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Properties and Changes of Matter Guided Notes

What is Matter?
Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass.
Examples include: air, trees, water, paper, computers, etc.
Matter is not energy, time, thoughts, sunlight, electricity, sound, memories and other things that d
take up mass or space.
The is an atom. They are the basic building blocks of all matter. Atoms
are made of particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons.

Elements, Molecules, and Compounds


An element made up of only one type of atom. It is the of matter. Elements are pure substances
that cannot be separated into simpler substances by physical or chemical means.
A molecule forms when two or more atoms join by chemical bonds. A is a molecule that contains
at least two different elements joined by chemical bonds.
All compounds are molecules, but not all molecules are compounds.
Examples:
It takes two oxygen atoms to form a molecule of oxygen (O2).
A water molecule is formed with one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms (H2O). Because there are two
different elements, a water molecule is also a compound.

Physical Properties
A physical property of matter can be observed or measured changing the matters identity.
Examples include:
States, density, boiling point and melting point, solubility, viscosity, conductivity, malleability

States
Solid
Particles are together vibrating about a fixed position.
shape and volume
Liquid
Particles are tightly packed together yet far enough to one another.
shape and volume
Gas
Particles are very and move freely.
shape and volume
volume
Phase Changes
Term Description Heat Movement
Melting Heat goes into the solid as it
melts
Freezing Liquid to solid Heat leaves the liquid as it
freezes
Liquid to gas Heat goes into the liquid as it
vaporizes
Condensation Heat leaves the gas as it
condenses
Solid to gas Heat goes into the solid as it
sublimates

Density
Mass is defined as the amount of matter a substance has.
Volume is the amount of something takes up.
Density is the ratio of mass to volume.
When molecules of matter are more tightly packed together, the density is
.
When molecules of matter are spread far apart, the density is .
Density can be solved for by using this equation:
Density = mass / volume
The liquids found at the top of the test tube are less dense than the liquids found at the bottom.
The heaviest (most dense) liquid will to the bottom.
The lightest (least dense) liquid will to the top.
You can also determine compare and contrast the densities of substances by looking at a table.
Substance Density (g/cc)
Water 1.00
Oil 0.92
Honey 1.37

Boiling Point & Melting Point


is the temperature at which a liquid boils to form a gas.
Water: 100C
Iron: 2862C
Mercury: 357C
Nitrogen: -196C
is the temperature at which a solid melts to form a liquid.
Water: 0C
Iron: 1538C
Mercury: -39C
Nitrogen: -210C

Solubility
Defined as the ability of one substance to into another substance
Solute: substance that is dissolved in another substance
Solvent: ability to dissolve other substances, typically water
Solution (solute + solvent) is , meaning it appears as a single substance.
A solution is created when one substance dissolves into another substance
Solute: lemon juice & sugar
Solvent: water
Solution: lemonade

Other Physical Properties


: resistance to flow
Water has low viscosity
Honey has high viscosity
: ability to allow heat to flow
Metal has high conductivity
Wood has poor conductivity
: ability to be hammered into a thin sheet

Physical Changes
Occurs when the of a substance changes, but chemically the substance is the same
Can be or irreversible
Physical changes could include a change in:
Texture, shape, size, color, odor, volume, mass, weight, and density

Chemical Properties
Describe the potential of substances to undergo chemical changes
Depends on how easily it will or electrons
Flammability: materials ability to in the presence of oxygen
Reactivity: how readily a substance with other substances
You cant tell what chemical properties a substance has unless it goes through a chemical change or reaction.
Chemical Changes
Occurs when a chemical reaction takes place
substances are formed
Examples: Rusting, Burning, Cooking
The substances created are completely different from original substances. This results in:
Change in r
Production of s
Formation of a e
Change in e

Color Change
Unexpected in color signifies a chemical reaction has occurred
Examples: copper reacting with oxygen overtime to turn green, spilling bleach on clothes, changing hair color
with peroxide

Production of Gas
Production of gas can be seen as , foam, or not seen at all.
Most common are oxygen or carbon dioxide
Examples
Mixing vinegar and baking soda
Exhaling CO2

Formation of Precipitate
Precipitation occurs when a is created when
.
An compound is formed, meaning it does not have the ability to dissolve in another
substance.

Change in Temperature
Exothermic
Gives off heat
Feels warm
Example: burning wood, activating hand warmers, lighting a match, starting an engine
Endothermic
Absorbs heat
Feels cold
Example: activating cold packs, making ice cream
Oxidation
Occurs when a substance with oxygen
Often results in a e
Many oxidation reactions take time to happen
Oxygen reacts with copper to create a greenish color called .
Oxygen reacts with apples, bananas, and avocados causing them to turn .
Adding prevents the oxidation reactions

Rust
Oxygen reacts with s
Oxidation of metals is often called
Oxygen reacts with to create rust

What Happens During a Chemical Reaction?


Chemical reaction is a process that involves rearrangement (or connection and trading places) of
of the substances involved.
Example Na + Cl = NaCl

How Does It Start?


The chemical reaction starts with and ends with
like a math equation.
Na + Cl are the s
NaCl is the t

Conservation of Mass
The states mass cannot be created or destroyed during physical
and chemical changes
During chemical reactions, atoms are rearranged. The number of atoms in each element in the reactants must
equal the number of atoms of those elements in the products.
A chemical is a shorthand way to represent substances
Example: The formula of water is H2O
A chemical (like math) represents the change of arrangements from reactants to products.
Must follow the law of conservation of mass