coup
appears to be the bloodiest in the worlds recorded history because the casualty figures it posted far outstrip
those registered in decided bloody coups like the Glorious Revolution of 1688 in which King James II of
England was overthrown by an invading army led by William III of Orange-Nassau; the 18 Brumaire of
1799 coup in which General Napoleon Bonaparte overthrew the French Directory on November 9, 1799; the
Wuchang Uprising of 1911 that overthrew the Qing Dynasty and led to the establishment of the Republic of
China; the Bolsheviks October Revolution of 1917 that led to the creation of the Soviet Union; and the Iraqi
coup dtat of 1936, the first among Arab countries. Each of these coups/revolutions led to war. But none of
them managed anything near the sea of blood occasioned by July 29, 1966. Giving their interest in posting
photographs and videos on the Internet by Instagram and Snapchat, and advertising mostly poor language on
Facebook and other such portals, todays Nigerian youths may know next to nothing about what led to the
catastrophe of July 29. But the details follow here for those of them interested in learning. The problem sat
rigidly on the superficiality of Nigeria, a geographical expression contrived by colonialist Britain.

At Independence in 1960, the country operated a federal system of government with three powerful regions
that didnt take dictation from Lagos, the nations capital. A fourth region, the Midwest, with capital in
Benin City, was created in June 1963. But destroying the very fabric of the artificial political entity were
tribalism and corruption, corruption which by todays standards, would seem like cloistered nuns
delightfully engaging in a game of Ping-Pong! Controversial census There were the 1960 and 1964-1965
uprisings in the Tiv country of the Middle Belt, and fractious elections in Western Nigeria in 1964 and 1965.
There was the highly controversial national census exercise of 1963, and there was the military action of
Isaac Boros Niger Delta Volunteer Force. Then, the military moved in on January 15, 1966, having
contracted the germ of the idea of military putsches running riot across the world. In Algeria, for instance,
Colonel Houari Boumediene and Ahmed Ben Bella overthrew Benyoucef Benkhedda on July 3, 1962. Three
years later, on June 19, 1965, Boumedienne overthrew Ben Bella. More: In Argentina, General Eduardo
Lonardi overthrew President Juan Domingo Peron on September 16, 1955. On March 29, 1962, General
Raul Pogi overthrew President Arturo Frondizi. In Brazil on March 31, 1964, Humberto de Alencar Castelo
Branco overthrew Joo Goulart to set up a 21-year-long dictatorship. In Indonesia General Suharto
overthrew President Sukarno on September 30, 1965. First West African coup Inside Africa itself, coups
were also trending. Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser had overthrown Muhammad Naguib as far back as
February 27, 1954. The first coup in West Africa was on January 13, 1963, when Etiene Eyadema overthrew
Sylvanus Olympio. Colonel Joseph (later Mobutu Sese Seko) toppled Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba on
September 14, 1960 and neutralized all political parties in Congo-Kinshasa. In neighbouring Benin
Republic, Christophe Soglo overthrew Hubert Maga on October 28, 1963. Soglo carried out another coup on
November 27, 1965, toppling Sourou-Migan Apithy. Both coups happened when the country still bore the
name of Dahomey. On New Years Day of 1966, Colonel Jean-Bedel Bokassa overthrew his cousin,
President David Dacko in Central Africa Republic. Two days later, Lieutenant Colonel Sangoul Lamizana
overthrew President Maurice Yamogo in Upper Volta, which was renamed Burkina Faso in 1984 by
Marxist revolutionary Captain Thomas Sankara. But there was a difference between the rash of coups that
occurred elsewhere and the one of January 15, 1966 in Nigeria.

The Nigerian coup took an immediate ethnic colouration, and for reasons that were all too obvious. Of the
five Majors that formed the innermost circle of the plotters, four were Igbo Patrick Chukwuma Kaduna
Nzeogwu, Emmanuel Arinze Ifeajuna, Donatus Okafor, and Chris Anuforo. But there was also among them
Major Adewale Ademoyega, a Yoruba. Then, there was also the more disturbing fact that most of the coups
casualties were non-Igbo, like Prime Minister Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, Northern Premier Sir Ahmadu
Bello, Western Premier Chief Samuel Akintola, and Federal Finance Minister Chief Festus Okotie-Eboh. No
Igbo politician had lost his life in the bloody action. Further, in executing the coup, the military had turned
against itself in the killings of the following Northern military officers: Brigadier Zakariya Maimalari
(Commander 2 Brigade), Colonel Kur Mohammed (Chief of Staff, Army Headquarters), Lieutenant Colonel
James Yakubu Pam (Adjutant-General), and Lieutenant Colonel Lieutenant Colonel Abogo Largema
(Commander 4th Battalion, Ibadan). Two Yoruba officers were also victims: Brigadier Samuel Ademulegun
(Commander 1 Brigade), and his deputy, Colonel Ralph Sodeinde. The coup was, in effect, as bloody as they
come. Its very nature fanned the fiction that it was an Igbo coup.

Chuks Iloegbunam (iloegbunam@hotmail.com), is the author of Ironside, the biography of General Aguiyi-
Ironsi.

Read more at: http://www.vanguardngr.com/2016/07/july-291966-counter-coup-africas-bloodiest-coup-


detat/

TOKUNBO: 5 THINGS TO KNOW BEFORE BUYING A


USED CAR

On August 15, 201611:11 amIn MotoringComments By Korede Ogunseinde,

Knowing how to spot potential problems and determining how reliable a used vehicle is can save you from
expensive automotive headaches down the road. Autofactorng, a quality driven e-commerce retail company
for sales of auto-parts shares 5 things to consider when you are aiming to buy a used car.

Tokun
1 Homework

To reduce the risk of purchasing a trouble-prone vehicle, identify models with a good reliability record
before you begin shopping. If the car youre interested in is known to have certain trouble spots, you know
to pay special attention to those components during inspection.Take along a friend for help. Do your
inspection in broad daylight on a dry day as floodlighted lots can make cars look shiny and hide body
defects. The car should be parked on a level surface and shouldnt have been driven for at least an hour
before your inspection.

2 Exterior
a. Body condition. Check each body panel and the roof, looking for scratches, dents, and rust. Examine the
lines of the fenders and doors. Misaligned panels or large gaps can indicate either sloppy assembly at the
factory or shoddy repair. The paint colour and finish should be the same on every body panel. If you think a
dent may have been patched with body filler, put a small magnet on it; it wont stick to an area with body
filler. If other parts of the car have been repainted, there may be paint adhering to the rubber seals around the
hood and trunk lid.
b. Minor cosmetic flaws and light scratches are no cause for concern, but rust is. Check the outer body for
blistered paint or rust. Also inspect the wheel wells, the rocker panels beneath the doors, and the door
bottoms. Bring a flashlight for looking inside the wheel wells for rust. Open and close each door, the hood,
and the trunk. Gently lift and let go of each door, particularly the drivers door. If it seems loose on its
hinges, the car has seen hard or long use. Inspect any rubber seal for tearing or rot.
c.Glass. Look carefully at the vehicle glass to make sure there are no cracks or large, pocked areas. A small
stone chip may not be cause for alarm, though you should bring it up as a bargaining point in negotiations.
But cracks in the windshield will worsen and lead to a costly repair.
d.Suspension. Walk around the car to see if its standing level. Bounce each corner up and down. If the
shock absorbers are in good shape, the car should rebound just once; it shouldnt keep moving up and down.
Grab the top of each front tire and tug it back and forth. If you feel play in it or hear a clunking or
ticking sound, the wheel bearings or suspension joints may be shot.
e.Lights and lenses. Have a friend confirm that all lights are working, Make sure all light lenses and
reflectors are intact and not cracked, fogged with moisture, or missing.
d.Tyres. You can tell a lot from the tyres. A car with less than, say, 20,000 miles on the odometer should
probably still have its original tyres. Be wary of a low-mileage car with new tires; the vehicles odometer
may have been rolled back. Also check that all four tires are the same. Any different tyres may show that
they have been replaced. Thread wear should be even across the width of the tread and the same on the left
and right sides of the car. Ask if the tires have been regularly rotated. If not, the wear is usually more severe
on the drive wheels. Aggressive drivers tend to put heavy wear on the outside shoulder of the front tyres, at
the edge of the sidewall. Assume that the car has been driven hard if that area shows heavier wear. Tyres that
have been driven while over-inflated tend to wear more in the middle than on the sides. Chronically under-
inflated tyres show more wear on the sides. Cupped tyres, those that are worn unevenly along the treads
circumference, may be a sign of a problem with the steering, suspension, or brakes. Tyres must have at least
1/16 inch of tread to be legal. Check the tread depth with a tread-depth tool (available at auto-parts stores).
Examine the sidewalls for scuffing, cracks, or bulges, and look on the edge of each rim for dents or
cracks. And be sure to check that the spare is in good shape and that the proper jack and lug wrench are
present.

3 Interior Its the inside of a car that may matter most since thats where youll be spending the most time.
3a. Odour. When you first open the car door, sniff the interior. A musty, mouldy, or mildewy smell could
indicate water leaks. Remove the floor mats and check for wet spots on the carpet. An acrid smell may
indicate that the car was used by a smoker. Check the lighter and ashtray for evidence. Some odours, such as
mould or smoke, can be very hard to get rid of. If you dont like what you smell, find another car.
3b. Seats. Try out all the seats even though you may not plan to sit in the rear. Upholstery shouldnt be
ripped or badly worn, particularly in a car with low mileage. Try all the seat adjustments to make sure they
work properly and that you can find a good driving position.
3c. Pedals. The rubber on the brake, clutch, and gas pedals gives an indication of use. A car with low miles
shouldnt show much wear. Pedal rubber thats worn through in spotsor brand-newindicates that the car
has been driven a lot.
3d. Instruments and controls. Turn the ignition switch, but without starting the engine. All the warning
lightsincluding the Check engine lightshould illuminate for a few seconds and go off when you start
the engine. Note if the engine is hard to start when cold and if it idles smoothly. Then try out every switch,
button, and lever. With the engine running, turn on the heater full blast to see how hot it gets, and how
quickly. Switch on the air conditioning and make sure it quickly blows cold.
3e. Trunk. Use your nose as well as your eyes. Sniff and look for signs of water entry. See if the carpeting
feels wet or smells musty, and check the spare-tire well for water or rust.

4 Under the hood: Engine related components Its best to make these checks with the engine cool. Look first
at the general condition of the engine bay. Dirt and dust are normal, but be wary if you see oil splattered
about or on the pavement under the engine compartment. Also watch for a battery covered with corrosion,
or wires and hoses hanging loose. Hoses and belts. Squeeze the various rubber hoses running to the radiator,
air conditioner, and other parts. The rubber should be firm and supple, not rock-hard, cracked, or mushy.
Feel the drive belts to determine whether they are frayed. Fluids. The owners manual will point out where
to look to check all fluid levels. Engine oil should be dark brown or black, but not gritty. If the oil is honey-
coloured, it was just changed. If the dipstick has water droplets on it or grey or foamy oil, it could indicate a
cracked engine block or blown head gasket, two serious problems. Transmission fluid should be pinkish, not
brown, and smell like oil, with no burnt odour. The dipstick shouldnt leave visible metal particles on the
rag, another sign of a serious problem. Check the automatic-transmission fluid with the engine warmed up
and running. On some, the dipstick has two sets of marks for checking when the engine is either cold or
warm. Power-steering and brake-fluid levels should be within the safe zone. Radiator. Look into the plastic
reservoir thats connected by a rubber hose to the radiator. The coolant should be greenish or orange, not
a milky or rusty colour. Greenish stains on the outside of the radiator are a sign of pinhole leaks. Battery.
Some maintenance free batteries have a built-in charge indicator. A green indicator usually means the
battery is in good shape; yellow or black usually means it is dying or dead. These indicators reveal the
condition of just one cell and may not give an accurate reading on the health of the whole battery. If the
battery has filler caps, wipe off the top with a rag, then carefully pry off or unscrew the caps to look at the
liquid electrolyte level. A low level may mean that the battery has been working too hard. A mechanic can
check out the charging system and do a load test on the battery.

5. Under the vehicle If you can find where a car was usually parked, see if that part of the garage floor or
driveway is marked from old puddles of gasoline, oil, coolant, or transmission fluid. Clear water that
drips from under the car on a hot day is probably just water condensed from the air conditioner.
5a Feel the tailpipe for residue. If its black and greasy, it means burnt oil. Tailpipe smudge should be dry
and dark grey. While some rust is normal, heavy rust might be OK but could mean a new exhaust system
might be needed. If the vehicle is high enough to slide under, you may be able to do some basic checks
underneath. (If not, make sure your mechanic checks it.) Spread an old blanket on the ground and look under
the engine with a flashlight. If you see oil drips, oily leaks, or green or red fluid on the engine or the
pavement beneath the car, its not a good sign. On a front-wheel-drive car, examine the constant-velocity-
joint boots inboard of the front wheels. They are round, black, rubber bellows at the ends of the axle shafts.
If the boots are split and leaking grease, assume that the car has bad CV joints, another costly repair.
Structural components with kinks and large dents in the floor pan or fuel tank all indicate a past accident.
Welding on the frame suggests a damaged section might have been replaced or cut out to perform repair
work. Fresh undercoating may hide recent structural repairs.
5b. Take the car to an independent mechanic Before you close the deal, have it scrutinized by a repair shop
that routinely does diagnostic work. A dealer should have no problem lending you the car to have it
inspected as long as you leave identification.

Korede Ogunseinde is an auto blogger @autofactorng

Read more at: http://www.vanguardngr.com/2016/08/tokunbo-10-things-know-buying-used-car/

Registration For Screening Exercise 2016/2017


UTME Admissions
The Bayero University Senate has approved that all candidates who chose Bayero University, Kano as their
first choice University in the 2016 Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) and made the cut-
off marks are eligible for screening.
Details of the screening will be announced later.

The cut-off marks for the various Faculties/Programmes are as stated below:

180 and
1. FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE
above

200 and
FACULTY OF ARTS AND ISLAMIC STUDIES - B.A. ARABIC
above

2.

200 and
- B.A. ISLAMIC STUDIES
above

All other programmes in the 180 and


Faculty above

220 and
3. FACULTY OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES
above

200 and
4. FACULTY OF BASIC MEDICAL SCIENCES - B.Sc. BIOCHEMISTRY
above

All other programmes in the 180 and


Faculty above

220 and
5. FACULTY OF CLINICAL SCIENCES
above

200 and
6. FACULTY OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & IT
above

180 and
7. FACULTY OF COMMUNICATION
above

8. FACULTY OF DENTISTRY 220 and


above

200 and
9. FACULTY OF EARTH & ENV. SCIENCES - B.Sc. GEOGRAPHY
above

200 and
- B.Sc. QUANTITY SURV.
above

All other programmes in the 180 and


Faculty above

190 and
10. FACULTY OF EDUCATION - B.A (Ed) ISLAMIC STUDIES
above

190 and
- B.Sc. (Ed) ECONOMICS
above

- B.A/B.Sc. LIBRARY 190 and


SCIENCE above

All other programmes in the 180 and


Faculty above

200 and
11. FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
above

200 and
12. FACULTY OF LAW
above

190 and
13. FACULTY OF SCIENCES - B.Sc. MICROBIOLOGY
above

All other programmes in the 180 and


Faculty above

FACULTY OF SOCIAL AND MANAGEMENT 200 and


14.
SCIENCES above

15. FACULTY OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES 220 and


above

The New Pension Act 2014: Hope For The


Nigerian Employee
By ADEWUNMI TOBILOBA
Previous | Next

A pension is a fixed sum to be paid regularly to a person, typically following retirement from service.
There are many different types of pensions, including defined benefit plans, contributory schemes,
defined contribution plans, as well as several others.

It is quite sad that some people still associate pension with old age. For the larger percentage of employees
who have been involved in the pension contributory scheme have a better idea of what the scheme is all
about and it is important forevery employee in days of active service to concentrate on their pension
contributions from the first day of employment,Those who have the archaic believe of pension been a scam
or a retirement talk should rather sit up and learn more about the contributory scheme. The New Pension Act
2014 is an eye opener of the obvious benefits in the contributory scheme.

The Pension Act 2014


On 1 July 2014, President GoodluckEbele Jonathan signed into law the 'Act', which repeals the Pension
Reform Act 2004. The new Act serve as the enabling legislation for the administration of the contributory
pension scheme. Act has some major amendments which everyone,employers and employees should find
quite exciting just as I do and benefit from the major changes which were made in this new act to alleviate
the sufferings of the Nigerian Employee from the shackles of pension problems which the former Act did
not address. Some of the major changes are highlighted below:

Participation and contribution


The scope of participation of the contributory pension scheme for employers in the private sector has been
decreased from minimum of five employees to three employees, which enables wider participation for the
informal private sector, this is a wonderful development for employees in small scale employment, and they
are not left out of the contributory benefit to secure their future.

There is also an increase in the rate of contributions, Under the Act,employers are to contribute 12% of the
monthly emolument which was previously 7.5%, and the employees on the other hand are to contribute 8%
which was previously 7.5%. For an employer that bears the total pension contributions of its employees they
will be expected to make20% contribution. These contributions are applicable on monthly emoluments only.
It is important to note that the scope of the monthly emolument has been given a wider definition than
before i.e. Monthly emoluments under the Act is defined as the total emoluments as may be defined in the
employees contract of employment but shall not be less than a total of basic salary, housing allowance and
transport allowance.

Sanctions and punishments


The Act now empowers the National pension commission to institute criminal proceedings against
employers for persistent refusal to remit pension contributions subject to the fiat of the Attorney General of
the Federation, whichwill be to the delight of employees right now.Furthermore Pension operators who
mismanage pension fundsare liable on conviction to not less than 10 years imprisonment and/or fine of an
amount equal to three-times the amount so misappropriated or divertednow. Asit is clear that the benefit of
pension is on the high side, some adamant employees still refuse to join this scheme, the pension act 2014
takes good care of these category of staffs by compelling an employer to open a Temporary Retirement
Savings Account (TRSA) on behalf of an employee that failed to open an RSA within three (3) months of
assumption of duty.

Recovery of Pension
The employees who have been involved actively in the contributory pension scheme often complain about
recovery of pension after loss of job, the worry centers around the stipulated waiting period after a job loss,
the new act has nowgiven us a reason to smile as the act has reduced the waiting period for accessing
benefits in the event of loss of job by employees from six (6) months to four (4) months. So in a sad case
were you lose your job, you can quickly smile to the bank to access your benefits after 4months.

Finally It is clear that the new pension Act 2014 is quite advantageous to the employees as some keys issues
have been addressed such as upward review of the penalties and sanctions,enhanced coverage of the
contributory pension scheme and informal sector participation, upward review of rate of pension
contribution, opening of temporary retirement savings account for adamant employees and access to benefits
in the event of loss of job .

Sogo Akinola
sogoakinola@gbc-law.com
08166205499
@sogonathan

SULTAN @ 10: REMEMBERING OTHER


SULTANS OF SOKOTO
By anyichietochukwu@dailytrust.com | Publish Date: Nov 5 2016 2:17AM
Alhaji Muhammad Saad Abubakars as the Sultan of Sokoto,

In continuation of the Tenth Year Anniversary of Alhaji Muhammad Saad Abubakars as Sultan of Sokoto,
we today discuss the other nineteen Sultans as described in a new book presented this Friday in Sokoto.
Modelled after The Sultans of Turkey, this thorough and painstaking effort is a 514-page (532 if
preliminary pages, maps and family tree are included) tome edited by Professors Alkasum Abba, Ibrahim
Jumare and Shuaibu Shehu Aliyu (with contributions from many other scholars) and published by Arewa
House, Kaduna (research arm of ABU, Zaria) on behalf of the Sultanate Council, Sokoto. In his foreword,
this Sultan says the book extols the virtues of leadership and good governanceequity and justicewhich
we need to build a strong, responsive and virile nation.

SHEHU USMAN DANFODIO (1754-1817 - Founder of the Sokoto Caliphate): The Shehu, as progenitor of
all the Sultans, was not addressed as Sultan. The honorific title of Shehu (Shaikh) best describes him. Born
1174, Shehu studied with his uncle Usman Binduri and Shaikh Jibril bn Umar in Agades (now in Niger
Republic). The Shehu and his younger brother Mallam Abdullahi travelled widely within Hausaland and
beyond - to Kabi, Zamfara, Zabarma, Daura, etc, where they taught and wrote and preached and protested
against the Hausa Kings political oppressions and heavy taxations. People flocked to him. The Shehus
home-state, Gobir, was a superpower among the Hausa States. His ministry extended through the reigns of
three Kings of Gobir - Bawa, Nafata and Yunfa. Like in the case of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (upon
whom be peace), a Hijra and exile also became the Shehus lot. His Jihad - essentially a revolution against
oppression and exploitation - began in 1804, and the Caliphate was born. The Shehu died in 1817. May
Allah be pleased with the Shehu.

SULTAN MUHAMMAD BELLO (1817-1837): While the Shehu is noted as the Founder of the Sokoto
Caliphate, Bello is generally regarded as its Builder and Maker. As Amirul Muminin (Commander of the
Faithful), Bello exhibited and displayed charisma and resilience in preserving and protecting the Caliphate
against imminent disintegration with the death of Shehu. He was very learned and authored many books.
When Hugh Clapperton, the English forerunner of colonialism, visited Sokoto almost two centuries ago, he
reported that: Bello asked me a great many questions about Europe and ChristianityWhen he asked to
which sect we belonged, I answered Protestants. What are Protestants, he further asked. He continued to ask
several theological questions until I was obliged to confess myself not sufficiently versed in religious
subtleties Bello was an expert in administration, foreign policy, jurisprudence, economics and above all
politics. His was the golden age for the Caliphate. He was a comprehensively successful leader. He died in
1837.
SULTAN ABUBAKAR ATIKU (1837-1842): Fourth child of the Shehu and younger brother of Bello
(although also younger than another Prince, Buhari, who was away when Bello died), this Sultan had
functioned as a sort Caliphate Foreign Minister during his older brothers reign. He consolidated the borders
of the Caliphate and was engaged in many military skirmishes. He also made Sokoto town the temporal and
spiritual capital, rather than Wurno which Bello preferred. He died in 1842.

SULTAN ALIYU BABBA (1842-1859): He was said to be a mild and moderate person. A writer said of
him: He wasfond of laughter, with good features and a fine long beard, beloved by the people, beneficent
to themNo one could talk him into action against a poor wretch. He operated a kind and just
administration enjoyed by his subjects. He died in 1859.

SULTAN AHMADU ZARUKU (1859-1866): An administrative milestone achieved by this Sultan, and
which should be carefully studied by todays leaders, was his success in settling of some Fulani nomadic
tribes whose nomadic lifestyle had been a problem for many Sultans before him. He exerted political
pressure to achieve this, and instructed the now-settled nomads to keep the law and respect authorities. He
died in 1866.

SULTAN ALIYU KARAMI (1866-1867): He is referred to as Karami (Younger) to distinguish him from
Aliyu Babba (Older) though in actual fact some claim the Karami was older than the Babba in age.
Interestingly (though this part of history is muted), it is claimed that while his father was Sultan Bello, his
mother Halima was daughter of Sarkin Gobir Yunfa, against whom the Shehu had fought but the daughter of
whom Bello was later to marry. A full Hausa-Fulani, if you will. He is said to be pious, far-sighted and
highly disciplined. His was stabilising reign for the Caliphate. He died 1867.

SULTAN AHMADU RUFAI (1867-1873): A son of the Shehu, he was described to have a striking
resemblance to his father. He was said to be dynamic, modest, soft-spoken and accessible, much like the
Shehu. He was also known to be firm and strict and hard on law breakers and criminals, but soft on obedient
citizens. He was also a prolific writer like the Shehu. He was pragmatic, and made peace rather than go to
war. He accurately predicted British Colonial Rule which came 40 years after his death. He died in 1873.

SULTAN ABUBAKAR ATIKU NA RABAH (1873-1877): His exemplary conduct, justice and equity,
couple with his personal piety, contributed in making the Caliphate to enjoy enhanced security during his
time. He preferred to live off his personal earnings, rather than the Treasury. Public funds were used to cater
for widows, orphans and the destitute. He died in 1877.

SULTAN MUAZU (1877-1881): Justice was a trademark of his administration. European explorers
frequented the Caliphate during his time. He died in 1877.

SULTAN UMAR DAN ALIYU BABBA (1881-1891): He is said to have literally seized power as the
Kingmakers were reluctant to appoint him. Said to be intelligent and astute. And tough. Peace reigned and
agriculture thrived. He died in 1891.

SULTAN ABDURRAHMAN DANYEN KASKO (1891-1902): He came in turbulent times - just before the
arrival of the colonialists. There was civil war in Kano, and there were refugees from Segu fleeing the
French. Altogether complex. He introduced community policing. He died in 1902.

SULTAN MUHAMMADU ATTAHIRU I (1902-1903): The British came, saw and conquered the Caliphate
during his time. Embarked on Hijra but was seized and exiled to Lokoja where he died.

SULTAN MUHAMMADU ATTAHIRU II (1903-1915): First post-colonial Sultan. Lord Lugard said of him:
Attahiru is a man whose face and manner greatly prepossessed me in his favour. He died in 1915.

SULTAN MUHAMMADU MAITURARE (1915-1924): Heralded European-led modern development of


Sokoto. A colonial officer wrote: He was every inch a King. He died in 1924.
SULTAN MUHAMMADU TAMBARI (1924-1931): Said to have been appointed by the colonial rulers in
defiance to the Kingmakers. His reign saw the coming of European industries. There were so many intrigues
fanned by the colonial masters which led to this Sultans abdication and consequent exile in Wukari.

SULTAN HASSAN DAN MUAZU (1931-1938): His appointment was a surprise as the colonial masters
had earlier connived to deny him. Western-style education (Boko) caught on strongly. He died in 1938.

SULTAN ABUBAKAR III (1938-1988): Longest reigning Sultan. Father of the current. Tremendous
development during his time. Said to be highly humorous, simple and accessible. He died in 1988.

SULTAN IBRAHIM DASUKI (1988-1996): Highly educated Sultan. Reformist. From the Bukari branch of
the Shehu family. Deposed by the military in 1996. First exiled to Zing, now lives in Kaduna.

SULTAN MUHAMMADU MACCIDO (1996-2006): A humble and simple Sultan who died in a plane crash
in 2006.

SULTAN MUHAMMAD SAAD ABUBAKAR (2006-Date): Friend of all. (Read about him on last weeks
Column.)

Read more at http://www.dailytrust.com.ng/news/saturday-column/sultan-@-10-remembering-other-sultans-


of-sokoto/170231.html#UuZXa6fCdvg4wO4T.99

TRUMP: Only God Knows Tomorrow


By Bala Muhammad | Publish Date: Nov 12 2016 2:00AM

(God?) while a popular adage in Hausa strengthens this: Sanin Gaibu Sai Allah! (Only God Knows The
Unseen). All these go to describe the shock and awe that was Donald Trumps triumph in the US Presidential
Elections this Tuesday.

Eight years ago exactly, on this very space, following the first election of Obama as US President, we had
said: With God, nothing is impossible! The Arabs have a saying: Iza aradal Lahu shaian, hayyaa
asbabahu (if God intends to do something, He causes the causes that would cause the something to
happen). Only God could have made what happened in America to happen. Analysts would give several
reasons why Donald Trump (as Obama did in 2008) won the elections but, ultimately, who caused all the
reasons to happen? None but God - He had intended what He intended and caused the causes that made it
come to pass, and compound all the pollsters! Exalted be His Name!

SEEMS WE ALL LOST: Not that I am happy. No! Far from it! Almost all people of good conscience are not
happy. In fact, this very newspaper (Daily Trust) has been defeated - after all we endorsed Hillary Clinton in
an Editorial a few days ago (although a good friend of this Column, Kawu Bala, rebuked us for poking our
noses in another countrys business, and punching above our weight).

YOUR EXCELLENCY MADAM PRESIDENT: Have you heard about a certain countrys leader who
was well-coached by his advisers on what to say when congratulating the President-Elect? Well, they forgot
to change the heading of his telephone address - so when he spoke to Trump he addressed him as Your
Excellency Madam President! Or the story of a certain famous internationally-syndicated columnist who
had written his column for last Wednesday entitled Madam President! The editor held the column until the
first few results were in. The columnist was so confident Hillary would win that he gave, in anger, the editor
a piece of his mind. The editor still held. Now the columnist has the editor to thank for ever.

AS BREXIT AS TRUMP: The loud liberal lobby in the US is on the streets, protesting against the election.
Alas! Unless something happens from, yes, God, nothing can change the fate of the US for the next four
years. They have Trump to contend with. We shouldnt forget so soon that British politicians were similarly
so confident and smug that the electorate would vote to keep the country within the European Union. In the
event, the silent majority - mostly around rural England - voted to leave, and won. The Scottish and the loud
Londoners protested - too late, the deed had been done! The Brexit vote cost the Prime Minister his job.

BLAME THE ABSENTEE VOTERS: Only about 54% of registered US voters came out to vote. What
happened to the other 46%? They were probably so over-confident in the polls (unlikely Trump would
win) that they stayed home. To be fair, in most elections globally, only about half of potential voters, or
less, turn out to vote. But in an enlightened country such as the US, with the potential fear that a divisive
figure such as Trump could win, it says a lot about individual human decisions. Polls naturally can never
predict silent voters. The undecided who refused to be polled, who kept their opinions to themselves,
ultimately decided the vote for everyone else. And usually, those types of voters would almost certainly
come out to vote. Meanwhile, the loud minority would be busy pre-celebrating a phantom win. Like Brexit!

BROKEN SYSTEM THREW UP TRUMP: Like all things human, Western style democracy is faulty. And I
never pretended to like it. In several pieces on this page, we lamented how this system of governance,
though better than dictatorship (except benevolent dictatorship) deliberately keeps off potentially good
people from political leadership because they did not have money, or they had no influence, or they did not
belong to a political party. We had railed and wailed that one day such a system could throw up an
undesirable element; a recent WhatsApp message making the cyberspace rounds exactly sums up this
feeling - said to be a quote from a certain H. L. Mencken in The Baltimore Evening Sun of June 26, 1920,
it says: On some great and glorious day, the plain folks of the land will reach their hearts desire at last,
and the White House will be occupied by a downright fool and a complete narcissistic moron. Prescient!

CHINESE SYSTEM APPROXIMATES ISLAM: I believe, totally and absolutely, that Islam is a system that
has ever-ready solutions for religion, culture, politics, economics, society, et al. The political succession
method of Islam was perfected by Second Caliph Umar (may Allah be pleased with him). He had selected an
Electoral College of the best the community could offer, and tasked them to select the best from among
them. In this Columns opinion, the Chinese system approximates that. At the time Americans were voting
for a second-term Obama, the Communist Party of China (CPC) was holding its 18th Congress to usher in a
ten-yearly political transition; then President Hu Jintao handed over to current President Xi Jinping, who is
now also grooming his successors. CPC delegates, all 2,000 of them (call them an Electoral College) met in
Beijing for two weeks in a once-in-five-years Congress to usher in a fifth generation of leaders. In 2017, the
delegates will converge again in a non-elective Congress, and convene again in 2022 for another transition.
This writer would rather have the rule of the best (as in China), and not the rule of the most eloquent (or
the most garrulous, or the richest, as in the United States).

SO BACK TO TRUMP: A Hillary Clinton Presidency would just have smoothly continued with the
Obama/Democratic Party agenda; probably no one would have noticed any difference. But with this
earthquake of an election, there are just so many questions - starting with me, Muslim, Black, African,
Nigerian, what do I think Trump would think of me? The honest answer: Nothing, Zero, Zilch! Other
questions: The Republican Establishment. The Washington Establishment. The US Economy (and Especially
the Tax System Which He Didnt Like, and Didnt Pay Into). The Great Wall of Mexico. The Muslims-
Stay-Out Plan. The Middle East of ISIS and Palestine. The Putative Putin of Russia.

AND NOW THE EPILOGUE: Friday morning, on BBC World, a newscaster said he spoke to a CEO of a
top firm in City of Londons financial district who confided in him that he had spoken to Trump seven
months ago and Trump had confided in the CEO, amidst laughter, that he, Trump, surprised himself by
coming so far in the primaries! Donald The Unready?

ALSO DURING THE WEEK: May the soul of military hero Lt. Col. Mohammed Abu-Ali and his
colleagues rest in peace. Most touched by the picture, on the front page of Daily Trust Tuesday showing the
heros widow holding ever so tightly to her daughter, hiding her tremendous grief behind the little girl; Also,
we thank Allah for the safe return of one of ours - Muhammad Lawal Maidoki - who was in the kidnappers
den for almost a week; Also, two very important academic conferences took place in Kano - Islam,
Muslims and the Fight Against Corruption in Nigeria by Islamic Welfare Foundation, Ilorin and
International Institute of Islamic Thought at Bayero University; and The Dynamics of Democratic Practice
in Nigeria 1999-2015 by Mambayya House Aminu Kano Centre for Democratic Research and Training,
also of Bayero University. We hope to discuss resolutions from these important meetings in later columns, in
sha Allah.

Read more at http://www.dailytrust.com.ng/news/saturday-column/trump-only-god-knows-


tomorrow/171345.html#jLpRLfKXqKgS7omk.99

Exile, jail, death or concession


By Mahmud Jega | Publish Date: Dec 5 2016 2:00AM
More than was the case with President Goodluck Jonathan last year, all Africa was surprised when President
Yahya Jammeh conceded to his opponent Adama Barrow in last weeks Gambian presidential election. Some
Nigerians were quick to say that it was the Goodluck Effect, a replay of Jonathans concession even before
results were officially declared in Nigerias 2015 presidential elections. Jammehs concession was doubly
surprising because it bucked an emerging world trend. Most pundits think that if Donald Trump had lost last
months US presidential election, he would have upturned his countrys two centuries-old tradition by
refusing to concede. Trump said he will accept the results only if he wins. He must have borrowed that
maxim from African rulers.

African witchdoctors and prophets are hard pressed to explain why Africas top marabout ruler lost an
election. In conceding, Jammeh was thinking not only of Nigeria but of similar events in neighbouring
Senegal. In 2012 President Abdoulaye Wade conceded an election to the current president Macky Sall.
Wade himself sold it as he bought it, to use a local adage; President Abdou Diof conceded to him in 2000AD
after Wade, like Muhammadu Buhari, contested and lost three presidential elections before he won on his
fourth try.

Nor was that the first African change of guard through elections. In 1991 Zambias redoubtable President
Kenneth Kaunda, who had ruled his country since 1964, conceded the election to former trade union leader
Frederick Chiluba. Three years later President Hastings Kamuzu Banda of Malawi was defeated in an
election and he shocked all Africans by moving out of the State House. Let me rephrase that: he was moved
out of the State House. Observers at the time said Banda, who was 96, did not even know that an election
had taken place or that he lost it. He had no wife but he had an Official Hostess, Cecilia Kadzamira, who did
the packing after 30 years stay in power.

Banda wasnt the first African ruler to leave power without knowing it. In 1987 when Zin Abdine Ibn Ali
toppled Tunisias equally redoubtable President Habib Bourguiba, the 84 year old Bourguiba did not even
know it. He had been in power for 31 years and he used to sleep for 15 hours a day. Even Nigerias
celebrated concession case only borrowed a leaf from our neighbour, Benins Mathieu Kerekou. In the wake
of the wind of change that swept Francophone Africa in 1991, Kerekou lost an election and conceded to
Nicephore Soglo. Kerekou bounced back through an election five years later, allegedly with financial help
from General Sani Abacha.
Many Nigerian youngsters were rubbing their eyes in disbelief when they read that Jammeh has ruled
Gambia for 22 years. To my generation, that is but a short stay. When Lt. Yahaya Jammeh seized power in
1994, a Nigerian military contingent led by Lt Col Lawan Gwadabe was based in Gambia. Some people
accused it of aiding Jammeh to remove President Dauda Jawara, which was uncharitable because Jawara
was an old friend of Nigerias First Republic leaders. I was listening to a BBC radio phone-in program in
1996 when ECOWAS was demanding the return to power of Sierra Leones toppled President Ahmed Tejan
Kabbah. One anti-Kabbah listener phoned to ask why ECOWAS was not demanding the return of Jawara.
Kabbahs Ambassador to the UN, who was on the program, said, You see, Jawara was in power for 33
years. It is difficult for anyone to ask for his return.

Without being defeated in elections, there were some African leaders who left power peacefully, though they
were few. The best example was Nelson Mandela, who pledged when he was elected as South Africas first
post-Apartheid president in 1994 to serve only one term. The saintly man did not contest again in 1999.
Mandelas world acclaimed example tended to overshadow one from an earlier era. In 1983 Mwalimu Julius
Nyerere served his ruling Chama Cha Mapinduzi party with a two year notice that he will retire from the
Tanzanian presidency in 1985. The entire CCM Central Committee led by his deputy Ali Hassan Mwinyi
went to Mwalimus house and pleaded with him not to retire. Nyerere drove them away and ordered them to
nominate a successor. They then chose Ali Hassan Mwinyi. Tanzania is still reaping stability from that
saintly example.

In our neighbour Cameroon, there was also a semi-voluntary retirement, though things quickly went sour. In
1982 President Ahmadou Ahidjo, who had ruled for 22 years, stepped down on health grounds. He handed
over to his prime minister Paul Biya who promptly turned around, passed a death sentence on Ahidjo and
has been ruling Cameroon ever since. Biyas 34 years in power could be Africas longest after Muammar
Gaddafis 42 years. The sorry Ahidjo-Biya case reversed an early positive trend in African politics and made
other African rulers wary of handing over, even to their trusted confidants.

The norm in Africa since independence is for a ruler to go on ruling until he meets a sticky end. The luckiest
were those that fled into exile. In 1979 Ugandas Field Marshal Idi Amin Dada fled to Libya and later Saudi
Arabia just ahead of a rebel army. Ugandas President Milton Obote fled twice, in 1972 and in 1985, ahead
of coupists. Sudans President Gafar El-Numeiry fled to Egypt in 1985 when General Swar al Dahabs men
struck. Ethiopias Mengistu Haile Mariam fled to Zimbabwe when rebels swept down on Addis Ababa in
1991. Zaires Mobutu Sese Seko fled to Morocco [Sssh! The Moroccan King is here!] and later to the French
Riviera in 1997 when rebels marched into Kinshasa. Of three of our Chadian neighbours, General Felix
Malloum fled to Lagos in 1978; Goukouni Weddeye ran to Libya in 1981 while Hissene Habre fled to
Senegal in 1991.

Other African rulers were not so lucky. Many were captured by rebels, tortured and imprisoned. One was
Nigerias dear friend President Diori Hammani of Niger Republic, who was imprisoned by Lt Col Seyni
Kountche from 1974 almost until his death in 1989. Another was David Dacko of Central African Republic,
who was deposed twice in 1966 and 1981. In Egypt, former President Hosni Mubarak and the man who
briefly succeeded him, Mohammed Morsi, are both in jail right now.

Exile and imprisonment may sound sticky but things could get even worse. Many African rulers were killed
in the process of overthrow, among them Prime Minister Abubakar Tafawa Balewa in January 1966, Major
General J.T.U. Aguiyi-Ironsi in July 1966 and General Murtala Mohammed in February 1976. Also killed in
coups or soon after were Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba of Congo in 1961; President Sylvanus Olympio
of Togo in 1963; President Ngarta Tombalbaye of Chad in 1975; Congo Republics Marien Ngouabi in 1977;
Comoros President Ali Soilih in 1978 and Niger Republics President Mainasara Baare in 1999. This is just
a sample.

Three bloody overthrows stand out in recent African history. Even though Ethiopias Emperor Haile
Sellassie was captured and detained when the Dergue toppled him in 1974, sixty of his ministers and Army
Generals were executed on the night of the coup. Another one was in Ghana in 1979 when Flight Lt Jerry
Rawlings had three former rulers, General Akwasi Afrifa, General Ignatius Kutu Acheampong and General
Fred Akuffo tied to stakes on Accra beach and executed. The third ignoble case was in Monrovia, Liberia in
1980. After soldiers led by Master Sergeant Samuel Doe killed President William Tolbert, they lined up his
ministers on the beach and shot them. Does own execution by Yormie Johnson in 1990 was no less brutal.

Congratulations, Malam Yahya Jammeh. Hillary Clinton said recently that conceding an election is
painful. Compared to exile, jail or execution however, it is very sweet.

Read more at http://www.dailytrust.com.ng/news/columns/exile-jail-death-or-


concession/174504.html#zqryI7uj8syKWiP6.99

E. Coli Infection From Food or Water - Topic


Overview
What is an E. coli infection?
E. coli (Escherichia coli) is the name of a germ, or bacterium, that lives in the digestive tracts of humans and
animals.

There are many types of E. coli, and most of them are harmless. But some can cause bloody diarrhea. Some
strains of E. coli bacteria may also cause severe anemia or kidney failure, which can lead to death.

Other strains of E. coli can cause urinary tract infections or other infections.

What causes an E. coli intestinal infection?


You get an E. coli infection by coming into contact with the feces, or stool, of humans or animals. This can
happen when you drink water or eat food that has been contaminated by feces.

E. coli in food
E. coli can get into meat during processing. If the infected meat is not cooked to 160F (71C), the bacteria
can survive and infect you when you eat the meat. This is the most common way people in the United States
become infected with E. coli. Any food that has been in contact with raw meat can also become infected.

Other foods that can be infected with E. coli include:

Raw milk or dairy products. Bacteria can spread from a cow's udders to its milk. Check the labels on
dairy products to make sure they contain the word "pasteurized." This means the food has been
heated to destroy bacteria.

Raw fruits and vegetables, such as lettuce, alfalfa sprouts, or unpasteurized apple cider or other
unpasteurized juices that have come in contact with infected animal feces.

E. coli in water
Human or animal feces infected with E. coli sometimes get into lakes, pools, and water supplies. People can
become infected when a contaminated city or town water supply has not been properly treated with chlorine
or when people accidentally swallow contaminated water while swimming in a lake, pool, or irrigation
canal.
E. coli from person-to-person contact
The bacteria can also spread from one person to another, usually when an infected person does not wash his
or her hands well after a bowel movement. E. coli can spread from an infected person's hands to other
people or to objects.

Knee and Hip Exercises for Osteoarthritis


By Gina Shaw
From the WebMD Archives

The old slogan, Move it or lose it, applies especially to people with osteoarthritis.

Just like for anyone else, physical activity is important for overall health, says Steffany Haaz, PhD, a
health behaviorist at the Johns Hopkins Arthritis Center. But its even more important for people with
arthritis, because theres disability associated with the condition, both the disability associated with the
disease and the disability that happens when a joint doesnt get exercised. First, you move less because its
painful, then you start to lose the ability to move. It can become a vicious cycle.

Years ago, arthritis was treated with rest and immobilization. Scientists have since learned that locking up
the joints actually makes them worse.

Theres a huge body of literature demonstrating that keeping the hips and knees moving, and the muscles
around the joints strong, contributes greatly to protecting the joints and staving off additional damage caused
by arthritis, says Linda Arslanian, DPT, MS, director of rehabilitation services at the Brigham and Womens
Hospital in Boston.

Of course, its not as simple as hopping on the treadmill or hitting the weight room. A healthy 30-year-old
might be able to exercise however he pleases, but people with knee and hip osteoarthritis have limitations.
Which exercises can you do to make the most of your mobility without increasing pain or risking injury?

Thats the trick, says Arslanian. Some exercises actually can make knee and hip arthritis worse. Those are
the ones that create a huge amount of impact loading on the joints -- the ones we call high impact
activities, she says.

Exercises to Avoid With OA of the Knee or Hip:


Running and jogging

Jumping rope

High-impact aerobics

Any activity where, at any time, you have both feet off the ground at once, however briefly

Fortunately, that leaves a lot of activities that are OK for people with knee and hip osteoarthritis and that can
help keep you mobile. There are three key areas you need to focus on: weight-bearing cardiovascular
activity, to keep your bones strong and your heart healthy; muscle strengthening activity, to relieve strain on
the joints; and flexibility and range of motion, to help prevent falls and keep your joints mobile.

Cardiovascular Exercise
Good cardiovascular exercises for people with knee and hip osteoarthritis include walking, swimming, and
cycling. Really, its anything that you can tolerate that gets your heart rate going, says Haaz.

If you can take a brisk walk, it can keep you mobile and help to reduce pain. If walking for exercise is too
painful, try a recumbent bicycle. These bikes extend the angle of the joint so that the knee and hip arent
flexing so much with each rotation, so that it might cause less strain and pain, Haaz says.

If even the recumbent bike is too much, the swimming pool is your friend. It feels great on the joints!
Haaz says. You must find a pool that is heated, because cold water is very painful for arthritic joints. The
only downside to swimming is that it doesnt give you the delay of bone loss that is a key benefit of weight-
bearing exercise.

Muscle-Strengthening Activity
You might think that lifting weights would be bad for arthritis, but some studies show that the opposite is
true. By strengthening the muscles around the joints, strength training helps to take some of the load off the
arthritic joints and relieves pain.

slideshow

Understanding Rheumatoid Arthritis


start

The job of connective tissue is to hold things together, so youre losing stability in the joint, part of whats
causing the pain. When you strengthen the muscles surrounding and supporting the joint, you can relieve
some of the symptoms, says Haaz.

Recent studies have found that most people with osteoarthritis of the knee who took part in strength and
resistance training report a decrease in pain and disability and an increase in mobility.

Strength training also lessens the risk of falls, which can be a major risk for people with knee and hip
osteoarthritis. A recent study found that a group of women ages 75 to 80 showed a 47% to 57% reduction in
fall-risk scores with simple strength and balance training.

You can also help to prevent falls through the gentle, easy motions of exercises like tai chi and easier yoga
classes designed for people with arthritis, which will further improve your balance.

Flexibility and Range of Motion


There are a number of specific exercises that you can do, designed to be easy for people with osteoarthritis,
to increase your flexibility and range of motion around your knees and hips.

We want to do activities without force that bring the hips and knees through the full range of motion in a
general, unforced manner, allowing the joint to lubricate itself and help to heal the damage, says Arslanian.
You can do these stretching exercises in a pool, or on a mat near a wall for support.

Before starting an exercise or flexibility training program, check with your doctor. Depending on your
ability and comfort level, try these exercises 2 to 3 times per week and gradually work up to doing the
exercises daily. Aim to do 2 to 3 sets of 8 repetitions per side.

slideshow

Tips to Keep Joints Healthy


start

Hip Exercises
Leg swings. Simply hold onto the edge of the pool, or the wall if youre on land, and gently swing
your leg out to the side, alternating sides. The pool is particularly good for this, because the
buoyancy assists you and you get a better range of motion, and you also have resistance from the
water that makes your muscles do more work, says Arslanian.

Leg extensions. In the same position, extend your leg gently backward, alternating legs. As with all
range-of-motion exercises, Arslanian advises getting an expert consult before starting out. If your
hip is very tight, and you try to bring it behind you and it doesnt move backward very well, you can
end up overarching your back and causing back problems by doing it incorrectly. You need to be
shown how to do it right.

Knee Exercises
Knee rocks. Get down on one knee as if youre proposing marriage (with a soft mat underneath to
cushion your knees). Rock gently forward, keeping your shoulders straight. This stretches the front
of the knee while protecting the lumbar spine. Make sure your knee does not extend past your toes as
this can strain the knee.

Straight leg raises. Sit in a chair, straighten one leg, and raise it straight out in front of you.
Alternate legs.
Leg curls. If you are nimble enough, lie on the floor on your stomach, and gently bend your heel
back toward your buttocks, making sure to keep your hips on the ground.

All of these exercises should be done without weights, Arslanian advises. In general, its not a good idea to
put a weight on the ankle and bend and straighten the knee. That puts a lot of torque on the knee that can
exacerbate arthritis.'' If you want to add weight, use a leg press machine, she says.

Healthy Eating for Knee Osteoarthritis


When you make a plan to tackle your knee osteoarthritis (OA), don't overlook the power of food. There's no
specific diet that treats your problem, but you can get some big health benefits if you eat smart. You'll keep
your weight under control, build strong cartilage, and cut some inflammation.

You don't have to make a major overhaul to your diet. Follow these simple steps to keep your joints happy.

1. Cut Extra Calories

Your knees will feel better if you keep your waistline trim. When you drop those extra pounds, you'll put
less stress on your joints. A good way to lower your calorie count: Take smaller portions, avoid sugary foods
and drinks, and eat mostly plant-based foods.

2. Eat More Fruits and Veggies

Feel free to eat plenty of these. Many are loaded with antioxidants -- substances that can help protect your
cells from damage.

Some antioxidants, found in fruits and veggies like apples, onions, shallots, and strawberries, may also help
reduce joint inflammation and pain.

3. Add Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Omega-3s may help relieve your joint pain and decrease morning stiffness. They work by reducing
inflammation in your body.

One easy way to add them to your diet is to eat two 3-ounce servings of fatty fish each week. Some of the
best sources of omega-3s are trout, salmon, mackerel, herring, tuna, and sardines.

4. Use Olive Oil in Place of Other Fats

One study shows that a compound in olive oil, called oleocanthal, helps prevent inflammation. It works in
much the same way that NSAIDs do. Olive oils with the strongest flavor have the highest amount.

About 3 1/2 tablespoons of olive oil offers the same relief as 200 milligrams of ibuprofen. But that much oil
also gives you about 400 calories.

To add olive oil to your diet without extra calories, use it in place of other fats, such as butter.

5. Get Enough Vitamin C

A key element for joint health, vitamin C helps build collagen and connective tissue. A lot of tasty foods can
give you this nutrient. Try citrus fruits, red peppers, strawberries, broccoli, cabbage, and kale. Aim for the
recommended amount of 75 milligrams a day for women or 90 milligrams a day for men.

6. Watch High Cooking Temperatures


Meat cooked at high temperatures makes compounds that can cause inflammation in your body. They're
called advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and they're linked to diseases such as arthritis, heart
disease, and diabetes.

You can reduce your levels of AGEs if you cut back on grilled, fried, broiled, and microwaved meats. Its
also helpful to limit processed foods, as they are often cooked at high temperatures.

Everything about Christianity is a joke! -


Facebook user
Author: Adams Odunayo

Updated: 8 hours ago

Views: 218393

Tweet it! Share on Facebook Send via email

A Facebook user, Governor Imam Sunmola Olayemi, has made of 'mockery' of the belief in Christendom.
According to him, everything about Christianity is a joke. He analysed his words by exemplifying how Jesus
came about into the world and how He is the Father and son in himself.

Facebook user Sunmola Olayemi says Christianity is a joke

According to this Facebook user, this is all gibberish and total nonsense because he cannot fathom how a
God will allow himself to be killed by the human He created all in the guise of dying for the salvation of all.
He also went on to note that every human is a slave of God and that no one is a son of God like the
Christians claim. He used some verses of the Holy Bible and Quran to however back up his claims.
PAY ATTENTION: Get all the latest gossips on NAIJ Gossip App

Read the controversial post below:

If the educated Christians thinks with perfect sense I believe they will reject Christianity. Christians take
Christianity as joke because everything about Christianity is a Joke.

For example:

1: God became a man

2: God created Adam without Father and

Mother but created himself with a Mother

3: God was in the Womb for 9 month and came

out of woman private part

4: God was circumcised

5: God was killed by human being he created

6: God became accursed just to forgive Sins

7: God sacrifice his own blood to himself

8: God had a Son which the Son is the same

God while God is Father and Son of himself

9: God was buried for 3 days and raised by

another God

10: God was lost for 3 days at age of 12 aaahaaa,

All this is Nonsense and a big JOKE. No person with common sense would believe this

Nonsense. Christianity is a Joke and I don't really blame Christians that take it as JOKE because they never
found in the BIBLE where Jesus said I brought Christianity or where Jesus called his followers Christians
and they cannot even find the Word Bible inside the Bible itself.

Christianity is a Joke.

"Truth (ISLAM) has come and falsehood has vanished, Surely falsehood is ever bound to vanish" (Alqur'an
17:81) WE ARE ALL SLAVES OF GOD NOBODY IS SON, ROMAN 6:20-22

"20For when you were slaves of sin, you were free in regard to righteousness.

21 Therefore what benefit were you then deriving from the things of which you are now ashamed? For the
outcome of those things is death.
22 But now having been freed from sin and enslaved to God, you derive your benefit, resulting in
sanctification, and the outcome, eternal life. WHY DO CHRISTIENS CALL THEMSELVES "SON OF
GOD", WHILE THEY ARE GLARINGLY "SLAVE OF CHRIST"???? 1 Corinthians 7:22

"Parallel Verses New International Version

"For the one who was a slave when called to faith in the Lord is the Lord's freed person; similarly, the one
who was free when called is Christ's slave."

Quit whining, no body owes you anything, Fayemi tells Nigerian youths
On January 24, 20171:46 amIn For the record, NewsComments

The Minister of Mines and Steel Development, Dr. Kayode Fayemi, has urged Nigerian youths to quit
whining and that no body owe them anything. Fayemi made this known in a lecture titled The Successor-
Generation: Reflections on Values and Knowledge in Nation Building at the 2017 UNILAG Convocation
Lecture in Lagos, Monday. Fayemi: I am ready to defend my actions Fayemi who went on memory line told
the graduating students of his Alma Mater that as a UNILAG graduate and a post-graduate student in the
United Kingdom for him to survive he drove taxis and worked as a security guard, amongst several other
menial jobs. He said the last lesson I want to talk about is the debilitating entitlement mentality that is
commonplace among young people today. The earlier we realise that no one owes us anything, the better for
us, and the more prepared we would be to face lifes challenges. Dont think you are entitled to a job, just
because of your parents influence or what they have. Dont think things would be all rosy because you
graduated from UNILAG with good grades. Be prepared for surprises and disappointments because life is
bound to hand you a couple. The only guarantees you have in this life is what you do for yourself with the
grace God has bestowed on us all. We need to get off our high horses, quit whining and start doing for
ourselves and for our country. If something angers you so much, instead of whining, think hard about
possible solutions and do something about it. Doers have a way of finding each other out, and before you
know it, you are in good company with progressive minded people that exude positive energy comrades
with whom you can challenge the status quo, fight together, and succeed together. Some of the closest
friendships I have kept to this day are from my UNILAG days people I can actually trust to surmount
challenges and get things done. So also, complainers have a way of finding each other out, to indulge in very
depressing rhetoric about why things cant work and who is at fault. From their comfort zones they criticise
without offering any solutions and always end up frustrated run away from such people. Read text of his
lecture below Greatest Akokites! Greatest Akokites!! Greatest Akokites!!! Introduction It is with great pride
that I participate in the 2017 Convocation ceremony of my alma mater the University of Lagos
UNILAG. It is always fascinating to return to these scenic and historic grounds of learning, situated in one
of the most dynamic cities in the world. I am most grateful to the authorities for honouring me with this
hallowed platform to share a few thoughts with this set of graduating students in particular and the
university community at large as this years convocation lecturer. When the Vice Chancellor, Prof. Rahamon
A. Bello first notified me of my being selected to deliver the 2015/2016 convocation lecture, the first
thought that came to my mind was what would I say? Convocation lectures traditionally have a defined
structure. The university authorities usually invite an individual that has attained some measure of success in
life, to share his/her story, with the hope that the graduating students can learn a thing or two about what to
expect in the real world, as the larger society is often called. So I assume I am expected to speak about my
experiences in life, in the more than three decades since I graduated, with the hope that those whose turn it is
today can have an idea of what to expect out there. I am also supposed to dispense some hope about the
bright prospects that the future holds, and offer some useful advice that would guide them going forward.
Considering these expectations of the traditional convocation speech, I must apologise in advance if
peradventure I dont live up fully to this billing. This is because my presentation today would dwell more on
pointing you back to some of lifes key lessons that are available within a university, which are enough to
prepare you for life after graduation. Many years ago, I matriculated into this university, thrown into a whole
new universe, not knowing what to expect. As a nave and unassuming youth, all I came to UNILAG with
was eagerness to learn and zeal to explore. At graduation, I was undoubtedly a different person. This
institution provided the conditions for me to discover myself; find my voice; and hone my worldview and
core values. I must therefore start by expressing my gratitude to my lecturers in the Department of History in
the Faculty of Arts, who all contributed in no small measure to the man that I am today. I was blessed to
learn at the feet of some of the finest minds in the history of academia in Nigeria such as the late Prof. Ade
Adefuye, Prof. T.G.O. Gbadamosi, Prof. Anthony Asiwaju, Prof. G.O. Ogunremi, Late Prof. B.A. Agiri, Late
Dr. Nina Mba, Dr. Ram, Dr. Kehinde Faluyi, Dr. J.J. White, and Dr. Garvey. UNILAGs commitment to a
multi-disciplinary university education made it mandatory for me to take courses in other departments like
Political Science, English and Philosophy, towards fulfilling the requirements for the award of a degree. I
was therefore also privileged to have been taught by other legends such as Prof. Bolaji Akinyemi, Prof.
Alaba Ogunsanwo, Prof. Oye Oyediran, Prof. Remi Anifowose, Prof. Moyibi Amoda, and Prof. Derin
Ologbenla in the Department of Political Science. In the Department of Philosophy, I was tutored by Dr.
Sophie Oluwole, Dr. Ezekiel Ogundowole, Dr. C. S. Momoh and Dr. Omoregbe, while in the Department of
English, some of my lecturers were Prof. Theo Vincent, Late Prof. Biodun Adetugbo, Prof. Ebun Clark, Dr.
Funso Akere and the then freshly minted Dr. Karen King-Aribisala. All these great teachers lit the candle of
knowledge on my path, and laid in me the foundations of scholastic curiosity, intellectual acuity, and
passionate commitment to a life of service values that remain with me to this day. I have had cause to
maintain a close relationship with a good number of them, and I would forever be grateful for their impact
on me in those formative years in UNILAG. Like me, many thousands of people from across the country
and beyond have passed through this institution since it was established on Monday, October 22, 1962. A
university can never be said to have accomplished her mission, as it is meant to exist in perpetuity to be, in
the words of the President of Harvard University, stewards of an unbroken and endless chain of inquiry,
(Faust, 2012). As I have argued before, as the summit of higher education, the university as a community of
teachers and scholars, is the veritable instrument and institution of social transformation. The work of a
university is never done. The true value of a university represents the totality of our common humanity and
the possibilities of our collective progress as a community. Thus, through each and every one of us
associated with her, UNILAG continues to justify her perpetual existence. Her positive impact can be felt in
every sphere of human endeavour across the world, and all Akokites past and present guided by our
motto In Deed and In Truth continue to ensure UNILAG lives up to this idea and ideal of a university.
The Role of Educational Institutions in National Development The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines
Alma Mater as a school, college, or university which one has attended, or from which one has graduated.
The etymology of the word is from the Latin language, and literally means, nourishing mother. This
explains our deep emotional connections to the institutions we have attended just like the love a child has
for his/her mother. Correspondingly, this gives us insight into the crucial role of educational institutions in
grooming the next generation of leaders and citizens in every society just as a mother raises her children.
Therefore, in thinking of the university as a person, a possible definition of the soul of a university would be
nothing geographically or temporally fixed, but the mark left on the alumnus mind, which stays with them
all their lives (Deboick, 2010). Permit me Mr. Vice Chancellor sir, to point out to the graduating students, as
some may know already, that the certificate they would receive in the course of the convocation
proceedings, and which bears your signature, is being awarded to them for fulfilling the requirements in
Character and Learning. Think about it for a moment that is the burden the VC bears. By putting his
imprimatur on a certificate, he acts on behalf of the entire university community and indeed the whole
educated world, to confirm that the bearer has been sufficiently imbued with requisite knowledge and
values, to demonstrate a degree of functional citizenship in society. Obtaining a higher degree simply means
there is a higher degree of intellectual capacity and moral uprightness expected of you. A convocation
ceremony such as this therefore, is for the purpose of heralding to the world, that a new set of individuals
have been processed through the crucibles of a university education, and have been found worthy of being
counted amongst the number of those possessing a university degree. In 1862, during the first convocation
ceremony of the University of Bombay (now University of Mumbai, one of the three oldest universities in
India), the Chancellor of the University, in his inaugural Convocation address, urged the students to
recollect that you are no longer pupils of any single school, but graduates of a University. Therefore, he
added, Your standards must henceforth be [that] of the whole educated world. That is the clarity about
the role of universities, and the place of university graduates in the society that we should have. That is the
justification for the huge expectations we place on graduates, and why there is usually an expression of
frustration when young graduates fail to meet up to these standards. That is the understanding of the purpose
of higher institutions that disavows all conceptions of the ivory tower as a place wholly removed from the
socio-economic and political realities in which the students will eventually enter. Part of the crisis of our
education sector, and higher education in particular, has been the apparent irrelevance of curricula to life
experience; and the gulf between the classroom and the society. Universities are designed to be the breeding
grounds for societys elites and are supposed to be sites of knowledge production where solutions to the
challenges of development are produced. Implicit in this definition of higher institutions is the notion that
theatres of higher learning are places where scholars and students reflect upon the peculiar problems of their
milieu. Each environment throws up a host of unique challenges. True scholarship eschews abstraction and
wholeheartedly commits to tackling the particular challenges faced by a society at a given time. It is
therefore not misplaced for society to look to our universities to produce successive generations of elites that
can fix our country, and help us achieve our strategic national development priorities. As I have asserted
elsewhere, one of our urgent imperatives, and the starting point for transformation, is the need to redefine
elitism. What does it mean to be elite? In contemporary parlance, the term elite is often used pejoratively
and deployed as though it is synonymous with capitalist fat cats or a class of oppressive rich. Being elite in
Nigeria is wrongly measured in terms of raw wealth and conspicuous consumption. In its classical usage, the
term elite refers to the enlightened segment of society. The terms elite and enlightened share the same
etymological origins. Thus, elitism is actually defined by the reverence for knowledge, the acuity of intellect
and the depth of reason. The elite are the learned class, that segment of society that devotes themselves to
the pursuit of knowledge and wisdom. It only then follows that any societys elite should by default be the
societys problem-solvers. With the foregoing in mind, we can see that higher institutions such as UNILAG
have a special role to play in nurturing a new generation of elites in our country, who will confront our
developmental challenges squarely with new ways and means. It is my hope and prayer that your generation
of elites will be different; distinguished by a social consciousness that imbues you with a profound sense of
responsibility to the larger society and an acknowledgement that personal success is of little consequence if
it does not contribute to the overall well-being of our society and humanity at large. As far back as the
independence epoch of our great country, our founding fathers held that intellectual emancipation was one of
the pillars of sustainable national liberation. The patriarchs made the achievement of freedom from
ignorance through universal education an urgent national priority during their time. As late Chief Obafemi
Awolowo said, In normal circumstances, the greatest guarantee of the liberty of the citizen is an educated
and enlightened society. The same holds true today. Functional Education is absolutely vital to our
economic, social and political progress. Retooling the University for National Development Universities,
like the people within them, must embrace change, re-imagine possibilities, and revitalize continuously
(Faust, 2012). In contemplating the challenges of leadership and development in Nigeria therefore, we have
to critically reappraise our educational institutions and make necessary interventions to ensure they not only
have adequate funding, world class physical structures, and functional teaching equipment, but also the right
social environment that supports the education of the total man. In the words of late Chief Obafemi
Awolowo, Whether we are conscious of or acknowledge it or not, the fact remains stubborn and
indestructible that poverty, disease, social unrest, and instability, and all kinds of international conflicts, have
their origins in the minds of men It is only when the minds of men have been properly and rigorously
cultivated and garnished, that they can be safely entrusted with public affairs with a certainty and
assuredness that they will make the best of their unique opportunity and assignment (Awolowo, 1967). As I
said earlier, I would be highlighting certain life lessons that must be learnt in the university environment that
promotes the inculcation of progressive values, and the development of sound character in young people. If
we are to improve the quality of our countrys human capital and invariably have better national
development outcomes, we have to pay attention to the factory that produces the most important segment of
our work force that we expect to drive development in every sector, and which is the crop from which our
future leaders would arise. These crucial lessons are present in the ideal university setting, and some of you
have done well to imbibe them. Some others have ignored them in pursuit of more important matters, and
are thus deficient in some of them. The misplaced emphasis on certificates that is to say the sole
concentration on obtaining a certificate as the end result of your 4/5/6 years of study here, has stopped some
of you from imbibing critical life skills that ought to have been learnt concurrently with your academic
studies. Year-in, year-out, thousands of young people graduate from our universities. Many of them end up
swelling the ranks of unemployed or underemployed people, leading to a massive youth unemployment
crisis that has calcified over the years, with grave socio-economic portents for the future. How are our
universities addressing this and other strategic national priorities? Are we paying enough attention by
ensuring our graduates are well equipped to respond to this and other challenges of our time? We also have
the tragedy of academically sound graduates that have no fibre of ethical awareness, locus of control, or
moral judgment in their beings. These ones are cannon fodder launched into the larger society to complicate
already existing socio-economic malaises disasters waiting to happen. My thesis is that knowledge alone is
not enough; neither is character by itself sufficient. A fit and proper UNILAG graduate is one that has
successfully straddled the obligations of being found worthy in both Character and Learning. I would now
be sharing with you from my own personal experiences, six key lessons and life skills that UNILAG taught
me, which I would be commending to you. Knowledge is Power Learn How to Learn The university offers
the opportunity for serious minded young people to acquire knowledge. The centrality of academics to
university life is such that, your ability to prove that you have learnt what you ought to, in accordance with
the curriculum, is the singular criterion for progression from level to level till you graduate. However, some
people mistake passing exams for acquiring knowledge they are two different things. As a student, you
have to learn how to learn. That is, you have to learn the principles behind actually acquiring knowledge.
When you receive information via lectures, books e.t.c., the first impulse should not be to commit it to
memory for the purpose of dumping on exam day, or to go on social media to display your familiarity with
certain subjects. You should meditate on new information and study more deeply and widely, allowing it to
truly illuminate your mind that is what new information is supposed to do after it has been thoroughly
processed. Sometimes, new information dislodges dated ones in your mind, at other times; it reinforces what
you already know, and gives you greater depth of perspective one thing it never does is to leave you the
same. As futurist and philosopher Alvin Toffler once wrote: The illiterate of the 21st century will not be
those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn. So, you have to decide,
do you want to merely pass exams or do you want to truly acquire knowledge and prove this by passing
exams? This generation is one that is increasingly characterized by quick fixes in every area of life. We see it
on social media every day, where oftentimes the most influential and most vocal, are those with the quickest
fingers to type out bunkum. There would come a time you wouldnt be required to write an exam again, for
some of you, that time has come already as you may have decided not to earn another degree after this. Does
that mean you would stop learning? Consider your attitude to the acquisition of knowledge. How many of
you ever attended a lecture in a different faculty, just for the purpose of learning something new? How many
of you ever read beyond the reading list that you were served? How many of you ever attended an inaugural
lecture or any other public lecture for that matter in the course of your time in UNILAG? It breaks my heart
to attend some of these academic events right inside a university, and the hall is half empty, simply because
there is no credit to be awarded for attendance. Ill tell you a personal secret. By Gods grace I have held
public office for the most of the past six years. Consequently, I have many people trying to reach me for one
thing or the other. Those that find it easiest to get my attention are not those that come to me with notes from
influential people, or those that can breach protocol and get to see me they are people that are smart
enough to write out what exactly they want; what advice they have for me; or what input they want to make;
and send to me by letter, email or text. In all my years in office, I have treated all my letters and files
personally and similarly attended to all my emails myself, in order to ensure serious minded people have
access to me. I have also retained the same phone number for over a decade. There is a light that shines
through when an educated mind writes to you, as deep calls to deep, and I am quick to single out such letters
and messages for attention. In the days to come, many of you would have elevator pitches, where you have
few unscheduled moments to intelligently engage an important person. How prepared are you for such
opportunities? I encourage you today to commit to a lifelong attitude of learning. Read more and speak less.
Stop hustling to get attention and let your mind set you apart from the rest of the noisy pack. Go beyond the
narrow confines of disciplinary specialization, and adopt a multidisciplinary approach to learning, in order to
be grounded in vast areas of human endeavors. Discipline Master Yourself Without discipline, knowledge
is useless. In the world today, with the advancements in civil liberties, democratisation and freedom of
speech, we operate in a freer world with increasingly less constraints placed on individual conduct. Now,
anyone can do almost anything, at anytime. The impetus is therefore on discerning individuals to self-
regulate and be disciplined enough to do what is right, and at the right time, if they want to be successful.
The university offers the opportunity for you to learn self-discipline which is very important for productive
living. When you first enter into the university, you were enthralled by the new found freedom, because
many of you were leaving home for the very first time. You soon discovered that this freedom actually
comes with a greater responsibility. The academic environment promotes the development of crucial work
ethics needed later in life. In the university, you have set targets that you must deliver in defined formats and
before strict deadlines. Nobody would babysit you to know how you would deliver, nor would anybody
celebrate your efforts or listen to your excuses, you are simply required to deliver results. Many young
people these days lack self-discipline and are given to blaming everybody but themselves for why things
dont work. Some people simply talk too much; others eat too much; while others sleep too much. At
graduation from the university, you ought to have learnt how to moderate your impulses, and how to manage
your time, money and other resources for greater efficiency, effectiveness and productivity. You now
understand why that lecturer you hated so much always walked late comers out of their classes he was
only trying to teach you to respect time. There is nothing African about arriving late for engagements, it
simply shows you are not honourable, and honour is central to who we are as Africans. In our daily lives, we
waste so much valuable time and resources because some people simply lack self-discipline. Discipline is
the very basis of human progress. Without it nothing can be made or properly maintained. Indiscipline
causes all sorts of harms. The temporary pleasure it gives is not the genuine pleasure of freedom (Roy,
2015). Self-discipline and self-mastery are very important life skills you must develop if you would be taken
seriously and given opportunities to advance your interests in an increasingly competitive world.
Adaptability Be Flexible and Dynamic The university environment is a universe of itself. It offers the
unique opportunity to interact with different people from different parts of the world people of different
cultures, faiths, political persuasions and material circumstances. University students are not only expected
to learn with others, but also learn from them. A great mistake any student can make is to become so
hermitic in the pursuit of excellent grades that he/she fails to robustly interact with other students and learn
from them. I am always thrilled by the testimonials of first class graduates of UNILAG, who demonstrate
that it is possible to be academically proficient and also socially well adjusted. The reason for this is that you
never know what life would bring your way, and you always have to be in a position to adapt to whatever
circumstances you find yourself in. In the world today, your adaptability quotient is just as important as your
intelligence quotient and emotional intelligence. Some people are just so stuck in their ways, and cannot see
beyond the restrictive boundaries of their academic disciplines and socio-cultural backgrounds. It was
Nelson Mandela that said I was not a messiah, but an ordinary man who had become a leader because of
extraordinary circumstances. It was his ability to adjust and rise to the challenges of his time that thrust
greatness upon him. How many of you ever went for excursions during the course of your university
education? What do you know about other tribes and cultures? Do you have friends from any other
department asides yours? Are your only friends the ones who speak the same language and practice the same
religion as you? Geographic mobility and the ability to adjust in new environments is a major factor in
recruitment considerations and career advancement these days. Some of you that studied Biochemistry
might find yourselves working in banks. Some lawyers might find themselves in consulting. Some of the
Engineering graduates here today might find themselves in advertising, while some doctors might find
themselves in tourism management. I studied history and currently find myself in Mining. Dont ever stay
idle waiting for the ideal job, do whatever your hands find to do, adapt and excel at it. As important as raw
intelligence and personality traits are, now more than ever, being able to adapt to change will profoundly
determine your ability to survive in the current job market or get re-employed if you are in a transitional
period. (Parkin, 2010). Truly Live and Follow Your Passion For many of us, coming into the university
was the first time we took some measure of control over our lives, because our parents and other authority
figures had always taken decisions for us. The clothes we put on, the food we eat, the friends we keep. For
many of us, our parents decided for us the courses we read in the university, and are still waiting on the
wings to tele-guide our decisions going forward. Parents have their own agendas of the type of future they
want for their children. Dont get me wrong, our parents mean well, which is why they project their
understanding of success in life on their children, and try as much as possible to mould them in very
conservative views of success. Many parents are inclined to encouraging their children to study certain
courses in order to become successful in life. The issue is these widely held views of success constantly
changes, and your studying certain courses considered lucrative today, might not necessarily guaranty your
being gainfully employed tomorrow. A World Economic Forum 2016 article asserts that some of the most
profitable and employment creating jobs today did not exist 10 years ago, including: App Developer, Social
Media Manager, Cloud Computing Specialist, Drone Operator, Sustainability manager, Millennial
Generational Expert, Big Data Analyst/Data Scientist, e.t.c. It further reports that estimates suggest 65% of
children entering primary school today will ultimately end up working in completely new job types that
arent on our radar yet. Take Andela for example, the start-up recruits young talented technologists from
across Africa and trains them to become world-class developers through a four-year technical leadership
program. The enterprise has accepted over 200 young engineers since it was founded about two years ago,
out of a pool of more than 40,000 applicants. Andela which was founded by Iyinoluwa Aboyeji, a 26 year
old Nigerian, recently attracted $24 million dollars in funding from a consortium led by Facebooks Mark
Zukerberg. Technology hubs like Andela and Co-Creation Hub are on the increase in Nigeria, despite low
internet penetration and limited infrastructure. They are creating the future because they have dared to find
their passion and pursue it. The testimonials of the founders of many of these start-ups indicate that they
faced uphill tasks convincing their parents of the paths they had chosen in life. There are many young people
who after graduation, simply hand over their certificates to their parents, and start pursuing careers in areas
where their passions lie, which are very different from what they studied in school. Therefore, the advice I
would like to give to young people and parents alike is the most important thing to do is to find your
purpose and passion, and commit to pursuing and fulfilling it parents, let your children fly. The question to
ask is what does success mean to me? The first step towards being successful in life is to identify what
your own definition of personal success is, and the parameters you would use to assess and look back on
your life when you are old and grey. The spoken word artiste Prince EA said, It is not death that most
people are afraid of, it is getting to the end of life, only to realize that you never truly lived. According to
Steve Jobs, Your time is limited, so dont waste it living someone elses life. Dont be trapped by dogma
which is living with the results of other peoples thinking. Dont let the noise of others opinions drown out
your own inner voice, and most important, have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. They
somehow already know what you truly want to become. Everything else is secondary. Seize the Moment
and Just Do It! The university environment imbues you with so much power. If you have applied yourself in
the course of your university education, you should by now have not only the intellectual capacity and
ethical awareness, but also some degree of experience and a vast network to leverage for your personal and
professional interests. One of the failings of our society is that we dont give young people enough room to
explore their creative abilities and make mistakes early. Equally as bad is the fact that young people dont
optimally take advantage of these opportunities where they exist. Universities as a microcosm of the larger
society ought to be the grounds for students to explore and make mistakes in a protected environment. A
person in his youth will have only one rival, that is his own potentialities; and he will have only one failure,
that is, failing to live up to his own possibilities. (Fashola: 2011) I can share categorically, that there is
almost nothing I have found myself doing in my life and professional career that I did not first experiment
during my time in UNILAG. As a leader, activist, writer and academic, I cut my teeth right here in
UNILAG. I was exposed to leadership by serving as the Secretary of the great Eni Njoku Hall, which also
made me a member of the Students Representative Council. I also served as the Secretary of the Youths
United in Solidarity for Southern Africa (YUSSA), as well as the Secretary General of UNILAGs chapter of
the All-Nigeria United Nations Students Association (ANUNSA). As an activist, I was involved in a
number of social causes early in life. I even had the opportunity of volunteering at the secretariat in Keffi,
Ikoyi, Lagos, of the ANC/SWAPO liberation movements who had an office in Nigeria at that time. Also, my
immersion into writing and journalism was as the Editor of the Watch Magazine, together with Wole
Elegbede who went on to become the Chief Press Secretary to former Governor Olusegun Osoba of Ogun
state, Tokunbo Afikuyomi who went on to became a Senator, and Lekan Otufodunrin, now a senior editor
with The Nation Newspapers. The only one of my extra-curricular activities in UNILAG that hasnt found
expression in my life so far is acting and stage performances. Believe it or not, together with associates like
Sola Salako the media personality and consumer protection activist, and Oscar Odiboh, the advertising
executive, I was a member of Theatre 15 that staged a number of plays during our time as students. Extra-
curricular activities are very important. Giving wings to your imagination through activities you are
passionate about, puts you on the path of success and fulfillment in life. According to Albert Einstein,
Imagination is more important than knowledge. For knowledge is limited to all we now know and
understand, while imagination embraces the entire world, and all there ever will be to know and
understand. You have to learn the art of seizing the moment and trying new things. Never be afraid to put
your passion to work and start something new. Trust me, failure is overrated. If you havent failed at
something, that means you are not doing anything. Besides, if you dont fail when you are young, when do
you want to fail? When you are old and grey? Some of you have to be bold enough to start new enterprises.
Others have to be bold enough to pursue a career different from what they studied. Yet, others have to leave
their comfort zones to explore new horizons outside the country. Late Chief Awolowo in his book Voice of
Reason stated that a man whose personality is fully developed never fears anything; he cringes not, and
never feels inferior to anyone; His breadth of mind enables him to exercise his freedom in such a manner as
not to endanger the interests and freedom of others. He is a citizen of the world free from narrow
prejudices. He is what he is because the three main constituents of his entity his body, brain, and mind
are fully developed. Likewise, in the words of Wilferd Arlan Peterson, it is time to explore your mind,
discover yourself, and then give the best that is in you to your age and to your world. There are heroic
possibilities waiting to be discovered in every person. You would never know the feats you can achieve
until you overcome fear and procrastination, and JUST DO IT! Quit Whining No One Owes You Anything
The last lesson I want to talk about is the debilitating entitlement mentality that is commonplace among
young people today. The earlier we realize that no one owes us anything, the better for us, and the more
prepared we would be to face lifes challenges. Dont think you are entitled to a job, just because of your
parents influence or what they have. Dont think things would be all rosy because you graduated from
UNILAG with good grades. Be prepared for surprises and disappointments because life is bound to hand
you a couple. The only guarantees you have in this life is what you do for yourself with the grace God has
bestowed on us all. You have to be prepared to bend backwards and do what you might consider to be
beneath you, because of the bigger picture. When you consider my resume today, you might see the
prestigious organizations I have been privileged to work with. What you need to know however, is that as a
UNILAG graduate and a post-graduate student in the United Kingdom, I have also driven taxis and worked
as a security guard, amongst several other menial jobs I did in the past to survive. We need to get off our
high horses, quit whining and start doing for ourselves and for our country. If something angers you so
much, instead of whining, think hard about possible solutions and do something about it. Doers have a way
of finding each other out, and before you know it, you are in good company with progressive minded people
that exude positive energy comrades with whom you can challenge the status quo, fight together, and
succeed together. Some of the closest friendships I have kept to this day are from my UNILAG days
people I can actually trust to surmount challenges and get things done. So also, complainers have a way of
finding each other out, to indulge in very depressing rhetoric about why things cant work and who is at
fault. From their comfort zones they criticize without offering any solutions and always end up frustrated
run away from such people. Henrik Edberg said, if you change yourself you will change your world. If
you change how you think then you will change how you feel and what actions you take. And so the world
around you will change. Not only because you are now viewing your environment through new lenses of
thoughts and emotions but also because the change within can allow you to take action in ways you
wouldnt have or maybe even have thought about while stuck in your old thought patterns. The world
has always depended on those that believe they owe themselves the duty to leave a lasting impact on the
world. Are you one of them? You owe it to the world to leave a lasting legacy the world owes you nothing.
Conclusion Ladies and gentlemen, as I conclude my remarks, I hope you have benefitted from my sharing
with you these key lessons UNILAG taught me. For those that have similarly learnt these lessons, and can
therefore relate with me good for you I hope my words served the reinforcement of these lessons in your
hearts and in your minds, and continue to guide you in life. For those that missed these lessons as students of
UNILAG, I offer my assurances to you that there is the opportunity to imbibe these key values from today,
and start practicing them. This is what would differentiate those that are merely certificated from those that
are truly educated UNILAG graduates. Once again, I congratulate you on attaining this major milestone,
and pray that you would always remember this day as the beginning of great and mighty things in your life. I
am extremely delighted to be here with other alumni, to join your loved ones to witness your convocation. It
is a rare honour to see you celebrated, and join others to receive you into one of the most vibrant university
alumni communities in the world. I hope our paths cross again on your way to greatness, and your life
counts in the universal quest for a more just, safer, and prosperous world. Remember to remain humble,
compassionate and courageous. May God bless and keep you and grant you good success and fulfillment in
your years ahead. Thank you for listening. Dr. Kayode Fayemi, CON Lagos, Nigeria | Monday, January 23,
2017

Read more at: http://www.vanguardngr.com/2017/01/quit-whining-no-body-owes-you-anything-fayemi-


tells-nigerian-youths/

Telling the Recent Bayero University,


Kano story
By
Maikudi Abubakar Zukogi
mandzukogisawaba@yahoo.com

If the story of this vibrant and promising university will necessarily be tied to how it stands in the world
university ranking, it is doubtful if it would ever get told. Bayero University, Kano will simply serve as
the first course mixed gravel and cement holding the intimidating pillars of world Ivy League
universities that annually make the list of Times Higher Education Supplement world university
ranking. This emerging and unassuming university isnt likely to put up any encouraging showing in the
African universities ranking either. So if your interest is to look for a university with a promise like the
northern star and you are going to have to rely on this somewhat academic rankings, you are more
than likely going to miss out on what above every possessor of knowledge, there is one more learned,
which is what the motto of Bayero University, Kano is, has to offer. And, the university, in the way in
which it is presently constituted, has a lot to offer in terms of variety and quality of certificates at both
the undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Indeed, Bayero University, Kano has come of age and we
need to tell the story of this rising giant south of the Sahara.

The importance of stories and their telling is self evident. We are who we are as a result of the time
tested art of storytelling. Our identity as a nation, as a people and as institution is a product of a story
or stories. Although our original identity, in the course of time, may be negotiated by a number of
factors, the truth about our becoming cannot be completely obliterated. Therefore, either as a people,
or institution, we must learn to tell our own stories to the world. We must take control of the means by
which people perceive and represent us. To be able to do this, we must learn to tell and retell our own
stories. The universal proverb until the lion learns to tell his own story, the story of the hunt will
always glorify the hunter accurately describes the reason why telling ones own story amounts to
giving a true picture of who one is, what he does and represents. In other words, stories narrate
information about us, either as individuals, as a people, as institution and as a nation. In fact, this
proverb of the lion taking control of his own story has since become a widely exploited metaphor for
deconstructing colonial discourses and the basis for reinterpreting them. The story thus far is simply
saying that we are what we are because of the stories we tell. We are a people and a nation because of
the narrations woven around and about us. Consequently, our survival is tied to our ability to tell our
own stories over and over again. People, institutions and nations die from the moment they are unable
to tell and sustain stories about themselves. It is for this reason that I set out to tell the recent Bayero
University, Kano story.

Bayero University, Kano, for those who care to know, was named after the late Emir Abdullahi Bayero,
famously referred to as Sarki Alhaji, the tenth Emir of Kano and great grandfather to the current Emir,
Muhammad Sanusi II. The university had a glorious outing as a college of the glorious Ahmadu Bello
University, Zaria, which was the largest university south of the Sahara, until 1977 when it joined Lagos,
Benin, Jos, Sokoto and Maiduguri to form the league of the second generation universities created by
the Federal Government. The university had the greatest fortune of being cited in Kano, a city which
prides itself as the belly of the elephant and which has more resources than you may think of giving
her. The people of Zaria, in particular, would not want to hear any of this boisterousness. Zaria always
would argue that not only did it give Kano a university; it also taught her what it feels like to be
civilised and the etiquette of functioning as a university town. I will live this age old superiority tussle
between these two sister cities to the cultural anthropologists to resolve.

The university, quite unlike its supposedly boisterous host city, is a modest, moderate and unassuming
institution. It had no reason not to be so, if only to be faithful to its motto: above every possessor of
knowledge, there is one more learned. This is not only a motto but also the guiding philosophy of the
university. It is this that has made the university to always keep its head low even while others are
losing theirs, recording remarkable successes in academics, research and administration close to four
decades since its creation. Bayero University, Kano started on a strong footing being the only university
nursed and weaned by Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. It metamorphosed from being a university
college under its then Principal, Dr Mahmud Tukur into a full-fledged university in 1977. At the time of
its take off in 1977, the university had almost the same quality of staff that you can find on the main
campuses of its mother university. Therefore, it had less start up problems, and so it simply hit the
ground running with its array of expatriate and indigenous academic staff whose credentials bear the
logo of premier universities across the world. In spite of this, however, the university still kept a
modest but progressive pace behind its foster mother and was graduating brilliant and promising
graduates who have distinguished themselves in different areas and positions across different strata of
the country. Most achievements and successes of the university were recorded under the giant shadow
of its seemingly larger-than-life foster mother and not until in the late eighties and early nineties that
the university begin to feature prominently on the national limelight. This was attributable to two
reasons. First, ABU had by this time ran its initial first full circle and was, by this time, engulfed in
crises ranging from leadership to ideological and a potpourri of discontents which agitated in the minds
of staff and students, leading to heated tensions and closures until the appointment of General
Mamman Kontagora (rtd) as Sole Administrator by the military government of General Sani Abacha.
Second, Bayero University began to receive serious media and government attention due to its being
host to Presidents of the Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU) and National Association of
Nigerian Students (NANS) in the persons of Professor Attahiru Muhammadu Jega and Comrade Nasiru
Kura. Today, the university is proud to have given ASUU two solid Presidents, in the persons of
Professor Attahiru Muhammadu Jega and Dr Nasir Isa Fagge. These two activist academics are critical
to the struggles and successes of ASUU. While Jega strengthened the unions ideological basis and
tools of struggles, Nasiru consolidated its gains as well expanded its horizon as a solid union for the
university academic staff. Thus, these coupled with its improved teaching, infrastructure, and stable
calendar gave Bayero University, Kano the enviable advantage to once and for all dislodge ABU as the
preferred destination for undergraduate and postgraduate education. What is more, except for ASUU
strikes, the university being a frontline ASUU friendly institution, it is rarely affected by disruptions of
the academic calendar. The success story narrated so far would not have been possible without the
solid foundation laid by successive Vice Chancellors beginning with Professor JOC Ezeilo, Professor IH
Umar, Professor Dandatti Abdulkadir and Professor Sani Zahradeen. They have helped individually to
reposition the university on a footing that has led to the attainment of many feats today.

Meanwhile, the plot of the recent Bayero University, Kano story is encapsulated in the bumper harvest
recorded recently by the university. This recent harvest may not be unconnected with the opening up
of the universitys space and the incomparable progress and expansion with regards to new
programmes, facilities and staff development carried out by the quartet of late Professor Musa
Abdullahi, Professors Attahiru Jega, Abubakar Rasheed and Muhammad Yahuza Bello, the incumbent
Vice Chancellor over a period spanning seventeen years beginning from 1999. Without doubt, these
years were the golden years of the university, the years which saw the university recording great
successes in research and quality assurance leading to a significant rating in the regular National
University Commission (NUC) accreditation exercises. It was the late Professor Musa Abdullahi of
blessed memory who kick-started the process of repositioning the university on the path of growth and
regeneration. He established the Faculty of Agriculture, reorganised the Faculty of Medicine and
strengthened both pre-clinical and clinical programmes, and embarked on aggressive academic staff
development. After him came Professor Attahiru Muhammadu Jega, whose entrance was hinged on a
pedestal of high expectations. He did his best to meet some of those expectations in an environment of
close scrutiny from his academic constituency. He gave the university the best accreditation result that
saw it being ranked first in the country. Professor Jega couldnt conclude his tenure as Vice Chancellor
as he was literally poached to the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) several months to
the end of his tenure. He distinguished himself by conducting one of the best elections in our recent
history that ushered in the current APC government of President Muhammadu Buhari. His departure as
Vice Chancellor paved the way for Professor Abubakar Adamu Rasheed, who concluded the remaining
months and was overwhelmingly elected as the new Vice Chancellor. Professor Rasheed was the most
outstanding of the quartet. He came well prepared for the job with a carefully articulated manifesto. It
was a sheer coincidence that he served as the Vice Chancellor of the university at a time Senator Rabiu
Musa Kwankwaso, the doyen of the Kwankwasiyya movement was Governor of Kano. And so while
Kwankwaso was working across the state, Professor Rasheed was also working across the university.
And it seemed like they were locked in some pre-planned competition to outdo each other in
infrastructural development. While bridges and roads were springing up in the state, hostels,
laboratories, theatres and new faculties were equally springing up across the university. The
competition between these two to leave behind a legacy of achievements was so palpable that the only
one feature that separated them was that while works at the state bore the Kwankwasiyya imprint,
works at the university didnt. For the university, unlike the state, the Rasheediyya imprint, if one
would be excused the use of the term, was ingrained not on projects but in the mind. Thus, during the
five years that he served as the Vice Chancellor, he gave the university a new face and along with it an
irrepressible image of a true ivory tower that can withstand competition from within and without.
During this period, the university added Faculties of Allied Medical Sciences, Dentistry, Pharmacy,
Computer Science and Information Technology, Communication and Media Studies and a massive
infrastructural development that included roads, street lighting and landscaping, theatres, staff offices
and research centres. These signature achievements have earned Professor Abubakar Adamu Rasheed
the unofficial title of the builder of modern Bayero University, Kano. Consequently, his achievements
served as reference point to other universities, and by acts of commission, he was touted as someone
capable of giving the Nigerian universities a new vision and a cutting edge direction that will enable
them to compete globally. And so, as I write this, Professor Rasheed now oversee the Nigerian
universities as the new Executive Secretary of the National Universities Commission (NUC). By sheer
coincidence, he is the second member of the university to occupy the prestigious position, and both of
them from the English Department. The first person was Professor Munzali Jibril, former Dean of the
Faculty of Arts and Islamic Studies and the Postgraduate School who served as the Executive Secretary
from 1996 to 2001. Professor Rasheeds departure saw the emergence of the incumbent Vice
Chancellor, Professor Muhammadu Yahuza Bello, a tested university administrator. He came into office
with a mountain of experience, having served twice as Deputy Vice Chancellor, Academics and Director
of the Centre for Information Technology and Project Monitoring Unit of the university. By all standards,
he is well suited for the job but the greatest challenge for him remains to consolidate on the towering
achievements of the past for which luckily he was a part of.

It is heart warming therefore to tell that the universitys years of service and contribution to the growth
and manpower development of the country was recently acknowledged in manifold. And as they of the
farmer, after careful planting and patient nurturing of crops always comes the harvest time. And it was
indeed a bumper harvest for the university and a fitting reward for effective leadership, meticulous
planning and consultation. The university currently boasts of key appointments in the Federal
government with education ministry taking the large chunk. The first of course is Professor Abubakar
Adamu Rasheed, whose landmark achievements in Bayero university and contribution to university
education generally earned him the position of the Executive Secretary of the National Universities
Commission. He is followed by Dr Abdullahi Baffa, the incomparable, restless academic and ASUU
strategist who was handed the exalted post as the Executive Secretary of the Tertiary Education Trust
Fund (TETFUND). After these two, the university currently also boasts of five active Vice Chancellors,
two federal and three states. Professor Fatima Batulu Mukhtar, VC, Federal University, Dutse; Professor
Abdallah Uba Adamu, VC, National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN); Professor Mustapha Ahmad
Isah, Northwest University, Kano; Professor Shehu Mohammed, VC, Kano University of Science and
Technology (KUST), and Professor Muhammad Sani Abdulkadir, VC, Kogi State University, Anyigba.
Other key agencies for which the universitys ambassadors held forte include the National Teachers
Institute (NTI), Kaduna headed by Pofessor Garba Dahuwa Azare, a seasoned university administrator;
National Commission for Mass Literacy Education headed by Professor Abba Haladu, and the National
Communications Commission headed by Professor Umar Garba Danbatta.

This is no mean achievement for Bayero University, Kano. It is a forceful indication that the university
has indeed come of age. It is a thing of pride for the university to be so recognised and its
ambassadors to be called upon to serve the government in different capacities in one particular time.
Not only the founding fathers but every alumnus will be proud to be associated with the recent
successes recorded by the university. This is the recent Bayero University, Kano story.
Mahmud Zukogi, is an academic member of the Faculty of Arts and Islamic Studies of the university.

Here's how much money you should have saved at


every age

When it comes to savings, Americans are falling short. Nearly 70% of adults have less than $1,000 in their
savings accounts .

Retirement funds are looking equally bleak. In fact, about half of US families have zero retirement account
savings .

"Particularly the younger generation likes to think, 'I'll save more when I'm making more.' But whether
you're making $50,000 a year or $200,000 a year, we all have challenges saving," says Kimmie Greene,
money expert at Intuit and spokeswoman for Mint.com.

"Because oftentimes what happens is, when people make more," she says, "they end up spending more."

The sooner you start saving for retirement or any other major purchases you hope will be in your future
the better. After all, time is on your side when you're young, thanks to the power of compound interest.

While the amount you need in savings is highly personal, and specific dollar amounts can be arbitrary,
Greene offers a simple formula to help you figure out if you're setting aside enough money.

In your 20s: Aim to save 25% of your overall gross pay, Greene tells CNBC. "That 25% is the combination
of 401(k) withholdings, matching funds from your employer and any cash savings that you have," she notes.
"It can also include debt repayment.

"Just make sure your lifestyle expenses don't exceed 75% of your gross income."

By age 30: Have the equivalent of your annual salary saved, Greene says. If you earn $50,000 a year, aim to
have $50,000 in savings when you hit 30.

Again, this includes any retirement account contributions, matching funds from your company, cash savings,
or money you have invested elsewhere, in index funds or robo-advisers.
By age 35: Have twice your annual salary saved.

By age 40: Have three times your annual salary saved.

By age 45: Have four times your annual salary saved.

By age 50: Have five times your annual salary saved.

By age 55: Have six times your annual salary saved.

By age 60: Have seven times your annual salary saved.

By age 65: Have eight times your annual salary saved.

Greene's timeline is similar to the one recommended by retirement-plan provider Fidelity Investments,
which says a good rule of thumb is to have the equivalent of your salary saved by age 30 and to have 10
times your final salary in savings if you want to retire by age 67.

"While this can sound super daunting today, if you're putting that money to work starting in your 20s, it's not
as difficult as it sounds," says Greene.

She also notes that "life is anything but linear," and it's impossible to follow this formula to a tee. You may
have to adjust accordingly and save more or less in any given year, depending on major life events, such as
having a kid or buying a home.

Need help spending less and saving more? Check out: