Tilcpmbiemwith:;ecijjg is that il isw t<lS) and IJiI! urallhlll we never gi\e it a second thought. I; e look, \Ne see. Whal could be simpler? But bchiml that f>implr act lies iii profound process 11m! affeets ho\~' we' act think. IC<lm, and how wephotograph.

We learned seeing early in life. And the samg ve learned '0'1'<18 one tha L l'IoLdd help us survive, One that \I'ould spot mother's lace, charging sister>.. and unlich'll bowls of frostmg, One that would ile'lp us avoidl 'peedin" cars and guide us down st~h ... ~Ol one that '0\ (I eld 'help IK phOlOgr.lph.

At lir.;.t we paid attention 10 e~"ef}'tiling i'l.e 5ll1'11 because everything was ilt'W and iIHereS[jng. Cupboard kno~. I»bbles, leaves \\I'ere B][ ~"!'en their dee, But e~"mtuaIJ:r they !>ec:alilile ~I~ hal and boring. So we learned 10

ignore. rler the first few year'S oflife. we ig;wlfto more than we saw. and our :eil1lg became C~L uat and uneventful, OUF Wi!~ . of seeing were set.

Sometime later in life· we pin a camera 10 eye and ibe!illl photo:gmphing, Wihal did we pholograph'? We photogr,apbed what appealed (0 our habits of casual seeing. We photographed IhillSS we Lhouglilt were epposedto b<: photographed because we bad seen ~;milal' pholOgl"ap!\'s in magazines and books. And our results \'ore not works of art but snapshots ca~hl by .:1111 e)'t: not yet trained aesthetically. all eye '1101 ')leI in tune with '[he camera.

When dis~altisfiedlwilh O!.llf results, we OrU"ft sought elutions in new lenses and li!lcrs !H in speci<lll !!;'Ch. niqees like panning. We avoided the re a 1 solution-c-ourselves. Seldom does a photogroVh succeed because of unu ~ll i,t,)C1l111que or exouc equip-

ment. Ir succeeds for one reason, Because the phorograph was well. seen.

This book v.;1] help you see to phohogrnph. It will ~ul you in hammon), !With your !;;i;meta .. You and (he camern wiill fll.m:tion as one,

h. will help you overcame habits or ordinary seeing, It will helpyoL! undeTSland the wa~'s of YOL.!r seeing and how those ways can be altered. It wi II rek'ndle you);" awarene ofthe many things IO be photographed. IL will sh w you lhe visual aspects 10 look rm in a seeneand how light arbitrates appearance, It will make )01] reexarnine preconceprions and prejudices about what and how 10' photograph,

Bul most of all it willi help you see the things only you rnn see'.


Admit if Or 110,'. you hase preaJllcepliolls, We aI/have (111'711. They are IDIOMidahle. In the dep'hs of the mina they glide ,WlSee1l in the darkness. tmheaul in the silence, \I'aifing. AI Ihe sighl of.ufloll'e!', a/ace. or any ,otlier photographic bail. preCQl1cepli(}ffIS wheel in unison like a sd~oof of mackerel and carr,. you ololl.gw1all:ar;es, Elusive and illt{lIIgible, pf':ecOI.!c,eptio];ls always agree, a/wilJ's flatter, nelter complai«, never cruidze. They rtlake pJlOlogmph)! a breeze. T.he}· free you from {he, slI'eulo/ thought, liherale you from ;lit!' memat calisthenics that leave 'lie omill weary, Ille mind sore', 1)1(: imagi'l(#ion pUffing. BU()yed by precona.ptiolls. J't/lr have ,ouly 10 pose the subject ("Smile "). snap the slmfle.r ("Hold ssill"], and pal JOIN"self Oil 'he back ("Wa,r It) go,folla"). Whyel'jcl .such agl'eeah/e creatures? Because tlley inliibit your pJlOlogN.ljJhy,

w~ expect piw.l<Wt1phS It) If1(}/;, a cersain IIZIJ' iiiul to contai» certcin ~Ics.. Whf" '/~_1' dm~ ':7, >i1~ fUSI 7&1<#011 .i:r f"l'je!;.'limL Sui a.o; impmwmt purl of.RYing if tl." nt.tpnl,/vn of knee frl'lt: 1'e:(i~ri<N1S and a ~Jf:mn,i1-lillitm o.fll.'hol a pIiOl~'lS(Jh ts, I. hot {t <:fj'JI be.



A pho!:Ogrnphic preeouception is a pref()imM opillion),ou have about photo!7,mpby. You may !be aware 'of the precoacepnon; more often you are not,

Preconceptions !:ake m !I:ny forms.

Yo urn i !,111'l have jrreconc ept i ODS about wh.erc wpholJOgr4pli. Ha\'c you ever tate]!, apicture i~ your bathroom? AI ~b,eslipemllaJk.i:t'! A 1: wo.rk?

Y 011 mig_.IH 1!,,,v~~r!looJLcej}lioru about 1Io'1re1l to phatograph, Have yol.l ever photographed :111 n~ght'/ In the min? M ~\I~I~ght?

You m ighl have preoonrepdol'ts <lbo!![ wital and how to photograph. Have YOll. ever photog ra phed aslioo? A beer oonle'? The slew of a flG\\~, but net the flo\ll'er'/ Do yml photo" grapb (lilll' pretty tffiiifiW> Ii ke :IlOM:\Ci"S 1tlld w31erfalls'/

C.(lna;~g to grips with ]I'OU' proooneeptions is lill~ first :step towards better secing. In LQoking IlIll'l!otagraphs. John Srnn:.owsld I'i~U;&:

.PllrlJiJ[(iraphj'. if practiced Il'ilfj' Iii;:/! !"ITWfJSlli!~> is a colllesl :be'1I"(,~11' Q "htJllig'upMf IlI'IIJ ,1M p!"lIif1l!1i[,liollS of QPf",Qxinrtl1f (!lUi' h@ifl<ld seeil1g. ''l'lw ,'t)f!le11 ttIh be !teld <IIl},,"'/renf-('" .01 dIJl.rideli"alk. or ilt a ~JlifiC MJlJI'Il.rlll'}·. ar am~f': liM' markers ill (lJJI"iell1 dMd gods.

FORMATION 'OF PRletlQNCEPION<S Bef(l~egJiapp!ing, witlI preconceptions, you should knl!lw more abOl!!t t't.~m_ How do Iih'ey form? Why do they ('arm?

Ph{l~.ogrnphic preconcepfieas start fOm;li~g eady in I'if¢._ Inlhe !firSi hou, after my daughter's birth. I thrust be~ore her tlilfocusing eyes a picture or bem;lr ill her moth",,':> OlJlW.

\Wahiin,.a week. I would show her !I. storybook full ofp.icn:m:s. Within a moath, wheeled through tile supermarket •• he wou.ld! gHmp:se 3fJl,QOQ products, many 'with 'pictures on the label:s.\Vilhin a year, she would chornl~ ~l Wi.: ooy 01] lhe cereal bo~ and wave at tile blil.~Y on the dia:peiI' box, And in [he years ahea.d shewouldileaF Ihnl)'~gh magacincs and see ads ~,I1(lw, urng toikt cleaners, deodorants" and eass spaili"kljng and a.ppealin:g.

WillI e'.,!;ilpllMi~g imagt registerumg 0.0 hel" eyes, aeural pathways be. came established. aUlomatica1l), sort= i~and ~tn!!tlling fan"S on tbis rOluJte., mO\!o'ltfS (Ill that. 3Dd before 'Sm;"folll.d ever take a picture, thousands. even rnillliions ofima~ !ilI'Ou.ld. r1iIctht;fWl3ar the YJsllal pal,\\tways.

Altla she S<lW Ihe Ihillgspamloo oul by her parents, One parent might. show ber tile breezy dance ,of mtips, the other ~ carburetor, Her fUilIm::'

Sprinkil'/,,£ are .;RIe of 11!(JJJ!!; t1tittgs "!Of often pllotograplu!d. BM Ih~ ~-jnkf,e!,. pho.rograp1r!!d willi tlrf' i1(Jdcl.igAr <Jj 4/"1 1!'·lYlillg Swm1.1l'1' =, .iCi'1I1.! I~O 8J'mbol~1! lire' quilll h~ ,oJ .>uburliw. TilR ril"'h hu;:;5j 0/ KQDAClJI!O,~E 64 .f'ilrn ,fidd .10 tlie mood.

'ways oi secin& would, in pan, depend on what she '""'<IS tll!~gh~ 10 appreciate,

Alld, .im pan" her CW3J!f.l' (If seeing would depend on tile culture, the soeiety !liIIwhich s~:e grew. A Chinese ckild ",'ou.ld see a drifferem world and be laughl to see duffereully .... ilhil1 ""'o!1d lhal1"'OldCl an American cbild; mtrerences \\oLlld ex.lst \Ii'idnin the same culture, A child :grO\!lriIl8 lip ben~lh cww,dll"t! skyscrapers and within the Mare 01 hornsand stench of exhaust fnames would 'see' diffe:relldy !h,m one ,gr-O'! upiso~aied Oil a plain where the eye is unboull(led and! the sounds are of silence <lind the mlt1!s of ~1Tth.

So has your seting been shaped b" paEenl.s and c·Il~!lm:, 'Men )'otJ took )'(Illn fir5tpicture, the phOlogmphic I!:n~w~.edge lHt!"i,ed in your miffild seeFJ€d 10 I:he surface and guided yOW' 'seeing, Now you are con~io[l1!lSly seeking knowledge of phOI.ogr"phy by reading IlJ book. And it is loadedi Mlh the preeonceptions ot ~he peeple who put i.l together. Onlyoow y~!! are rorew<Ql"'l1ed.

What did! you leara from othen ph.otQgriipEiy bMks? Enough to l(n(wi' how to compese a picture? Enough to know the pitfall:> of [J s;low sIlJutrter speed? Enough to 00 -chasnekld into iJrooeOuu::$ and beliefs thai IlliIlJl inhibit ,.OOE phtll'tograpby?

Until [lOW" you. have learned from others, Now you mu~t learn from ymmelf and see for youil'lii!lf:



Most simp~y PUt, a object is ",nat you photogr<lpil. 11il other words. 3J subjeer can IX an)'1lm!'lg and anything can be OJ slIIbject. But rcw photographers he'Jic.·t that, They impcse restrictioas as to subjects proper rt)r pho(ugraphy. Pmm pholograpbs they have !!ttl) in Iilook:s and mapZ£nes.. tbey form. definile notions as to' what ' ort of things are preper subjeers ferphotographs (cu.riousb. Ihe books or magazines se;lidom suggesl olilly certain sllIbjects are proper).

Why Impose westrictiol"ls where [were are nose? Instead of photograp.liiing lhings )'ou think you're supW

posed 100 photegraph, phol.ograplii what interests fOU. You are your most powerful resource; so don't waste Itiule photographing hat interests O!h¢1iS anless it. abo interests you. Your way or !'ife, your opinions, your surroundings belong on]y to you, Trash C~1iI5 upended in alil alley, your spouse prinkiliug the laWfi, suds selHing in the smn k, Ii grooery can, drippi~g with raiD-what }IOU choose IOpli.o~og:D"<l!ph reveals your psyche, )'\our outlook, a unique way of eeing-your lIoI'ay. fbo-togrnpheli Bob Llewe~IYlll puts it rest; "EYery photogr. YOllrnak:e is a se.lf~pofU':4it,"

D. H. La'l\'I'C1'I«wrote .. " ... So

rnm:h dep::nds 011 one' s :mi tude, Ooe C'41Tl shut 1'n311\Y, many doors ofreeeptil'll'ityin oneself; or One can Opelfi many doors Ihal are shut,"

Have )',OU been receptive to the "'Orld amu[Jdi you'? ReviCMi' your phetography to see what you consider to be subjects .. YOll ulln!!!!essarily Iilmil1flgYOU!rsell! Do .~u photograph only eonvestional subjrel."llk;e sailboats, no""ers, and people? Have you ever phmographed a washcloth, a. IIU~, a tree ["()Ot, an ahSU'301 ofleiLl.'eS? Why 'Utol'lEidward W,e:ston fOllli!d "beauty" in a bedpan. Irving Penn found it ili1, eigarette butts. Pese Tumer fOlUnd .Ii. in a l!!'aSh can.



From the phowgr<tphs \\'''C have seen and taken. Ie ,evolve defini~e ideas ef nOW a s;ubjgcL saonld appear in a p!i1ufO,gra.pb, In focus, unoDscu:red, properly exposed. easily identiiflable, idealized (flower at its, peak 85 oppnsed m wined): these are some of the qualities, \!i;e ex peet to see.

But- these qualities can be preconoepLions. Why un varyingly m,eed sum edicts? Allihough mC'S1 photographs should be in focus and correctly lexposed, all need not be if you can ereafe an imeresting u!1fOCUised. or ov&rexposed im:agl'.

Nor need you <llw<1,ys cleanly show Ihe subject or show it so it is, easiih idenniliable. The photo,gr.lphll on !this spread show the benefits of evereomiog preconceptions about the appearance 01 a SYlbj«t in a. photograph,

To preserve the spo.rklil'rg briglimess qf " 'Hi/tweed Sl!'M iit 11 ;/;:ow}, ,nmdliw. 'hr: pIiologrophe ow:explJ.,_,d siNk film by 00, ~·'QP, Tlre'ut.,t-.rlf=fi'f'lIS.!WI Will' mrak 1t;rgff by u.rinK a iarge f/slOp,Ji3_5.

B_.., JH1l!nrng aJ lire slow Shullf'T speed of , 1 second; lhe phO!ograpJ-J.i!T made a gliwl/y and de/iffllff image 0/ fl .!WQl.I. To obtai" SION' !Eln.!fll!J'" speeds, shOOi under dim lig/II, lUe III !I/al'''"ii[}t!l!djifm $ltd as KCWACHRO.IJ£ 25' film. (IT remltte Ifg/II ITa£h.tng tire film with a poIlUU!tng or 1Iii!ulTal ,c/''1jSil}'jill<'I'.



ltmf phoJogropiwn sh<1!~ sui.>J«rs, ,r:1eari)". iJ,r!"fii)'ll pur~ ili:h()~ a ...u,.r{!Yin.1 pluciJ1.g IlIlaligle- of brl7lUhes in /romr)j Ihe CgpiM buUdiJ1g---puMps w $~UeJi the i41ig/e; ifJ! poliNcs.

{n Ik.l·'t' ~wQpiNW'I'.s jl&"f1 ~ wdJ C!:wli.",ly, For th£ ~~&-fftlpped' bl'.g,,}ktt.: ,:leu ~ ,:l pM'.'eF/ul la!o!tr.'t OJ ~.l" il~ Ql.llCT picr!J.te. ii <sim$ly I~ a p.atttnl' ol/~(lg,(JJtl wused by dte· ~I:<lgm in ,tbe kns,


SHDULD A, 'UBJECT IE 1iHE SUIJ&cr?' To <II degree ha:rdl(i n:u::aSyrt Mdi ha rd to umdcTStand, mangu<IIge intlne!I!('"es how we reason and, therefore, how ~lJbomgrnph. Fo;!" tnstanee, in photography we n~peakd]y come :fIef,aSS the' l,enn subjeet, 1m. the English langll.!age ilind! the lamtgUage of photography, we oouaUy ihimlk of a sub~ as some object. SOme I,hing-,a barn. a. boat, ,iI person.

The Focus om. things is reisloreed by our cul:llhJ;fe. Wre <Ire surrousded by thing . CaIcI1WalOT.. wok • roller skates, tereos, ilea collars, am.'! thousands of ether [hing.s abound. So, given the 'u]t by lal1~ge and society, it may be excusable '10 suooo-mcio!l)!sly t]u~IlIt: 0 r I'll otogr'''J)~ic sl.Ibj eets as 'lhii[l~.

But photo,graprur need. not be of distinct things, .. TI!\';'J' can be of ' washes of collor. sprays of light, arrangements

of shapes, progressions of tones. They can even be ef [onglo11llle[,ations or Ehings without m,lking ODe' t~ing eenI"}] without placing one p;utic~13lr SUbjl'Ct 50 it i:5 mentiJied as the thing pbOlographedl, Instead. picture can draw power fmm3Jml rather than one, as in the street scene by Lee' Friedlander.

M .. king "~lIbjeNI~" lJi:Ci1!ll,res, can be brd. moo 1.0, having dire subject WllllIIt:d under their noses rna hark whell no single ~ai!bject greers UlCro. Should the viewer indLilge you, then yOUlJ m~ come thJioqgll and find a scene in wl1ic:h di~ill1li(e elements unite to say one thing.

Although moot of us photograph scenes we find" some IPholOgraphers must fabricate, The}' must invent lheir own IWI'iiies. The)' do £0 by making collages or dlr3wi,ngs and blueprints and! hairbrushes, or b}'

building e:>l:otic paPler' IinIlcltt: figures and Ihen photographin.g tlle.lD .• They CO'llsllfoct whatever suits their purposes. ;111 d I hen phot (I'graph Ihei f eonstnsenons .

Thesephotograpbers an; CJl!pressing ideas alild oom:;~pL>,.I101 easil)' Ma L· eel by pIl.otograpluing found thi'm~. Their photographs may seem uncon'!' especially Wh.e~l, first s!""C1Il. TIley mal' even seem ~bsuj(1 te t!hose accuSlomedw seeing piC:Lujj'(~ of the world around ~11r:m. Bill m3JIIIY of tli,eir pictures are inll.cresting. because like ~ rid'ille or 3 crossword puzzle, they chalk-ngc the lliiewer to ,SD~\-e the logic behind them, OChers allie simply visuaU), "~te.Jit<. illting.and, SOTn~ simply don't. w~)fk.

Buil. a.m show til,al photography need. IiIDI be lirni too by lradil,iolil5, and proom~ptioll:; as to what is a sulljecl.


& m-:efcrm:ring ,rhe' rim.&! 10 think of pltmYlK~ap'l.'S m

tirMes "f inJiridwl ~. rhi'Sf ,illi'£

Ji!nff1!:mpllltrs """'," oN~ It} see ti"rjfe1't'flI1Jl_

1'l1Ji<l'fit .. p~, .P.£1.l"_JI frnmd,UI1 .!l'lU'~ design iIr III 1I"1flke. L« £riedH/JJd,er, ..:i:!f. (f1flNl WI !'"me.-l.umlrig "!:IU:>fflirm. Bill

IW'i:!. bet, .. ·• llro ;h$ll'! m~tl 1M j(Julu/' W' txpr:m kif fml/lx!I. &.ill I/!is roolrapli!JJl .-J phIJlOgrapW it

rh!' :ig;ag "I figilt is f~' 1.1 s~!lljg.;"..g ftutfllig/ll) _





We know b@w ~hings look. OlT think we do.Jmagine a tree, 11 liIower, a car. The merna! iHlages we conjure are probaly quire similar, harking back 00 eall1y childhood when 'mother held us i~ her lap :J!l'iId poimled (0 the page and said, "That's; 3J tr,ee,~'a.ll(i [raced her fmger- from trunk to brandies.

From the lI'el}' beginning {he mi.nd, fued with !,lI we~te:r of shapes, forms and colors, son,ght to' simflify. 11 did so by cbs.'Sifyiug di lTeillE1Il,ttS and. similarilies. FOil eaehof the fmndreds of oommon objoclis., it ske~d!.m the mf~ ference or s~rnilarilies into ill few mental images ~hilif stood for tree, flower, ~r. liioMse. ('ham.r. B,y being reductive. by making Dill: stand for 1iI'I<iIDY, lhe mind found it easier to: ~ern ber and comprehend!.

The dat:lllger is that we may phmogrn,ph according to tnose steR"'Otypes_ At tre1::" a 1l0vreii, a ear-c-den't simply see the images trapped by the mind. See lhiD~ not how lhey ha"'~ ~ook(;-d but how lhey m'ignL look.E-n\'isiQiiil. possibilities. Imagine.. Work ,ILl imagj [ling.



_~ uee, (l j1m , 'rI'. a car, (1 fighdl~, a perrOll, a~M'l! knail' hoi'· !h~se rkin&s are wppow to' fook 001 frere' they ~ 'he SMPOIJffNS.



acing preconceptions can be painful. Why'! Be·Ci!ctL~ }'OU are questio.ning your v a lues, .your logic-no easy Ihi;gg-but you must do 'il.

Re~!;W your phDtograplll.looking fOIi panerns of subjects, 'wewpoin[s camera technique. Wh,lIt is good about ymu photography~' What needs "",or"? lf'you have ll"Ouble being ~)bjecti:ve about )'ou:r work (and mIDS~ of us do), ask a frielld (even 'if yout friend k:1iI{)WS lilde about photography)m look at ,andiral!.;: about yoL!.r photographs. A friend wen't have youii' pttjudices and may l:5l'1ligl'lt,eD y(,lU. Be a stem self-critic and do as Ra~ph Hattersley suggests: "Photographers [ houjd] observe [~emsel'ves 3.S ebservers and in (bat wa,y eo.Dle to understand why Lhey see the way they do:·'

Pracl.i ee seei ng subjeets in new Wll:!,S. instead of seeing the horseness or a horse, ~rou might see it as, II landSQl;pe-l:lle prnirie of ilS back :risiing into a mou ntamou s neck. Or YOll might see i~ as a temple supported MIll four slendcr columss, Instead (if seeing the fI(}";'e'm~!iS of a Jlewer; you might see it as a dancer i!ilild wait [Oll' [he breeze to create a whir of color, or you might see it as a wine glass and show the StmL joining ~he cup.

ree your imagination. PhC)'II)~ graph one subject in as :man}<' ways as possibre. AI. dawn •. at mKld!ay, from above, from below, blurred, sharp, rroDl close up, from far ,awa!,\,', in. foeus, alit or focus, comrectly exposed, O''ilCilI'CXposed, with camera steady, with camera jiggled. ia [he. ummer, in the ",'intO'. oemered, uneemered, and OIl and on.



Some p.-ooolflocptio,lli!i resul t, bel;;au..~ we BlutnlWuically follow rules. Flom the de1iveIiY room 11.0 [he burial plot we h(JlI1: been indOClrifIJ8100 1.0 observe rull; . and reg;u.lations-wriueu, and UI1v.'1:iuen. Pay at the cheekolll OOUflJtt:T. D:ri"e On [he righ.l side oflhe road. DoJi'l stare ul people.

Photography is no exceptlon to Ihe rule: HoM tile camera stl!~dy~ e..'I!po5e prope!IJy, fr .• !]me \'l:rtiC'llllly fottaJTI SIIibjects, horizontally fOJi wick subjrots: focus accunnely.

Follo"~liIg rules lias it'S bcnefiis in that ),ou eaa predict the results and avoid unple"asal'l~ surprises I'ikie car crashes and food puoollh.g. But ill, polil.ol!ography if yOUi slavishly Ir(ll1ow rules, you often miss ouren the p easant surprises that come from breaking them,

Wluil happen.s ir you leap into the air while photographiimg an oce1JiI wave or greaUy overesoose a hiltkligh.ted gJrONe of u;ees? The resuhs may be as revealing as theyare unpredktable.

Rules !!ire guide~iiiies.[)OIll·l become <I slave te them, E.~p.eri men ~ and break ,cwery rule you can think of. even iryolII mwt do it in the most omrageous manner possible Try to predict 'tht telluliS and .. iew the resull!; with an opeon mind, accepting what pleases YOll and rejecting wiHlll. dis· pleases yOll.

Iii iht' "isioli Df the photogrllPher. IfJrm!i an:d f!.trrlh forms UTe (!fIe,



We allresist 'mange. Thai (S, mihl!rni. 10000u resistance isa way of 31m rming our behefs. ,,\,r~ .. ereas acoepti og c'ha,llge' .uggesls QI.! r beliefs \Vere w ron g, ":Orn! or us \I)31!l:lS, to th:ink. we were l,\iOn~l

Resistance slso lets us proceed along familialii' pa~:hs. and fa,m i'lia:rity is c>Qmfol1:aible:.. lJnoenaini,ly upsets, To aeeept cl1angem.eal1Jsto meet Wilin uncertainly. blHil:lIll:s.o meens to kam, So reduce YOllr resistance. I;]I primiti .... e ICOlJllillri:es, falfmt!1>, rer!H-nz,e Iklds by bumio.g I'h.em. Bum your resil,ilal]~e and watch lh~ lush fiel ds grow.

We IIlllY not realize ir, btu the UJ'~' II) i::fmf(lrrm, and r~ara.f rrli~llIi1"; IDriI;il}' .mil' guide om seeing. Thus, we see 31ld. phologrnp~ things al'r,e.,.dyap· pr'i:lved. as photogenic. aJreatJy aocepted 3S "good" photogwapiiic subjects,

We phow, tile ooff()ciils., fK'I~ we garbage bag; the ~ear. Dot Illite Sidewalk. And ralher 11I3J1il photo,grapb themie !!! diTijc-~H rnmIanm:ef, we opt rov the easy way ~h<lt will produce I'eSw:ts, and be aoteptable Ito olners.

OUil' society r rown$, upon failU!Fe, As P3JH of that socie;[)~ wedoa't want to he frowned uJloo-eveo lhol.!p a falhJfe i:nplil.otoWo'iPhy may k as lnaecueus <IS a blurred, [rather si:Wly~ooki]U,gpieture. Dees feat or f:ail!!tre ever enter illllO your photognlPhy? If 1101. you <liJre one of the lucky ones. If W. (JVl;TOO!ifi¢ it Dof!'~ oo!J~t;;![d to fail Embrace it. meams)!Gl] me gJow:ing. slriwng. learning, that yOtla~ lID)'ing to slfHIUer Y(!I1,l1l as.sumptions,

F"wp-hotogroplutl':~ ~':.J!i11d ikft.f! bq ,!\I!I :xpmp!.e (M' 10 ,~IlI)W ind' (1 field of .~1IlJ'~' IlJU/; ,(j' diswnI mii' l}f N;P£S •. &1 Sil!1~M Maeda"s: mlp!,e PToduces !l .!w!mi~g pJJrn'fJgmpb.

A 'Rtfill(!d~riilllol!€rs"ruFlvngs emm.ucwl by (JJ,un/te," tre« i1~irt;d lihe phtJIDgr'€j/>lrer If,.Mr dK4!ghlS of ~hD,~1 sJw'!f'I!'~bj' !Q.' t~ lore- Ii ddem't """k _ Whm did l~phl)log~r ,~JJ{!r'! me lMs of ilf~ Df film-

Twen{}' thusarulIe,PI in' theai,. .. RemmingjrQ/1? NelL' forA: Cj:'y • .Hf!'fi',(I,!'dwd (IS sf.en·(!tl'tk~·ses tmd SU!11IQ'I'ds squeezed lhrough the aisle wi#,~ a carro! sn'acks, fislened as ,c;e,llophane t1Jfd snap lOp'S burs t into a ssaccata of small exploslnm. Waf ched ,{ZS' lUiSSi!t:lgerrs unfolded t,ays, listened as pl(l£tic- cups ctieked. Htaldted as passengers p',es:')'I3d hack and,~tewardes.r~s uad1ed (JC:r(}5S.

Ginge, ale. no ice. The lJiane •. headed ~1~est by 'lONhw'est, htlll{u!d and dipped. The :rUI" st'reanr,ed inlo the window. 1'/!'e p.l!olog'fJpJU?I' noticed. f"l!tilc.hed under his seal and extracted his ca,nera. H:e framed: Be focused: He shot. '(md snof again. Tlte bszt of lli'e powe,r winder filled the air .. fleads turned. Wha, tt'(l$ he ,dOiltg? The obsenle, U'lIS now the {)bsenli!tJ~He slnmped into Ms seat fol' a beue:J' (mg/e, beldfirm (1S the plan.e CNJ,[OlOCti iu an air pocket, held firm as u ,rleward bl"~lShed hJ'. lrefd firl'~, Ihen rele:ased' the shut ter U) c:apture I'he flare of·a,lbow from sunlight slabbing his soft alink. Awaren'C'ss.

TIle pJU}/'II!R~1" WI&d a .WTgf .nil. to ,(I,ririe,'I.' 5I!lei."live fOCJM. am) mIUJrwll-S/,Jff'U jiJnu, :JNiCJJ QS ICOV.1!CUIi'O,I"'; (iii Film;OJ' KOiMCOWR r'l\'IOn Fib ... " ur:e go'(xi ~C:fNJ Wile-II .m"llg Sf!h!C.ji~""I! /(JCUS in b.igln ljghi.


"('C<"!Ilrir« IIw .flf(:1r ofe .wnmy. /r'_Wi!o ... "iIlg riVl'f ~'Cw;ll' imo a AilhlW'lh nelthe« el1ml ~"r,m·jm",~. lhe j)./;.dl(Jgr:~·

Because simple awarenes.s gelS ill the way of doing twings,. we ~ out more thaa we see, Hm in p1ro1O!!,Japh)'. the more you see (he mose y01.l c<l.nph(l~Qgraph. So l!'OU:i firM g02l1. is tobecome more aware or yonr SUiroundlngs. Leek 1\1 even In inor lhiings-especi,a"lly minor lhingS--'and you \1,;11 seemere;

Practice increasing yo!!!r simp'k awareness. AI ~liik. 5.e1.aside a few minutes to Shut), your desk, See the shapes, lines, IOml.S, colors, and armngenu:ms or S!l!lpter, pencil'S .• ealculater, id'ephone._ In the hallways. observe light strearning through the ·\I>~,ndow. Al h.~IinC, I~ok <II your kil~h· en. ~. ~he din)' dishes in ~he ·siinl. (he eerrot peels cueli ng ap r rom me stai nless steel, the tablelegs againsl. Ih~ I~· noleum. Saudly I.heir visualauributes, EIl'.'iisioll them ", n theborders of a p~l)t~r.3Jph_Pradice awareness u:nit~l it becomes sec~md nature,




!Sd1,\f8rd WesWfI SiilIid, "Any1hirng th.ti excites me for ,any reason, I will phoIOgJlilph: nOL searching for um.lslI3JI subj~ Inane r, bllt making the commonplace unusual;"

Each day you do and SOl':. HIfIny things almost sl.Ibcol1lsciollsJly. The aenons are reutiae, !he objects invc~v$d filllll1i1iar.

Ea!:h day you, lhrow back toe covers (In your bed creating a series of mountain range and] plains, The ranges or the blanket are high and st~p. those' of the sheet small and gentl¢.

Each day you glunce au the bar of soap melting: in the JiiJ,(l'wer, the wheelbarrow filling with rain, in the hackYUI\d. the cars parked along toe sareet, (he: gas pumps at lh~ se ..... ,il:le' station.

Ea.:n day you IPHtlS by hundreds of scenes so familiar thai you never sl\'e them a second IOOok.

I n your mm~ I.he ordin 3:1)1 and famil· iar ming> scld(lm even gel a flrst loo _ nus their ~1'J'power resides in their ordimiil.l1in s, ~heir ramiliarit;y. 0- body expects much if anything .of them and whciII yo I.!! are able to photograph (hem i.m, a W,llY that ill ro lJ5(S feelings. '!1iev.rers <Ire doubly moved because these things, are SO eommnnplace. Tilef~ like 'the quiet kid down the street. who disappears illto the woodwork wnj] one dlay you walk past the ktd' house and hear "I Bach concerto spilling {aruh, Who wou~d'Ye thought it (if lJiJat kid?

Good pl!ioltograph of familiar thillligs revise thinking. They make 01,1 reconsider your urreundings,

The)' l"evive a world p~viQusmy dead to }'our senses. Who would've [hOugtl lil1al the rrosled folds or a gar~~ bag wg~ld make a good p.botograph? Who would"ve !hO~gl:Illh;H a. cknhespi fI on a. eloihesnne ~ ould mase a good phOiograph'!

Who would haee tlllOU.ghl thaI[ tile eiethes basket ill the bedroom \loold, glow in the mo rn in,g light'! In photographing the famllillJr you may find thata razor can be as e1.<ocau\1:' as a sunset. maybe more scbecause 'i1'5 personal "TId common. an emblem of your dai y life.

A hhough belief in dll!: power Dr the fami[i3Jr can rejm1enale your 'pbotography. )'Ou might, iU first, ha,'C' trouble Iind~[Jg Il'l.hll,g:s: 100 p'howgraplD_ Everything still look,o;-well ordinar), The po psi lc stick belongs in the


hl!!:lh. The !>IIOW oathe fendfrr l1ood~ 5'\lOepl .aWOl}'. YO'!1W(lnl ~Q pfuuOl0- gr;!Ph. 1;.(11 wbybotber if}i'()l!I,seelh~m1gs I.!, ui~ial. You beeeme rn~str",t(,-d.

fru5tr!l(iOIli ~ilI,w,arB ,many new lk What calli, }'OiU do 10 overcome if! RernerT100r. you caU5C y(JDr own f !f'dt!M. R,e'Ia:t. Loosen up, Don't rush things. Don'~ expect roemuch too !iOO1'I. BOO! usc irs a dHJ"iCull, skil], dndopingll~",,'awareness, i;a kestime,

Sl3ft by starting. E~[1 i r SQmel~ i!"!!!1: i:Jiviill~ndl indeed may 'he rriv-

pholograph it !l.1"I)lllOW.Wait until }oo're alone in l'he house; then wander lill(luib !Mleruomsphm.ogra,pohm~, III se a tl'ipood or ~l.islHipeed fllnu. ",'-nh KODAL'OWR VR 400 ilind WOO f'ilm.s" }'O~ cam! often ha,rnd.boJd the l'amellil! W~,e:1II tating exisli[lg"ligI1~, pic1Ul'eS Lndoors. And the}' ,f!!~ seecialJ} ~[!~iti~ '1£1' give ootter OOIOfS l'lill00U~ filtration) than, ll(lmIalli d"IY~ light films slii;OI under '~ungS(';IfI, and: l1uOlreY:f;lll Iighti ng,. Y eu may no t IJU:lI single good picture -Illite fiirst few Iimi:s but you "i1l. nave :aohieltcd a gfe<lJ 1!_~'I()m_p~i_s~ln~ent ----II!:ioe~iel' that yoo (3111 see d'inele[ltly ,&1ieving is mil!- Once you believe }lOll C3_1l see diff~~lllIIY, you \\rill:.

n~ib 11'1 CI sink, itfi,'. a liliuwry ba.~et, fw in (J 111/), a I_ecl g'arhagc 00g .mid ""'!Y .fiIher ."<!I'11I), seenes are '('killed each' ~ mrd igllmM.




Observation lets },oll.lbeoome Familiar with yom quarry. You can. bserve from a distance O:f from Dearb),; you can observe at D·gbl or midday. You C'~~ observe l'I;i)w ;iJ subject !'dales to the surroundings how the urroundings relate to iL hO\\i il relates to YOI[I. Yea can watch light skip OW-ti it ami !tide il. ill sbado ,or flare upon it with brilliance,

The careful ,obst-ner learns mOlDY things before re-1eusiTlg, tile shutter. The careless observer learns onl,y (if theJll) after r,e'leasing the shutter. AI.though both lcam, the ,careful cbserverleams faster and :suJfers Fewe.r disappoinlments. Yet even the careful observer c .. 111', always be suse of the outcome., Will what you see show in Ihe p'l1Iotograph1 TIti.irc's only one way 110 find out for sure. Phorograph il. Oml, tht()i.!Igb much experience will your 0 bservations become relii able !l!mad iln 'ighIful

Observa!iOf[ deals, ill the' here and, now, not the flltl!II't'T You see what is before' you, But before you is a figment of time and] coillcidefltt, and l'I1ll}l not-indeed will noit-loo' the same fli,.oC hours. five' weeks, five months later. The mora]? Don'toverlook potentia I.

Lli:c <II football seout, .10 mligh'lened observer should be 0:1'1 Ithe look. OuI ror potential. that 1'3.' unnbting lad who with a little work can become a star. Think ofllilm noon drive on a road cUniing 1l1l.rough a wh~,t field. How would that scen~' look at sunset, ellrly ill the morning? Think or d~aL lone 001. How woUlI'di i i look '''ith a fLlU moo~llangin~ over it'! A creseent moon? In the blue or twilight? 11'1 the snoy,,"!

AlwaY!' keep potential In miind. A 1- ways, keep on miin.d t~.d lhingsc:anand will Joek diilierenl. Do )lOll know I.he date or the' f1.l.Im moori? The Dime the sllIn ri~ and sets? Outdoor phorographers bciilelit b ,l:an;ying <! compass


aad noting the di.roc[i(m~ diffen:nt sUlbjecl:s face .. am:! ~m3i.gining subjects under dillrerenI lighting and weather, AllphQtO'graphers should temper their obsetValioos Mth patential, See what us as .... That could be.

Don'[ hcsllate to keep notes: erea!i1l'e ideas, techniques. potential subjeers under certain conditions. Write down anything (hat comes to mind. If )fOUl trykleqinllg it all i.n your head. rCl'LII'll1 tOl1get. and if )'00 [orget, you 1'1'0]11.'1 gel like picture, Some photograpliler:;; may bclie1l'e notekeeping ,rool~ ish-amicreacive. "Artists see mild 11:ad. man" But they'll real1ly react iif II.he}, 'tJ:1 is:sedpicture because lJIey forgot sornerhing. E'I'cl1 Ti\lhen wil'IH11II1. a camera, J C"d'IT}' a poeket notebook and jot do\\'Jil any stray tho u,gh Is, about ph.otopaphy. "Orange light of seni rig sun. 011 Webster \\'3IWr' tower, E~,limale sun will set on railroad tracks April 25i. Dog sleeping (II] bed ~il by windowl:ight "Thosenotes were !'uitten w'h:i;egr'Drery '

Lefsa,y In, once again. Photograph. photograph. pliJotogm;ph. and if YOLi don't have a camera, Ieok, sec, imagine. That's !he best way to expand your awareness, to sharpen yo ur sceiTIIg, 10 dilute preconceptiol'ls. Ptu.n.ovaph things 1'0!I1 don't lJ~wlly phOLogrn:ph and in \\'<I)'S you Oe\ier imagined. force fOi.irst:1f to' phetegraph dilfe:n:nUy ror the s.ake ofpno! differently, If lI'0~'1l: a people p~otogll'apber, photograph flow.ers or rock Then pHuCll.OgJl<l.pb people as, YOM might photograph flowers !;IT rocks, Photograph '[hem from the rear Or inClude just eertain parts of their bod. _ 'Phowgraph them ill the ;ast expected ways you a1.n imagine,

(ja~1II1 as malil)' and ,'arned e.:cpe:riences as you can. because your pho. lograpby.rises from. your ex~ritn~. TluiSC experience: should include ]iealill~;ng a. 'variety oJ phQI.ography books iae art ODes as well i4S how-to.

Whal j.t (lis" ron be. Aho~ II ,f'hy s/..")J1ine up pears dJJJl €II m!dda • dull at .fUIIsel. bul .J(!riJw> I(J Ti/I!!JlI sunri,re. ep~rl!. when:lhe I-'llc;ic..! ,,"Oli' and ihe fmilirmg.r are .dfhulll'tled_ A lob.u!X{)~coltwed graifurnedjilfer WitS uwd ill the large pic,fure to ciw-tf'll' tlw sky am) wkI ro/fj,,,



1ih~ g~ry of light andsha:dow

Teaser of texnee, molder 0/ form. beare!'ojcolor, instigator 0/ sight, liglu Inabs pho,tography. .. Embrace ligllt. A.dmire it. Lore it . . But above all, stud}, IiI. Glory ii" ,tlll~fiSlS of light exploding from a cloud coveril,1t the SU1~. S}I<'ing II,umgh {he (Imber ligllt of morning. Glide tnr,ough the blue strata oj t.l'ilight. Saar lhrmlgll the ff}~staliine sk), ,after a tilunderstorm. See lrolll' one ~Wlj1lent's .light chisels lineseiean am/purges colors [Jure mul the next momenlS ligl!t buries d:e~ail il~ shad.ow. Know lighl. J(now it jor ail 1"01'/11, ('md you wili b,ow the .I('(!, 1'0 phQtogr:apliy.

, tAllONI

dll we see? 00 \II'e' see cars and lel-ephol'nC$ :ui!d desks, build· and roads"! Or do we simply dedistUTOOIlces, in 'lhelight, ripples ies in the InO\1,f of electremagmdiatiml. disruption!> lha~ we as ~~inp causi!l,g the ripples m&l~'.

A paradox. Perbap nonsensical there's no doubt we see _, ... "' ...... Perhaps 'nsiMe because llaJ doubt \n'; !Itt light. OIlI,},

1iItI!-lnOl thin,~-stri.kes the retina.

Ph) ·ol:llgically. ",;co see light-the measures intensities, contrasts, .,;ell:;n!ltn s, and tIiIe patterns they P ycnglogicaily. we see bm~n constructs me inw3ve1engths. and panems 11 model (lr ~it.y.

]111 Eye, Fib:ll'. and Camera, Ralph ~WI'IS asserts, '~rerhaps the mo.~t impenant r;),Cl 'to understand about vi.. 0111 is the exll.ent 'to w'hich we have Lr.lim.e.d ourselres from binh to see ob~b. ij3th~r than light"

As EV<ltl s SI1g;gc~[~, ~ve tendto acroepl light .IS a mere i]lum.imlli'lr, an invisililc iruerrnediate 11'1.91 reveals the wolild of rhi,ngs.. White we may normally see things to phmogmph.; it is often more important to see tbe l.ight. and in photograplit}'. it is ofJlrime im· piQ"rl<llRcebo understand dilln Llg!ht afrOCliS appearance.

When we see a bus 011 a teeping cat, we see mlll)r the Hght reflacted from the surface of the bus OJ!' from. the sull:l'ace of the C:3!t-;)I wincidenoe of[jght and surface. Wit.b each: !:Jilt jn lll!flg e of l~ighl and surface, alild with

Be Jif.kfftrl~ ap,"p'f'tmlrlU.:f ,f"Ij" lfu!. scene at rig)rI res.,./, fmm dlm!!:!!!> m lighting.

each dimming or light, bus and, cal appear di lIerently.. Their features remain. OO.~JJ]lt. Theirappeamnces do '1II0t. Light lran<sfom:t~. "ow would iI IOu:) took i:n the dark, in 'bright .llIn,. lig.hl? How wg,t!ld a cal look on an overcast day, in nvilight. Iligainst ill S~f!set? [)jffen:m.t each ~ime. milly because the mig~'t was differeat each !l.ime.

Light has several qualities that affect appearanel~l~ ,of buses .. cats, do~ ,ilind otlrer Ihings. Li~1 can raise or squelch Lexnne, reveaJ or hide Iorm enhance Oli extinguish color.

In the "Light Primer" at the end of lliI,is st:CUOTl. we'll give YOlli a refresher course 011 the q ualities of light tEl a freel a~pi!3lran.ces.



Ugluing Cllll IN- rm aclilie (jf' Q pa.~,~i~e pan of a pictIlTf~. Strang' &ecti(;>,ro} iiglirrn;g is (lei ire • mils aNonion 10 i'tself lI'ilh dark shadDi.;a ami briglilllighJighrs. I, alters Ihl" ".,* oj" a s.r:mjecl. Di/fiMI!' figllili!g does ("Ife more ,rh_ iJlumin.G!{!' (l reen.e. Ii letj the Mjt1cl !!1lrmd b_~ iw?lfIn tile pictar« abo.\t. harsb sideilghlillg m t'gi:es Ihe angles 0/ Ihe /mj/tlil!g and fh .. stride of ,1I't' Io-Q/1!,m. TlJ~ lighting mw.£s tire: f),irllffl" dymlmic. 1R lit;' pict1ire al .-irkt. di/filSe /rgln "ilI/MCts lht' l1'(mquilil)' of reflecuons in a sull SlTMm_ -/'f'Ql'1g dUlf!ct/,lfj'1J1Iipl Itlould iI,are le.sSI!IfI'td ,he pe.rWldlng· rolm_

Jdll1lY photo-grnpliJjl are takoo beca"l!ls~ pn.ulQgl"apher hiked the lighting. If ,.6ghtillg is-Ili·~righl. you can r~. todlamge or you can look fOI"

Ie! light SilllOe waiting ~smr~ ,a.lways 'ble, it's rof'Wm wiser ullook: for IeJi light.

UJok for light. look for IlhaJl: shaft li!lhl sl~ pilii'i~g (hroY:gh lb~aTlches Ind spot~iglnll'lg the pet of ~mn~ ums IDe lree·smmp.look for' sunlight fuEGWing !h~ storm th,d contrasts the house <IJ.gaimst fJeetiflig tfi!J~dej"kds,

!.,oak from the ether side of those . ntlu!lh~ed herses to see ItO'l'o' tll e ba~tIi~hting riffles. their manes and! rml~r.< f~eir f!;U~:b.

Look for Light. Walk through Illite o]tY<Jn~~ri]1tiO an alley and see how one building bl~clt¢s in Iniddill}l sun while !he In.liMi~ opposite f.nb O!l!t [0 .shadQw. Observe the interplay of light a~d sha:do.w ~ted tly Ihe fire escape. Walk into that OOlU111'y church and see l:igln po:ll!ihpews inm a sUrJoessiion of ru",~

.look .f01" ligbt. ArJ hour before SUlIi1~ set, c1imb i]lj~iO' YO~I' cal' an~ cilrive away fm!1il l~e ootting ~1l!11. See how the glass skyscrapers shimmer and glimmer \Vi Ill, the !Ok.! of time falling SUnil.. Anwi1ight, win en WI!! !l!rni.n e-~Tjfi'!torsand Wi3iue.r towers darken, see how tJille railroad ffil:cb; slow fmm light in ,ht; everhead sky.

'1lre .rail! {if flu:', ,!!iI1o<f\~. f;~;mtl~d from f~I1k'()'jv.grQpkF srQl!tli'~g behfLuJ a "-Q1erjtlll (jJr_i/ pM$Clgraphing l! ggafJ!;_~r t~ ~.:;tlillg 9W!-



~hbtDdevery li.ghl us ~hru:low, The' biggest shadm iSnl.ight" one side of ill'll: earth shaded by the other. In photogra.plly we deal with small shadews=a cloud shaciowiJllg ::IfI, (In:h~rd, au appl't'shadO'\\ing part of a table, it nose shadowing 11. cheek,

Shadows d'o m:ua.J mirng some ool'leficial. some not, Olill the goOO side, shad'Q"""S hide, brighten, ,C~lC mood. The)' C':lilll evenbe subjects. On M'e bad 'side, they OOurMSe, obscure, dist.ract.

Let's 100 - at the bright side of 5ltii!adows. Shado,ws <Ire sh~lpes, As :shapu~, t-he# can form ~llbjc;cl:S. and if repealed they C1Jn form patterns, which also 'I.4n be subjeds,

Shadows alSo hide. lfiding can be as impertant as revealing, With~n a gi\ren scene should you re"iea~, more 61 less? Too m,uch l!eVeIa:tll!l1ill in a photograph dilume:s; and dis1mcts, bounces she eye around like a piTioolt Too tittle revelation bores. g]\ffS li10thing 10 enlert.fl~1'I ~he ,~ye. You can h idle unwanted details illl shadlJ\\'"S the shadow of YOUII' hand. of }Ollili body, of a C<I rdboaro. Or a. ~,~w shadow created by it dilTerenl viewpcnnL

Of~en shreuding, but liD! hiding. a face, a. 'staimray., ,or ether detail j~ a mil of shadow intrigues l.he eye, ereales mystery. atmospbere, Try fuU, and palilially disclosing the same shadowy seem:. Which lighting fits (hat scene?

light hri~hlens. Sh..adowbrighlen .

Light brightens with illumination, Shadow bliightens with CQi'iItrast. When seen ne:u to a shadow, a l.igl1'l aile a Seems e'1!R ligB,ICif. a,oo tln,e shadow seems darker .. :'roximit), IfllOinforces diffuen.ees. Te make iii bliiilllanil: ~liIe; appear more briUi;i,fll, a bald color appear bolder. add ()MC :rich. deep shades ; [0 mallie a sh'll.ioW) scene seem more sh:adowy, add a bright area,

Shadow also mean 10 stalk stealth-


ily, ilind in photography shadows stall like photographer, Though. ~hey do so in daylight snd are there fo;r file seeing, hadows (llielll, are not noticed until 'seen: in the pb:otogmph_ In the pilologlCdph. sbarloINS cry out when nnislli!e3Jled. They say look at the del.<!ins you've hiddc:n ill my murkiness, ~ollk at how our patterns distract from. the subject,

Ovedcokiiil.g shadows is IUlturall because the irises in Llr eyes aulomati" cally opel:! 10 Jet in more detail when ra.cOO wilti, 3. shadow, All this happen:'; qu'tdtly as the r:) e SC"dHS the scene, opening for shadows, closing ror l1igblighL'i, and sending signals of detailsin 'color' that Ihe brain cemeines into an ima ge, In erfocl. you see through the shadows to rid up de" t .. ils the film ma!l' miss, and you mi~!j shadows the film cukhes.

Just as shadows lrigger your irises 1,0 open. so should they trigge1i )"our milild t.o open and al'lalyn.:what !.heir etTocls wiill be in a photograph_ Shad" ow anal.}is~sis n~~ because nnlike iJre eye's abilit~, to combine sever" al ex:pos\lres of a coatrasty soeneinto a. less contrll.sry mental image, the camera makes bm One ~xpos.ure to produce an im age Olill film. Cleiil'lly the camera 3JlIId film sec conuasty scenes diiITe'reIllly from your vision which can ~I:y sec de1ail threughout light ranges over ]OOIU_ Color prinEs and slides mm handle 3. runge of hright" ness less than ]00;1. Something's got to gi~'e. Usually it' . m.he :.hadoW5.

YOLL calli lighten shadows willi a IFf'fl&tor, fill-in nash. (If an increase iII exposure. You can .sometimes darken highlights by using <II grad uated neutral density filler OveT tlIem, suclu as in a picture with s'k)', One Ralf of this f Iter has clear glass. The other half has an iinc:re..'Isin:glyda:rke:r lin~ of gray thilll reduces inoomililg lighL \\o'ithlllu d'langilllg lhe oolorooluoe_ ~f yell! wan~ both high'li~ht and shado-w detail, )108 must redure the briglnness

range (cornrasr) so lh",~ the fil m Wi capture thaI ,detail. With black'-a.M, ",rule Ilegative film, youean over-espose and UJIlde1ide~'dQP ~ Mine system. You may alsewant [0 bailan'C'e exposure between higb light and. shadow detail, or l\ean toward fhe end wilh importanl detail.

All iIi!.;y siNJdoI ~pi11i1tg UCIOlU Ibe .piCI~ p/o)'S agfrirul 1M H'l'Il-(/P-FUU!'d ~ I'f r~ p«peise ,(jflU i15 .JJmd"w.


A'oore.,~ the .. ~ is s!!em.i'Tlglj' mndiITl§ IDI11N the w:eigJJlfJl ~hf Nghi, me ,Iiglit see/ILl ,1£1 hal'<? e plJy!it::l!1f {!reJi!11~_ K£ep~ 111£ M'Dfnl!'n iii die .rhadow an4 resi;;lmg 1M lrmiilir:mai ,rmdt:ncJ' ,Ia merl! fJWpleiliw bright ligllt lw/OTf! phMQ1"ftJpiJing li1£rn r£'fjilired il1sighr by the ph(}t(tgql_jj/r;.>r"

Somef!mn ,jj slladow 'Wi liI.m ,J~ ~~ 8J ~ picture: 8}' pMI~crphin.g Ihe

!S/wI" .. ' insI'eQd of the ~W1I. t~e ph()f(Jgr(Iphel1>!ad~ or ~Wi't' rubtle. mys,!cria!;d' p~r~re_


liF{ghI light girl'S: Wi air}" 1'lNlIWl'lic foelmg, top., tmd dim ti{fhl ~., gj,:gr,a Md J~ring; :nie lJil«! light if" sk}',ligh.~, rigltt. increases 'he pel,l.!Iil~ of this p!wifJgl'apli.



More Iham OOimlposjllioliiJ,mo~e lhim form and! shape, s(lmei.imes mart ~!3i!]1 ill I:;stlbject itse:lf. li,ght sets IihI:

IDFIoodi. And wmy 1!'lO~'] Light is w,~ registers (},I) !be film.

Forebodli.llg. le!1l~e.gloomy. ga~.

S!ldi,rhe' meeds of,Hght tumbie a~1TCW'> the scene, Mood begiM si_nrrply ";Ib q!!l.o'lIl'1h~y and then gels QlOI'it comph !..vilS ofligbt (;heer~. Lime Eigh[ sad. dens. Wam'! riglfH, the go,ld ora sunset, gladdens. Cold light the b]~ oh mill}' day. depresses. ~ I!l~ belWefll, ~oo 8:JJld 1i1Ue and warm and cold, bur. ge<l1Ii 'COlnb~n<llI:iO!l:is of faclOrs like dJ.. rection, ~arshl'u;,ss, contgs1;, <lim! sli1r ~i lh1l.l ean s~"de mood ill U1aIl!' di rectlons,

Frnm a ,gi\'.CI'I phOIO<Jl;mplil, 'we ffiiI}' wable to dissect each rib amd 3fltlJ of light and! may 1;:\'1':1:1 be a b!eto ~bffif [how they quicken iii ph(ilt~,,;ph. Vel the V;;I rieues oflighn are SO l'ThilI!ly tlia~ !i'ic can't p!lS'&ib]y an1ll~cipal:e the mal1~' moods G'ire<Jiled.

We rnn<Jcct.p1 tha t ~jghl d!oes help crecne IInood ,and that unless we caref"GUy observe light, we~JJ Cll.ld'l .rml} the (J'bvious H1oods-[];,e Cils£cades, r:i sunbeams Sp.rayifl_g fmm a thullder. head orthe b;u:kl~ghti:!l,g S'i(Jkinga moolel'$ mane.

~~t~ood does 1l0~ eq:W!te with. dmm~ al~Re. Mood cam be !fuMe It au] be a q ul It "",,,I:' light !lnd'$hildo~r 11.1. tered, 001110 a bedmmll wa.lL It call he the hfghljghrs glimm~rul1g iWilhe dr~p> Oil ~he :shol"rt'r I:i~cs or the yeD:ow i~!lh l 'of even! ng (In a fence,


Light Prinw

S~I'!li"X-I]ghl P'I<3Ill:es suhjocms "lsi hle, y()U should .know rhn:e im(!!Ona nt characteristies or Hghl 'lind ~liIrnuellce your pereepdons of subjoct!>_ These eharaeare direction. CJjmdity, and


Fro:niH~l1mm.!l is whenthe ~ight Wu:J'il;e i..'5 ~i1ind Lh\O plilowgm.phi1T_ Direct II"rollUi~rilll;g male; ~IUQ! look f:ClIt 'rut ~diJy shows shepe, Castbehind subjC.CES .. sha(JmI'!i, diMPpca:r litdllctng

'I he tl'lree-dimensi,ona Ii l}' of a scene, Fronl.1ighuog, excels in revealing detail.


QU:f:llIt}' ,roCfl. to 1'If:l1i'S~ orsoltness of nile hglliing. Pount sources, $",,11 as Ihe sun and electronlc Oa~h_ give harsh !i~h~ (sh;a.!1P shadows). DiOw.: SOUI'Ce&. such as ,an ove eeast sli~, shade Hgbullg. IJ'f bounce Haslil, give soft. ~'iglilt (unsharp shadows),

H!!~~ ~igh!'

The st~ong, direct1on!l!J ~iglJt from the SlLII'l bleaches subl~e colors and burnishes, Millial1JiC1lt~Drs.._ h often gh es II!I.rd and ~ca "r shadows, ~!I1 C(lntr,lsl with higbl'igi!ls. I! workswell with simple aR~ bolJ[). subjects but can overwhdm more delieate O~,


Ugh! C<l!1'! 'OOi~e> 'from 'll'irll!<Il1y 1!.1lI} direction, and each direetlen aiffen~ the O!p:pea~ of a SIEIIf'S. threed~m~Il!liumdi'Y' The most eommon

d~ reetions are rrcn~~igltting~ siddi.ghti IIIg. iUld t>w:II!J~!lhhl'll!,


S;delighli!lg is when the l.ight S:OIlfCie is

III the iDIEIotograp:lmf's,:side_ With sid.cligbtinlg .• hadows become apparent, IIlItil>in.g U::dI!HC all~ rounding-era form, Si.:l£iligflli.n,g excelsia rcvCll~il'liljllb:n:c· diml!nsiomalily. Willlil:!arsh ~delipLin!!. shadows may inlnKJe. A.1l exposure

i nceease of 1 to I: 112 SlOPS m'3l!l' be required 10 she .... ' shalllow de'lain_


&d:ligh~.i!1g is, \Ii'hell the lig,bt source shines in thephutcgr .. phBl"·s laee, 'Backligbiillg can jndicate distance and mise texture, Wi[~ 11Irge sreoos, ha\dng a forcgrnlJlnd andbackground, ihad.ows ,~st l~ar1i. the camera im:!l:ica.11: distance, With small iSCCIiJ.ei. lhe ~~ows, primruil},u-cveai LCllulT and soco.lldarib' dislance,


Sofi lighi revives subtle huesand q~jru bold colors, Often direetionfess, 11 SIle-JIlS tu come from all. 0'0'(;]", Soft shadows anil! dUlll MgIiI~gbLli gi,'c a 100¥ ClJlIlila~t ~al works wcll [or snowing detail i~ bWli or delicate SUb~Ci" Soft ~t i~ fa¥Dred for .I)()n~ IS.


Color o~nales rmm light Midday mnl .lIl appears colorless because in CII1I'iils a Ilea rill' C'o"eJ]mixtl:J1l'e of a.1I1

WJ\ II1ngtll~_ EM dlc ·oo:~or 0'1 daylighl til) VII)" wi~h Lime or day, with the: ,.allier_ seasons, aOO,lali.ll!lde_

0i:I :i!; orangish, (hcn:ast da"

shade, 1I11d twllligiu arc' bluish, If a color isll"1 ~'hat you ~Ilt. you am. ,change k

hh Iiker, A1dll;lUgh t!lnlgSllcD tights cofllaiJ'i a fuJI. ra:n~ of wa\.lekoi!l:lhs., m,bey LliSl!ally are abllndam wn e'Uow and red \li";!ve-lel1glb Flu(l.resun1 lights lack .S0JD2' WO!.vele.ngths,. t)'pia:dly red, liL':5ultiing inpidwcs !rom ,d:ayfigJiT film

colw Of,rklTIighI manges iII'irh rml€ und afmrrspJleric condiliwu. As piclrue:r shm r. colOI' o/liglu rIM fed (if Q Kffle.

being ~i[J.ged greenish.

Thli: e 'C tends, to !iCC ,eonst:lI)1 (;01&.

Thai is it sees white JlillpiW as white in sunlight er hm,gslen n~b1. ,iI face as rao:: rolored uoda-a variely of !igM SOIl~ even th(l~gb paper and] fi Us reflect th d:iffer-enl 'colors or the light 00 ~Lt"eCS. As R.. L_ Gregory tales in c..'e Ql1d Brain. 'TIlt: eye 1en& to ,acg;pt as white Rut 3 ,aiiliclII]aJ"' mil'lLure or coleurs, bot ralhcl1i die gellcmli iil]u lI1i nation wllateller th is may be,"

Bu( film rreadlily picks u:p color diH'el\e>lIces (rom. different tig:llt SOIJrne!!." thus. for proper colorarien, film must be filu;::md or QUtched m· the li,ilht SOU I1%. Dayti~,dn film 'rOf diiyli,g'ln, IIlI!)gstem rilm for i.1l1il,gSIOO ~ight.,

i ni;ol'l'lin, ligbt ca II be Iiltered to pl"O'oIidc eerrect ColeB in 'pictures.


B}i dilliniliiofl light is cIOOIlI'Dmagne:1ic radiation whi~h the ,eye: em detect. Du~. ,e!eclromagnetil;; ndi:Uion iinoludes more' thanlight, h. includes x~m~, microw,Si;''CS and radio \!io'S\fCli, and ranges illl ~i3J\"ellmgllls rrom II fraotiimJ, of a billlo:nl1l, eli' an inch (plifima my.s:) to miles IOll~ (l01lg: :r,uf (I 'w;aves).

Light wa!o'cs- an: about I 50.000 or au inch long,

Nea rl)' e~a')' (orm of l'ife reacts ~o light [n rl!.llCtion, the numaQ eye read. to light tbmu8h two s}'~'I.ems: O'lle Srs~lirn r or ni.ghn:ime 'sOeing~ the other for daytime s.eeill_g, Rod cells linillg 'Ure reLinafulld!lol1illl dim light. cOile ,cellS. ~e other ROOIl[Qrs, in rDripl light. So sensitive is do: nighttime fision that die smallest qUlIIu:ity of light. one' qUilnrum &3Ulle~ !l! ,cbemiad change in a rod mil or the retina. However, i~ mL:es 5 La 10 quanta at lite retina '10 make a chemicat change la rge ,enough tn create an elecrn,cal impulse !hal is, seatto the IMain rcsu'lring in the sensation of lighL I n perfect conditi.onill. 5 10 10 quanta. reach ~he retina from II candle ] '1 miles ,awlIY·

Si.rn,ilarly. ene quantun» of Itllbt ean 'bG deleCled by a oemii'bn~ fibn, but rOil. or more ql!l!o'!1nl<l are ['oquired tQ produa: alatent imal~ that can k de'!{eh,l~"


Bements or the scene

Before y01't can }ind s(}me"'il~gJ y@u have 10 kn:ow ~",'hal .rO'u"re .looking /0'1'. To ,diagnose, i1 daaor looks/or speci/k sympl'oms,: a discol()raliou of .rrng;emai/~;. a rash tIm IIle inside oj the elbow. 1',0 instmcl. (J go!fl,eadJer looks elf ,the pupil's f()rm.~ a slijJ,lejl arm, tile shifti~g of 'Iveight. the track of tile swil~g! flte follow-thr:ough. Wha" mvuid ap~r(}t()gtap:heT 1001< for? l.ine, sll.ape" form. texmre, color, dimension. aJlli the subject il;~elf-lhese are tll'' ,Il'(! eruical visuall!iel'n€nts.

Lille, shilipe, [exuDe, form, and c;(Dlcr !I'!: ~ parts ~r s:~h in viisu31 langwge. phOio<g.mph)li.m1, our case, ~hat !.be e)1: milrl mind seek toidernl:iil"y the II;nrld_ Comm{ln !Q most subjects, these tr.lllts8ire no~ al WBI.ys given equal impomlJ~e by lie mind, which tends [(I di~[i~l, eSp'~ia.lly when jruoi. one dJimcreri~tic ide:nil.ifles. The: key It) sly may beCOIQIf" ~o an egg. shape. am 10 s!I.nd,[exrme_

T€I ~llle ~uenl In oomml!micatiDg il]ro~ll:hpbowgnl.pby" .y<lu mus.[ boc,.ome CO I'II'I.pe1!en !.I n Ii mk i1llg the parts 0:1 110' form. ~jle l'Ooolor-lo make a clear ,COI)cise S'IaJtemenL \lOll! get b~~ one c~ If )'OU have to point m, t~~~gs in }'Olilf pno[ogJliIpb and mutter, ~lOO righllhe:rre.., see the WIli'l' the trw lnink. inlersecLS [he road,. l,haCs wha~ m3bs i~ work," then lin: pll.orograph daes:n'~ work.

ute P<lNS of speech. :tin~. s;~'aD~, color. Jorm, and t~t:rIre caJR be comhim!I 10 $ay n:111f:ly things, You, ~ ea rp, clarify._ or obscure. With- 111 a pbowgrapb. _you can <I 1'0- taro nearly as aPllJil:ren~!l!ld 'I<!:ogibi,e as if i~. were sitting atop lI~.e plill.1)to]!r3J1h. Qr you Ic:an make i.t as ~nvi'sib1,e mI inia.rngib~e as though it were un- 1lagro1l!1ld,

l.llri!. shape, tel: !Uf'C. and the res l male up what ",--e·co.nsid~ aesthetic ~l!ts-ir.~naJll~ pleasingly Ihey make li[I! a g.ood p~oLQgr"p'h. mIeIiIl~es. howe¥e£. a sllbjeellacb ""lUiIlOO aesthetics. yet still makes a photograph" Why?Bl:ciwse:i t's

tl!m1!S ltol etten ~_ They provide

(I]! IU1COm:m.OD informailionand ~he\l;iewer's, curiosity and, '·!IllIllWle. ~rnteUoc[_

SJ:jfrnr from tire mhiin1J' 1>0 IN£ oiJslrrti t1>ll bt ;Jjffr;rnir J~ :slwuld he pr.«11reil so J.:!II<b!'1 miss~!'mit~ iih! Itwse d.1RIii1g brolitfITJ-

f,ew would arg~ dUlIm3!1l aulhemic' pholograp~ (If tll'a.eLoclIi Ness m@JnF stee or of aliens d:isem.badi1:l.g from. a. UFO woy~d bve' great Olppeal,e\'(!;!l iif l!Iot a.eslheneaUy 1Op"I:'I.Olc1il. A!li U1iIMlnt[ event, however, need [lot be q!llit¢ that iJll~U!l~. It l!1i!iglM be a dog·, sled moe, a hav.\k ,cl.utch~mg a snake, agifl pe-noml][J_g anobatics on heal' skal:.eboasd. or ;:Ii spider w:ra.ppifJ!i:

.... ,grasshopper in a shroud of sn. M aga:li~~s like G,eQ and lio~alioll(ll Geagl'{lpiJi€ enthrall readers with I!lIdr events, ~heiit P~liit<ltions of "eeeearrle' rimals and life sty!~ i.1'I fSili'-UJU:nI,g eounnses,

Wffil-eHe.llfcv y c-~ firldi sOm ed,iIlg qU<l~ifying as an enUlS'I:l3i:~ e>.-Ioot. do YOW" best, walw leltpToi:( i tsaesthetic q;ualitl.(S ..


lI: 1£

ElL E:

unes can be l.hit:kor tbin, ~o'll!g 0Ji 'hm;t, straight or cuned~e'Xplicit or impllcil. horizonta]. vertfeal or ohriqlue. Lines lead, separate, CODIIlcct. ~l a .bilize.. and deSIa:biJiUi. ThCj' ta ie Iil'IBmy forms, as, <llfll)'QliIe knows who has ever tood waiting Ito cash at c:hec' or Ita nml Ills h!ilnds ever die sled:: feno,er of a new car. R oad s, j:en~ [me trunks, SIems, hoeizcns roofs, and man:biing: s.oldiers a~1 form lines.

Mood and aClion are ofii;:t11 attribuied ~o oriensa bon and shape '0 r lines. VetI!.icul ana horizoMal lines are COJlJsidered formal and srahje, a mil oblique lines are' s;:Iid to be d}'1Iiamic. Any~y who has ever slmppe<i while in tile~'erti¢al.p'unged through the ob ique, OInd 'come [Q rest in dIe horiZOIilIa] can undersland \I.;by vertical and horizemtcd lillie' consideredi stable and oblique considered d)'ll-a:mic.

S-:sIttBl~ rines are said to be Iranquit An s-sha,p(d road may appear tranquil, but how many people would f'mdl trad:lqllilit)l in an s~llil'ed m~lke1 1m: ultima le'leffea ef lines, Or any element, depends on subject maUer and nearmeat,

[nterestinyy enough, the a:p;peal of lines liliilI5 <I physiological basis as the e}i'e and brai!!, seek ILhem ,mill as 'the basic building Mods in. idemlifying objects. Certain ,cclll's in the visum corlex. ,of tile b.rai~ and nellirldpail:bways teadililg w :it respond oniy to impulses from the retina !hat indicate certain line orientation. Other eelis respond oRI)' U)I centous lines such as those formed by the allldine of YOUT hand wlle<n placed on a b'JI!.II; notebook. The vahie or re polldill\g to Spocir'lC line orilOiDla~.ions is [h:n the brainl can readily picll: OlU_ mges, COJ'llOUJ'S., and angles, ilia t i ndieate the end of eae '0 b· jeer mr n'!ature and the Ilegjl'lni1lS of auother, TIi! other words" YOI!l 'tal'! leU where your I'eg stops ,ul,dYCUf shoe :starts.


Hard and aJlgu/:aI', :maiglu lines feno te be more a liJ'e whetl aMique 4f ill Ille ro/l4ul pain, b"Mll h;mdka tm.d IG be more passJi:e '"'!'ten, ilOraomm 0' 'fCr,tit;cd m in tiie tree tnmks iJeW'iC.

W!IJ ~f.Ij1€ (uta ,"~. "rm', NU'!' rl"X{'"rf rkarl)' T'e,'Mkd.jO'Tn ifltes rif

A >Jrenmiel'ing hf~-I1J!' IffHI!S ~ed il'hM fNmlPfJr&f with ,Ihe lem;iMJ ()J Iliff .fl'l'~1 b""l!s in the flliu>.I' piCfliFa ~ llris ~qHeIlJ.



Form lIe\o'ell!.l the' world in IlS three dimensions, adding velame and depth to the 'heighl and wild1~.h or shape, Wlile:rea:s shape identifies lips .. form conveys their 11IlIness_ B, rendering the form of a. pear. a face. or any oth[~IJ" 'IIIbjocl. you [Jro'rlmy it with a cornpe:Uiliilg re.alisJn that ammos.~ convinces

the viewer ro reach out and 'bile the pear.

Di:rre:I'Cnl forms arouse different responses. Forms of commonly held, Sltil an objects Ii ke a !II. -OOgl: or cake 01 a bar ofs(I'ap genernily dicit a stronger physicaJ response than forms. or I' fge Objects., [ike!~oU£,CS., that ca 1'1 ooly he viewed, Gi;1!l U e, cUliVing forms'Sugge. ....


LlYe of the luWliUl!111 body onen amuse pIe.asatlt and sensual rQelliQg.5. lIard, ,angular fllr~ like stai~. atypical (If nature, provoke more Iliiilliilyocal. even aggressiee ree:]ing;.. lit) ume and, depth OffO'llll on ill 'flat piece of paper seems illogical nI.IDIii~ you consideili that vi ~on itself KI1SeS depth and volume from the com.parali\'ely nU surface or the r-etina, Although the ey-es g<!~ner from. iii scene stereoscopic and olher cues not ii'! a photograph, the WI1OS! importam cue in con,.-eying form i r-eadif)' depicted phologr.,l.phicaUy. That Cue is slila(iil'lg. Allld ~he key lO s:hoading i~ l:igjl,llil1l.g. By choosing ~igluing thai dearil)' diffe.renua.le~ the V3Ji)fing Surraces ·of a subject with higlhli§hts and shadows. you ha .. ,!: delineated rQrmnOSJIril$ swell. eye sockets recede. biceps bulge.

aryli:ng. degrt:tS of harsh .a:nd dif· fuse sidelightingbest reveal fOfU'l1 (hi: most suitable combination depending [01\ 5'!.!bjec! matter and ~n1enL_ A dir· fuse sidelight. 'mclli as from II northern window; yieldl:i a wide tol1<i1lrange. Th;: grOldlJ1laltl'3!ns.ltion from hi,ghligll1 to daflk~hO!dow easily aocen~s suhtk forms, such as ihe striation» of a slomach or t.he ridges or lendon~, Oil the hack cf a hand. Diffuse direction.. I light also WO!Fiks well in showillg tile formm, of cUinoo S;1l~ects likepears ilJld nee limb5, Harsh sidelight. s1I.Cb as !JIiI,a'1 or an elactrooic flash or th'l) sun. gii es 1I10fe 'CODIm-S.t, abruptly shifting fro:m high~ighl te shadow, [l rna}!' hide sma" cl!eta~ls inhadow .

. I~ mJ LhI'e<! pil:t.we.s,jf!nrl is $11Tfflg1'y ~ by srtkligllling. With f~ third diJnensiofl oj }11_ teTf:tlJed, ead; plmlograph COlJ'lQ dasi;!!iI to ,imilaling the ditplh rhlifis pun r1j reaflt y. 11M' Dl!ili1y tJ/ KODAK Pun Film if) Tu-Idfmi' tr:ma1 gr:stklinll IwIps blfiflg uut l'he jami in 1M blaC'k-m- .... l!ile pJ/{).rog~.


_ rousln 110 Ionn. te'XUI~ describes the three dimens.ions of surface an:d is ,commonty descnbedassmooth OJ" rough. Just as highligktiing fOIilTI gives an immediacy 10 a s1!l.bjocr. so dtDCS higMighl]1lg ~extu reo The subject berome:> real,

Texture bockons with a w,aggle and! a caress. The 'wagg,le appeals to sight. The caress lQ touch, Pen.:eiving texture in a pitoil.l)graph i. I.i'ke tryi[lg to comfort a scoMed child. Standoffish. , uJti1ilg, the child keep her distance. lening you see but not (ouch her. Y01lll W'3[1~ 10 reach out and soothe' her so

bad1y lha,l you can feel her ii~ your arms though she j, n t there. So it is with texture. You see it so dea.dy YOIli think you can fed it, though .0111 can't

Sighl is aloof, .our there, awa~' from us, T oueh is illtima1e. here, nl:J.:.iU 10 us, l'ollQh li;, the clothes on our b~~*. thi;i coins :5pi~lwng, from our hands. Texlure is t01l!eh. In a photo,gr.aph. lexture evokes a variety o.r SC:D'IISlllUQlIlS <lind reelings associased with touching [hal lenun.:. When y013 bite into an apple, the tongue lI.41t only reds its texture but reports on ils tangy taste, :3J1Il.d lliIe: nOSCIlO:tc, its aroma, Witten

)1011 waJ]k across the beach ODI 3 mer day, the fret feel not Old. ilIe grit of the sand bui leap' from l<]bs ~r heal. Hot, cold, sweet, Ii.

till'. sharp, ~h!ll], and other sensarions pal around with tClI;lure:.

Sma,tl by nature, lextulfC: elttdl.--s ll1iJLr notice. Learn 10 think (II tesmres in dirfe!fi::ti'l W3i'y~. Or:aIlgL'S aDd eggs are relatively smeeth. Bill relali\l'e is relati .. -e_ Enlarge an orall£t to the size of'she earth ~D'IId its S\\l'iJllow the Grand Canyon.

Delicate kdures lik'e an peel are best dcliiiiied by a harsh, skimming sidelight.Large, rough [fl!;tiI1l.1 I~ke oak bo!;rk aRi' best revealed by dir·' light from theside 'OT from, On rough textured o'bjec~s, a h5inh, 'skirnr ming 'sidelig_lin may t~LI'OY,T shadowt that hide detail.

Te$:mr~:; u/:mUM in fhis pic.rtL1'l'. TIle

of I hlanker. r},,> pt'diiJg wall. I&> saddl~. rhl" hanIk illl.J [at«, ,e'ren rllf! If'( r! ,Il~ hunk bed, Dll C'rlfflbil-li' W .. ,.-d;,. Il .iliid pot'lrtJil of tile !lparttm Ii/it of a C''''''~')''

1Il!ad-rm lightirtg. 1Ioii101n pir1_flW.. ,dfmmw,f'ri I!'xlll« ~"'1l?ffi1S 00. tfghlmg. iop' ~, enhonee» 1l'J3111e,

ilI'O ri/k,r of a .WIId (fUite t;ei'ClH lhe uf IightiiJg an It..lfnlr?. '[1M bnw.d!!'lI':!lI fJj lhe- ~~ft gi"lk" of fhe ~ is n~R{1 oJ' lretHl-on if{?hlfng I r KIIII?f't?~ tf)ilm'e. ~ l''.~ 00' du!-

.wit- of ~h!ii dtlJU' t1H .{l{'('.["rl rlJtJjM by 'tilling.

ImJ Ii} lJlink. O/IPJ1JJFf! as .&JnalJ bu~ clIili'WI'fJ"h l{/rg~ ~Jes mw.!l,gll _,, __ -._ ~_ •••• {'(m ~:rrltibil U}!t/'UI'l.' •.


"Gi.\o'c· them any color they want so kmgas iI's black." Atllributed to HenI}' ford talking about hi" Model Ts" (hose sendmears Iuu'e rall'e:11 by the \.\"a)'Side. A mere accurate .. iiflilOI more ~nt. a ssessm,en I or the power of CO~OIi was, made by ,ric the IRed who di~vered. a oornrelll land asd tried 10 luI'(: senlers b dubbing iL Geeenland.

Powers to a.JTect m i nd and body 00"'1;; loag beeD attrib~(edl to 00101'. Red excites. Blue calms, Green heals. BmYl'[1 saddens.

The most obvious power of color is Ihal o[attmclio·lI1l. Throughout evolutio:i1l,oa rte r between. briglll colors and dire e)'e has bUi~1 a stro ng rel~ lion shj~. Dandelions and roses have used Im,ght eolor to indicate a '!\Illlingtless to Lrademea' . for a deli!or'el)' QfpoUen. Al)pte~, and strnwberries have' used brig;hl color to indicate 3! ",rjJlillgness 1,0 trade meals ror a spr-eading ol seed, Hnmans have used bright colors i~ Ii e\ imaginable, from hawking

haHlpoC! to pedd~ ing pens,


All:h<l~ the .appeal of bright eolOI'S is p;uural, sul!:!llle eelors !ibou'dlil'. be overlooked, How often do, )'\01.1 use subtle ~·olorsit:l your photograph~1 Probaby not too ,OOC1li. Dull is dull. Or ls i.? Look again, Observtl aoo analyze. 0 ell wi thin [he somber browns of ovembcr (om sUilbhie. Daydrt:am in the p3ls~d greens of spring buds. Contemplative, Me1acholic, Inrrespeetive, iQnly rhoug'htless phato-gJrnphers !ire d 1:111.

llollkl ,a:ndl Bi..ght COla

They :rame_ They dazzle. They 'ale and tussle, If they aren't the ~ntemdoo. subj~l, bold] and b:ri.ght colors soon will be. ,ov--.:nhrowing form, doposing line. oG'lIISlill:g rex ture, Reoogn ize them as (:I!iJ- 'JieDS ofph-atogro,phy trying to ~ure you onto the- eocks,

Hiimdled wit h CiilQ!. bold a nd bri~ I colons 'COlIn spo ~.Ilight. ulalie. surpri ingl}\". sadden,~f dtey aoe die subject, trea~ them simply. Take one Oii" ~wo colors and . lltapll: them iinto

gw:aphic design l'Jy using .. iewpoi nr and fmmiltg 10 exclude me exuaneQ!!IS, .ore than two bold! and bright ",!lIors tend to 00 erwhel m aad confuse,an effect usef ul only if )'Dli wllnl to overwhe:lm and confuse,

Utl!icy are secondary to lob subjetl., and brigh~bues y,Ui can exelede them: ) QUi call remove them ir pDflai.ble. yQ~ Cililll hide (hem in shadows, or yo II, 3J1 use b~< flllm.

oranges, lemons, limes,

MilS, viDlclS-1bc world drips with , s.o il liIli~HIt come as little surprisa \POl! pef!.'civ~ iil $Q well. Yet. H should a mrpris;e. AmoJlg tile nli'lligns of

.\~ tmItut'(:S only a handflll-11Qrne b[rd!:, III fei<\' ri:s-'h and in:SWts-cf!1l liliiibllpil;h colo!'.

lig_hl itsl:lf LS c.Qloru:ss, roots In I!i!dll. light

,- not color bllt dilTe'lf'ell.l

~ .. c-oncspilMiu,g to tlre dirrcrc[li ~ ths of light U is tile way dia.l ~"lsm i[1,icrp:rm IliiC ene.l'fffi of" '1001 can give rise 10 til,!:! pBlltq!tiuli

color. E\'~l1 so, the mj~r,!! capabiTil)' of iog to di'IIcn;nt energies of light l automatically grant perception alIor. Squirrel aIlilgll!tors, and many artimi!lls h1l\'1: tbc biiOIQ~OJI'

calion to di uliIglllislil dHTC'RIl,1

oj light. bll~ ~bey ladle lbe

to seei; as color. In~aead ~bey shade oruey, like a IJlad:phOIOgr.liph,_

Oal) ""hen Ihe ~ary bi0Jogj£a1 ruSl~ COlO (.,010:[ exist. Thac

IS calI!ed 3, oonc. SOllie ~D OOI'li:S Ii ne ilbe lom!l'n 1f'e111la. rnnsisu, Of'lhlee types. ~h ~ypc

ba .. Oil slightly diFrereru pigment mo~ule that is mosr scn:si[i,~ to ccrtaiu wa\'eJ~tns of lidn. One type ~oJ'lds mruli}! 10 long Wl!IHdeng!hs (u$ul3Jlly seen as red), anomer' [0 shon v,alo'l:lengtiu hl:ludly see!'! as bhul},;and the l,ast to inlemcd,ial,e \\T3'-e!lengnhs

(II lIally seen as green). !From rmxtuees oIl'lltes(: three eelors arise all col~orli.. Thus if tile red-perceiving cones arc slimilialed. q"E 'see red. IBIle red- ilnd blee-perceiving cones a.[C stimul:nOO. we sec magenta, If the red- lIod g_J':ef np:rorri"'ing 'COIH:S are stimulated, .... .e see )'ellow. If a ll t,brtt types of canes are 'i!'([llaily .slimub 00" we see shades of gr.ey. de'pending upon 'imlw s:troitg_ the sumulation is.

Because sUlllig_hl 'COlilZLilllS a full ra~ of wa velengths s!imulate5 all lhn:c lnJ(~-5 of cones. it normai! appears oolort!:;sIL filo"" I[bel] is i~ ~ba i }lour seeks Of car can appear red if the) arc Iii, by the lfIeu tral liltb1, of the SIII.n"!' BecauiiC !bey absorl1 ;Orne wavcleoglhs aM refloc( others, We see the ORes Ihey n:iIli?cr_ Or CDJIIlple, you r red socks appear red. because ti'iey rcRocI tile ",:aVl1lcngths ilia ... slj,mu!a~1; lim red receptors .:!1M ab;oorb Ih.~ 'Wll¥!:'lk:,n:glbs llIa,t would ha~ stimulated ;bc other

receptors. 'Which wa .... elengths or light an objocl absorbs or rcl"fucls depends 011 its atom:ic and llIlol'«:u:l8l1:' structure,

A .!.Mall:5p(lI·VJbright(fJ/o~.ilian area 0/ nemral cot!JT imn1edim&Jf llm'a'r'l:r IIJp e}'f, liiJ:hNg1lliTig 11le .mbject.


l,tI1l:!eS/reJ' color I.'l' 'lWleJ by '",ilight, top, IIY' JUg, &mllm, IIw fiJl'tel rffNl};s il1. ,ire ~ mf)()d/J!ess.


Muted 00]Of~WOIi: kt."ll~e they s;u,gges~-3IJ:d I~udeed elten derive fromrnooo~' weather and IIllOOOIY times of day _ Wh.ilJ~ weali,¢rm~tc5 color'! f'Qg:. Fo1illl, ~(IW. NIlA';' il.b~n!k (If ,l"OW" t';l:pcm,e,nQes <J[nda1's'O'Cialicm with such weatiller: 11:1e blare of f(lgh(i!m~" th~ ~w''eqI ofwindsllieldlwipel's, Ilhe slants ohn(n\! ~~Ils! headJl~gh~s. Irs" lime to Ilelreat indooFS [0 abook Oll a [l<!P, occasionally arisiR!!! 1:0 pa n the curtains and g37Jfl 1)1Itside. Somber. quie{, melaDcli,olic. whatueiF fee~'iQ!!r'" you associate with such weather \'rill suri'a,cein YO~!f pholol:lrnphs of 'milled colors.

Mud! of the mooo deriees from ~he ~'o"" I~,,~ ol" ~llumimllioll ,and the ]OW eonrrast ofs.l,lf"h times, With slide f1'1rn, cameraexposuse a.ITects app,a,rerrnlt illumination. You 1:311 make a scene appeat clarke] lind FJruOll: d is]1lJ<l~ by unde rexposing r.lio~ fi!mCllr:rIil~re clmoorf!!!1 byov,em::po&intg ll. IfllHtecontmn is ~~, low rl;lnr~!!r purposes and }'I1li1:l are ~sing K.O:[M.K ~K.'irArnROM 1::. Film. you caa increase [hie 'COlli trasr by d(l L1b~in1g 111", film; speed. I(do it tOli the wh.ol.e mIl <lind eequest push jrroeessing from your dea]u). You also wnc::rease rhe grain sU.ghtlr. an ~ffecl lih a 1 mil)' mtensifv :moodruness_

[iii Nd weather and at dusk, pOOmgmph!:tS all too oRen head indoors. [)Imll't. Dress appropriarety. 'p:mtl)¢t your romera brY~iPpiflg, it under ~Olll coat or inl(!> ap[a<:tic ba,'gwillil a hole cut our 1'0r the ~efls. and ".elltlilfl: CUl· doon..Y,olll can make mini ,3 nd snow show as hll!ilri'Cd sbrii!'lgtl, by lJisin,g sh!li~ter speeds around 1.f30!'iOOQml Ynu ~]l f~.:e them with elect ranic ilIMb or a :sbuue. &~ of Ij 125 seeond Of fll:ster. For rain or snow to sht:w.,. it must L'(lntmst \:vilh the back:,grooru:L so indtlde adark bl:u::k.~ro!J'f!d in pan of yOW'" picture,

.:1"1 .. ",,,.1,,""" oolG:I'S, <Ire colors .. ilS the word harmonic S-'!i!>gg~sts, a of .similar colors lends to be (IIg~lble and pleasant. Orangesaud , b~LJ~S and vioiets,groell5 Oi:IDl,d are harmonie comalnatiens. A'Ieasil.¥ f(l und , many people mM,.-r!,,,\k ~llrmani'C colors because ,of quietness,

They <Ire espeeially 'prevaletiU ill 11<1- • bJl'1:--ltle ~uieL browns (lr ,3 fidd in

Nevembee, the gende greens Qf l!he same r.~ld ~In May _ "'\flilc!'! photo,graphing: oUldoor:s, look fol" harmonic colors and use them to i nstill a pensive !1],ood W YQut ph.owgl1lphs_

Hantu:mtc colors unify a p.lctUIre.

D~ssimi lar subjects become rooted in the fimnament of OO!tif-

Sometimes, YOIi ean induce or strengthen harmonic ooliors througlli the use olr subtle fihlJ'.!~ion.. M ade of gelatin, KODAK Cololi Compensating

Fillers are available in red. green, blue. yeUow. cyamt. and magenia . Th~!I' <life made insever a 1 densities froma wisp ·of coler to mediam-da rk O!J1!J.f. Using filtration to create a Em rrnonie celer dr~i works best ill! dir[use lighti ngand when the scene has many neu lr.l~ 'ocr [leaf-ne~,uml colcrs rhae wm pick ~p rhe ,1ii11!er color. 8tronglig~Hing <lind strong colors muscle (bul suhtfe ~llrI:l1i()n .

.H..:mnOllM: CG.lIJl'S: link tagethl!l' tile I"miGk! df'lurRlS of <i phoJogTup/J. Blue links the dUlil' to ,!/N! {lowers ...... '''11 /0 tire fflQgc1ilG .fl1J''''-"~ 1Jl;J/iclJ mow SOOIJ! b/f:lisJrnHs. Tlj~ ('!>ilpO" Mair also ewk('s I/wugilrs oj Iii;! p.t<rsM 14"/lQ WIl!l!/UIWS sus Ill"," udmif'irrg ihe }1o'.'€ri>.




E,,\ery objcrl has size, A scre\l;dri~ ~us:;,; .. £' __ a smowmohi~e has size. BUl a subjects, me isn't auiomatically COIlveyed by a photograph. If size i important, and often it ~ then 31'OU nood to (lomiider how 1£1 convey jo'OLLr impressions of size.

Fin' or all, whatever a slJbjec~-s size, big 3£ 311l. elephlUill or swan s a pea, it OLD be rel1d,,1iCd no larger than the film fr u me or the enlarged p'holOgro"h_ For most, bl.ll not a~1 tbings ;you photqgHlph, .hi", means the image size ';\,iI] be 'less iham [he real ize,

How rnneh of the' photograph the

slIbjecl fills colJ:[dbl.ltJe- to imlpres~ sion!> of its sire. You can Iitlake :~arge SI!l~1!.5 seem :mlal 'by giving them b1!lJ1l ,81 sm all portion of 'the picture area, A picture ,of an oak wing up only OJ [liactioli1i of the picture area makes rhe oak. seem but a SOlan part ora vast expanse, By fi]!-i~g lhe rrnm,e With the oak, it nOW seems eeasiderabtl' larger _

FiIWing the frame also changes ~he emphasis of the picture, Before, the picture was of a sma,lI :mbjed in iii larg.e space, now it is a picture or a tElee--the we,a,viing of i15 limbs, the te hl!;C of i!--; bark.

T o stress Lillo:: largene s of I~ ~lIlings Or the sm.anness of small ~hings,or • o invert and make [;i!rp' seem slnall and small seem l~rge.1k subject Plust be counterpointed witha subject IOf known size. You mlJi l Gtablish scal~. A poedle au.}!" an deph<'!n~, a bee alO,p :lI1iL a.pp~e, a b~ ueberI)' benesth 8J Fork. a mrnmfain climooatop 11 rid:g all of known 31a_, all help create scaJ!.l, g!l.'1; a .rise of sizes.

B-" in.-lading u :n.rbjr5.:1 tif "_"'''''~1 sj~. _ as {I car. lhe 'r(.lNrne~-:!' r;if flu! /urul.!i'~ il f't'!'erded. 1'41httl.l;J: is /llnli£T lmIp/lfHi:f!ol by fhe Jlrang P<!".~pi!:;:til"C ai2.!1 of tflf' roai unJjiIffoll "dJlLshing inlD flu! diSli1~_


.If lite piaie« iwlds till' Q'bl'iaw: €I,,,,!" to siee. small C<l!II st'<"n! largO! and large can .wt'1I]' sm.aU. W1wJ' Bpf!!!ors 10 l'w rnTlJlllm ojiat is '({c~UIlIJ_I' " wmermert onlJ' a few frel' higij,

W!ON, •• Sin

Many k~illi!l~iilg photcgrapbcrs han: been d~ppoinied wl'lei!1 tlile 11'10 UI1l11ilJ or horse tbil~ loomed SQ I4rge wh~ being photographed shows up ~Q small i'n Ilhe pictu re. Th". is nne instance when- the plliysioloID' 0'.1 seeing run mislead the pholo!!rapher. AII.h{Hl,gb ~hc: c~'e and camera form oom"t~Fabk 1]; oil the retina OIfld the mil'!, the brain adjust:; t Hi I: R-fiDilI ifll<lfJ.e· Thili adjuslmeml is (""3.ned sire 0011- .,laney.

Optically, i.m>lge ,~t1;e doubles wilh e~h halving of distance, For instance, the rejmalimage ofa six-fool man standing ten feet aW<lt is twice the size of the (eDna]. ima~ "",neB 111<:: manstands t.went.y E'occi. <liwny. AI elto:h ctistancr.:.. Il:Icugh ..... 'C !.Q; II s:ix.fool man because the brain adju5lS Ihe physicall im Oig.~ on IIw reti 11 <lJ 1>0 ~~:e IIi II .. naifl)' eonsranr mental imllge. Try this, Wilh both eyc~ ~"Pf'IJL hold one hand

,H amfs ].efigll'i arndi ille other ill half arm's lel1J,Ilth. Even ~IlQugh the f!!rlller hand romls;a !'eli II.:! I Uil<l£;e tl.!lr 1 he ~i~e of the nearer hand, 00[19. h,mds :!oppear!\) be rOll;ghlr the S3~ size,

E\lCD when rcunel ~mllga of 100 same size are formed, Ibe [Hain qui6U) [iOCOgnizes ~e Obj~l;Ll~ mil.}'" be ol' dli lTiCffnl size, FYI' irllilalll~, iii"! apple iii yourhand lind .01 eM III ltile neighbor" driveway rna)' forrrn equOIi-sltZefelinaJ '1 rm~g!.'S, ;Og you poe rccn,'e' these ,,1;jeas ""8 being tbe saate slze'l Of co urse nut. B,y experience )'0 u know they'"", different. sizes. UIU$io!'!ists sometimes play 0[1 the brain's ilailue:t1C;e over size perception ~;II ~S] ng miniature or o~'Q15i~t: chairs 10 alter one's Sl"1l£G of ,piuial ~1;;!t.ion'hip5, We expect chairs to be of a eertai n ,Siiz,t; ~n i"C1~ lion [0 G'II' selves, and 'U'!'!H!$ sp;)Jlial reJallonsJ:'Iips around IJba l size.



The first two dimcnsiens are l1eigh( and width. The third is d'eplh. In an object. depth is ca ]!ed form. But hem we are coaccrned With tile depth of an everall scene, The more three dime.filsim:ml a photographic SCMe appears, tile more real it seems. Soon you forsel you are ~lOldiJ:Jg a ,.bolograph and Ieel as if y01!l have become pan or the scene. Sometimes, however, you may want to suppr~ reality, you may want ~ secncto appear flat. And you'll be able to do IlIiII!. as well once you IIIndersl.al1d .... 1:Ial makes a scene appear three eli'ln8~. [The vi ual cues 10 depth are disoussed on

pages 54-55.)

In creating three dim.en iOllalilY. depth need nOI mean, ~! distance, A desk tep can appear as, three dimcnsiol'la~ as ii!1il air fLeldi-irits depth i made obeieus, Deiplh i, , , tressed when cues in the scene make the viewer aware that objects arcin abe'

rOl'e,grmuld. miti:SIDUIIld, or badc.ground, and that llilq' are separated by space. The stronger these rues. the' st r-Q]JJger the sense of depth.

Sever-al depth cue arise on1

when obje4;.~!~ exist both iii the for'egroumild and baclground, or midgl1,)und. A lone rOIlt.. Iyi nglefl to right in a sink \! ill giveliule sease of depth, .. BtU place a spongea few inches behind! (he (ork and the sense of depth increases, ow there liS a forel!lrQllInd subject and a background !>lll>jecl, and the space be[ween Ihem. The fork may,o'llcuap part of ~hc sponge to ·ig.mir); ifs in fronl. of the spO'n~ aad their <lippOlrent sizes can be compared. iudiea[i:~ l10w far apart [hey are.

Spaces betwee ~liId around objects are importaru, B,y buffering an object with space. you, announce it has volume, that il £xi. t apart and at SOBle distance frOliIl other object. And lIy composmg Ihcphoto so dl<li. thereare spal;¢5, between ob-

jeers, )'OU let the eye roam. foom roregnmlld w midigroulld CllI1Id squeeze inlo lJhe. background_ You male the eye notice that there are different areas of rnidgroulld, dilTtre.J]~ !ll'e~u ofbacikg:ro1.!nd,. and that mlK:se areas lioce~k Y l11l1 sive the picture depth.

Tiw. I' JiI'O pit"lllT~ Wit' dijJeTMI rue'S

(p. 54-55) 10 ,rnf'(;jl .l(!p~lI. III fflt.' plmrr> ~tjjj,', slladOldng creates SINNJgJorms. Oferiapprllg rib}fl·I.f make ILf Ql!,(II'(' !It.!ll !JIll' Ihi/IIJ is ill froM of {lllotiwr. SlJbj~'(:{ p/aa'Jtl'l'liJ pilinl~ .)IU tile frmegrmmd, lfJidgrmjmJ, alllJ back groum/. ui!,lli'al'l's Sf>i?W flpen spaces j(}'f lilt' ~~'e to lral'l"l ,n ,kif(' areas. Thl' phmo "pjH1$i11!' dj~fJfay5 ria.,.ti,· tkp.!ll b_i' gJ~'iilg till ilfllllf!tiiarf sease {}f di~"ff!lFe. B}' ,fluXJlil1K f,om II 1m., angte, lbe plwr')I!,Tf'(1pll r ereat e. "p"'{IY'1i disw.f"tlJHm of thl' P)Y. He u},w l'_uIgg;eHII('., tIlt' rex tural gradim1 cue bJ jJl'(·.llUiil'JII r:"I""e~ro!1t's til thl.' immltailm.' f""f'grl)~jr~'J.

1[1 plllilUJgraphy. [!!Ie ultimate way of creating 1\'J,I''ee-'i1limeflsiol1alil30' is through slfreoseop}f-~:he practice of lIlSllillg III camera TIIIo:ilh two lenses 10 create [we} picruses of the same subject btu wlth slightly different 1'i_ews, When ,3. person foo'k~ at those two different views in a stereosoopt;;.Lhey form 'One Illi:roo-di.mens;iona.1 imagejuss 0lJS the brain does with tfue two views provided by the eyes,

Fertuaately, there are other ways to create a. sense of three-dimeasicnalily using normal photographie practices. The mind uses several oneeyed cuesto perceive deptlliil <liD:d dis," taaee. By rna" ing_ use of lhe followi[Jg one-eyed (monoclilJar) caes, you can hei,ghl(;tl Ih~ illusion of dep'l~ im yOm' photograpllil.s_ These euesare <IS follows:

1. iLllreilr perspective '.I, Aerial' perspectiee :l SiR diminw_ition

4, Texlnr,e gmruel!u ,5, OverYlLp

Ii,. Shadowing

'1, tI p~'aIf(:IJ d isl ecauon


Ii:NAI FiEIISP,Ki11'1a

Pafm:~, 11l~ mostpowerful and most of-· ten used! CIII: to ,!ll>llgt distance :i.51 Ii near P:l'lipect ive, lilKlI r perspecrire is sLmp~y ('!Ie convergence oJ[ receding parallel li II~ and planes. R.ail'l"OiId tracks, roads, and skyscrapers :~'hQW ~ in ea r pe~li\le. '( DII CUI exaggerate Ii nea r peespecti \'c by using a widc';I,ngie lens and induding rovel!!i'1Juntl linesas weI] as background lines,


Aeriel p€[5pil'l."1ire roe fers 10 howth e atmospherc alters the: appearance of light_ As distance increases, tbiO atmosphere scallers moreligllJl. causing .llIbjccts 10 look i!'!creasin~~ paler.Jess sharp, and 10 ItII\e lower contrast. Dis-l3nl. subjects mll)' look SQ~ hal M uer 01" jidiowcr. Tbe effect is most nOliceabte on land~~ over ~I mil~~ bUI IDli)' be notieeablc in hazy urban areas, \1,'] ~h blackand-white film" \i'QU can increase the cffcci. by u:;i[J,g a blucfil ter and, reduce i l '".ilh II. Dolt! cizing filter. or II deep yellow, 61'3 nge, 0" red filter, Witb rolliY.r film, JOI] C-<!m reduce i he ~:2;e dlttt by using .t pc>. lari7i.Flg filter.


A Ie:.:JI.I~ gnld tcnl ill, a form or size dJm. nutton. W~Lb disaance, n:1ILUrI? 0000ma sma ller :3Jndi de'~oser. TIt,; mind rcoop1im this rea,1 ure "rid I!S(,;!! it as !I cue fIN" pn. eeiving distance, Oil this rod;;)' ~I ones arc cf sim ilarsize. The sma lieu aDd more :1 ighI1ypac!.ecl. Lbey <Ippeaf. Ille more distam 'fOU perceive them 1_0 be, Tflel' rorm a texture grndkili.


Upward dislecatlon S:!Inply means ,ubjecls tlha'~ are fOll1hrr a \Va}' 8 re usually higher in the wuall'icid. B'y shol!,il1", <I. sLlbjl)c~ Ilit!b \I;ilhi:n !I pl'lOtog!aph, yo III give the vie""'er In !lddi~ iunal cue HuH the 51l.iJcjocl is faf!htor away, FM ,e~ .. mple, '!'he dl5.UITlCll te Ii boat a hundred yards iI""~!I is stressed more 'by pladng the 0031 bigh ",-i'llhill Lh<:; I'JIbOlo~jlh than ~ IIlacingi~ len< '(0 u can exa_g&erale the efrer~ of upward dP.iloc~.tiolli by uslng a low liiewpoinl illOO i ncl IlIding the fDregrrnmd_


~ Sl!oj¢ct lbal overlapS il.II.O'I.ber ~lIIbjecl :rppe:i~ to be ill rroni 01 the r:utner !iIIbjecl. All app]'e IJverlappilIl!!1 an

or:a:n~ obviousl) fr"'i1tS'!be Or.lllg~.

NOl a jlIlJticulli.r.iy S'No"g eue in enphasizi rI,g distance, Olo'"rlap ""11 worl ..:11 wirh othercues, sucl! as. size ~rmjllubQIi 'JlX old .frami:n~ !.rioek in I,,,ch a pi'lO'lo!!l"aJph..::r includl1S :I. klregmul1d rrame of ~etl\:es or branches !i1=S distance by COLTI'binil"l\!li'l]]

overlap me 1Ai~.h sire diminution.

s.~ dimilluil.iml means ~hM lile more ilita!l~ n ~,ubj!d. is, the ml:lJlleil' r~ ~~f""'Irs. rt is thus ".bllcd to linea T j:<:fiJIlrotive. f,l'OfOIexp.;::ril.'OOl:. the (Hind UuJ'A'::; lilat Cifflain thing:. .... :.ud'l, as ;li:oplc and 00a15., h 1I, .. e ool'llain sizes, ~r he) ilglp:.8'r !limn:: small. then ~l is :o.l(;]IlS~' [hcy lln: 'Il! Illite lar 3\1o;;JIj'. or S\:I iDe milld reasons. [I] pl:ioio.l!":Iphs. ~anGe CHI be Sl:=oo. b}! il'Jdudif!g 11 f~rcground subjeCt or MIOWIil size <IS litU ~~ a oodqground. 5ti'l:1J;:cL


In the diIsou~iol1l:of fmID and texture, we have seen he .... , Slhildo'wnl1l~ 'C3n heightell tbrne..dlrneliisionjJgity by milking forms and le)ll,tulfeS apparent, Simila~. :~[1 s;ll'<1ssi!'lg doo1noc'amd depth •. shudoW.Lllg l;\ 01'1.;1:0 b:ll maadnl!' forms :lIffi'pali'CIiI~ and br cre,,~i!'lg space between ~b!."rrl, Ag;ailll oocli:lighdl1l.g .aml:! s,ideli~h!~ng ""o~'k bcs!I since lhey caS'!

.. n:ld~",,-s seen by the _m.cra.

$il<~d ","'-lng-Iran i! I SO irmicaleor exaggerate Ihe size of lhingil. Shadows CUI lhA;:g;rDunci or bact~~nd C3n 51'10 .... aspects or lorm 1'101 sholl; 11 by the objects themselves.

VLSlilN .om DEP'JlH, IPU~

D.ay ill 0100, day QUI. lilt mine! bLli.Id5 a three-dimensional world from twodimensional arid eveR 'nOlu:li~~msiolUll thl(a. ThciC.YE muscles provide nondimcnsional data, .. \5. an ohjOO'l comes closer, the eye muscles wt,n.e !.he eyesinward 10 track (he object, This

i 1I\\'aro H-old,j ng is w.lkd eonvcrgenee, Tille yeater tile tlIii!!\k uf cnnvergence of the €l/e'i. die greater UJt,. musclestrain. The degree of muscle sffillin indicil.~C5 the Iln~ of OOQlV<1rgenee. which du:' brain OOll;\~rts :i nro an I ndica.lio n oj[ subject di:!ilance.

Mu:dh of our success ill depth pcrcejJ!iun I'CSIlUS from l1~i!lg l!'\oe}~ set l ~ J: indies apart in the head [001 proVI(!;: ~igliH~y d~[f(l;nml viewsof a

:9;1;1 hj eel, The brai rn combines these different \1eWS, to form one threedlmenssonal lim a ge', Wn oombJI'J:ill,g ~ different \iew~, the' biOlin sorts 11k diflcmnres between tJie!l'l a!1d cemeris 1.111: di ITCRJlOfS, ~ nro cues e.r threedimensionality. Uke hand~ so;QQpin~ a

sh.oo I(l(r SJIIO'W and moldi ilg il i nte a snowball, the brain reu nds out things, FGJi e.;~ple. harM )"our len !lane! oogewili'l: and venically <I foo! ill rroni Of)'OUf face, Lool!.3i~ i.t ..... it h ~ he right 'eye ,cl(lse{jj. then with the lcft.e;)~ closed, Wi.1II on~~' t he ril!lr~ c:yc orca. ,-ou see ~me or~lle 1'01110 or il1~lian:d, and~iHle of the back, Wh he'll! \f lh", 'teft !;'l(C open, rml see minch o"hhe bl'!ck-oh.he hand but li IUe or 1hel"llm .. Wilhooth eyes ~PCIJI, YOIl 'S<r;C the pal m :ai'ldl she bad or Ihe htlnd as ~.l!Je brailrl,oombines I he tv. (I lma ges ~(t HIU'lId out, )'O'IJr ha rid,

Com'®irli,,,'g ~wo differcru images to create! nrt'e"di mensWilalil)l is'rnl]£d stereoscopy .


WQ.rb, ol' art did notreveal pen:pecu .. e until r5tb CCnllJ'1' Renaissance ani~ls de\lised rules (Qr ~nderin~ perspective. By 0ur standards of ~r.,;pocl!i'¥'C.. aaeiem Chinese and ES}pliilill pflil1tin.~ seemed IlaL

)\[lhough western civil i"c.alliol1' a 00 !l!fld!s with. '[1:gl]l a ngles and straight fmes, the ingredJienl!> impor13Dl 1:0 pc:JIrei\-1llg per" spect!>.'e. we do mol :iCe perspective in il~ full effect. The problem is [lot "lith ~.&Jc eye sincehnages lcrmed on ~he reb M show perspecti ve. m·f;:n\~e"'er. the brain adjusts the retinal image. !J~I.!<!.II) re:dm"'~Ili!! ""PPllliCnl pCn5~,1Y£" Thu s, when, we lOOK ~p ;r I. a .skyscm~r ! t does nat seenl 10 lip I»<i;k ... ards, nordo its rnges drastlca ny co1'llO'erge. tbo:ugh both things happen on ~he reti na aoo !:m. film .. H O'II1l.'er. .~. r~u} eecogaize depth as coR~d by perspecE.ive~fI pball),ra ph~.

In Arll'i.clI. the l~l~ rive in ill.llts and. bnc few po-:ssessiOIlS, with Ii,gill II nglcs OI' straight ~ioes_ "he~f \1.'orid is <I]' most devoid of linear perspeclho: cues, Not su.rrpFis,inglly.. [iiC')' have a ~rli' developed sense Ci.r linear perspective, A s mum ""'<IS ituJicated by fl. series or perspedi\,¢ !csts. SIiIl;1:! 11:> the hnc-Jtmgil.h ~II uSimi !'.h(lWfI betow, ""flijch showed the Z!1i..i inS sekiJorn saw perspeNivc iUus:ion~ as did p!?O;pl'e of western ci '!~ liz;:jli~n,

< 1


I'lmlograpJa lik .. ~ (bekm' ,rmJ oppt»irt') rrtqllrrr lim il'!UlC-~ (JJ IN piwrogI'Qphr!l',- .wmdIing and ,'"'"""'!IglIir,jJll_

Looking .• ·.


nil! more poo look" lile mo,re _rO,M find.


o i:t a ~i'be you might thi nk.yoill , only ~ook!l'l:it. B[Jtil'~ nor lhat 'mpk:. One scene C<!i!il be viewed In ai1~- "'~}IS, and if .Y'OU look at iiI. in 1~ one way, you miss a greilt deal. . derdoping and relmi:rrng the ways u I"~ ,<l!~ a seeae, .r<lla cani 1Kf!'ea!Se II! ~tivenes.s ;:IiIldi lime number

. ~bOl~aphs you take, € YOIl might. cornpese fuow Y01l100]( ~; 1 e seene winh how 3. Cil!~~ulal(Jir rYIRe- i OIlS. lefs, say the cb<iliirs, rocks. 'wi~ II! . s-IJK basie units of a, s.cene~

_ numbers, I r y10u see them ~11 (l~ly ",11.~. you [U nenoa oldy in ~hearld od~, BI1I iJ yOY see them iII severn] ,)~. ~;glll function lite !lin. ad\'3nced kula:!or. You ad<W. subtracr. di\-"ide, cl~pI}". and perform trigonomerric 0cri.01l1>. Faced wiLh ~he sam" basic 'u;" ~'OU C,UII do much mOR;w:i'l.h

ill if }"Ol]~~n' ji'1lI'!!!!f way of ~liIg" As mentien.ed eaMili.e'l" ln thebog1(, ~uma:n 'e}'el'ends to flixa:te on ifid~" ual objool~-I]u.e 1!fW. the [<OCt.. ~he r; the buildnng. Overeome this 1.¢:iID-

ncy eo see (lolly indliudual o!bjoca!s. net rfmly due objeots, but the reb· Qnship:s. Look at. parts orobj~""at lllllQnshilfl'!> between parts of ob· N_ AI!.hough }iGli cannot I.oo'k I'lea!li d ram simllIUlii!iiCOusl)!,. lhe~Iti~J'ili n. 'Ewamine ~.ow a daisy in the fure:unci !:inb to the boat im Ule badl;:~ 00. See how cha.l'!Igimg the;wcl1lf-

. m dJan,gf5 rel ati\\'e p!ls!t,lo~s of the is.~' !lind the boot, LDok .n things, r; lhinESfaf, things lI!l.p and dQ\'.'1l!. Gj\'I!11 iile Ilnlmber (If things fI!l!lJt ~ ~rld [h~ numiOO:r of ways they D be lMIk.ed at, (:arefu] seeing can ~ riDg. RUt irs also I:'el\'!'a'rning, VOl.t'U me ~, appreciatt Ihebeu~(1i' ·of iTl~ p.feviously o!ll',edookedi and ender I!~ the new re:llaucmshrups you OOtw.

A wnera, licenses .YfIU[() observe TId ddight in ttleworld. Use that. .Ilinse. If you hav1e; not ]~~ found ;,m,y .in pbologJraphy_ jl: is because )Iou 3.1 t }Tt 101 ~e ami ap,plieciale.lf you

have lost thillJl joy, His ~lIse you halfe let pichi recw<lking usurp see~!1lg_ Keq'I m~l thing$<fi rst, amid you will eilljoy pliw,tograph}l. If a ph(ll€lg~ph does Rot captur-e tbe emctien or' bean· 1)1' you felt, iiUstcad or despairing, eouat YO'[I1"Sie1f l:treky for the ortigin1i1

f&lingamJ the menlOry' of it

Feel~[i.g gp.od aooutp:li:olography. bei[lg relased in ObseMOg the world win help yOg fwl good aooul yourself and 'Cliti.matei,y hel~you lake better p~eture:s.



Altbou~ varying yo.r way oli'lIi:ewingis importanl, it is not the 'lnQS( iimpl.};I'1lanl part of seeing. The moM impeetant part ,of seeing, perhaps Ihe most importantpart of phmography-a part mach unappreciated, sel dom menticned, andgreatly underrntedl-is the' art oFsearchi1'i!,g_ Pboto~ graph: dQn't just happen, The phQl!Ogr,a:p~er must llin:d Ihem, must make them, must have camera in hand and be lookifi:!:i_

Look 3i~ this mw:h-pllblis~ed Pete Turner photograph, It" a remar able phm.ogrnpb" not O'n1)1 for its simpli(:il}', ~'llidIJ is powemful; not OllWy for its mood. which is strong; not only For its design, \\ hieh is eempelf fig; but also for what it doesn't how-the pll.o~ lographeraL the seene. Um-nelf was there. That's why be got the pkrm'e_ Bill)' llliJe fanciest camera" read the best book hone' the sharpest eYG. alnd a]l.


~;-II be for if you aKiIiIl there ~O II!Se them.

Onee there, wha t are you looking rot'.' What i the Holy Gmim tor which YOll search? Iris something different, semetbing l.1r1uslul.l, s(lme~m-lin,g to catch the \'ieV;;-eI"'s eye,

Out different and 1.H1~slJlaI are vague, What things are dilTCTeui and unusual'? Di'lferent and unusual Ilttrl net be' belly dlancern or pearl divers or ether exotie sub.i~ts_ Comm(ll'i! and usual subjects can make different and unusual pllol.ogwphs_ PholiO'g:rnpilen: pro!"e;: lhi~ lime. and again.

What then is diifferenLandl unusual'."

The thli.ngs ~"e discuss inl this book. Th liifi~!j, ofmeaf edges, the ft .miI of i1 soap dish, the texture of 31 swan S back. me fornrs and celors in a aew h:OllISing tract, They are the eehoing juxtaposidon (Iii' two' feel and two leaves 011 a porch .. They ;He the overwhe1mil'ig detail in a Ih~y's fare. nhey

<I re the frieze of ~rm and legs projea:img fmJD b.·uhillg-swted torsos, They <Ire everytflilllg out there-folli!'iid ~nd photographed jn II 1Ac"a)" that enter'!<:!ins the eye.

Once lIIiere, whereeer "there" may be, should you look rora specific5iI1bjeetlike dlFiUwood or gall!oping hors,es? Or s.hould you IJiI'l: the sashes; (if your mind and :Iel fly in what ma_ ? Hare's wb3l~. Jay Mai~m. one of America's IGlId'ing photographers, recom- ' mends; -I think 'the: most dangerous a p:itoalgrnpher'C3J1:I do is go 01111 with a pi.loFe already in hLsmino'eye, While you're thinking abom w:li at}'Qu want to happen YOD,J.'re "'-elY likely missing what is happening,"

Pete Turnee says, .. 'H ;;lve as!ubjec'l ~I'I mind, even if Ws as general as ,II beach or trees, 3!nd work: with ~h;u . , . ILbe person. wery well migJlll eerne upon something totally UIl1~peeted. ,. Alit! they gil!<1ng conflicting


ad\~ce? Not really. Each is saying. above all, to keep an opea mind when phologr.tphihg_


All 100 rrequendya pRI'HOsraph doesn't agree with your memory of a ~n . Though. you poke and] prod. (be photograph remains lifeless, a cO'rpse mocking IIl.e villidtWSS of what },I(IU fe'lt, of \llhail you, lIu)u~l'n.! you saw, 'roar first reaction: disbelief. Something \\\'eEll wrong because "E know whal I saw and LhlS isn't wliial m saw_" The canlern: screwed up. Second reaetioa: disappointment, "Wby didn't r capture lhescCill:;l!S r saw il~ How can I avoid] this in !he future?"

The pmblem is not with ~ow you see.Dul with liIow you reset. When y.ou see to photograpb a seene, you alse hear, sme1!, feel, and bJste that scene. and you react 10 all these ~m es .. But ym.! can't smell, hear, taste. or fee] apbolo,graph. at 1101".1 1

1II0t as you did ilil the original scene, YOl] can only see it, You can only reom:t to the visual elements.

Phetcgraphing a MI.u:'rl'aU 0:11 <Ii sunny spring day, you hear the roer or the waterfall. the gurgling of rhe

tream, th~ chirping of the birds, the rustling of hranches. You feel the warmth (If the sun. (be cool oJ tfle shade, Ihe wet of th£ spray, And! though yOou see and inlend topheiograph the waterfall, JOU also sec the deer retreating into she woods, die leaves dancing in the sun, the tJ-oUiI gliding .in [he pool, and many otJoc. 11lIings 110t 1.0 be included in the phelogr.'lph. And YOllrmind joins [he dance, rejoicing at the end of winter, the start of spriu!.l, ~m: renewal of lire.

The chirping., the gJIlII'gling, the 'ffalgrarrees, tlte s igll. ts, all oo]lubin!:' 10 form an impress.ion or;hc scene mud! greater than that conveyed bJy the photcgrapb. The phologrnph is but !!,

Wind bioK'mK ,rllftJIIgh hair. irile dtmtel of smull dcifJreli, t'~:l'","g J'!!ll I)a,h-mg [<lCffS, Ih~ pull u/ gr« • .r'ly and U1!l1'.lf_ .. gaJ /OFU as till!' .If,,"rog,:; aft' m!O the .lky-Iftis :pi£1J.lJ'e Imgages mopi)' pk4JIDlf j.-elil'lgs to}' ('{1h)witlg yp sen.t{rlioru Ire htfl';! ffil under flOliluF ciFa;msrll1!UJ".

piece or paper. Chirplcs. .. and odorless. it is outnumbered by your original se-nsations.

If you want a Ilho tograph [0 repre!it'nl your impression or a scene. 5100 I'iI.U t !'i'l'Sl obtain an lIJCCUTaU: visua I impre sion. As you 100.1.: into the viewlililder, out the chirps and fhilgl'3iWlce5, 50ppofess extlfanCQU$ as SQ. ciadens flo.Hing through YOuii mind. COl!Cennare Olfi me visual elements within the v~ewfinder and pm out the visual nuggets to be melted OOw:ll and C<I,l imllO a

Are the visual elements strong? Do [hey match your irunpre.sioflli of the scene? Can they be manipulated? Should you include more or ellll:lu:de more? Wbal should rOil! emphasize? What should you subordinaee? Once you are able ]0 i:solare and llJ!IIIa1yze the visual d.:ments in a scene, you'll find. your photognl!}h agreeing 'With YOUli Qriginat imp!'eSSions.




When yo:u.look. ala seene, yo!:! can see a ~ubjec~ as a pa~t of ~liIe seen.': or a pUIii1! or a subject in the scene. FOIi the next few paiges" we censider the ellecls of varyililg vision [Tom a f!'J.grrl!:n:! of a ·SUbjecl. to tile wh.ole slIbjocJ: in i rs ooma!. to cOI'l1I1'ving strange rela[io]]cships.

Each of U5, is wei Iv!:rscd i nphetogr<!pliiing whole Lh~ng~. but we D1<1}' not be so well ,"'ened i'lll, pllOlogrnplilr i ng p<lrts of thi ngs, Re~'iew j1QUr .. 1{O rk and see ihou sometimes pho~JOg~ph [4Irls of ~hl]l,gs_ Easi~y pilotoSl'3phed. parts of things tl13)' not be so elI!s,i~ y seen because of our emphasis on ~Ile whore_. oHTlillny we see w]toile ~h~I1g.'S and eembine the ",hoh: l!lings imo <liIl irn pression or what's before us, For(l~ yourself to ignore m'he whole andlook

at par:t~, This re~1! l!l rnoee Ql&i~y acoomlpUsh.ed lI.~l looking illill'ough the eamera viewfinder ~,o kJeep Y<lur eye r ~ W<I ndcring,

Once aware of Ute power of parts, y,l)u'U .rind! lh!!!'m~<i!~~ly_ iParts <Ire g;ra;pfric, No~ showing thewhole subj~ shifts from Ole infoliln<lIi:ml <lIIId emotiollJ associated with L~whol¢, be it amll apple or a lobster 00311, to somel!hi:l1g more ,a,bMmlct Th.31t semething may bea d(;"Sign of <color. ~ine., rQ!'II!. or shape. h: may he a mood ,of warmth or melanc.holy. II. may even be: ani f!!!.d lech,!a~ exercise, a vlS:!:!<lW riddlle or pllf.l.frngm.en!:ed reJaiionships often 1eave ,gaps that challenge the viewer ~ofilli1li according 10 the viewer's, psyche. WheIl pictu res, ,aJ)ein'l literal, tbey [nvil{; 1lf1;)!·]lY iTltC'.rpreiatiQTIs-




'BlO\\lin~ a whole su'bFl in a 1180l0>graplil. parallels .our most. natl:lr~E \~)' (If ~-mg.. The reason we lill;:,!:: [0 see whole things. is simp\!:: we are nying to make sense of whilli we see, his easier 'to make sense ,tlI[ things if )'01.1 see all ,onlil,em than .r rmll see p3lI1 (If them,

Filling Ihepiclllr;: ""~th 3 subject both S!ilill1p~ifies and simplifies by sending the ~mpponing cast orr stag where ou don't have to worry 300m c:hr,ecling them. no wnen you have bum one d.()milila~t subiect. "-1twl,;rs dop't wonder wh3i11 they're snppo~ 1.0 see. There's onb" one thing they can see. Thuf:s -il11p!,¢:.

ThaI's ilJls@ oompliCllJled, The subject -be it a. Bentwood Roc1ter.iI je1.· ty. a lI'111mderhead---.swl'lding b)' .(self,

ecnter stage, up front, with eyes riveted 1:0 ill, must soliloquize. one. it mus.. implofiJi;. Alone, ][ must cajole. Alone, it must persuade. Alone. i,l m.lII'5i1: convince ),0111., the viewtT, 'lh~t it. is worth admiril1lg or hlnifllg bUI, ;)jbo\;e .3.1 ~,. W\orth ),OIJl,f time, Not '11.1] sutijOOlS can stand atone before a critical audience, 11.00 !bQugh the subject may 00 alone you still must worry abeut composition. li,ghtli1ilg. viewpoint. and the oEh'rdelds rbiar.'enter inw Ifll:lking an picture. detail is often important when fining 'he rnlllliC with the subject, To captare the most {letai], use a fi!llie-gnl i ned fi I I'll su eh as KO[),ACOI.OIR VR 100. KODAK ~!(TACI'IRO!>!l:EIOO, or KODAIK Technical Pan (black-aad-whitel Film.





. /\ c:h.eR)' tree in bIOOiIU. A cherry tree in bfoomiJil <III orchasd, A clit:rqr tree iII bloom lin lfir·ol\~. 'D f 8 s~lil-l:evel house, .1\ chell',,), tree ]l~ bloom in a parking ~'(lt. A ,merry treein bloom.

EYleryt1h.i.l'~g is somewhere, Often YOIl can better lle"'f3l the ml~lm~ of a .sybjec~. by showil1g: wl1cr.(; it ~

The most Sl_ra~gillforward ap"roach is to show a :subjecti]) its expected oonbeM-a wildflOll';'cr 01'11 a fores1 1]1001". a sai]boa~ bobbing near a ~ighlhonse. incidental or obvious reh~~.iG[l~lIiIip,s,l]ke these m.ay explaiJilJ" may even eAC]te, lhey dOl [i ttle to reform thoughLs a bout l~cst!lfuj(;'Ct. P~opli: expeer .a boat to be r:JJ:<lJ1" a. lig1ilthome, so there it is.

Other times ·~m<}.y e~.ped. to see a sub~ such as 11 Ilighilih!lllise: in a eertain coatext andre surprised to sec it in a fresh C!)n!~'l. S~r"rise de~i.ght.'l

the viewer and rew3.irdls him for looking .

Mowever" 'whenpeapk: don't know ",'tiI.mlD expecl, SUH-01mdlllgS, can rel!'lforce a f~lillg. add almQsptIere, Qf create anew reeling BI!:nl!lI~ tlile subject, FOil instance, a head~dls:hQlI~der.; pOr(rn~t 'of iii. ",,'oman Il'!;ty ~y Wmcl~iIlg comp:Je~ely <Ii fferellJt rroml ,3 photogrnph slliLowul'Ig ~he 1i!!omtlrl relaxin,g in her CIIp~lem! '.green" room.

The problem of pidurimg OJ 5~bject im oonleld lis, harnl,dting the i~rease in objw'l'5 includroin the picture. Instead oi ~a:[IdJ~[Ig; cute, you'lle' jugling 'three, four. or five stlbjed.!!l " .. lIDich. if [lot c~lnl,y hand!led" thud [0 the grmJlmt Success lIlllmUy com.eli, from good dlulee of ""ewpoi[l~ and C()iittpooi(i(ln. ElI;.p~ore tlern c;:):refuUy. Be sure thaI! il:he' ove-raUI effect OO:Rrforms witJ1iw l'''OUl' intentieas <lIlild precisely stales you" CMe.

.it lig:hllm'USl'. en;? of IJ~ most romnwnfJ' pllmograp/rni yub~r:u. is S(J,~J! lu:Fo! ill 1:1' tlif/ermf !j'Q)'. 1/Q"' often hare }O,Y sail tile I~ side of Q ligh,tl!m.!se pJr,Q/~htd? A dir-J.~(md Ii rell!pIu;rn;e booth. ,a rilWU' modem SOTj oj sellluid. seem to poke/tJJt ,lJj(Jil" ~If( imagl!:!J of lightMUSi!'!C



STRANGE RUA1i:UJNS, ~' For more provocative images, look ~ for or rreate umeltlX1Cled r,ellld,oh- ~ ;;.ilips. They wQrk like 'Wort! ussoeia- @ tions, You say "hol,'" expeet to flt".1 r "celd," :md do a double-ta ke '?I'bel'! theresponse is "banana, ,- Hot-ba=

na f1a~ 'I;:\li Ihi n any gi"e.n scene you can relate 'pbolog:n1lphic bananas 10 menkeys, moons, or ,Iltllthers by adjusling your \iewpoinl and framing t£l in-

d ude different. thin,gs, It face' WllO:I!l to a doorknob. A doorknob next to a dock. A d!oorJoilob next to ~ slipper.

In ~Ii.y. the doorknob mil}' be several feet from the clQCk or slipper and have no apparent ,rel!)Jion!ihip until you show them side-by-sidein a p'il,ologf3ph. The combinations are endless and you, can add illCms like' your hand. your I~. at bottle, 01' ;,i!I1lYthi rig else tba t strelil gil-hens YOW' visua II sta I "1]1 ent, C ormaerei a I p hctographers excel ill grabbilllg <Ittenl:iOD \\; ttl unexpected ~-el<l1iQf.lships. such as a biood-fiUed sy.ringe plunged iUlO OJ to- 11:18'10.

Juss as you call have dilTereooes illl k ]l1ds of subjects, so can you have differences in their qualities such :310 texture, color" size,sha,pe, and brightness. You can coutrterpoirst 'rough with !Om (lith, light ""~lb dark. You can work, straight 3ig;BJin~l clu·",·,edi, small against large.

A~'Qre. tK'a/ept, 1m!) 1euF€i!l. each $idebj· sid' . 1'1«: ~'!! OO,Ullt'f!S /rQl1l feet to iml-e-Jl amIOOd O''iiI7l'" IWtilii: Jimi{'flrities ill siZe, U.W!lh!:,foTm. and Qff~emelii.

A disi!mbodied doll s fau- impri!fClfl'Nl by Q mirror angled liJ em .. dirccdir.rn;- .., 'If'OOll1l'J' and I«r .lhad'ow J~t!ll in Q' mirrer t:mg{t!d ill anmhR direeuo«: I_ 'ho1 is til IT ,;el(J.rhlr15hip~ Mal is IIJe mmum IwIding in lIef ,1rm:<d5? Tile Ines. IreJiJ ,back tmJ d scene rermkd 011'1>' .ill rf'jkeli(}n~ ~I andlrus:lTtIle Kl',




The plsoe rrom whldtyou see or phetograplil the subject is the virn'POill'll. Vie\l...,oin! C"..!IJJ do ~wo things. It can. show the su Ibjecl r !'om .lJ1U[lIi!SUl] I il ngle '110 reveal .11 side seldom seen. II can orgalDL~ the ph~"Sica] relatienship between subjects.

No doubt you mow that you cam photograph a subjecl frem above, frorn lldnw. froml rlbe rrmlll. me back, the side. and a variet}! of other posinons, 8111(, ~;mo\\' '1iI~ isn'l doillg. Do you el(p'!oil viewpoint? Do you examine a ubj,ect r rom al] angles, ~ooltilllg for tIolh the side seldom ~1l1 and [he vieWjp(Dull t that arg.ul'i:Zl:s the scene?

Facimg :fQrward. some four to six feel 3100 ,Ii! ihe grolUld., the eyes of the 11 urnan 'kum over iha,t's under them and skim under whal'S over them. Or;. 64

ten plJiuJlogaphers become ,lazy and! take most of their ~ktufes while slallldingand lookIng stilillighl ahead,

Common and conventional, the uprigJill 'I,Ia,ew canbeeeme ilion ng .. Y OUI rnlll'1l. a fford to bore .. Fle.:.'t )"olllr knees as well as yourmiud, Climb and see as the giraffe. 's,toup and see as the 1r!10U5e.

ese to theground, observe the m{ll!ml<l'~l1o'IIILS range or r(jl()~. the glarLng e~s or h'lIbcaps, the muzzle or the sleeping deg, lh~ jungle of grass. Watch the blossoms sw.ay overhead, I.ellp aside when walnuts crash, shudder <lit the wboosJll,irug roars from the a~pbaU plai n With the ey . or the mouse, perih3lp1:> you'll understand th'ilt the tulip pre'liou Iy at your feel stretches s!qr.wnl to capture sunlight and flag d!GV>fJl bees with ils bright

banner of a hlossem, Perhaps how you see [hI; world depends on here you see Ii~ from ..

Frorn atop a picnic table or parkhl'l!g garage, look dOWII and p!, See how an a~rial vle'A'point l1attews lLhings, turns iliem into (\\f(}dil'nensional designs. Only by If)ing on several viewpoints can you lind ~he one ahMfilS..

WWuen you spot iIJ subject, )'~nl OIleD see it from ,<to lIocidenilaa viewpoint a viewpoin~ of chance that rna)' or ma not lead to tbe best photograph, You were walking by. Iookied to the refl" s.<I]d "Oh, I ~i.k,e that," pulled OlUYOlll.f camera and phoio,graphedit Fine. Out dOB't rely soldy on chance. Con-

ider tha~ {he first <lind coincidemal viewpoint may have OOem, eho • n not by the eyes ()f the photographer. tllJlI


by llhe eyes uf 1!Iit'!: everyday penon.

The eyes, of the everyday person 'liE to identify [flings. Th y like characteristic shapes: they like re ealing fOmIS~ they lite key details, The eyes oftbc'l;wryday person strive toreeognlze wlliu [hey see a ad ~ 'eld to the ~;point, giving :recognilion.

,BLI~ will '[ihe eyeryd,ay \'ie'YI'po:~nt ,give a good pbCllogmph?lmtead or ~1!!amly t!ubmiiuiflg 10 [:he: ~~ewpojnt thJli~ identifies, compare it "'lith viewpoilil ts that contribute emctional arid 3C'Slh!.?tic charn.dcns-tiCl also.

De "'rary ,(If shooting from n unusual viewpoint when the subjecl i tsel r is remarkable. I astead or calling auennon to lh~ subjcct. you ma,}, call auentian ~o [he iedmiqllIe, 1.0 the fact tbn )l'o!!Q,were on the ground ~coldrog '~p, when )lOI,iI wok: the piC'luR.

A' 11iJi:1l )·kI!,·PO;III. left.J1Qfrms Il!ing.! a .. t, f!'llph'asi;;J'irlg 5/.tJ/N (ind ~I_ A law rir·wptll·nr. aOO-.. .. , creates perspective di;,·f{Jrr'fI.lI~ nllflkftl thin 1" t:oln'prge "f[f'tiwlfy

Vielt.pdi1lt nlake.f tk pii:ll.u bel».. ,,·tit,k_ No' 001) did the pJrolagruphn- pm a ~ie,,' sholl ing tbe relo:tiorul/ipl bctl;'I!m lractrlTf'd lee ond sK.YSfffJPt!I'S. he also ,ChOM a to"" viewpoint sa ,rile ice fragmems cotdd be sl.'e.n,iulIiRg skJ-ward. i/rf' sfc}"5cr"Qpt'rs,




Viewpoint orgaRi!!!e:;.. And! re.argani~i:iS. Ar~se fron. yeurehajr and keeping your eye 00 the ~ele".jsion, wall: a bout, Soe Itow o@IWpoosilion, S-~1L13Il, .. nd OO:iJ'lJt.exirlla~ rellati{):m;hips change, fmm one "<iewpo~nt. IDe ooifee ii.llble LS ~11 front '0 r tho television; from another i~ Is 10 the side (ljj' the tekvision; fJJ-om yet another il ill!ta:;. $lip~ ou.tofvie\lo'_ \vith eadJi s!iJrift 01 vie1i!.rpoinl,. shapes and forms mange, obp;i.s emerge ami, disappear,

'Shiflsim \liewlfl'Oill~ ca:1lJ dramatical~y alter the feel @F ill rhollognph. The ~h<t1ilg", may occur because LIlt': scene is re311'r.1.nged. It m3iY also oecnrbecaese the lighting d]lilOCt1oo changes, All the: de mils of", r ronillighH;d church vanish wlliten YOl.l1, change yOllli' \!,je\\.rpJinl so backtightiI1ls silhcuettes du~ church.

So:mel.tme., p'hotograph [rom difffiimeni viewpoints, tPllll'posefuiUJ)' trying to change the; mood.

mn these photogm.phts or me churcb, oompositD.oJil."liglitin;g,Ol!ud Wml.!lrncr al~ p'ay importa~!. roles, bUI We mesruaI1'Ortanl: role is, tti:tal of viewpoint Only from a hilltop viewplJlint can l'llt, cl!!ufCh aad S-UmJ!Jnd'illng countryside be bathed by Ithe lighlofsnnrise. Only from w.itbiu 11lJ.e adjoining cemeLeQ' C<I!IilI a newly diug glfa'\l~ be lnduded to reveal the true pUWJlCDl>e or church and cemetery. Oml,y from across the ~·Oiid can a busmrous ·'Foli Salle" sign. III ~T boule, some 'weeds, and a passinS car' be .U:J.dlllded m CRate a mtilrer elustered and d!isinte~~!1g feelimg. Vjewpo:i~t,cas:us (he mold in whkb ilie fhmogr:a.,plilJis set.


11reafngllhe subject

Ltste« . .Hear tire unspokell tale of li!(t su~jecl. a wle ne~~, befor!! wid: Listen .. .H~al' the apple lell ()fh.~lddin:g groll'.rh benea,h the sprillg SUfi. of S11?e:e1 ripenilrg. ,of #~e fall to gNN11d. of tire dissolution of flesh and lite pride of rebirth. Hear the jO!), of the It'a~le upon r,{Jsurrectio.fl'/mmocean depths, ~u?ar it sholJt as i~ leaps ilJUJ tilt! sun tmd crashes suroos~g across the sand, (11::d hear it murlrl.rtf in m.mlff1ing as if withdl'tll1~9.V.sW'~ to I'he subject, to ym!lrtrel/: thel~ tel} the storJ".



The undercurrent ~iweepjlnlg lhrough this book Ra'S been that ofifl'lierpretation, Out whc.jjJ '.oM to ililtorpret, we .rei!cl as i r we' hare heard §lRie~ d1i rections and become more lost. ~han before, The idea . .or interpretation, 0lWtl1lou~ i l sounds good, see:ms vague and m·JiU':Il1g- Just 1:10\\' dees one inleiipret?

Problems arise whh lnterpreta lion because most or us have on.)! a nod,diin.g aeq uaint:lM£ wi th the til iags we photogratph. 1j e know enoug_h a bous trees, streams, and lJia,wers ~o rf'Oogni~ and CalCigorizt them, but nm so much as to be able to appreciate q ual~lies unique lrfi.1hcm. Nor do we ktl~1'W SO liUle as to be awed and see 'them as wondrous .. Let's face i1 110 m.Ost of us, ~ fees are ~[1e'C _ al'l:dst~e<lm s are stfC3!m(,!,.

" e also ha,,-.= but a nodrlilll.g ac'QI!I:ainl~ll;c:e 'Wlilh Our ree~ings: aboulL wlll:!H we're p'botogli<tphing. We hacv;ellft gj.'ifC'1J much thought to what trees and cars me-all to us. We have ooexistedwith I!bem. that'sall,

However. mf we don't [!j\'e them

• me (hollgl1t" .Ir Wt: don't interpret. om photogr,apm wiU be uml insplri[lg. They wi.ll IBid: back bone. They' I~ be like ilDY otser car in the parting lot. blterpreta'lio!'l comes. fro:m the c()ur~ age to learn OUf ree]il1g!l and the coumg¢ tD express them.

Only you can ~each )foursdr ho,w to i.ldJerp:ret:. [it COIn4;i's from inside. ¥ Oil' ~ the only one' that 's been the~re. iIJ:s casy 10 sa)' (hat YQY can nnprove )10Ur p hOlopapby by iookingat subjeccs as if for UU~ nrst tim.~ following 'och ,td\'lice is next to imlPO~ible, You can't $.impl)r banish past expe:riei'ioos.

100 just the opposite. Make an intense phologll1lll'i1ic stud)' ef a subject. Cl"'era period Qrdays. weeks, months. e~'en years" Pick Ol!ll1.1! beadIJ. a meadow, <I room in the house, and explore 'Ih~ many : ll!.}' you. can photogf"<lpb

it, See hOli _ iewpoim, weather, Inm~[lding5, ligbti.n g. sh ul'Uer speed. and tne man)' other variables otITt:t:l )(IYf imerp:reLati.ons ..

Through an mtense Mud)! not (Inly win you disc-.O\iCIi flew \Wla] qi1;;!mili . mjij: the sub-ed.. but you \11;11' CinThIe to grip wilhyour feelings about the subj~t. You ",ill lc a m to interpret,

Miclmrl Bi_mop qfren Imf'rprelS ,he ~lWlIf-..,. M,-or/d h' (J fr'ill, U~'e hit plaJIS sflw'ml elemellts Q aiml !ta(;/i. QIJ_. imlJill . symbols of t!iJlefeIll eIW ami a ,r:a,.~~d U.r ,ire rdg'o/a dt"Sel'l kl!idl iu1't.l!l uul II' bf' a ~~ruroJ.




,UP. SUJn.ebenJ~,f!. mY"Uic.aJ ,ar IIfIlIiIdune?

II all depemis OIl .1'0(11' irllerp. ,I!lalimt, .R:J' ~Wllg il agaimr the t"1'enlng sky and inclfldillg the full moM. Pelf' Tumer

dK . m,~sr{C(d. By ShoU'ifl'K a mrellJ/(.(!r' """"'mg' ille Im.1'I liIH(h .W: ""'Ie '1JOK'.1 II fnJII1ltrl1.7t, Ar!lmu ,l'!e)'t'f.!"oo opredj!.!'!'· 1M mlll1d e me \'iAI.

:fill. grDJU1~/Jr gf MillJin'. Q frl!ljJltl'ffl rJrente 'if plwltigmphf'r"S, g t'xemp!YJ£B b:f" Stmd's plwwg1I!plr 0/ iJglitni!1g smkiflg _ ,t'v$t'mil!1 Flflh PJid P1Mled at by Miml.ic'k who shQ .. s t"os.emi/!' Falls in the sew{ oJ all admiring .. i.Hver.




The !iII]i'Jd is ;11. make~ of 3mlogie:s, a supplier Qfmetapllors. II is a d15!ribylor ofOlSSOOilJlijOn5 wi.tI:i. a skull full of symbols, waimng to be ~hipped out. leI II shoe imu:o Hlemilild aadi Cs tacked 10 CQb'bkr. Let in a ¢f'()SS and i['[> nailed to religion. Few objects entering the .mind! escape U!DIl.ouche(L

Some Qbj~ like apples ;:!Jodi tClsel> and eagles have strong 3illild uad.~tiQnal ssseciaticns y,itb temlPlai~iol'll OIl'IId Ieee and stre:ngl~. Oth~ obj~s 11 ke shoes ;li1d avoeados have' y;ceater, less ,ob:riubJJsassOO3Jti<lTIs,. AllId! associatiallS. even arise !from HOR(lJi)je1C!S,fmm colors, from lighting. Green is Iitwml:ti:l!fuL ROO! is aggressive, Bright I.igbl energizes. Dim h.ght dull!;.

Associa~~Q.lIs ~I[itllatdy de.pend on OOnreKL An apple on <I teacher's d!es.k mea illS flom.ellu.I1g differeD I tha~ an :apple PWffClred 1:1.)1 a~ alhiringweman.

AssociatiollS can Wli5e stoo:l'lg ernetl:G1iIiS. Th.ej}Joture .off ~lhe Ma;:;;k child .on tl:rn. page mil:Y sti r QlIr sJ'mp.a!h.ie5. B~l its g~t~wret1chi.l'ig.po",;er· demonstratesthe risks of association .. fer the Q:oly despair in tltis fic!JY.~ is th;;ul of Our ;;lJSSQcialio:Mc Listen to the :ptn.I:F l!lgmpher wh.o look the piet:lI!re whUe in the Peace Corps:

WIIeli m}' ~·ilk!u mOllie. H'iQFked in tra~ fretris. i, "m 1:iIJ" ~tpm!$lilrliJ)' to see lliar my .iflage ,bn)lhe.r .r<ilrlk his barh. 'lome him ~o the PlJtld ,fj/.l'oonmU!l" ;kll h~d c;;lll«ted belJin.d dlt! ,illiig<' tfiW' ;;cn,bbM him dQ\i.<w OlIn' a diip.

He was so ane ,ti!i hI.' pla)Ved in Itre !iI"ater .. II and $[!laslltd ~r(JfPld.

As. <I. pfuoll{lgr.aplle:r. ~hc associalions you make wi~h a 'same may not be f:IlJ<lJde by Odle'fS. Consider lile mallJassooiO!l!iom~ a ~liIern;l!y(;~icil and work the one t:I1M bes~. suits you.

Nmdy ,r!l'ery pOOl'QKmpl, QFOUM:!i _iario!lS. SOllie. li"- .. the· i<VOW' wil}, rhe apfl/(~ • .s1ir IIlllrer tkjiilitf' .~t1(~fifflM'. 01.1"5. like ,r/pt'· sn~w lenoe. may n(JI evoke .-my M~ ill' Jejini!(! <USDl'iatimu.




!Ugh1 01'1 ~hc,,~i!leaS(; and the shaded face ill the window,

Now's (he lime rechoese Irem !lI'l"Uong tffiile Uil'l;lrly picture possibililies, the l~me: to if YOll choose ~J1 u]lcom'en t iO:1"1<I ~ [rea rrn em. yo D may ~hill ,emphasis from 5!~bjm to tedmiicque. Nothi n~ wrong with that ~f tl1 a t's TWiiJ'H YOli wam, H"s lip 00 ) OIL

I" [hem.l)men~ bel ween findillg.~ subjoot and phol.ographirlg il. yeu make many. perhaps iii uadreds, of de. ci~tln~Allr:tQughyou make Lllilese d.."cisiQnsaI1l!J:1Os;~ ;l1,iLh~malk'tllly. periodica~~y }'(JU should .re\ i.ew your own dcci sioa-mak i ng process and see if it ca n be: lITIpr(,vcd. i1!!! any way. tis[ed below are some of ~]:teCOIT!li1lilo[J da:i· sions !liuldle. Glance <It llleln-tb.ey m::1~ Wtelp-bUl~ above 'In. exaluille yo ur OWI"II decisien-mak i fig JlrOCN. and 'See iflno man)' wbings are d.ooided by habit.


Through observation and analysis, ! 11 fOl'l!Igh heightened awa reaess, ihri)~g~ i!'!sp,j r:r~ioll and dogged seadjng. Y01Ll [tlllinGI a subject, Now you're gt'li ng UlIp-lunog.rapil it. Excited. e!>!lr;;d. Y~!:!lI spirits sO.<lJf.I'magl.;'S dance in your mind. Y ou cai1'~ w<lJi t to g,el had; the piouures. I houghi you h<tNC )1:1 lo- take Ih.eTII.

Calm down. Don't letexeirernent (;,'3Jri}' youaW3}'. W{JlI.1ld YOIi want <til excited surgeon attaing i nto you or aa e'X!cl led pi lot '~andirng yMr ~Iru'!ie~ No. you'd want a caim :persol] capable of objoc(iwe dedsi em. II perwlil ~ellered from the storms of emotion, andIt's thai same' persoa rml want to take ~'ou.rp~,lDlogrOJiph. Rela:rt. H(w/~ By taking pictures. React and pho,!ograph your subject until the ripples of C:J!ciu .. "m¢llIt abate and. when lhey GO. begin .. .or if yo u


Are ~'Oll using an appropriate km.,1 7;,.OOm le uses n,,01: ill ~ad;.li.!;hled liCeJi1JeS mQ~ than fi};;oo .. foc'!l .. lef'lgU'! lenses, Telephoto lenses compre:;;~ dI$La.f1C<;~ il1 scenes; wi de-angles e;;: pand them. Is )uur' film-speed dial set ,oonOClii)'? Are e!>poo;lIm: compensation controls set oomdlf! Woul)J 3. polarizing [iller increase color saturation?


"'linl to OO:rn;sel"l'C film. jillist obseree lIin1i ~ YOI1 can see the' scene 0 bjectic\'el} and then IxginphOlO,gIaphing.

F::mot:io[l cheeked, excitement bettied" expectation corralled. !'lOW you caainspect ~e scene before: you, NO\ll' }iO!.l rnust l:lillPid::. Ifi> y·nol'" last (;:_rna1il~ 10 get l'lili rngs rngh L J\'laJke sure yo lIIf min:d sees ","hal Ute camern sees. Reac~ only lo the visual eleraents in lit!;; \ I.ew n rider .. As ~ou ]@ok i nHl' the \lie .... - finder. pretend }'OU are standing in, ill friend's h,,'ing room looking al I!J Jramed print taken by SIllineQfilC else, Viewpoint. subject p()!> diepllln. or fieM, sliiUHell' speed, eolor balance, rrlllming. lightim.g, comJlo~iliQD'I,. Checkit aU.

ow's mhe time to n{l~ice the dli:s[]'aeti I'Ig tree in the baekgrouad 2nd change yourviewpomt,

Now's lOCnioe10 'sp:n the exeessi lie contrast between the llare or SUn·

Wilh {I ~1i;giJr mill of ~i!'Jl1'6illt .. llN?bri~t! tow .... r is J~t1 from r>I-I'7gilig with Ihl! I'xliiding 1)11 iLf I"f(.


Willi ;rf'limL-!,.,h 81 B fil~f:f IN*hk!iK~

With sfide nim especi<!!Uy, colcr casts rn~y show if not corrected ""ilb £'iher~. CJIliUl:l)' days and llpe:n shade lend a !i.!i,gtn bluishness mslides. You ean eliminate [be blue \\<iith <Ill 8.11 mler. Subjects illuminated by 11 rising III selling sun 1[11I}' appear 100 yellow (alllumgh the }"Clluwi~blllcss is Uliually wnsKIcred pleasant], You canreduce 0. etimifl3te thaI lr'ell(j.i,\I with <11:1 !!2~ filler. Urnes. special effects, uSC dalilJ~I1I ii'lm in d,,)'liglH ami. tungsten mm il'l tungsten ~igh[_


I !lSpocl ~ he background to make '51! re i~ d~"t distract. ~f)O\! have a d:epth-offie:M p.rell'ielAf D-l,IlJ!on, IiIS~ il. so lh"l }fOld. can see how the backgrouadIeoks at LOC sell:C'I.ed aperture, Do Y(JlI waru 11 sharp background because il adds 1.0 Lh~ [~I. IIf the pl!01'u:re? Or d.C! )'Oili want

i I. soft !i@ ~1I11; subjeet stands mn?

m- Dord8!$

RUD ~'DU~ ey~ aJolJI_!l the edges 1I11 The [m.ll'l"e. checking [0 see Ibal. nothing is cut orr tl1!:11 ~houJdll'l be and Loot nothingis irn!.tudcd Lhal ~hmild[l·I. be,


aimin<l the relanonshl ps bel!lli ~I'I things iII the 'Sa"De.. Check r",r a\\,l;w<lrd il'\'Cn;ap:s. disturbing spaci IIg,aad m:caling o rganizalillll. Is the emphasis in ~ proper plM:c~

For j1"""",I.r f(!~1 ,wrJil;,m of WjMJ;> wi!!, ,wliLtUllliJ' M&i~ <IT ",." TejleclWID!: • .rOil m!lla mlju.,/ e:f[NJS1ln Wh21l' ~rillg III buill-in nuner,a meter. 7"6' make /l;is ".hire backgrowHl .appear j.-rule. rlt!! phOiOwuplwl' ill'CF~ .I!KpfMilr:f! II"

I ! f 2 SI0p5 frDm thr ".!err,. uutirnrWn.


Dres the subjeet require amy special exposure treasme nit as do bl"ight~y ] it SIl;;)'W scenes, baekht !>CCIlt:S>, and cont ras ~y scenes? I r shooting slides, !',Quld Q¥c""""po~ut!::,,,,rhi~h h,!lMen, Nk>rs., or IlnderexpO~III1'e .... ·hich saturates co1!or.>. be ljseru~ Bi3ckel when in doubt,

~ q/i foeU

reS tile- depth of fLdo e110ug:!I? T('I{) much? Use the del'!h.or-l"~\1d ~ a le 11m ~LI~ camera or tile depth-ef-Jield p.!.elliew burtnn to check.


Do shadows III ide wanted dC!lIi11 Can you lighten shadows ~iltJ a reflector U! llash? Docs ~hc angle or ID,ght sUiil the subject? [I' net, t:.l:ll:l }'OU move 10 jgCI iI bener angk: witbO-lI1 und i!~Y ups>;t1 ing ·oomf'o:;i!ro!l~


Ff )lQU "roll} 1.1 ke the seene, SbOCl it from a number of viewpo ints, high and low angle s, lrorn and side positions. Shoot the scene in ilii.y"lly you can imagine.


'GO wmt TiH'E ROW

DOlli'll:ry to subdue a subject te your "~dyoflh-nking-youcan't pu h III piann 1ll1rou,gh a P'Of1.holll, Go' v.ilh the now. k flex.ible. Adapt. The scene win not ada,pt to Jail. as you'll discover "",hen \i.ewim,g YOlllf pictures,

Whl'lfs there is there. Worii;: ",illl1, it, not against u, If YOlili had hO,ped 10 produce a glamorous portrait of 1111e darling liltle girl ne."l door but she'll being an imp. adapt aad capmre lhe imp wrapping her pigtails around her race or giggling :n your sole'lil\n~t.}'.

Don't let your expectations pmjecl mifa~ ,hat leave ),ou thirsting, Release' e pectati ens, De~y ass b.lmptiooJJls. Unitt: ",nth ~hc $0\';!1e' 1.0 see not wha [,

)XUI wam [0 see, but what'~ there, Then strengthen the strong points to build [he photo.graph you want.

Somet~l1les a . ituation , .. rilll prove 1.0 be u.npnloto~nlil:, Recognize when IlKU happens and be on yol..lrmt,i;rr¥ ",'illy ~ nok ing r or scrnethiag else.

SlMPUn' AND 'CllAlilmFr

When you (ate a photograph; you mean thalllhOlo.l!;ntpn W how or sa)' romelhing. but ometim .ro~rirne!'ll lis obscure,

Ob&ClIril.y arises from two cnmmon eausesi Uncertainity of intent Wndusion of too much. The solution? Be sure or YOU]I intent. Don't include too mum.


Once ),Oll decide on inteat, iTiclude only tilnO!5e lhings thaI!. eontribnte. Everything I:hal docsn's contribute, detracts. Everything thar doesn't <ld' • subtracts. Y@u:I want your viewers, to notice the lines formed b)' a rowboat and i ts oars, but 110\. C3J1il they whelll the rov. br.HIit and cars are seen amidst ]ilie~, canoes, water-skiers, and ~!:nic!;:ers'~

Heed, advice from another communieater; writer 'WiUi:am Zin er, "Wridng improves in dnct ratio to ~hel1,umbcf' of things wec .. m keep out of it that shouldn't be there." Suh$lii· tute pholography 'rOT writing and you have choice advice, III his book OIl Writing I' "eJl, linsselF notes that clarily Qr~en suffers ~il:SC the ""'r1ter(in our C,ISf the phmograpMf) i10ids too dear the attic jlJ~t crowding ~i5. thonght -or his SOCrJe..

Zinsser goes on, "The secret of good \\,"~;liIg i!> to 'strip everyparagraph to &1 cleanest eomponems," Th.1I same secret applies 10 phOlgraphy, E\'CfY photographer wonh his zoom leus whinl .. ":'> 10 the' boae and those who don't v.riiillpay lhcpmiceflabby phlli,(Jg'!!Iphs..

[[;I short. say one thililg a t a •. aad S;'lI}<' iL clearty, Pare away [lite C~cess. Juak ~he dUlU,:Y_ Strip the fat. Clutter dilutes. confuses, amd muddies, Get rid of :it.

How do you g_C'l rid of clutter?

Change \<iewpoinl.;1 do r or higher ,j),r to the side, Change len ses, using. a telephoro IlO narrow the 'IIi~w_ Move the !lubje!::t. shifting it to ,<I loeatiea free (II'" di6tmctions. H nothing works, abandon (he subjf.."C1 and find a new une,

Shown 0111 the next :page are 5e\'eral: ways or isolating", subject

O'le of tlle tWighls ,,[ clNklrrri is r/llJ1 til€) :!qldml andtease and nm'r tJ'u/d sl'iJ1--,.,., adulls rdielJ mpprl!"fS tlt~ sptm{(!~ei~y if ,~hlith'eli ~tm-.n plu)tlJgnJplDng /lu:m. Rt-la.r:, w.l!m rhilrgs dOn 'r iff} m)'lWI ll'am, pJw/ftgTlI_ph lhem as Ihe,I' me"


r, S!Jitpl~ f~"'Qf)J.!<krog5. If li1le surroundjngs <lFe simp~e. then 01111} the 5Ubjoot winll attract ,fl.tte,,~iQr.. Look for a plain foreground .. 0r clildud.c the foreground ~1:tI(I find a plain llIaokgn:>ull!.t. lEliclljde ii~ryG!JjCll:I.S.

3" &.lwiw fiN.u!J."'''''h.lHI you CilIn·. elidude the surroundi Ilgs;. )'aD CUl use ~lecli¥e' [00illI to ~C[Jd~ them out of fOCllS am.;! {)l1lli11lil: s.~lbjc!;1 in Joens. Selective (0QiIS is most easiJlI achre.~ ed by IlllJllg a te~"h 010 kll1i, .H a largt' aperture like f/l5. 'if (I !!I

.. hould ulso use il at dose tomedium ~00J.'U.fin:g distances, Check in ~"<lJUJf vi~lind.ert() see ~owblurry extraneous objects took.

1., .F'ull frame. fly h.ning :tlrc frame wi ~.b thesu bjeoi. },()i.! make ii lbe only UI]ng 10 'liie>.O'. You can "" ~e fiame b}, Il''lo'lin.g in etese or by u-sing .. ~fepl!iotfl1 lens,


. "

;; Ij


,41. remu{ ~ ... .mllll5f.W hen til!; :>llbJjOCL j ij. briigl:nly !il ag:)il1St a o,b"k background or silhouetted .ag."Il nst !II, 1i&llt;,!!fo.1'lcIn.<iI, it stands cut, ]f tonal contrast doesn 'I eJLi5~ l'Iatumny. wmdirnes l!"DU earl create i~ by using 21'o!1rnilJsli. 10' ~ri~tCri up the s\lbj(;C[ and &.lP:ll rate il from lJ'ie l>ad;;,groumll.

5. C(J/f}, WIlrmsl, Whim !he sub~ ~ dilT~~tiry celored fii(im its . surroundings, it becomes more Ilotioeabk CQlor 'OOf!! ~S'rJ.a~I} works best when tine c:onlr .. ast is between Iblighlt and muted colors. ,3M Iwt sim:¢y between briglr~ contrasting colors lI!<ihi.Gh compeee for anention,




C<JmpMi[ion has been around as long ~:; art, and'bllbly longer, begilt~ ning when some preh iSlOdc persan grunted. "Don I you Ii re it beU~li over here?" and dragged the mammDlIh, skin 3cr ,. llile c<u;e.

The question posed by our mammoth-skin decorae r wasn't real1) a quest:il;tTl b;~l an opinion. nat's all omnposibon IS, an o:piniol'l, an opinion Dr ho a. given ~m: looks best,

l:..dwarn Weston's opinion was lh:llt "compos "'ton is the' s!.ro.ngestw,,>" of ~eei~g;" '!i eston undoubtedly knew there are as many 111'3.)5: or compa ing as there arc subjects, as there arc pho· tographers seeing' the subject. Tihc best ,compositiolll i [he one that works,

a ny books Iii]{ to £or:mwille the "sl:rongtSl \'.'3)' oli'seeing,:' arm) man}' photographers rigi:dly adhere 10 those fcumulatiol'ls_ The books prescribe the rule (l:r I hirds, and pbotegra phers, tlhink'illlg Ihe,l/\'C read gos:pet ~Iot an jli'l1lJg1rmujigrid onto. th .. scene seeking to place subieers :n the '[hirds, The books talk a'bolll finding a center or dl1te~t. and [he p~o~ographers find that. center of iinlereS,l and (oll{)wing Ihe books EI.,ganl,. keep dial oOOlDlter of il'llC'rcsl away from the center.

O} ell means IrefidlaOOlJ1 "md stud~' cnmposilion. and become famili;lr wi~b CIl><ltiJll,g balance and unbalance, a 'Sense ,of proponiol'l. aad hO¥.' they can a her the muoo of a gi"oo CQmpositi n, But don't tring rules on akey chain with the thought you C<lilil, ap-

• Jir(}~lch 11 n)< s:ub:tect and open the door to perfect. composilion \\,illri a ruI~_

Instead. tlilink first or your subjec1 and your intentiOIl'. The:lillhink of lines, shapes, colors, :rhyOllus 3>11d meanings. and sift. throll_gh the p<lllIiihie compositions to lind the one thaI feels, right,

Like ,a fmi :;hQli!. ,romptt.~i'.i"'i .r.'h:ooM almos: bt> ,rmi1miceabl~_ The bes: ('ompusiliml is lht! 0lY!: tlian IlI(JSl IfJppe·«lill,1: •. ;IliU} .,'lral Lf rnwl ,ol'.pea/u:r n_frt"J tkpr!llll3 1m llw subject dlUI drC!1J7!5lmlre;S •



TD gp wilh IJw flpll ell/lli! hills I'lIlming dn,nmrd. lllt! ,mologr'(Jphc'T p/a.tcf!d Iii

InY aJ Ille Ii!ft 'tIiht!re Ihe hills NlIffJm ,oll/.

17lJ,he f!Jw,'ogrop/1n. the thra I!Ihjl~' SJJJjNu [Pi 1111" M.'ff!1li! be/Olll ~ for Ir-.i.lUI utaI' a'l',r~I1gl'1lIf''lI. Tire photographl!T yitrkkJ bJ' !TlOt>ing lhe ,dol{ _w it ktH ('~nfIJT J~1it'gfh ThE'I"I!I'.1011'9.

camera, lenses, film

Since you use ,Q camera, a lens, and film 10 phologtaph'. you .need 10 rlJlder91a!~d li'ow the}' ~ differemlJ·ftom you and how llu..JJI? dif/er:etlces ~nect J'Dur plwlogmp.h.~, Here are some of tlte' 11~ayJ I'n l1.·llicJ, ,{hey ee differetltIJ'; the ({lInera indiscriminately im:llllles everything witllhl its l1ieu'; it sees tile u'ol'iti inside £1 I'ecttmgle; it sees ,a slice of lime carPitied hy the shuuef; if sees v«ryurg




The first way your camera sees d.iffer· emly 1s,lhal il doem"~ really see at all. No! a gl~mmeF.nota jot, not one iota, Secing Irnleans sell5atlo]l, which is abseil! in tile camerae it tiJ1~,!JI~ 3. livi ng being simme:ril:'lg \!;tiilll\conscioM and lll!J.bro,l1ScioIJS wan;nslh(lt dil'e;::llm ey~ to recaaooi ter t~c w,O!.y 10 the rest watm o:r to find Ib,e chocolare ice cream in the freezer.

Like ,1J rock om the beach. the eamera gems splashed by e~'e'rytl1:la,ge coma ill:g can'l select- That's y, job, SQ, wh(;~ Y(l1!li lind some'l.liIi.l:'IIg to photJOgraph. Y01ll mus:1 'S1iI~'~t from yOt'l1!" se'lective lo'iie\\;ng to the camera's nonseleenve viewing; You, must ~OCIk inlolhe viewfi:nde1iamd see e"e~ing mere to see because if }'Q u don 't, the camera ,,,in_ n~ ""HI include lawn chairs. rrieyeles, and all the d~HeF you o1!'e:rlooli;oo.

Ue C"Jmcra's amaztng ;ability to esprure derail ISJI'1 always a ltiabitity. Onen it's, an asset Copion.L'l delai I, bountiful det.,.ilI. ;11mtfu[s or &etaillh.<JJt theeye on its own cm~ld never hoM is one oil the eamera's rO'ftes.

:Kee:p you. (:~ ol;n for dtose scenes, a.llId subjt'C'!S bumgin!,wiHl congruent detasl, for detail ~.hat amazes and amuses, Wh~i!l you find it, use a finegrained fil:m like Ko.OAUI ROM E 25 or KO[}Acm .. OR VR 1,00 and ill small f-stop ro holdthat detaiL

AiJua, unllkr.! IlUiJ\IdJI ~'l$ilJtl kl'irid! lEnds

r" c,~tf<lle tN" dlings ~fi!1l!'re~l. C"i~ (m(ljilm_ '{.'17I"J'tJj~'f~g'rilhm tile fl'eld rJj llip /21l,~_ OnriJ J"!lU a/sa ialffl W ,~t> ItflWJ·tr~if[g; !1'ilhin lfie fi;dd of ,-/'eH, "ml (!x£lutit: rill? extraneeus, ,.(111 lLitl gel m!~d~ nPD111! iii-soil/hem jI"Oi'f .... lIm,

R'iglf1.jm1,<iS lin? It!'J? .Iiimts to .,iCr.!i:of O'1l't WI!I'Q]lfi"d <klaN so don ;, I ... rd W .d!.im !illW iIleWab/ e im'Uil---excepl ,n ,(1 p,hrJItWUJ1h', Wliffi' }wfiItd ·rJ ~ "tell ~'11i di!laifs, such QS t~se dried JI'olW'S WJ!,! (lgR kSI fil1lJ dm~ d<twif.r br wing ~n eJ:ciEtmery j'iJlI!-grllim!'d'jilm rih> KrJDACUk()!I4E 64 rN' .KO[},KO.WR VR 100.film_




~f:you were 10 hold your e),i1: perfectly &l~!I.dy. anl.!lmatural state, you would lind me 'human ~)'e has 11 rrnme-a roughly el]iptical harder ddinod by the bony orbits around the eye. But since) our eye normall)' flicks abo ut 11 scene. iiI its LIl, effect unbcn,lrllded,

Btu a Jlhotograptlhas boundari,es" and in rOml'i!:l,g at frame those boundaries do. things yo.lII should consider, The)' esclude and! include things. They orient !:Jl:tings EOI' and bonOl1l1. tell ,and right. They 'l'II!ake s~ apesl'l'ilh the images. They cliIbr,ge space Dr sbrin ii~_

Ph.otography \\'I'Ii~ers have made lit a pI'aCticc to include ii[JSlruclt!ions Mth the frame_ TIley (_~U you. about balaneing the irnage within tile fmme, about ,orienting the frame verocally or horizontaUy to a commodate vertical Dr horizonral subjects. about leveliag the frame. about not s.queezi'og sllQbjeclS into comers. This ;~ (r a (litiona! advice, Traditiol1aJ:ly it is rotlowed, sually i'l w.olflcs.

BUI don't lei uarlif,ion inhibil, y~u from mOlimipulatilIl.!!, the frame to see the eUects <)f dilTc:~n~ variatiens, A11- gle subj~(ts from die corners or ides-. Tilt Ui rrame. Squeeze <II face .nto (he comer and see if it seems senmcned. Is the effect appropriate ito me_ ubjeer? sed b<!dily. unusual frnmnllg may seem affected, bUI bad is one of the stCjPS on the _ ay to good. so welcoree i .. <1!J1d be on ~'our W<liy.

AI(nIG ,fm£/.l.l·(/ing m.I rlw end oJ rhl''h, this pt't:W/l ,ret.'ms istJIfIted. Tire p!.rorog,up/H!" J.eiglw!!fIw r/U' isolllfWn by placing fhi! p'itr"~,m (II 11fr' ('.dgt.' O/IM frame. OIiT finl! Q{ liUmt is (/Q"'IJ ,lIP mirMfe of 'he pkill~. and Ihe l~h :riUl:"r is almi:i:n'i'gtlo'l'tl!lJ..


I,' is th« IIGIIlTt' of picwrt! boIdNJl /0' i=lude' and, dmk. BUI ill this picWJ'e r/1l;'F .A, Ii drtlflN1l1caJI,lI. SI'lCiJ 1]' dose aoppin_g tif' ,his 'f(miIm' 1a:« vioknes UiJl'mallJ~!ln;\lh PfNSfJ,'i(1/ ~ a.M ~H)uld .lft'tfl [J£Tln/1l11J' Ul(irn(1le kl'!'I"i" tI(Il ~ke '~J"t"s f:xt:luded.


A'1"OJioo t'xiW tIll uhoui .!I.\: (}J1d ir I!ftf'1l be:sr Irot~la!ed by ,(1 .lim.' shuntT" ~d 111111 biuu; #12. lI'l'Orimi_ Hm., .,rnd .bh!r ocmrs dePr?flds uptH! wDj!!t.1 spoN!ll

<Jlfd dmuer sfMr?tl .Ihu! ,<] lhuut!t' ~~t oj 118 sffi()llri wm: lJ&':d:

Hlj8 rlUJlurlNur I~\tl~p,~ m ,rwillilhr wi,,!!: ~ :s/InUt!:r speed of 1 snood.

51i1URa AND MQifUlN

The shuner enables the camera to capture m(!ljo~ in "I<!),SlIlnseen, b,lhe eye, 'WOe. doses! ~hiAg ::i) persea has to a. 8h~Uer.and u's illLm. \'ery ctose. isan eyelld wi:I.oS'e bni1ilki::; ~oM~r for wil'l~ dow\.vash~l1g, A s~uuer, <kpt::n.d'iIJ!!!: on i IS speed, coo step lUoi[i(!l<J4 k;[ it eolleer as a bl ur, or HQt evenlet 'ilregiseer, On the otililer MOO, ~h.e e}'e C<l:~ do,I~!Ue mri ore th<ll!R note tile existeaee of :31 II:l£Jving subjem ~d ~d; it It is !:Ill abh;: ~o net imilivid ual nlomenls from the lily);: Or ~o freeze the blur ill om:' image as does the, camera.

Sinee t~.e phetegrspher Cl!II1J'( seratql1i~ a 'm~'\I~!lg subje£l and W:ite reflexesm<ly dany_ 'lh~ more piclures, YOIU, late. the ffi!O:re nk.e~y you 'II. ~el a good image, Li,k,e ,d131Si nga butterfly w.ith yoUf bare hilnd;:,. it takes iii lot of tries to R1'ake a c::nob. Even .iiIU someIhilll,g ,<I:S, unmoving as 'Pof~~a~l PDO~ togil"apby whe~e only cl';prcssioQ~ shift. pho~.ogmph.e<J'S oft.ellJ expose an entise 'foOl! to gel one piet ure ~1Ii1h ~.h.e right ~~pressiun._

S~aFpl1e~"'~YIt;; fr(l]il a shuuer speed fast enough w freeze motion, BI~r 'res",]~ from a sbJuueiJ: speed 100 slow til fre!:Le mosion. Blur, liJe obvi- 0111 s representa t:ive of motian, sme£lr5 nose ilIilid >eyes. diSSQhres legs. sprouts extra heaJdis----elfects lllit"n hap~ Q![! h- 011 IiLm.

S!har:pness revea fmms. and. dom.i1s. and imdlc:3!tt'$ motion (1111)' if the S!1I0jecl shows <I. postuse 1lMOrllrnon to lh_.eresling position- 11'1 other words. shown slilarp. some~liIillg inf1exibae hke a ram: car will be perceived as moving o[i~yi! if~ $O;tttfIcrsauhing i'.hrou8lh [he air. SIl!m.elhi.llg f1exib!te ~Ik;e 3. person gesturing can be per~i\:\ooas mo>;ing becaase 100 .ges. lure does not belong to a pe~n at rest,

B~yr bas ro_a~y spi!1Qffs, Yo):! (.<III boid. [he camera ste-ady and IN the S!ll.bjecl. smear 1!(:fO'SS the l1nm.¥ml can mt)\r,e the (.;'!;llJeil.!. to bl~.!'r ;:!!~I !.iTI~



moving subject. You can pan. the camera witlil. a m(wilil_,g 's~bj(;;ct t,o keep the :subjw fairly sharp, and b11!1J" the bi:lckgmullld_ for palming, (he earnera is normally moved smooth., aDd straight. but i nteres~ilillg results Ortur if it is jetJi:.oo er pwmed as if j~ ,,',ere a roller coaster, orr if III \l(:ry sT(lw-hutter speed (1:4 second or slower) is used.

Most of LIIS relegate motion pbotography to 'big l'hings mC'4.liL to mO'iioe qJuickly-Eninl,gs likie cars. mo:ton::ydes, and jogge- _ E\'eryda~' mOli:on we overlook,. Have. you everphotcgraphed II door s'lliinging, SIUll, III chi ld sliding out of bed. dancing in the: wind? I r not begin now, Ex· plore e"'"e~'dll'y motion, Mouths (I~I], curtain flutwr, brooms sweep- feel fidget, faueets now_ M;;tli:e a list ohhe possibilities. Use ill tripod anda slow ShUUC'f speed like I/.t second to bhir any 1'II101liNlL.


.-lI wi,ghl amDlmt 0/ hlur' I'l the ,JmMng g,irl!; gilY'.s a __ of ""genc)' 10 II'I!'u 'IIDl'f'lrrell/.s.

Acli,m ,,~ripptd. fielo':r4.'. i5 Il.'cognimble 4! lJdion <lui)' if lhe slJbj«ls QII? mUjfnt in post's distin~ll.y differf:~1 /rom IlI!'ir UlJreamrrt:eS atrest.



('i.--'-_ ,:,,~~~


When ~IO p.ress LI1Ie sbuUer-a gmple contractiol] of tile indexling,er whose},g fi1e-'.1IIlS I iuile LO still [ires bllt mlu:lh. (10 objects in rnotion, Defore p'f¢SSilllg tllte shutter, ph@,to'ua~heJi'S have nadhionall~i' ",'9!i(ed_ or ",bat? For tl!le scene in nux to llrdve al SIR 'idCOliI, moment, a mmnen~ when subjeers are balanced and arranged in a oompo9rionally manner, for the ped~triam to emerg~ from behind the telephone pole and 'the In otOll"C"Ydist to fully ent!:. I!hc £rame. Den fhey p~d the shuaer,

IhU such pictures are not so mueh

pietures ofnlll1x!IS tJ1l.ey are :picm~s, of tlomposlticm.· as il nOI compos.ltlon thar determined \1111('n the picUlre was laken?ft:!casing 1.0 view. ~OBipvs!tion<I] pictures of f111'L~ preseu~ a OOnvemiliorW altlrough somewilJa', dismrted view of n:<Jlill)'- If you VI~ to randomly fr-eez.e the Ilux ofa scene. yot:l'd 1'10 rlilldall idcailislic composit:ion btl~. all. awkward posUlrin,g of people ,caught rising fll"Om park belllcbes, faCES buriedi" hBlu:uikeKtliefs. and CMi'S bisected by the fr,am-e-s borders, I~ Vl"oqu[ld be li,le arriving unannoanced at a frienrl's, house whe!IfC instead of the usual s,pi~-alll,d-span

J.lmMd of rl<"Qiling .far 11M' SJ.IIIb.allir:r n, po.rll .f)fe1li~r for the ,M»JerfJ:. th pfl.01QgUJpher co'4!hl her umgli!d in !'rN mnil1'(!;!'S. 1k white 5JmtkrM pial's l1ird}" ugaiJ1,;fl lire d"uds as doa l~~ reCIt1":f{" r!f ;h'l' blWll.:d a1§'{illSt ,he r«tungk !If du! heClI:}!, agOWI Ihe recumgie ,oj Itll! ... 'Qh!r_

housekeeping, you see shoes ami newspapers strewn across U1 HOOf a.nd ihrLy dishes, on Ilbe tabje,

Showing Ihe a.wkwardness ofnllI~ is, showing a view seldom photographed. OfC()UFSe, ona: it becotaes rommonpia:ce n[ losesits power of surprise. lrolllically. capturing nile reality offilux i"stt;t done simply by randomly sruJpping the shutter bUll. by C"..:!lfefully waj~ing U!lilJtiI subjects I'eacllt wat ·'idcail" a wkward'Oe5S. E\'eD lbe so-caled realistic vie" :faj_uil"("'S a carefully limed shOll lhOit siimulates whaL tIleph(l~IlgJ3phe-f believes Ito repre'sent flux.


There are a kH: of1~, B~t noneis morepopular than ~be fOllr~teme>l1l, l7 mm ~ens with automatic focus .and autemenc cli a pm17agm r~.ngiflg frotn f/3L~. £f12, with a Io'erliical 'i'iewiRgan~ gle of ~41Y and. ill bomontal .ni!.!d~or l80', and with 1! builM-iniel!ls .>.:"aile aad ifl!eDal oolOir ,ool'li"eClIiol1. Like if? You hase one. two 'lJ;::l~.lily-YO!.!i eyes.

nUll ir YOU.f eyes s'hollld roU doWIFI. the oo.mrey~)r [Q the qJuali Iy CO'[I~ ro~ illspecter of a l~[ls tnOlinlifactu:rer, th;~i'd get N)~ into the rejootpile. They just <lJRillI't lip losnufli. COI11:pa!ied [Q modern looses designoo by {l~mp'dfClS and made' with rare earth elements, your eyes are clffided marbles that can'l[ roH st.raigld let a~'O'f!le' see 8traighL l' (DO short; [00 lon,g. 1.00

"Wll!~, Ihc:lY \\!O:l".k nonetheless, You haee I.i\lled w.itb them, defecl5 and all, and ~htly have made th~ W(lfld fami~· iarr ill rlleir way.

The~f way. Y ear in1:pressiom of !11~ world depe1lldin (l"JiF'1 1)11 ~heim£!ges rOm1edi by yOlJiI'eye.s as lenses, Other leases form cliffer-el~t images. thus shDW' me wGrl~ ~n (ltheil IIora.ys. Given sharpness and speed, ~hc:: W<lys. of leases impo:rtiJn~ to pih:otO'gi:"Ol!phy are fOO!l ~rigth. Focus,. aJlld depth !Of field ..

The: most 'CO.rrunOI1l and mostuapolftanl use of lelilses is ~im~~)' to f] t lhe i]lll'''!,''C yo~ ""~$[ cnto dre film: a wide.-fIIfllgle lens ~o im::'lud:e alii of the oceanrli.ner QE n. OItele:photo lens ~o maglfiify 2J. dii:sta~il. wi.ruisllIder,

Bl!Illenses mIn else alter the appearance of a scene. for pra.clica~ pur-

poses, lenses of fecal lengths can often change .apptrureil:lI perspec· li.\i~, (Technically, o~ly stJiootil111 dislance ch3J~s. the pe~ti'i'e.) Perspective is. the: way three-diTI1.ensioDal spaceis vendefed on l w.cliI'lilerllilornl!1 ~j)Cr" A lens call ~flpear (omagmi~'. suetd" Oli s1ilrink spaee.

First, y.D:tl! must tra~n }"Ulomielho·~ eome !1,Wul"e of how f(JC;ili!cl'igili in wnjiU:nclioDi with subjecil. distance can alter persped;ive, Then }UU must ~rain ~O'UirSel110 n,'cogoiz~ whl!;!\ yo~ wanl t~) auer pers:pect~.\re.

Of the l!ilIl'oo CBllegories (If tenses, I~~ide~ .. nde. normal .. 0001iId wlepnQlo. normal lenses. (4{)·OO WUllnU 1'5 nun camerast yie1d <I perspective similarm tfl!l;lgiViC!1 'D'Y the r;;·ye. That's ""iii)! l'ltey're callednormal lenses.

14 mrn len::

51) mm fens

li)' .adjusiing mooting' dishlllCf' {HId d..lLl1ging /ettJe5 I'P keep' (J.ffJ£~(}lInd sulij('i:,' the S;7RR' size. ap~. distullceJi /ire""("ell for;:ground ,md ru&grourrd atm c:hl11l-ge. DistQJ!Cif seems ,Wt'llr£r ,.,-illl the fj.;;tk-Wigie' tem onJ less io-ilir tk lelqJlOM.

DiJlf!fit!/11 If!m!eJ Ie, 'OIJ HIlT lhe "'<1 J'O.II see "niJIg,f. SPRIe .lel }>tJu ~ee: ,dos€r. some fun/w,.. BUi mor~ imporlOllI llitm Q l.'l'IS' Dplf<;aJ idit1!f}'I1""W'J', such ,ar .. -ifk'-jJn~JI! UisJID"firHI' II'hid, ajte-fl a~ gim/nicky. is tho.i a lens t!ml1JI.. : you 10 oluui'l and .frtm1e ill"! imlWe J"OU •• \"'11#.


8,- ~ Q wUk.-angle ,lens and ul'CJ. .. dillll a/mel! • .wmillg/ltNFI'jlJr-egrt1iPVlIo badgwl,Iml thE ,m'OI()gmpher ~as aiIJe to :s:IU.D ~1Il" (#Slmtt:-e.


Vi{ilh 'Wide-.ui~ e leMIi)S, you can increese thl: sense of space and dig. lan'C'¢5 between th~n~ whea photo· graphi~,g nearb), subjects. The ::;f:1orter the rocallel1brtl'l. me greater the exaggeraflion of space, To alter .iI1pparent pc.!'S,p«:~iv,e lIIotiteably, inc1li1m~ dose subjocts, as well as medium or dist.m[ subj~.

G('lISe subjects appear (airlly nonna:1 '0:1' ,slight~y large inl-~~e. wllile faiilher subjects are much smaller, 11Ie si,,~ diITet1mliatimli between near and fa.r things muses the: space exaggernti(Jn. 88,

Although YOI] can use wlde-an~ lenses to make portrait caricatures orto elongaee :sikyscr,ape<rs. sLdl speci.d ,en:eds are obvious wllereas the subtler cITed or expS!nded space' canappear normal, Jei\: create a $!l.nmg feeling of deptbin a picture. Uy carefel sel'e:ctio~ and j1Jlx1tapositioIl of near ;)judi far s.ubjeets. )Iou am shift tbe t!1D-

Dhllils rrom to site" For mstance you can tum lit foregrol!l:lld dandelion into a sequoia towering over ;;II oockgTound person (set' paige 55). iEmphasi.ziTi,g umll:$md size IdaIlollsbips generally requires a n mm 011" shorter ji:{lcal length lens ilIncli a sm.aJm aperture like f/.6 to ~we rum· c.ielil:t depth of ficld.



Unlike wide-angle ren~, ldep:hoto ,I!enses cempress apparent distances belYlttwl things. The longer the; roc,11 ~ength, tllte greater ahe ,c:Qmpression. The dfed. becomes especialJy noticeable with lenses longer than 200 mm, The apparent compressloR results from the narrow fileld of viev._

To shorten diLan'ces between ahi~~ lDoticeablJy. )'011 noc-d ~o work with ubjects 31 nredium-far flo far distances. Making thlngs appeas Closer together 9:1ay at fim seem 10 have litLIe val iiIC, but with a little tho'Ughm y.ou can imagine silUllitions where a more cfOlII,ded feeling \\'ou1d be appJiOplF~-

ate. Photographed through anormal lens" strollers OD _ ifth Avenue' may ,appear to' be baving a mid~afternoon ",,~ .. jk. B ut 1I\I,hen p borugra phed throughll 5a) rnrn Ien5, )'OUI are thrust 1111.1.0 a ,crowd ready to UlImpTe stragglen, The number of people doesn't cha11J~e. the D mm lem; just seems to rbumih them ~ogether. Ja.mming things lo,gelher can. drolsticaUy alleii' meed,

Mo're subtly_ lessening; distance between thi:ngs tightens ~he relationship between them" The dose I" they are, the more appiiillt-ni il is they an! t,oge.t:her, even il'theylliiI't"Q'l. Tomai. t:am this to,gelherness,tlle principal

Althn,.y, the 3I,.'epft!S ~ nearly half,,, mde fmlll l'h€! sk}'SO'i1p&' lxhlllt:lln.m. Il"W pl1f)lf.ig#opIJ~ 111m: uhf" JIJ I1UJk,! them appear 'adinl!ipfNl am! ,fj,f!mlrer b_l' rmng

. 11'100 lfW.1 lelell'hOlo 'm.s:_

SllOj(-ct:;, would halo'e to be ~ooen::d sharp. That. COIiIil. be a proMem with telephoto lenses. A small f'-stop like f/16 ~ fa;llllliroo.

SITIlI!II r~stops of len mean shUN hutter speeds. Withl relephoto lenses, s]'o-w shut1ief' 'speeds C311t Iead 10 bllJlLf. To avoid! blur, use a tripod or a fast 111m. KODACOIOR VR 200 Fi[rn, IS<O 200, and KODACOL.OR VR 400 Film, rso 400 work",,;el1 with telephoto lenses, Both have eltlremel)' fine grain. lJ(ub aile f:asl enough so give higb s'hlllner speeds under a variety of I.ighting ooAdi(ioru.




Mal1iY ~I!.iIres are made with an interrnediate f-stop m.e fiS 1'11111 gives " gradation from sharpness to unsharpness .. \-\'imh an f-step at either extreme, however. {hat gradation is 'tYPLC<!lIy absentand its absence becomes 111.0- uoeablc;

, he Jla.rgest f-stop,(often tI] .• ~ves the shallowest depth or lie!d_ Tlhe smallest r.~tiJP allen ffl6) Si\'es the greatest depth Df field,

LOI rge f-~to'p$. can be used 1,0 achieve selective focus so OI1J) the 9(}

subject flppetlir::i, sharp. Foreground. .. nd background blur, Selective focus i .. r urther aided by lISiJ1g ill ~elepholQ lens and focusing en a near subject.

Gre!ll depth of field mabng both foreground and backgr01:md sharp is ach -eyed lIsing it w:idc-angk: or normal lens iii Il sma'll f"-stop. Use the depth-or-Held scale or previewer 1Q gauge rhe deplh of field for a given aperture, Shaepness ~rn llo~.1ia foreground. and bac.kgro'lWn!J CI.!I'l be achieved onh' photographically.

t.-I!fi, Anlire 'funin is 11· .. 11 nnll',Iljflr 1m rfJl1ltllllk ,iflwI'pr"/((Ji,"1K JIIc iiJ I/'i-\' (Iii-flirt'. !r.e llfl'~fl ILll'S I{w.!:. wl.'plll)/ll ;"fIO

,ttl 111~" lTf'"flJI'f.'.s If) ptYKII.u a swall an"U '!l.11WI'PPIf!Y -,nirl'nl'iM! kmni'1l' as _,dl'l'lil'(! forns 1IFTe Q J(I.I "'1>1 tens "Ill se» W JlI/_~.

l.ower ,It'/I, ll'eiJW one Ymrp fmufW 1M /"1J,.j>ttrt1lmJ! 10 /J.{lckgmund IS iN?),olld IIIl" IlJnit.s (if tbe human £')"1.'. I1MI II 1f'1!.\· rlSl'tI 01 a 'mall t..lIKI'llire tikI" l:! tun n1rlk(' fill IlIWJ[(' uraT [nsm F, .. t·~H-J rfJ fH:j~'kJ:munJ_

n,~· nlW:fI!'1'd 1" ~'i'>l1"ing HI1ilJ!"". ,fOp. ti prtJj'jJe:ri by Ill." tens' (llI"gi[>51 (lPf!'I'lrm! (iJpit"Gflr r 1.8) will'1'"eaJ dI~ prcltlrl!' im(~~c. ll00rr:. i.s p,'orifkd by ~rlim("l'I" apel'rllrli' _r(1l1 !5t'1!!('I. Wlutl' fl/i1'1Wni'd Ilnslmrp and 5IWdwd in fk ~k1tfil,dff

m IT he ,fht!rp WId (Ji.f(r"",Utl]!: in ,he pfow .... (·~·.'1r if you usc QJJ apo.'rllm.' 00/. rlW IJI' rhrC'f! _t/tlP.' .<;lIIillhv lIulII the I~l upt't hi/e. n,H is /l'I,]S! i!ridml U'JI~II pJMogmp/rit« IIJ[rJgS eioser than W ft

( 1m) i'lr witIX' a relerlmro lem.



film reacts ~(ii ligln:l. How il reacts \0 Ligh'i affects the appearance of a p][j).. tograph. The mO$l basic reaction of r1lm:s is that some' fllrns produce color [CIhCilto,gn~ph'S aad ethers produce b1ad-<lll.d-whhe phOlOgTaphs.

Since it does, Rot show color, blackand .. whi te film steps away rrom reali~. Color is eWI'j'Yl,hcre-JolH" shoes your car, your niJ.!.. It's impo ible to overlook. So wh)' do black-andwhite phoregrsphcrs overlook ooLm1 Because it is e\!!erywlte~ and impo~b~e. 11I0l (0 ,ovmook. And often, oolor is simply UIl.iliJi!.rn:.cti;re, IiUining an othIe-rwise good picture. M O~O,\·-er. black,and-white p:ho1.ographel"'S' fmd color olli'f:rrearing. a distraction, a tease from what is reallyimpOlflilint 'Jo lhem what is important is 10"_, fOrni!,

5h ape, te nm'!', llIe1.tnjng., and by d!eI'etlng eoler, they call coaeentrate OJl1] those elements, Plus. some photogmphers -mpl~ like the mook of blackand-white better Inal1l color.

Co-I,or ph.otographers like cololi.

They like it because it is colorful and appeal'ing. They like it because color photographs are more representarive (If realit •. Humans ~ color; therefore, they reason, photogr!!Jph should silo" color. Co~or phorogra. phers also ofteill find brighl colors distnrcl.lng bull. they work 10 slibordinate color to their intenl.

Neither color nor black-and-white fllrn n.·s;poud:s to light e.,'1!:l.ctly <I!.<;; does lliJe e}'le. Diften:lil oo'or films. especially slide films. J1eprodu.(;t: colors slightly differenlly. Some films gii\'C warmer colors, "orne gi\'e cooks 001-

)"111 "~I! find il l~ru1 to ~1,-if~h /0 blackand- ... -hill! firm Irh<"uJurm, ~~XI"~ ... C01JIj>f'lfilimJ, liglllinp,' .Tlft! tire maRJ' nli/('~ ,{!~U i'l (1 1liCle"1l." OTt' ,J{r'OIt{i! hw r-"Iv.· is 1101. /(Of) de J(jdmicui Pall FJlm "as /J,,,,,,I here b..i1:Ql.S(! ,1 us f.TI'n.'mf!{l' frlU! Ill'<lill.

ors, Wailrrner Ciolor-bala:nccOO IiIms. arc arlen chosen to photograph people. Cooler l::olor-ook!mJed film may be '1IlLSed r or flowers or I,a rut~C'~pe;.._

'\"011 don'u normally think of blackand-w hire film f'eSpoTl.ding lCl color, but ~he}i do. They show colol'S in tone .. Sinoe }"O'IJ can't see lin black and white, eelng colors ~!;;Wn~, becomes a rnaner of,el{periem:ce and study. To pre'~ ('HI tones rroHl. blending, filters are used .. hi 'the pbmograph. ill filter generally lightens tones from colors similar w those ohhe n~lel" and darkeas hlnes from other colors.



Blaek-and-white film if. !tI(J~ ~m'I;si~ rive lO< hlm:ii.ght and u[lmviolet radii{lliofltun the eye. Since the sky is the most Ob\-iO~li SOYrot' (lfbluc ] ~Iild ul(ra:vaD~el mdi<!iJt.ion. it. appears 10>0 I ~glll if not fiI ~ered. By usinga NO!). 8 ~Ilo"' tii~ti.:F, the s,k., appcar!S litonl1i~1. No" 15 deep )'ellol\l, No. 21 (lfa!llge, and No .. 15 red fllleu oonsidernoly darken the sky b¥ block~'r!I~ blue rigllitt and, i![lrnryiolelmdi!uio[L Fo, more 0111 filtering black-and-white films.. see Using FiI'IJ'l's, K w·n, ~Ir AdJ'llnCCd 8/W .l!hal'(JgI'Clpil:r. KW-~9'.

A !lathe. charaererisnc of film ILS gmj'liIi ness, the sand·like Olj)<peaI'iUlce

Ol (mtTSf'. mn/J;' (III/or film n:m gli~1t' .rn/o!' pkl~wes. ~. ,dwj;I ~ite ~,f ~Il a .!>1NI1f lire impm/mIl 1:0' ).'tm. !6t" ~(Jr fliltL

or li'ihJii! appi.ln,;'nt <lit gn~at !:'rl~afgcmerits .. ar~~njness lyp&<:aUy increfl~!>es .... 1tlhi f~~ m speed. A slow-speed 111m ~ib; KO[JACHf{OMI;: 25, rso 25,. has much fl ne~grai.1l than a. Itl:lr)' h.igtlJ,speed f~lmlik:eKon)AO)LOR V R 1(100" [SOl ODD. Even wWI1J\~ry higil. ~, films, tg,rain often does not became (Ipp<nen~ until big enlargements are raade.

IfY0lla. want 10 step aw.ay from Ileality til' .adding v~il'ij~ss. .)I'ClU C'<l!]J 'lIISe a lil:ig~-speed. itm. and greatly enlarge it. fiira i niness am add. <I remant ic, dr~my effLX~ top:ho;~ogTa(ph5. Or, dependling on SUbjocl matter, ill. can reinforce <I breatiJDg-lla.p (If nea]jlY.

T ('I best a~]1ie\fe graioy 'eiITiOCts, use 1.\

fast l'1im_ (jfillli1i]l.e!>s. C'a1ll be :runher stressed b) PlJsh~p:rocessi:tlg !lIm <l11'~ ,gwe.l.lh' ef1!!lot{girrg the image. for bl ack-end-w hi te phoiographc$, KODAK Reoordillgf1i1m 2415 is a gooocl1oicc.ll has ;I ·coarse grain lthal can beaecented by IlIll1S1iI11ii.g th.e film up to ISO 3200. For eolor photogu. ph s yo u CJ~il.l~d gn;:O;li t Iy 'CJl~<,! r!l!t' KODACOf.OR V R If,. Fi~m (il QlIi1ll', be push fI:r'(U;:CS5'Cd) bl!!t might g.el better rC:'>ILIHs uslng a high-speed IEK1Llf.CIHRO,"U: Film, El>i:TACHlROME F~ Ins ean 1xi pY~],1 preeessed,

The 'Pkll!lr~s~Vl PlIgr; ~3 were slIAit OW.EK 11 ACU ROM IE. 4OOf~h1Dil.; ISO 4tO .. rated at 100 1600 and pus:fu-prooessed 2 stops. If you can't find aphotofin-


isher who pushes EK.TA HROMIE 400 ~illl11 1: s~,ops. you ca1'll do, it ~·o[!rs.eIf using ~ KODAK H08I!1y·PAC (IrQ]' Slide Kit, Or rcm coukl rate il at ISO 8(10 and push lt I stop by asldliig Jour dealer fOT Kodak. ~'es$ungiii,mld a KODAK SJX(.~iaIProcess]i'ig ED\'Clope. ESP'.!.

Aaother alternative is [0 use KODAI{EKTACHI.OME :P!1:00/UiOO Proressional Film .. It can be rated <It tso 8'00 or ISO [600 amid gives beuer colors andshadQlIli' densitic [ham pushed EKT.'\CHROMIO 400 Film. Tell you r pfl,olofirl isher what film speed you used and ask for tile appr.opriale KODAK Special P.mces.sing En\,rlope.

Oft.L>n ,-"{niJi!de.rM Q (/it"",.l:.u,,· .plm grain 00Il .also be used atA"lfJlUlg(row/.l· u} R'iTJ/ilr,·(! i1 m!w. A I righr. i, {"(Hl"t"}".!' tlU! rkIICQ€'}' of rl1iJ, high-key st'l'IJI' ulld bf'/01t' il :ilnmKrlri2n~ Ill'!! sense of SOl.W'@)" I'IllJl:I;mg rmwhem. 8<J1h shots. enimgr::ti ii,,,", 1<I1'Tl' 11'1'iNk bJ' '~'Iilrg l( ODA.1l D;T.~CtjRQ,\1E 4OlJ1 Film a~ ISO J6fj() and hln'in.~ ~I jluJ·k·jlJ'OCe!l,wd tw,~ SIOfM ,lllring di>relOptlll!ltf. Similor bu; .Irs! Ullin,l,' rl'Hllu c.rJ!dJ be OOlained IIy TqriJlg F.f<'ACI:UUJME ,4flO Film at ISO Nfl' ami 4rki7rg your phsI',,,ipukr /'0 ~ il ""W~ " Kmifik Spn'icll ProreyiRg Enf~·I"pe. ESP-I. OT Iry grI'DIIJ· ~1I1,{rg;ng a ~!j~e fi'O'li Ko.fJA("(JHJ,fI. ,I"R 1(J(}f) Film.


The cornea. III curved

! !4mSp.arerlt window at llJe front of the eve, strongly bends lighl. Behind the cornea, the lens ehanees Its; curvature to focus irnag~s or s ubjeo;ts at ~jlJcrclil di~lancc:s. The il!1i!.. Ihe colorlXl part or [b~ eye, fUDl('DOIl.'1 ,[ike an aperture narmVl 'ng In bright light and widenilllg in dim ~gl'll. The pupil i5 tbe

3 refl uee through wlutilil lig'l!! enters til'" eje. Tile CJC does not see. r l only erms im~ of light 011 the l'elirlll, The retina !l:l'cdricaU) codes rnose ima!liCll and transmits them 19 brain.

lhsio 111 :begins with lighl entering the e~e.


'.' \\"hlll we see and how II,.. see is 001 strictly a nmttcr o·f

ph)'Si ologica1 responses, Some visual nerve eells m<ly have memory llDal responds 10 certain lines and slllllp<:s ~jI[OUs.~y seen (recognition). Olber responses are determined til> past experiences (knowh;d,ge') or S;h1J!S, shapes, and distana::s. Al'ldi the Vcli)' dIing.~ we Si!X' depend ill IaJlle pant on our emotions. The Iluu,gry person sees the sign for a rcstaura n I,. The: person la[1: ror lin. ",pOiutmml 'sees a dock. The 1;I'tdJilCrsoil rna) 1'101, actuall,. see, bill only rna.neu ver tiJrnu:gh ooewalJ:: and street ~raffic;. And

ImOSI alwaYli. l:hi' brain docs 001 ~es:pon~ In CY&1)i part of rile; image formed on thereLina \It SlI:kcLS the one Or two impertam 10 it at the ,lit mm!. To atrend In aU the images siriking the relma w(),~ . .rd be' ex..halolshng.

The retina, lining the inside of the eyeba II. SCflSCl; incoming iigtiL A.~ an DUIg.rulJ.'lil of the

b ra in. the retina makes the eye 11iQ; only sense organ thai is part of L'he brain, Til e reuna has two Iypes or ligbl.sensili\e o;lli: rod cells an~ '"-ODe cells. Rod cells fum:tioo mainly in dim ligh l

and gj\'1:' black-and-while: vision, COIJ.e cells fun",'1.iOrl in bright light and gI~'e colcr \~sium.

Before lighl n:<!ches lk reuna, il. passes ihrolligb blooJ vessel lind nerve cells, _hal Iilte .. QUI 9(1 j'ii:!i"Cl:OI or the entering [ight l~ area of sharpest

... ision in llhe l"elina i' UiJe fovea .. It contains 3S.lMJ()I <COIlt o:hls and no roo cefls, erve ,celIS and blood vessels skirt 3roU~ the ro~'ea 1-0 ,gil,,!.': [wc cnll)' Dr !Ugb l, The fovea is only 1/50 i:nch in diameter. WiLhin the lovea, each cone eell COn nects 1.0 OJ siIlgle bipolar nerve' c:cllto give high [(,jiolutl<i)l1I .. OUlsid.: lac fovea. each bipolar nerve cdl connects 10 severn] rom: rells,

!li v ing ~mt= resolution,

The irnagJ: formed. 011 ;be renna issmafl, upside do", n, and I'll en;¢!; wi th each Ilil:!: !;If I ile I'~e or noo of the head,

Althaugh ~eeing eceurs within lhe brain, seeing is not a direct representation "r tbe rclillllJ image. Before re.actJiulg the braID, electrical signa ls ha ve been edi ted and interpreted b~ nene cells lind n:11I)' centers. The si.gll!l Is readJi:ng the brain are handed GUllO different areas at' the vb'U3ll cortex. The

a rrungcment or 'Lho: visual ooo1l'~ mlL_ represent a 5p;.tlilll r",]a~ion to IllIe retina, S~ific cells: nd somenmes specific col LJm fl:I' or rells. respond 10 certain colors, contour s, line erjemations, and movement. Orner cells react more genernll)-all), line and II vanel,,' of col<l1'S may ell use 'hem to respond, From these di1'a.. Ib", brain budd~ 0 mood of rei,lliIJ" We 5CC_


Recommended reading

Ti ... ,-1'1'1 o,,nI01{fflplly, Edilo£S of TIME-I.IF Boob. TIME-UFE Books. A!exandria. \Ii rginia. 197 L

. f)~· !mrJ Brain, R. L Gn·g.OI). McGl'Il",'·HiJl EkIok Company, ew YoIt.. ew VoR-.1971.

EJ . Fillli. and CUJlU'I"U in Color Phodugraplry. Ralph M. 'Ian

John Wile}' & Sons, Inc", N~ York, I"Q;W Yo.rik. 1'959.


Abstracts . . . . . . . • . Aerial perspccti ~'e • . . Associarlons ... . , • . Awal"Cne~~, .....•.•

1 aID'CflI. \i~jQI1 • .

frame. 'lees all .

Color ... brigbl ..

..... ll4I

· ... 54

12-7) .. 19--22

• 11.1-91

• .•• 8.2 · _ , .• 81 37.4fi-<'I9

46 77 49 48 "/9

· •. _ ... 47

14.61 52-55 5:j-55 90 91

· 27

· - 8)

22-23 . 14---75

oonu'<I ting. . ,. • • • . h:ml1Qnie.

muted. . . . . _ . • • " .

Cmnpositio~ . Coaes ... Contul .. _ . Depth , ....

cues rUf •..•.•• _ • , •••

Depth of fid.d ...".. Evans, Ralph .. _ . " .. E¥CI)'tIay motion. _ . Familiar, 111.:

FauHfimlimg .....• Film

bri.gfIlDirs:;: range . . _ . . _ • 30

colall.". B&.W . . . . . • .. 9'1-93

doubling speed or . . . . . , . . . 49' C1~llg • . • . • • • • . . • • .• . 93 graininess., . . . . . • .. . •. 111, 94

Form . _ . . . . .. . • . .. 31. 4.2-43

frngm~n1s, or ~u·bjjoct . . . . • 60

F'1"aIlli::. . _ • • • • • . • • •. .•• 82

Grainilicss. _ . . . _ . • . . , . _ El. 94

Grego~, .R.t. .....•. , ]5

Happenings . __ ..... , . _ J7

Halle' I!:}" Ralph ..•. _ . • . . . . '18 lntcrpretmg . , . . 69--i i Lawrence, D.H. __ .......• _ 10


l.MtikhlJ{ at .Nml'Ograpih. Jilhll Szarkowski. MYKllm or l\41oocrn Alii. New York. ew York. 1973_

llfo.t<" JQJ' of PJ.nIQgrap",_r. Editors or E:JStman Kodak Comp3lll)l. Addi~QI" WC'Sley f>ulJlishil1ig.ompanll. Reading. MIl.=dHI_;_~US. 1981.

PlIOlOgr(1phi. Li~/Jlil/g; Uam1Jlg It] SIT, Ralph HlauerAcy Prentice Hall, lne .• Englc\\Ioorli OiJfs, Ne1N .Il';;~'. 1919

Lellses. . . . . . .. . .....

aficcu on ~J;C. . tel'epholo . . _ . . lIride--<! fi,gi.c . • • •


,aneet 01'1 appearance 17

badliglturlg . . • . . 36

color of _ • • • . . . . 15

dllTu!iC _.. • • . . • . • . . . . . l4!

d:llicction . . . . • . . . • _ . •. 14

frQllHighLing • 14

harsh . . . . . • , • . . • . • _ 34

lool:-~l1g for _ . . , . . . . • . . 211

meed .of • _ • . • , ],2

idclighling .. _ . • • . . . • . 34. 42

!ibfl l ig_nt • • .. . • _ . • . 34

', for. . . . .. _ . . . . M

,ision and . • . . . 3.5

Line. . . . . . . . 37-39

LlKd.i:ng. . . • • . • _ 57-51!

Jaisel. Jay . . , • _ , . 51!

Morien . , . . . . . S3-84

a~ry;jay . .. . . . 8·4-

iorerrupted _ . . . . _ . . . . . . .. 85 Obwrvatkm .•. _ .. , __ ... , . 24 Ordinary tbin,gs, ...•.. _ . , 22 23 P~~hve . . . . . _ . . . _ 5\1-55, 86

Preeenecptions . . .. . . . 8-~9

formation Dr. . . . . " . _ . 9

overcoming _ _ . . . • . . ., 13-19

Rules • . . . _ . . , . I g, 7

Seale .. , . . . . . . . 50--1

Sekcli'l'e rOC'U5 • _ • • "11. 9m

Senses, ignori.,,! . . " . . . 59

Shading and form. .. . 42, 5,S

Shadow. , ...... _ 30-31

Sbape . , ...•.• _ , 17,41}-41

86---91' ~7-'&9

II' 8S

PllfJl'o/l:r:qlrie S~>f$.i"g. Ai:ndI'e-as reininger. Prentice-Hall, Engle",ood] cum, e\\ Jcr:;cy. 1913.

Plw"oi!.f'uphJ'liUd Ihe Ar,' of Sl.'ei',g • Freeman f'aUI:f.SOJ]. Io'an 0:'\ Reinbold Ltd., Toronto. Onlanio. 1919.

'f'fl'!lIIrqll£ or PA()to,f!faphH~ Ligj"i~ag. Norm Kcrr.ll1Ipholi!l 8ooh. G~rdCIll City, N~·Yo:rlt. 19 9'_

Vj.~~(JI COOt--ePUjOT Plwtogruphpn. L. SllloocbC'l d. al, Focal Press, ~nc .• New VOfik. ew Yorl c, 1990.

Size ..•..•••. _ •• , .. ;'iO--51

Space . _. _. ,...:55

Strange reiJIililions • • . . .. _... 63

Texture. •. . ..•.. , 11.44---4'1

g[".ldi·~I'IL . . . . • • .._ . _ . . 55

SubjCC\! . .. • . . .. . • ••. ,... 10

appcarnnce of . . • . • Iii, 24~2S. 21 assoerauens. . . .. i2-1~ fl':li~n(S or . . . . . . . . _ . . _ 6(1 il] eomext. _ . , _ . . . • . .. _ 14. m in photograph ..•..... _ .. 12

~IILe~reung, _. _ 69--il

IsoJaung • . . . • • . . .. • • . . . 11 sc::lI~£ of , , • . • . • • . • . . . SlJi-51

I.!bj~ s _ .. , _ W4

whall is, a _ _. . .. .. 1'0

wildie: _ . _ 61

Sza rkt}wsk:i. Jo an. . . . . . . . . 9

Turne • Pete . . .. . . . . 58--59

Viewpoint •. _ . .. 64-65

Vi ion

Carnell! and. color _

IU 41

cones .... _ ...•.. or,

contrast rnnge of. • . . . 30

pe~\"e _ . . . . . • • .. .. 55

process or: . . . . . .. . . . _ , 94--95 ocl1sitivi'i.)f of . . . . . . , . . 35 shadows, and. . • • . . " • • . • • 3D size. delCfflIini!l(g ....• , •..• '51

W,est!)fI. Ed\1iraro _ • . . .. • • 22, 78 Whole, photogrllphing •... , .... 61

Gd ~hewh~le series, and get mo~ nut )m1f ]J'ic~1.Ir:eS! The Workshop Series is 11

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.. ~.phifig .. i.l1. AUk!m.L*C"m_ Pr_ • Ir"'DtJ~~' LnlIo'SIinIn,l ~ ",,'~il'O kl>;,iool _ II "!l,",i~ •• - COIl'>!Il& [!!II., _ 1. ,,_

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E'~mn_"""U$O'" li!'.<lo'''''_''' (o-oo.;n(;)' bs InlI bQoo ill ""l tllem II> Q"'e ~1U!1!11I1OIQE. I_~I'"

'llOOr flI ..... ;:h:oi.w'i'hlI

E:i1'lDIQ-Ul!nl I'h~~,

Firs! tI<oOI<IG~ me~""", ......... KMI\CO.rlI !IR' 100II Am irx;bics IJ~JI!I! .j}J1J1I 1MB 1I11_1ilrm...fi1j"_ pIIOl"9'

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the KODAK Workshop SIries

The ,Art of Seeing

H,we you ever had trouble findirl,g: semething t'O pi'lOlAgnpb? Have you eve, marveled at the iJeaut)., (If asubject )'QU were phowgraphing on])1' to be Usapp!)il1tm in the pli'lol:l}graphl'Halte you flier admired another's photograph arid !kicked yourself fOl' rejecting a similar Mene'?

The eyes that work S.I) well for measuring deterg:ent, ~rin;g a shodace O'r spoHiJig a mend in a restaurant often stumble when assisting in

• p'i:totogr4plily. Seeing ~D take a 'picture is a task 'foreign to)lour eyes" a bslk that has little in common with g:Wding ~'O1!l throu,gb. balfie,. leadin,g ~'Ou 10 food, or any 01 the 'oOier survival chores, at. l\!hicb your e}'eS are innately efficient To see pholographicalb.)lolJ must reschoel your eyes. You mUISt re~rainYOlLJr mind.

[JjJJ dtis book 'oI.'e'U open }10l!r eyes and lfeliVlJ )'OUir mind. We'll show you:

• How tc) avoid ,reco:nr:eptions that inhibit yOur Sleeing

• Kow to increase your awareness ,ol

. uhjects ,31l(il!lotiyou

• How ttl WI1J the ways you see

,t ,How to 'moM technique to, ,subject

• !How to see i!!5 camera andlenses see ,. How other photographers. see

11 AL


KODAK Publi('4ltion IDNc20 ICA'F 144 2250

I~BN D-87~a5-305-0