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RAN

Intra-Frequency Handover Description

Issue 01

Date 2008-05-30

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RAN
Intra-Frequency Handover Description Contents

Contents

1 Intra-Frequency Handover Change History .........................................................................1-1


2 Intra-Frequency Handover Introduction ...............................................................................2-1
3 Intra-Frequency Handover Algorithms .................................................................................3-1
3.1 Intra-Frequency Handover Types ..................................................................................................................3-1
3.2 Intra-Frequency Handover Procedure ...........................................................................................................3-2
3.3 Intra-Frequency Handover Measurement......................................................................................................3-3
3.3.1 Intra-Frequency Handover Measurement Events.................................................................................3-3
3.3.2 Intra-Frequency Handover Neighboring Cell Combination Algorithm ............................................. 3-11
3.3.3 Intra-Frequency Handover Measurement Quantity............................................................................3-12
3.3.4 L3 Filtering for Intra-Frequency Handover .......................................................................................3-12
3.4 Intra-Frequency Handover Decision and Execution ...................................................................................3-13
3.5 Intra-Frequency Handover of HSDPA ........................................................................................................3-18
3.6 Intra-Frequency Handover of HSUPA ........................................................................................................3-20
3.7 Signaling Procedures for Intra-Frequency Handover ..................................................................................3-24
3.7.1 Intra-NodeB Intra-Frequency Soft Handover Signaling Procedure ...................................................3-24
3.7.2 Intra-RNC Inter-NodeB Intra-Frequency Soft Handover Signaling Procedure .................................3-27
3.7.3 Inter-RNC Intra-Frequency Soft Handover Signaling Procedure ......................................................3-29
3.7.4 Intra-RNC Inter-NodeB Intra-Frequency Hard Handover Signaling Procedure ................................3-31
3.7.5 Inter-RNC Intra-Frequency Hard Handover Signaling Procedure .....................................................3-33

4 Reference Documents ...............................................................................................................4-1

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RAN
Intra-Frequency Handover Description 1 Intra-Frequency Handover Change History

1 Intra-Frequency Handover Change


History

Intra-Frequency Handover Change History provides information on the changes between


different document versions.

Document and Product Versions


Document Version RAN Version RNC Version NodeB Version

01 (2008-05-30) 10.0 V200R010C01B051 V100R010C01B049


V200R010C01B040
Draft (2008-03-20) 10.0 V200R010C01B050 V100R010C01B045

There are two types of changes, which are defined as follows:


z Feature change: refers to the change in the feature of a specific product version.
z Editorial change: refers to the change in information that has already been included, or
the addition of information that was not provided in the previous version.

01 (2008-05-30)
This is the document for the first commercial release of RAN10.0.
Compared with draft (2008-03-20) of RAN10.0, issue 01 (2008-05-30) of RAN10.0
incorporates the changes described in the following table.

Change Type Change Description Parameter Change

Feature change None The renamed parameters are


described as follows:
z Switch between TTI10 and
TTI2 periodic Retry timer
length is modified to Switch
From HSUPA TTI10 To
TTI2 Periodic Retry Timer
Length.

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1 Intra-Frequency Handover Change History Intra-Frequency Handover Description

Change Type Change Description Parameter Change

Editorial General documentation change: None


change z The Intra-Frequency Handover
Parameters is removed because of
the creation of RAN10.0 parameter
reference.
z The structure is optimized.

Draft (2008-03-20)
This is a draft of the document for the first commercial release of RAN10.0.
Compared with issue 03 (2008-01-20) of RAN6.1, issue Draft (2008-03-20) of RAN10.0
incorporates the changes described in the following table.

Change Change Description Parameter Change


Type

Feature The cell individual offset value Deleted Cell offset


change can be set for a cell together with parameter
the neighboring cell oriented
individual offset. For detailed
information, see 3.3.1 Added z Cell oriented Cell Individual Offset
Intra-Frequency Handover parameters z Neighboring cell oriented CIO
Measurement Events.

The intra-frequency handover Deleted z CS service 1A event relative threshold


thresholds of the CS non-VP parameters z CS service 1B event relative threshold
service and VP service can be set
separately. For detailed Added z CS non VP service 1A event relative THD
information, see 3.3.1 parameters z VP service 1A event relative THD
Intra-Frequency Handover
Measurement Events. z CS non VP service 1B event relative THD
z VP service 1B event relative THD
The description of rate reduction Added z Threshold number of SHO failure
after an SHO failure is added. parameters z Max evaluation period of SHO failure
For detailed information, see
Rate Reduction After an SHO z Relative threshold of SHO failure
Failure in Intra-Frequency z Period of penalty timer for SHO failure
Handover Decision and after down rate
Execution.
The description of Added The timer length of Srb Over Hspa Retry
intra-frequency handover of parameter Delay
HSDPA is moved from the
HSDPA feature document, see
3.5 Intra-Frequency Handover
of HSDPA.

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Intra-Frequency Handover Description 1 Intra-Frequency Handover Change History

Change Change Description Parameter Change


Type

The description of Added z Max number of cell in edch active set


intra-frequency handover of parameter z Switch between TTI10 and TTI2 periodic
HSUPA is moved from the and switch
Retry timer length
HSUPA feature document, see
3.6 Intra-Frequency Handover z SERV_CELL_CHG_WITH_ACTSET_U
of HSUPA. PDATE_SWITCH

Editorial The default value of a parameter The default value of Min quality THD for SHO is changed to
change is changed. -24 from -16.
The parameters that determine if Added z Affect 1A threshold flag
the quality of the cell will affect parameters z Affect 1B threshold flag
event 1A and event 1B are
added.
General documentation change: None
Implementation information has
been moved to a separate
document. For information on
implementing intra-frequency
handover, refer to Configuring
Intra-Frequency Handover in
RAN Feature Configuration
Guide.

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Intra-Frequency Handover Description 2 Intra-Frequency Handover Introduction

2 Intra-Frequency Handover Introduction

Intra-Frequency Handover Introduction describes the purpose of handover, the relationship


between intra-frequency handover and other handover types, and two types of intra-frequency
handover.
Handover Types
Handover is a basic function of a cellular mobile network. The purpose of handover is to
ensure that a UE in CELL_DCH state is served continuously when it moves. The following
figure shows the handover types supported by UMTS. Handover can be classified as:
z Intra-UMTS handover
Intra-frequency handover
Inter-frequency handover
z Inter-RAT handover
UMTS-to-GSM handover
GSM-to-UMTS handover

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2 Intra-Frequency Handover Introduction Intra-Frequency Handover Description

Figure 2-1 Handover types supported by UMTS

Intra-Frequency Handover
Intra-frequency handover consists of two types:
z Intra-frequency soft handover: more than one radio link are set up for the UE.
z Intra-frequency hard handover: only one radio link is set up for the UE.
The following figure shows the difference between intra-frequency soft handover and
intra-frequency hard handover. In this example, the UE moves from cell 1 to cell 2. In
intra-frequency hard handover, the UE is disconnected from cell 1 before a connection to cell
2 is set up. In intra-frequency soft handover, a new connection is set up between the UE and
cell 2 while the connection between the UE and cell 1 is still maintained. In this case, the UE
keeps the connections to cells 1 and 2 at the same time. After the condition for disconnection
is met, the UE is disconnected from cell 1.
Intra-frequency soft handover is more commonly used than intra-frequency hard handover.
Intra-frequency hard handover is used only in some special scenarios, for example, when
there is no Iur interface between two RNCs.

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Intra-Frequency Handover Description 2 Intra-Frequency Handover Introduction

Figure 2-2 Difference between soft handover and hard handover

Impact
z Impact on System Performance
In an intra-frequency soft handover, multiple radio links are set up for a UE, which
occupy more resources of the UE. By controlling the number of UEs involved in
intra-frequency soft handover, the consumption of resources can be controlled.
The following figure shows the extra resources required in intra-frequency soft handover
compared with intra-frequency hard handover.

Figure 2-3 Extra resources required in intra-frequency soft handover (with two channels)

z Impact on Other Features


This feature increases the availability of the handover between the HSPA cell and the
R99 cell in the HSDPA and HSUPA features.

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2 Intra-Frequency Handover Introduction Intra-Frequency Handover Description

Network Elements Involved

Table 2-1 NEs involved in intra-frequency handover

UE NodeB RNC MSC MGW SGSN GGSN HLR


Server

- - - - -
NOTE
z = NE not involved

z = NE involved
UE = User Equipment, RNC = Radio Network Controller, MSC Server = Mobile Service Switching
Center Server, MGW = Media Gateway, SGSN = Serving GPRS Support Node, GGSN = Gateway
GPRS Support Node, HLR = Home Location Register

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Intra-Frequency Handover Description 3 Intra-Frequency Handover Algorithms

3 Intra-Frequency Handover Algorithms

The algorithms of Intra-Frequency Handover are as follows:


z Intra-Frequency Handover Types
z Intra-Frequency Handover Procedure
z Intra-Frequency Handover Measurement
z Intra-Frequency Handover Decision and Execution
z Intra-Frequency Handover of HSDPA
z Intra-Frequency Handover of HSUPA
z Signaling Procedures for Intra-Frequency Handover

3.1 Intra-Frequency Handover Types


Intra-frequency handover consists of intra-frequency soft handover and intra-frequency hard
handover.

Intra-Frequency Soft Handover


Intra-frequency soft handover is more commonly used than intra-frequency hard handover.
The types of intra-frequency soft handover are as follows:
z Intra-NodeB softer handover
z Intra-RNC inter-NodeB soft handover
z Inter-RNC soft handover
Soft handover is a function in which the UE is connected to several UTRAN access points at
the same time. Addition and/or release of radio links are controlled by the ACTIVE SET
UPDATE procedure.
During soft handover, a mobile station is in the overlapping cell coverage area of two sectors
belonging to different base stations. The communications between mobile station and base
station take place concurrently via two air interface channels from each base station
separately.
During softer handover, a mobile station is in the overlapping cell coverage area of two
adjacent sectors of a base station. The communications between mobile station and base
station take place concurrently via two air interface channels, one for each sector separately.

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Table 3-1 The differences between soft handover and softer handover

Item Softer Handover Soft Handover

Scenario When the UE is in the overlapped coverage When the UE is in the


area of two neighboring cells of a NodeB overlapped coverage area of
with combined RLs two neighboring cells of
different NodeBs
Uplink signal Using maximum-ratio combination Using selection combination
Downlink Using maximum-ratio combination Using maximum-ratio
signal combination
Resource use Occupying less Iub bandwidth Occupying more Iub
bandwidth

The SOFT_HANDOVER_SWITCH of Handover Algorithm Switch parameter is used to


determine whether to enable both soft handover and softer handover. By default, this switch is
ON, indicating that both soft handover and softer handover are enabled.
The Softer handover combination indication switch parameter is specially used to adjust
the decision rules of radio link combination in the NodeB for softer handover.

Intra-Frequency Hard Handover


Intra-frequency hard handover refers to a handover where all the old radio links are released
before the new radio links are established. Compared with soft handover, intra-frequency hard
handover uses fewer resources.
The scenarios of intra-frequency hard handover are as follows:
z The UE needs to perform the intra-frequency handover between two cells configured in
different RNCs. No Iur interface is present between RNCs.
z The UE needs to perform the intra-frequency handover between two cells configured in
different RNCs. The Iur interface is congested between RNCs.
z There is a high-speed Best Effort (BE) service.
Compared with soft handover, intra-frequency hard handover is used to save downlink
bandwidth for a high-speed BE service.
z The intra-frequency soft handover fails and intra-frequency hard handover is allowed.
When intra-frequency soft handover fails because of a congestion problem of the target cell,
the RNC tries an intra-frequency hard handover with a lower service bit rate.
The INTRA_FREQUENCY_HARD_HANDOVER_SWITCH of Handover Algorithm
Switch parameter is used to determine whether to enable intra-frequency hard handover. By
default, this switch is ON.

3.2 Intra-Frequency Handover Procedure


Intra-frequency handover procedure is divided into three phases: handover measurement,
handover decision, and handover execution.

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Intra-Frequency Handover Description 3 Intra-Frequency Handover Algorithms

After the UE transits to CELL_DCH state in connected mode during a call, the RNC sends a
measurement control message to instruct the UE to take measurements and report the
measurement event results.
The measurement control message carries the following information:
z Event trigger threshold
z Hysteresis value
z Event trigger delay time
z Neighboring cell list
Upon receiving an event report from the UE, the RNC makes a handover decision and
performs the corresponding handover, as shown in the following figure.

Figure 3-1 Intra-Frequency Handover Procedure

3.3 Intra-Frequency Handover Measurement


In the measurement phase, the UE takes measurements according to the MEASUREMENT
CONTROL message received from the RNC. When the event triggering conditions are met,
the UE sends measurement reports to the RNC according to the rules defined in the
MEASUREMENT CONTROL message.
z Intra-Frequency Handover Measurement Events
z Intra-Frequency Handover Neighboring Cell Combination Algorithm
z Intra-Frequency Handover Measurement Quantity
z L3 Filtering for Intra-Frequency Handover

3.3.1 Intra-Frequency Handover Measurement Events


In intra-frequency handover, the UE reports measurement results to the RNC by reporting
events.

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3 Intra-Frequency Handover Algorithms Intra-Frequency Handover Description

Table 3-2 Measurement events of intra-frequency handover

Event Description

1A A Primary CPICH enters the reporting range. This indicates that the quality of a
cell is close to the quality of the best cell in the active set. A relatively high
combined gain can be achieved when the cell is added to the active set.
1B A primary CPICH leaves the reporting range. This indicates that a cell has a lower
quality than the best cell in the active set. The cell has to be deleted from the
active set.
1C A non-active primary CPICH becomes better than an active primary CPICH. This
indicates that the quality of a cell is better than the quality of the worst cell in the
active set. The RNC replaces a cell in the active set with a cell in the monitored
set.
1D The best cell changes.
1J RAN10.0 provides the solution to the issue of how to add an HSUPA cell in a
DCH active set to an E-DCH active set. Event 1J is added to the 3GPP protocol.
This event is triggered when a non-active E-DCH but active DCH primary
CPICH becomes better than an active E-DCH primary CPICH.

Triggering of Event 1A
Event 1A is triggered under the following condition:

where
z MNew is the measurement value of the cell in the reporting range.
z CIONew is equal to the sum of Cell oriented Cell Individual Offset and Neighboring
cell oriented CIO, which is the offset between the cell in the reporting range and the
best cell in the active set.
z W represents Weighted factor, used to weight the quality of the active set.
z Mi is the measurement value of a cell in the active set.
z NA is the number of cells not forbidden to affect the reporting range in the active set. The
parameter Affect 1A threshold flag determines if the quality of the cell is included in
that of the active set.
z MBest is the measurement value of the best cell in the active set.
z R1a is the reporting range or the relative threshold of soft handover. The threshold
parameters of the CS non-VP service, VP service, and PS service are as follows:
CS non VP service 1A event relative THD
VP service 1A event relative THD
PS service 1A event relative threshold

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Intra-Frequency Handover Description 3 Intra-Frequency Handover Algorithms

z For the PS and CS combined services, the threshold for CS services is used.
z For the single signaling connection of the UE, the threshold for CS services is used.
z H1a represents 1A hysteresis, the hysteresis value of event 1A.
Figure 3-2 shows the triggering of event 1A. In this procedure, the default parameter values
are used.
Th1A = (CPICH Ec/No of the best cell in the active set) - (reporting range for event 1A)
where reporting range for event 1A is equal to the value of CS non VP service 1A event
relative THD, VP service 1A event relative THD, or PS service 1A event relative
threshold.
If the signal quality of a cell that is not in the active set is higher than Th1A for a period of
time specified by 1A event trigger delay time (that is, Time to trigger in the figure), the UE
reports event 1A, as shown in Figure 3-2.
If Weighted factor > 0, then Th1A = (General signal quality of all the cells in the active set) -
(reporting range for event 1A).

Figure 3-2 Triggering of event 1A

The meanings of the curves marked with letters are as follows:


z A: signal quality curve of the best cell in the active set
z B: signal quality curve of a cell in the monitored set
z C: curve of Th1A

Triggering of Event 1B
Event 1B is triggered under the following condition:

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where
z MOld is the measurement value of the cell that becomes worse.
z CIOOld is equal to the sum of Cell oriented Cell Individual Offset and Neighboring
cell oriented CIO, which is the offset between the cell in the reporting range and the
best cell in the active set.
z W represents Weighted factor, used to weight the quality of the active set.
z Mi is the measurement value of the cell in the active set.
z NA is the number of cells not forbidden to affect the reporting range in the active set. The
parameter Affect 1B threshold flag decides if the quality of the cell is included in that of
the active set.
z MBest is the measurement value of the best cell in the active set.
z R1b is the reporting range or the relative threshold of soft handover. The threshold
parameters of the CS non-VP service, VP service, and PS services are as follows:
CS non VP service 1B event relative THD
VP service 1B event relative THD
PS service 1B event relative threshold

z For the PS and CS combined services, the threshold for CS services is used.
z If the UE currently has only signaling connections, the threshold for CS services is used.
z H1b represents 1B hysteresis, the hysteresis value of event 1B.
Configuration Rule and Restriction:
z The value of IntraRelThdFor1BCSNVP has to be larger than that of
IntraRelThdFor1ACSNVP.
z The value of IntraRelThdFor1BCSVP has to be larger than that of
IntraRelThdFor1ACSVP.
z The value of IntraRelThdFor1BPS has to be larger than that of IntraRelThdFor1APS.
The following figure shows the triggering of event 1B. In this procedure, the default
parameter values are used.

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Figure 3-3 Triggering of event 1B

The meanings of the curves marked with letters are as follows:


z A: signal quality curve of the best cell in the active set
z B: signal quality curve of a cell in the monitored set
z C: curve of Th1B
Th1B = (CPICH Ec/No of the best cell in the active set) - (reporting range for event 1B)
where
reporting range for event 1B is equal to the value of CS non VP service 1B event relative
THD, VP service 1B event relative THD, or PS service 1B event relative threshold.
If the signal quality of a cell in the active set is lower than Th1B for a period of time specified
by 1B event trigger delay time (Time to trigger in the figure), the UE reports event 1B, as
shown in the figure.
If weighted factor > 0, then Th1B = (General signal quality of all the cells in the active set) -
(reporting range for event 1B).

Triggering of Event 1C
Event 1C is triggered under the following condition:

where
z MNew is the measurement value of the cell in the reporting range.
z CIONew is the cell individual offset value of the cell in the reporting range. It is equal to
the sum of Cell oriented Cell Individual Offset and Neighboring cell oriented CIO,

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which is the offset between the cell in the reporting range and the best cell in the active
set.
z MInAS is the measurement value of the worst cell in the active set.
z CIOInAS is the cell individual offset value of the worst cell in the active set. It is equal to
the sum of Cell oriented Cell Individual Offset and Neighboring cell oriented CIO.
z H1c represents 1C hysteresis, the hysteresis value of event 1C.
The following figure shows the triggering of event 1C. In this procedure, the default
parameter values are used.

Figure 3-4 Triggering of event 1C

The meanings of the curves marked with letters are as follows:


z A: signal quality curve of the best cell in the active set
z B: signal quality curve of a cell in the active set
z C: signal quality curve of the worst cell in the active set
z D: signal quality curve of a cell in the monitored set
z E: curve of Th1C
Th1C = (CPICH Ec/No of the worst cell in the active set) + (hysteresis/2)
where
hysteresis is equal to the value of 1C hysteresis.
If the signal quality of a cell not in the active set is higher than Th1C for a period of time
specified by 1C event trigger delay time (Time to trigger in the figure), the UE reports event
1C, as shown in the figure.

The UE reports event 1C for qualified cells after the number of cells in the active set reaches the
maximum value. Max number of cell in active set can be configured. In RAN6.1, the maximum
number of cells in the active set is six.

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Intra-Frequency Handover Description 3 Intra-Frequency Handover Algorithms

Triggering of Event 1D
Event 1D is triggered under the following condition:

where
z MNotBest is the measurement value of a cell that is not the best cell.
z CIONotBest is equal to the sum of Cell oriented Cell Individual Offset and Neighboring
cell oriented CIO, which is the offset between the cell in the reporting range and the
best cell in the active set.
z MBest is the measurement value of the best cell in the active set.
z CIOBest is the cell individual offset value of the best cell. This parameter is not used for
event 1D.
z H1d represents 1D hysteresis, the hysteresis value of event 1D.
The following figure shows the triggering of event 1D. In this procedure, the default
parameter values are used.

Figure 3-5 Triggering of event 1D

The meanings of the curves marked with letters are as follows:


z A: signal quality curve of the best cell in the active set
z B: signal quality curve of a cell in the active set or the monitored set
z C: curve of Th1D
Th1D = (CPICH Ec/No of the best cell in the active set) + (hysteresis/2)
where hysteresis is equal to the value of 1D hysteresis.
If the signal quality of a cell not in the active set is higher than Th1D for a period of time
specified by 1D event trigger delay time (Time to trigger in the figure), the UE reports event
1D, as shown in the figure.

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Triggering of Event 1J
Event 1J is triggered on the basis of the following formula:

where
z MNew is the measurement result of the cell not included in the E-DCH active set but
included in DCH active set.
z CIONew is the individual cell offset for the cell not included in the E-DCH active set but
included in DCH active set becoming better than the cell in the E-DCH active set if an
individual cell offset is stored for that cell. Otherwise, it equals 0.
z MInAS is the measurement result of the cell in the E-DCH active set with the lowest
measurement result.
z CIOInAS is the individual cell offset for the cell in the E-DCH active set that is becoming
worse than the new cell.
z H1J is the hysteresis parameter for event 1J.
z If the measurement result is CPICH-Ec/No, MNew and MInAS are expressed as ratios.
z If the measurement result is CPICH-RSCP, MNew and MInAS are expressed in mW.

Figure 3-6 Example of triggering of event 1J

The meanings of the curves marked with letters are as follows:


z A: signal quality curve of a cell in the E-DCH active set
z B: signal quality curve of the worst cell in the E-DCH active set
z C: signal quality curve of a cell not in the E-DCH active set but included in DCH active
set
z D: signal quality curve of a cell not in the E-DCH active set but included in DCH active
set
In the figure, the hysteresis and the cell individual offsets for all cells equal 0.

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The first measurement report is sent when primary CPICH D becomes better than primary
CPICH B. The "cell measurement event result" of the measurement report contains the
information of primary CPICH D and CPICH B.
On the assumption that the E-DCH active set has been updated after the first measurement
report (E-DCH active set is now primary CPICH A and primary CPICH D), the second report
is sent when primary CPICH C becomes better than primary CPICH A. The "cell
measurement event result" of the second measurement report contains the information of
primary CPICH C and primary CPICH A.
The parameters described in the following need to be set on the RNC LMT:
z 1J hysteresis
z 1J event trigger delay time
z 1J event to periodical rpt number
z 1J event to periodical rpt period
After receiving the intra-frequency measurement report from the UE, the RNC decides
whether to go to the execution phase, depending on the information in the report.

3.3.2 Intra-Frequency Handover Neighboring Cell Combination


Algorithm
After the active set is updated, the RNC updates the neighboring cell list by using the
neighboring cell combination algorithm according to the status of the active set. This list
includes the new intra-frequency, inter-frequency, and inter-RAT neighboring cells.

Neighboring Cell Combination Switch


The NCELL_COMBINE_SWITCH of Handover Algorithm Switch parameter decides the
measurement range of neighboring cells.
z If the switch is set to ON, measurement objects are chosen from the neighboring cells of
all the cells in the active set.
z If the switch is set to OFF, measurement objects are chosen from the neighboring cells of
the best cell.

The maximum number of neighboring cells is 32, no matter whether the measurement range is the
neighboring cells of the active set or those of the monitored set.

Triggering of the Neighboring Cell Combination Algorithm


After the active set update is complete, the RNC updates the neighboring cell list by using the
neighboring cell combination algorithm.
z When receiving an event 1A or 1C report, the RNC uses this algorithm to update the
neighboring cell list. If the Radio Links (RLs) from the DRNC are added to the active set,
the SRNC buffers the intra-frequency, inter-frequency, and inter-RAT neighboring cells
list from the DRNC until the RLs from DRNC are removed from the active set.
z When receiving an event 1B or 1D report or an RL OUT-OF-SYNCHRONIZATION
message from the NodeB, the RNC uses this algorithm to update the neighboring cell
list.

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Description of the Neighboring Cell Combination Algorithm


After obtaining the intra-frequency neighboring cells of each cell in the active set, the RNC
calculates the union neighboring cell set of the intra-frequency cells, which is also referred as
Sall, by using the following method. This method can also be used to generate the Sall of
inter-frequency or inter-RAT cells.
1. The intra-frequency, inter-frequency and inter-RAT neighboring cells of each cell in the
current active set are obtained.
2. The RNC sequences the cells in the active set in descending order of CPICH Ec/No
according to the latest measurement report (event 1A, 1B, 1C, or 1D) from the UE. The
best cell is based on event 1D, whereas other cells are based on the latest measurement
report.
3. The cells in the active set are added to Sall.
4. The neighboring cells of the best cell in the active set are added to Sall. The flag of the
priority and The priority of neighbor cell, which are set for each neighboring cell, are
used to change the order of adding the neighboring cells to Sall.
5. The neighboring cells of other cells in the active set are added to Sall in descending order
by CPICH Ec/No values of these cells in the active set. The neighboring cells of the
same cell in the active set are added according to The priority of neighbor cell and
repeated number of repeated neighboring cell is recorded..
6. If there are more than 32 neighboring cells in Sall, delete the neighboring cells whose
repeat number in Sall is less. The top 32 neighboring cells are grouped into the final Sall.

z When The flag of the priority is switched to FALSE, The priority of neighbor cell is
cleared.
z When The flag of the priority is switched to TRUE, The priority of neighbor cell is set
simultaneously.

3.3.3 Intra-Frequency Handover Measurement Quantity


The measurement quantity of intra-frequency handover can be Common Pilot Channel
(CPICH) Ec/No or CPICH Received Signal Code Power (RSCP).
The measurement quantity of intra-frequency handover is configured through the Intra-freq
Measure Quantity parameter, and it can be used in all the measurement events of
intra-frequency handover.

3.3.4 L3 Filtering for Intra-Frequency Handover


Before judging a measurement event and sending the measurement report, the UE performs
L3 filtering for the measurement value.
The following figure shows the measurement model defined in 3GPP TS 25.302, illustrating
the location of L3 filtering in the measurement.

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Figure 3-7 Measurement model in the WCDMA system

The measurement points shown in the figure are described as follows:


z A is the measurement value at the physical layer.
z B is the measurement value obtained after L1 filtering at the physical layer. It is weighed
by the L3 filter coefficient.
z C is a measurement value obtained after L3 filtering, which is controlled by a higher
layer. The filtered value (C) can apply to both event-triggered reporting and periodic
reporting (D).
z C' is another measurement value. C' is measured in the same way as C.
z D is measurement report information sent through a message on the Uu or Iub interface.
z Parameters (a) in the figure include the filter coefficient for L3 filtering, whereas
parameters (b) include the configuration parameters for the measurement reports.
The parameter Intra-freq meas L3 filter coeff is the filter coefficient for the intra-frequency
measurement value. The value is calculated with the following formula:
Fn = (1 - ) x Fn-1 + x Mn
where
z Fn is the new measurement value obtained after L3 filtering.
z Fn-1 is the last measurement value obtained after L3 filtering.
z Mn is the latest measurement value obtained from the physical layer.
z = 1/2(k/2) (k is set to Intra-freq meas L3 filter coeff)
When is set to 1, that is, k = 0, no L3 filtering is performed.

3.4 Intra-Frequency Handover Decision and Execution


The intra-frequency handover decision and execution procedure depends on the different
measurement events the RNC receives.

Decision and Execution


The following table lists the different types of intra-frequency handover decision and
execution based on different events.

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Table 3-3 Intra-frequency handover decision and execution


Event Decision and Execution

1A When receiving an event 1A report, the RNC decides whether to add a cell.
For event 1A, the UE can report more than one cell in the event list in one
measurement report. These cells are in the list of the Measurement Control
message, and they are sequenced in descending order by measurement quantity.
For the cells in the list, the RNC adds the radio link to the active set only if the
number of cells in the active set does not reach the maximum value.
1B When receiving an event 1B report, the RNC determines whether to delete a cell.
1C When receiving an event 1C report, the RNC decides whether to change the
worst cell.
For event 1C, the UE reports a list that contains good cells and the cells to be
replaced, and sequences the cells in descending order by measurement quantity.
After receiving the list from the UE, the RNC replaces the bad cells in the active
set with the good cells in the list.
1D When receiving an event 1D report, which includes information about only one
cell, the RNC learns that the quality of this cell is better than that of the serving
cell and takes one of the following actions:
z If the reported cell is in the active set, the RNC decides whether to change the
best cell or reconfigure measurement control.
z If the reported cell is in the monitored set,
z If the number of cells in the active set has not reached the maximum value, the RNC
decides a soft handover and adds the cell to the active set.
z If the number of cells in the active set has reached the maximum value, the RNC decides
a soft handover and replaces the worst cell in the active set with the reported cell.
z The best cell is changed to the reported cell.
The RNC determines whether the intra-frequency hard handover scenarios are
applicable. For detailed information, see 3.1 Intra-Frequency Handover Types. If
any scenario is applicable, the RNC performs an intra-frequency hard handover.
1J When receiving an event 1J report with information about the good cells and the
cells to be replaced, the RNC proceeds as follows:
z If the current number of cells in the E-DCH active set is less than the value of
Max number of cell in edch active set, the uplink of the cell where event 1J
is triggered is reconfigured to E-DCH.
z If the current number of cells in the E-DCH active set is equal to the value of
Max number of cell in edch active set, the RNC searches the measurement
report for the non-serving Cell_EDCH with the lowest measured quality in the
E-DCH active set. Then, the uplink of the cell where event 1J is triggered is
reconfigured from DCH to E-DCH, and the uplink of CELL-EDCH is
reconfigured from E-DCH to DCH.

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Minimum Quality Threshold for SHO


When receiving an event 1A, 1C, or 1D report, the RNC adds a target cell to the active set
only when the CPICH Ec/No of the target cell is higher than the absolute threshold Min
quality THD for SHO.

Switch for Cross-Iur Intra-Frequency Handover


If the RRC connection has been set up but the RBs have not, whether a cross-Iur soft
handover can be executed is determined by the SIGNAL_IUR_INTRA_HO_SWITCH.of
Handover Algorithm Switch parameter. Only if the switch is set to ON, can the cross-Iur
soft handover be executed.

Rate Reduction After an SHO Failure


If the RL addition for a soft or softer handover fails, the rate reduction is triggered for R99
NRT services to increase the probability of a successful soft handover.
If the RNC receives a 1A, 1C, or 1D measurement report, the corresponding cell tries to admit
the UE. If the cell fails to admit the UE, the RNC performs the estimation procedure for rate
reduction.
Estimation Procedure for Rate Reduction
The following figure shows the estimation procedure for rate reduction after an SHO failure.

Figure 3-8 Estimation procedure for rate reduction

The estimation procedure after the cell fails to admit the UE is described as follows:

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Step 1 The RNC evaluates whether the measurement quantity of the cell failing to be admitted meets
the condition of rate reduction.
z If the condition is met, the RNC performs a rate reduction process for the access service
immediately, as described in Procedure of Rate Reduction Execution.
z If the condition is not met, the RNC performs Step 2.
The condition of rate reduction is as follows:
Mnew > Mbest_cell - RelThdForDwnGrd
where
z Mnew is the CPICH Ec/No measurement value of the cell failing to be admitted.
z Mbest_cell is the CPICH Ec/No measurement value of the best cell in the active set.
z RelThdForDwnGrd is configured through the parameter Relative threshold of SHO
failure.
Step 2 The RNC evaluates whether the number of SHO failures in the cell exceeds the Threshold
number of SHO failure.
z If the number of SHO failures in the cell is smaller than the Threshold number of SHO
failure, the RNC determines whether the SHO failure evaluation timer has been started:
If the timer has not been started, the RNC starts it.
If the timer has been started, the RNC increments the SHO failure counter by one.

z The timer length is set through the parameter Max evaluation period of SHO failure.
z The SHO failure counter of a cell is used to record the number of SHO failures in this cell. For each
UE, the RNC records the number of SHO failures in three cells at most. For SHO failures in any
other cells, the RNC does not record the number.

Before the SHO failure evaluation timer expires, no action is taken and the RNC waits for the
next measurement report period.
When the SHO failure evaluation timer expires, the RNC sets the SHO failure counter of the
corresponding cell to 0 and ends the evaluation.
z If the number of SHO failures in the cell is larger than or equal to the Threshold
number of SHO failure, the RNC performs a rate reduction process for the access
service and sets the SHO failure counter of the corresponding cell to 0.
Procedure of Rate Reduction Execution

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Figure 3-9 Procedure of rate reduction execution

The rate reduction execution procedure is described as follows:


Step 1 The RNC performs a rate reduction process for the access service. The method of determining
the access rate after the rate reduction is the same as that described in Rate Negotiation of
Load Control.
Step 2 After the rate reduction succeeds, the RNC immediately attempts to add this cell to the active
set without measurement:
z If the cell succeeds in admitting the UE, the RNC adds the radio link and sets the SHO
failure counter of the cell to 0 and ends the execution.
z If the cell fails to admit the UE, the RNC starts the Period of penalty timer for SHO
failure after down rate to avoid an increase in the rate triggered by DCCC within the
period. Also in this period, the RNC sets the SHO failure counter of the cell to 0 and
ends the execution.
If the RNC fails to perform a soft handover again, it performs the estimation procedure and
the execution procedure, as previously described.
----End

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3.5 Intra-Frequency Handover of HSDPA


Intra-Frequency Handover of HSDPA describes the decision and execution of intra-frequency
handover, and the handover between a cell supporting the F-DPCH and a cell not supporting
the F-DPCH after the introduction of HSDPA.

Decision and Execution of Intra-Frequency Handover


Handling of Event 1A
After receiving an event 1A report, the RNC proceeds as follows:
z If the number of cells in the active set does not reach the maximum value, the RNC adds
the cell to the active set and sets up a DPCH connection to the cell.
z If the number of cells in the active set reaches the maximum value, the RNC does not
add the radio link to the active set.
Handling of Event 1B
After receiving an event 1B report, the RNC determines whether to delete a cell.
z If the cell to be deleted is not an HSDPA serving cell, the cell is directly removed.
z If the cell to be deleted is an HSDPA serving cell, then:
If the new best cell supports HSDPA, the new best cell is reconfigured to be an
HSDPA serving cell. If the reconfiguration fails, the service is reconfigured onto
DPCH.
If the new best cell does not support HSDPA, the service is reconfigured onto DPCH
to ensure the continuity of the service.
Handling of Event 1C
After receiving an event 1C report, the RNC decides whether to change the worst cell.
z If the cell to be replaced is not an HSDPA serving cell, the cell is directly removed.
z If the cell to be replaced is an HSDPA serving cell, then:
If the best cell supports HSDPA, the best cell is reconfigured to be an HSDPA serving
cell. If the reconfiguration fails, the service is reconfigured onto DPCH.
If the best cell does not support HSDPA, the service is reconfigured onto DPCH to
ensure the continuity of the service.
Handling of Event 1D
After receiving an event 1D report, the RNC proceeds as follows:
z If the downlink service is carried on the HSDPA, then:
If the new best cell in the active set supports HSDPA and the HSPA hysteresis timer
expires, the new best cell is reconfigured to be an HSDPA serving cell. The HSPA
hysteresis timer is restarted after the serving cell change and is to avoid frequent
updates at the boundary between two HSDPA cells. The timer length is specified by
the parameter HSPA hysteresis timer length.
The following figure shows an example of how to handle event 1D in this situation.
Assume that the UE moves from HSDPA cell 1 to HSDPA cell 2, that the two cells are
intra-frequency neighboring cells, and that all the cells in the active set support HSDPA.
The RNC updates the HSDPA serving cell according to the reported event and keeps the
HSDPA serving cell consistent with the best cell.

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If the new best cell in the active set does not support HSDPA, the downlink service is
directed to DCH through reconfiguration.

Figure 3-10 Intra-frequency handover between HSDPA cells when the best cell changes

z If the downlink service is carried on the DCH, then:


To avoid frequent handovers at the boundary between an HSDPA cell and an R99 cell, a
protection timer is used. After an intra-frequency handover, the timer starts. After this
timer expires, the RNC reconfigures the service of the UE onto the HS-PDSCH of the
HSDPA cell if either of the following two conditions is met:
The target cell supports HSDPA.
The target cell does not support HSDPA but has a DRD neighboring cell.
The timer length is specified by the parameter The timer length of D2H intrafreq
handover.
If the reconfiguration of the HSDPA serving cell fails, the service is reconfigured onto
DPCH. If the retry fails, the HSDPA serving cell remains the previous status.
In the execution procedure mentioned above,
SERV_CELL_CHG_WITH_ACTSET_UPDATE_SWITCH is used to determine whether
the update of the active set and the change of the serving cell are synchronized.
z If the switch is ON, the UE supports the synchronization of the update of the active set
and the change of the serving cell.
z If the switch is OFF, the UE reconfigures the change of the serving cell through
allocating physical channels after updating the active set.
During the update of the HSDPA serving cell, whether to reset the UE MAC-hs can be set
through the MAC-hs Reset Algorithm Switch parameter.

Handover Between a Cell Supporting the F-DPCH and a Cell Not Supporting the
F-DPCH
If all the cells in the active set support the F-DPCH after the active set is updated and the SRB
is carried on the DCH, the SRBD2HHoTimer starts. After this timer expires, the RNC decides

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whether to switch the SRB to the HS-DSCH. The timer is set through The timer length of
Srb Over Hspa Retry Delay.
After the UE is handed over to an HSDPA cell from an R99 cell, the D2HRetryTimer starts.
After this timer expires, the RNC decides whether to switch the SRB to the HS-DSCH and
whether to set up the F-DPCH. D2HRetryTimer is set through The timer length of D2H
Interfreq handover and The timer length of D2H Intrafreq handover.

For the detailed informtion of The timer length of D2H Interfreq handover, see Inter-Frequency
Handover of HSDPA.

3.6 Intra-Frequency Handover of HSUPA


Intra-Frequency Handover of HSUPA describes the decision and execution of intra-frequency
handover, and the handover between E-DCHs of 10 ms TTI and 2 ms TTI after the
introduction of HSUPA.

Decision and Execution of Intra-Frequency Handover


Handling of Event 1A
After receiving the measurement report, the RNC proceeds as follows:
z If the target cell supports HSUPA and the uplink service is carried on the E-DCH, then:
If the current number of cells in the E-DCH active set is smaller than the value of
Max number of cell in edch active set, the target cell is added to both the DCH and
E-DCH active sets.
Otherwise, the target cell is added to only the DCH active set.
z After deciding that a cell can be added to the E-DCH active set,
If the admission in the downlink fails, the cell is added to neither the E-DCH active
set nor the DCH active set. It waits for the next event 1A report for retry.
Otherwiseif the admission in the downlink succeeds, the RNC perform the HSUPA
admission in the uplink.
z If HSUPA admission in the uplink succeeds, the cell is added to the E-DCH active set
and the DCH active set.
z If HSUPA admission in the uplink fails, the cell is added only to the DCH active set. If
the DCH admission in the uplink still fails, the cell is added to neither the E-DCH active
set nor the DCH active set. It waits for the next event 1A report for retry.
Handling of Event 1B
If the number of radio links in the DCH active set is larger than one, then:
z If the cell to be removed is not an HSUPA serving cell, the cell is directly removed.
z If the cell to be removed is an HSUPA serving cell, then:
If the new best cell supports HSUPA, the new best cell is reconfigured to be an
E-DCH serving cell. If the reconfiguration fails, the uplink service is redirected to the
DCH through RB reconfiguration.
If the new best cell does not support HSUPA, the uplink service is redirected to the
DCH through RB reconfiguration.

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After the best cell of a UE changes, if the size of the DCH or E-DCH active set of the new
best cell is different from those of the old best cell, the RNC removes or reconfigures radio
links to adapt to the size and configuration of the new best cell.
Handling of Event 1C
When event 1C is triggered, the UE reports the event-triggered list that contains good cells
and the cells to be replaced, and sequences the cells from the highest to the lowest quality
according to measurement quantity.
After receiving the measurement report, the RNC proceeds as follows:
z If the new cell supports HSUPA, then:
If the current number of cells in the E-DCH active set is smaller than the value of
Max number of cell in edch active set, the new cell is added to the E-DCH active
set.
If the current number of cells in the E-DCH active set is equal to the value of Max
number of cell in edch active set and the cell to be replaced is also included in the
E-DCH active set, the new cell joins the E-DCH active set through replacement.
If the current number of cells in the E-DCH active set is equal to the value of Max
number of cell in edch active set and the cell to be replaced is not included in the
E-DCH active set, the new cell is added only to the DCH active set.
z If the new cell does not support HSUPA, the cell is added to only the DCH active set.
Handling of Event 1D
If the criteria for intra-frequency hard handover are fulfilled, the RNC performs
intra-frequency hard handover after receiving the measurement report.
If the criteria for intra-frequency hard handover are not fulfilled, the RNC performs
intra-frequency soft handover based on the measurement report. The decision process is as
follows:
z If the uplink service is carried on the E-DCH, then:
If the new best cell in the active set supports HSUPA and the HSPA hysteresis timer
expires, the E-DCH serving cell becomes the best cell. The HSPA hysteresis timer is
restarted after the cell change. The length of the HSPA hysteresis timer is defined by
the HSPA hysteresis timer length parameter.
The HSPA hysteresis timer is defined to reduce the probability of the frequent change of the
servicing cell, which is caused by the frequent change of the best cell. Thus, the serving cell
cannot change before the timer expires. The ping-pong effect has been considered in the
triggering conditions of event 1D; and therefore, the timer is set to 0 by default. This means
that the serving E-DCH cell is updated immediately when the best cell changes.
The following figure shows an example of how to handle event 1D in this situation. Assume
that the UE moves from HSUPA cell 1 to HSUPA cell 2, that the two cells are intra-frequency
neighboring cells, and that all the cells in the active set support HSUPA. The RNC updates the
HSUPA serving cell according to the reported event and keeps the HSUPA serving cell
consistent with the best cell.

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Figure 3-11 Intra-frequency handover (1)

z If the new best cell in the active set does not support HSUPA, the uplink service is
directed to DCH through reconfiguration. If the reconfiguration fails, the service is still
carried on the E-DCH. The UE is connected to the new best cell only on the DPCH.
The following figure shows an example of how to handle event 1D in this situation.
Assume that the UE moves from cell 1 (HSUPA) to cell 2 (non HSUPA), that cells 1 and
2 are intra-frequency neighboring cells, and that all the other cells in the active set
support HSUPA. The service is directed to DCH through reconfiguration.

Figure 3-12 Intra-frequency handover (2)

z If the uplink service is carried on the DCH, then:


If the new best cell in the active set supports HSUPA or the new best cell has an
HSUPA-capable and DRD-applicable neighboring cell, and if the uplink service is
suitable to be mapped to HSUPA, the RNC starts a timer whose length is defined by
The timer length of D2H intrafreq handover parameter.
After this timer expires, the service is directed to E-DCH through reconfiguration. If the
admission fails during reconfiguration, the timer whose length is defined by the H Retry

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timer length parameter is started. Periodic retries of DCH to E-DCH are performed. For
detailed information about the timer H Retry timer length, see Radio Bearers.
The following figure shows an example of how to handle event 1D in this situation.
Assume that the UE moves from cell 1 (non-HSUPA) to cell 2 (HSUPA), that cells 1 and
2 are intra-frequency neighboring cells, and that the best cell in the DCH active set is
changed from cell 1 to cell 2 after event 1D is triggered. Then, the RNC starts a timer
whose length is defined by The timer length of D2H intrafreq handover parameter.
After this timer expires, the service is directed to the E-DCH through reconfiguration.

Figure 3-13 Intra-frequency handover (3)

z If the new best cell in the active set does not support HSUPA, the uplink service is still
carried on the DCH.
Handling of Event 1J
When event 1J is triggered, the UE reports the event-triggered list that contains good cells and
the cells to be replaced, and sequences the cells from the highest to the lowest quality
according to measurement quantity.
After receiving the measurement report, the RNC proceeds as follows:
z If the current number of cells in the E-DCH active set is smaller than the value of Max
number of cell in edch active set, the uplink of the cell where event 1J is triggered is
reconfigured to E-DCH.
z If the current number of cells in the E-DCH active set is equal to the value of Max
number of cell in edch active set, the RNC searches the measurement report for the
non-serving Cell_EDCH with the lowest measured quality in the E-DCH active set. Then,
the uplink of the cell where event 1J is triggered is reconfigured from DCH to E-DCH,
and the uplink of CELL-EDCH is reconfigured from E-DCH to DCH.
In addition, for BE services, if the current bit rate is higher than the HSUPA BE SHO THD
RATE, the bandwidth on the E-DCH is reduced to this parameter value.

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Handover Between E-DCHs of 10 ms TTI and 2 ms TTI


For HSUPA, 2 ms TTI and 10 ms TTI are applicable. For cells under the NodeB, however, the
2 ms TTI is optional. When both 2ms-TTI-capable and 2ms-TTI-incapable cells exist in a
network, a UE may undergo handovers between E-DCHs of 10 ms TTI and 2 ms TTI.
Only when all the cells in the E-DCH active set support 2 ms TTI can the services be
configured to the E-DCH with 2 ms TTI. If any cell in the E-DCH active set does not support
2 ms TTI, the services are configured on the E-DCH with 10 ms TTI.
The detailed principles are as follows:
When the uplink service is carried on the E-DCH with 2 ms TTI, if a cell that supports only
10 ms TTI is to be added to the E-DCH active set, the source cell undergoes a radio bearer
reconfiguration to 10 ms TTI. A soft handover to the target cell is performed.
Upon each handover, if a radio link needs to be added, removed, or replaced, the RNC judges
whether all the cells in the E-DCH active set and the UE support 2 ms TTI.
Step 1 If they all support 2 ms TTI and the uplink service is currently carried on the E-DCH with 10
ms TTI, the RNC reconfigures the service to the E-DCH with 2 ms TTI.
Step 2 If the reconfiguration fails, a timer is started for periodic retries to the E-DCH with 2 ms TTI.
Step 3 If the handover is performed before the timer expires, the timer is stopped.
Step 4 After the handover, the RNC decides whether to start the timer, based on the handover result.
The length of the periodic retry timer is defined by the Switch From HSUPA TTI10 To TTI2
Periodic Retry Timer Length parameter.
----End

3.7 Signaling Procedures for Intra-Frequency Handover


There are five types of signaling procedures for intra-frequency handover.
z Intra-NodeB Intra-Frequency Soft Handover Signaling Procedure
z Intra-RNC Inter-NodeB Intra-Frequency Soft Handover Signaling Procedure
z Inter-RNC Intra-Frequency Soft Handover Signaling Procedure
z Intra-RNC Inter-NodeB Intra-Frequency Hard Handover Signaling Procedure
z Inter-RNC Intra-Frequency Hard Handover Signaling Procedure.

3.7.1 Intra-NodeB Intra-Frequency Soft Handover Signaling


Procedure
This describes the signaling procedure for intra-frequency soft handover within a NodeB.
The following figure shows the procedure for intra-frequency soft handover when the UE
moves from one cell to another cell within the same NodeB.

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Figure 3-14 Procedure for intra-NodeB intra-frequency soft handover

The connections involved in the intra-NodeB intra-frequency softer handover change are as
follows:
Step 1 Before the softer handover, only cell 1 is connected to the UE.
Step 2 During the softer handover, both cell 1 and cell 2 are connected to the UE.
Step 3 After the softer handover, only cell 2 is connected to the UE. Cell 1 is removed from the
active set.
The following figure shows the signaling procedure for intra-NodeB intra-frequency soft
handover.
----End

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Figure 3-15 Signaling procedure for intra-NodeB intra-frequency soft handover

In the figure, steps 1 through 4 set up a new connection, and steps 5 through 8 release the old
connection.
The signaling procedure is as follows:
Step 1 After the Serving Radio Network Controller (SRNC) makes a soft handover decision
according to the measurement report of the UE, it sends a NodeB a Radio Link (RL) Addition
Request message.
Step 2 The NodeB configures its physical channel in the target cell and starts to receive the signal
from the UE to achieve UL (UpLink) synchronization. It sends the SRNC a Radio Link
Addition Response message.
Step 3 The SRNC sends the UE an Active Set Update (RL Addition) message through Dedicated
Control CHannel (DCCH).
Step 4 The UE responds with an Active Set Update Complete message.
Step 5 The SRNC decides to release the old radio link. The SRNC sends the UE an Active Set
Update (RL Deletion) message through DCCH.
Step 6 The UE responds with an Active Set Update Complete message.

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Step 7 The SRNC sends the NodeB a Radio Link Deletion Request message.
Step 8 The NodeB releases the radio resource and reports that the old link is released through an
NBAP message Radio Link Deletion Response.
----End

3.7.2 Intra-RNC Inter-NodeB Intra-Frequency Soft Handover


Signaling Procedure
This describes the signaling procedure of intra-frequency soft handover between NodeBs
within an RNC.
The following figure shows the procedure for intra-frequency soft handover when the UE
moves between the cells of different NodeBs within the same RNC.

Figure 3-16 Procedure for intra-RNC inter-NodeB intra-frequency soft handover

The connections involved in intra-RNC inter-NodeB intra-frequency soft handover change are
as follows:
Step 1 Before the soft handover, only NodeB 1 is connected to the UE.
Step 2 During the soft handover, both NodeBs are connected to the UE.
Step 3 After the soft handover, only NodeB 2 is connected to the UE. The active set of NodeB 1 is
removed.
The following figure shows the signaling procedure for intra-RNC inter-NodeB
intra-frequency soft handover.
----End

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Figure 3-17 Signaling procedure for intra-RNC inter-NodeB intra-frequency soft handover

In the following figure, NodeB 1 is the source NodeB and NodeB 2 is the target NodeB. Steps
1 through 7 set up a new connection. Steps 8 through 12 release the old connection.
The signaling procedure is as follows:
Step 1 After the SRNC decides to set up a new radio link in a cell of NodeB 2, it sends NodeB 2 a
Radio Link Setup Request message.
Step 2 NodeB 2 configures its physical channel, starts to receive the signal from the UE, and then
sends the SRNC a Radio Link Setup Response message.
Step 3 The SRNC sets up an Access Link Control Application Part (ALCAP) Iub data transport
bearer between the SRNC and NodeB 2 to carry the new connection.
Step 4 The SRNC sends NodeB 2 a Downlink (DL) Synchronization frame through the new ALCAP
Iub data transport bearer.
Step 5 NodeB 2 sends the SRNC an Uplink Synchronization frame through the new ALCAP Iub data
transport bearer. Then, NodeB 2 starts DL transmission.

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Step 6 The SRNC sends the UE an Active Set Update (Radio Link Addition) message through
DCCH.
Step 7 The UE responds with a Radio Resource Control (RRC) message Active Set Update
Complete.
Step 8 The SRNC decides to release the old radio link. The SRNC sends the UE an Active Set
Update (Radio Link Deletion) message through DCCH.
Step 9 The UE deactivates DL reception on the old radio link and responds with an RRC message
Active Set Update Complete.
Step 10 The SRNC sends NodeB 1 an NBAP message Radio Link Deletion Request. NodeB 1 stops
UL reception and DL transmission.
Step 11 NodeB 1 releases the radio resource and reports that the radio link is released through an
NBAP message Radio Link Deletion Response.
Step 12 The SRNC initiates the release of the ALCAP Iub data transport bearer.
----End

3.7.3 Inter-RNC Intra-Frequency Soft Handover Signaling


Procedure
This describes the signaling procedure for intra-frequency soft handover between RNCs.

Figure 3-18 Procedure for inter-RNC intra-frequency soft handover

The connections involved in inter-RNC intra-frequency soft handover change as follows:


Step 1 Before the soft handover, the UE is connected to NodeB 1 and NodeB 2.
Step 2 After the SRNC makes a soft handover decision, it sets up a connection between NodeB 3
under another RNC and the UE, and releases the connection between NodeB 1 and the UE.
During the soft handover, the Iur interface connection exists between SRNC and Drift Radio
Network Controller (DRNC).
Figure 3-19 shows the signaling procedure for inter-RNC intra-frequency soft handover.

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Figure 3-19 Signaling procedure for inter-RNC intra-frequency soft handover

In the figure, NodeB 1 is the source NodeB, and NodeB 3 is the target NodeB. Steps 1
through 9 set up a new connection. Steps 10 through 14 release the old connection.
The signaling procedure is as follows:
Step 1 After the SRNC makes a soft handover decision, it sends the DRNC an RNSAP message
Radio Link Setup Request, to request the DRNC to allocate radio resources.
Step 2 If the needed resources are available, the DRNC sends the NodeB 3 an NBAP message Radio
Link Setup Request.
Step 3 NodeB 3 allocates radio resources as requested and reports that the resource allocation
succeeds through an NBAP message Radio Link Setup Response.
Step 4 The DRNC sends the SRNC an RNSAP message Radio Link Setup Response.

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Step 5 The SRNC initiates the setup of an ALCAP Iur/Iub data transport bearer. This request
includes the AAL2 Binding Identity, used to indicate the Iub data transport bearer.
Step 6 The SRNC sends NodeB 3 a Downlink Synchronization frame through the new ALCAP Iub
data transport bearer.
Step 7 NodeB 3 sends the SRNC an Uplink Synchronization frame through the new ALCAP Iub data
transport bearer. Then, NodeB 3 starts DL transmission.
Step 8 The SRNC sends the UE an Active Set Update (RL Addition) message through DCCH.
Step 9 The UE responds with an RRC message Active Set Update Complete.
Step 10 The SRNC decides to release the old radio link. The SRNC sends the UE an Active Set
Update (RL Deletion) message through DCCH.
Step 11 The UE deactivates DL reception on the old radio link and responds with an RRC message
Active Set Update Complete.
Step 12 The SRNC sends NodeB 1 an NBAP message Radio Link Deletion Request. NodeB 1 stops
UL reception and DL transmission.
Step 13 NodeB 1 releases the radio resource and reports that the radio link is released through an
NBAP message Radio Link Deletion Response.
Step 14 The SRNC initiates the release of ALCAP Iub data transport bearer.
----End

3.7.4 Intra-RNC Inter-NodeB Intra-Frequency Hard Handover


Signaling Procedure
This describes the signaling procedure for intra-frequency hard handover between NodeBs
within an RNC.
The following figure shows the procedure for intra-frequency hard handover when a UE
moves from one NodeB to another NodeB within an RNC.

Figure 3-20 Procedure for intra-RNC inter-NodeB intra-frequency hard handover

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Before the handover, the UE is connected to NodeB 1. After the handover, the UE is
connected to NodeB 2. The following figure shows the signaling procedure for intra-RNC
inter-NodeB intra-frequency hard handover.

Figure 3-21 Signaling procedure for intra-RNC inter-NodeB intra-frequency hard handover

In the figure, NodeB 1 is the source NodeB, and NodeB 2 is the target NodeB. Steps 1
through 5 set up a new connection. Steps 6 through 8 release the old connection.
The signaling procedure is as follows:
Step 1 The SRNC decides to set up a radio link in a cell of NodeB 2 and sends a Radio Link Setup
Request message to NodeB 2.
Step 2 NodeB 2 configures its physical channel, starts to receive UE signals for UL synchronization,
and then sends a Radio Link Setup Response message to the SRNC.
Step 3 The SRNC sets up an ALCAP Iub data transport bearer to carry the new connection between
the SRNC and NodeB 2.

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Step 4 The SRNC sends an RRC message Physical Channel Reconfiguration to the UE through
DCCH.
Step 5 The UE responds with an RRC message Physical Channel Reconfiguration Complete.
Step 6 The SRNC decides to delete the old RL and sends an NBAP message Radio Link Deletion
Request to NodeB 1. NodeB 1 stops uplink reception and downlink transmission.
Step 7 NodeB 1 releases radio resources and then sends an NBAP message Radio Link Deletion
Response.
Step 8 The SRNC initiates the release of the ALCAP Iub data transport bearer.
----End

3.7.5 Inter-RNC Intra-Frequency Hard Handover Signaling


Procedure
This describes the signaling procedure for intra-frequency hard handover between RNCs.
The following figure shows the procedure for intra-frequency hard handover when a UE
moves from one NodeB in an SRNC to another NodeB in a DRNC.

Figure 3-22 Procedure for inter-RNC intra-frequency hard handover

Before the handover, the UE is connected to NodeB 1. After the handover, the UE is
connected to NodeB 2.
The following figure shows the signaling procedure for inter-RNC intra-frequency hard
handover.

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Figure 3-23 Signaling procedure for inter-RNC intra-frequency hard handover

As shown in the figure, NodeB 1 is the source NodeB and NodeB 2 is the target NodeB. Steps
1 through 10 set up a new connection. Steps 11 through 15 release the old connection.
The signaling procedure is as follows:
Step 1 The SRNC decides to set up a radio link in a cell of NodeB 2 and sends a Radio Link Setup
Request message to the DRNC.
Step 2 The DRNC sends a Radio Link Setup Request message to NodeB 2.
Step 3 NodeB 2 configures its physical channel, starts to receive UE signals for UL synchronization,
and then sends a Radio Link Setup Response message to the DRNC.

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Step 4 The DRNC sends the Radio Link Setup Response message to the SRNC.
Step 5 The SRNC sets up an ALCAP Iub data transport bearer to carry the new connection to NodeB
2.
Step 6 The SRNC sets up an ALCAP Iur data transport bearer to carry the connection to the DRNC.
Step 7 NodeB 2 sends a Radio Link Restore Indicate message to the DRNC.
Step 8 The DRNC sends the Radio Link Restore Indicate message to the SRNC.
Step 9 The SRNC sends a Physical Channel Reconfiguration message to the UE through DCCH.
Step 10 The UE responds with an RRC message Physical Channel Reconfiguration Complete.
Step 11 The SRNC sends an NBAP message Radio Link Deletion Request to NodeB 1. NodeB 1
stops uplink reception and downlink transmission.
Step 12 NodeB 1 releases the radios resources and reports that the release succeeds through an NBAP
message Radio Link Deletion Response.
Step 13 The SRNC initiates the release of the ALCAP Iub data transport bearer
----End

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Intra-Frequency Handover Description 4 Reference Documents

4 Reference Documents

Intra-Frequency Handover Reference Documents lists the reference documents related to the
feature.
z 3GPP 25.331: RRC Protocol Specification
z 3GPP 25.931: UTRAN Functions, Examples on Signalling Procedures
z Yue Chen: Soft Handover Issues in Radio Resource Management for 3G WCDMA,
Doctor Degree Dissertation, September 2003

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