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Marco Pagliarini)

First of all, we heartily thank Egyptian Foundrymans Society for letting us make our
point in regard to a process such as sand preparation and green sand moulding. We
are pleased to give our contribution, which is the result of a long experience of
collaboration with foundries all around the world.

The first part of this report focuses on the theme of sand preparation, while the
second part specifically deals with the theme of green sand moulding.


Sand preparation has often and wrongly been considered secondary to other main
issues, such as moulding or casting plant. Investments have often been aimed at
increasing productivity (to make more flasks) and capacity of furnaces (to fill the
flask). This right corporate policy has often created problem to the sand plant, that
has more or less brilliantly withstood all these changes.
Today, expressions like efficiency, quality, integration of processes are part of our
daily job. So, if the company is seen as an organism working as a strongly integrated
system (and not by separate sectors), also the sand plant (the poor relative) needs a
new approach.

Sand plant (goals)

The modern sand plant must satisfy three fundamental requirements:
production of high quality sand;
guarantee of constant quality in time;
production of a constant high quality at the lowest cost possible.
Production of high quality sand:
What does high quality sand mean?
High quality sand must have the following characteristics:
compactability that allows a good moulding and consequent shakeout, without
causing any defects due to moisture excess / deficiency;
strength that allows to produce moulds resistant to handling, core laying and
casting, and that does not cause any problems during shakeout;

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temperature below 45 48C and without any sudden variations, as higher values
hinder the correct activation of additives (with consequent higher bentonite
consumption with equal strength) and increase water demand, causing defects on
permeability that enables the evacuation of gases from the mould without causing
any blowholes.
Of course, it is necessary to control also other characteristics, such as moisture,
bentonite and fines content, etc.. However, if above-mentioned features are kept in a
limited range, the whole sand system will be stabilized.
In our experience, we have never found two foundries using the same sand
parameters, even if production typologies were almost the same.
This uniqueness is absolutely normal and justifiable. In fact, sand is a means to
obtain high quality castings and every foundry must optimize its own castings by
producing a distinctive type of sand.
This specificity is not only due to different casting types, but also to the usage of
different moulding systems (high pressure, shot, shock wave, manual).
So, there is not one sand which is fit for all, but there are many sands of different
qualities that satisfy every single requirement.
Guarantee of constant quality in time
It is of the utmost importance to maintain the same sand quality in time. In fact, if the
right quality of sand allows to obtain a better casting, quality constancy in time
extends such advantage to all castings.

Constant quality at low cost

Of course, it is extremely important to make the first two conditions available at the
lowest possible cost so as to obtain from the sand plant the efficiency and the cost
abatement which render our product more competitive.
The attainment of this goal is pursued on two levels: first of all, a constant quality of
sand leads to a reduction of rejects, unpoured flasks, sandblasting times, broken
flasks and to an improvement of casting skin.
For instance, the muller must have just one motor to reduce energy losses and to
ease maintenance; the rotary sand and casting drum is to be considered as a
multifunction machine, as it allows to cool both sand and castings at the same time
and to pre-sandblast castings; besides lowering temperature, the cooler must
homogenize sand and enable the controlled removal of fines and a preventive

Sand plant (theory, dimensioning)

How to design a sand plant fit for a high-pressure moulding?

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Sand is the key element required to obtain a good quality mould and so a good quality
casting, whatever moulding principle is applied.
The characteristics of the sand to be prepared change according to the type of
moulding machine chosen, whereas the machines necessary to prepare sand do not
During preparation, sand undergoes different stresses, which can be distinguished
into two groups:
mechanical stresses
temperature stresses.
Mechanical stresses cause the breaking and erosion of silica grains which compose
sand skeleton. Signs of mechanical stresses are: decrease of permeability and higher
bentonite requirement.
Temperature stresses cause the increase of sand temperature.
A higher water demand causes an increase of compactability and a decrease of bulk
density (this phenomenon can be explained by a higher sand viscosity at high
temperature). Therefore, hot sand produces moulds which are not very compact: the
more compactability increases the more flowability decreases.
Sand compactability is very important. To obtain good quality moulds it is required a
low water addition and also a limited temperature variation.
Therefore, it is of fundamental importance that sand has always the same
characteristics when returning to the moulding machine. So, it is absolutely necessary
to quantify the entity of above-mentioned phenomena in order to correctly dimension
the various machines to be used, avoiding the mistake of undervaluing important
phenomena or overestimating negligible phenomena.
We turn our attention to sand cooling: for this reason we have studied the layouts of
two classic types of plant (with drum and with cooler).
For both of them we have plotted the average trend of sand temperatures. As already
said before, temperature must not undergo any great variations from the mixing phase
to the moment in which sand returns to the mixer for restoration of its characteristics.
In a circuit without drum or sand cooler, temperature continuously tends to increase
until the heat exchange between structures (flasks, silos walls, transfers from one
conveyor to another) reaches and maintains very high values (balancing heat
exchanged with the environment and heat put into the casting). Only the utilization of
cooling machines allows to definitely maintain temperature below 45C in order to
avoid serious problems when moulding. Moreover, carefully chosen machines must
homogenize sand and avoid great variations in uniformity of sand moisture.
Therefore, we have ascertained that batch coolers are better than continuous coolers,
as batch coolers always keep parameters (moisture and temperature) under control,
with a higher guarantee of uniformity at the end of the process.
We produce the following coolers:
sand and casting cooling drum TDR for sand and castings continuous type;
cooler and homogenizer for sand only batch type.
Usually, the utilization of one machine excludes the other machine.
One peculiarity of our plants is that silos are considered as double-function machines:
a) sand storage mechanics that allows to empty flask storage lines, when necessary;
b) chemical physical characterization of bentonite curing and of cooling improvement
before sand returns to the muller.
So, we are convinced that silos have to be appropriately studied in order to avoid the
funnel effect which drastically reduces effectiveness.
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The silo must empty completely both for its inner shape and for the particular
configuration of the emptying hopper and of the ejector feed system (belt type or with
vibrating cone).
Therefore, it is important that sand inside the silo is proportionate to its volume: only in
this way the residual bentonite in the sand can be activated and all other above-
mentioned phenomena can take place.
The logic employed to dimension these machines starts from the determination of the
quantity of heat put into the sand during casting and from the setting of the
parameters that allow to complete the theoretical calculation of heat exchanges during
the further processings of the sand.
The balance of the suction system is fundamental for sand reclamation. As regards
such system, our model gives the hourly capacity values at key points.

Sand plant (machines, technology)

Sand and casting cooling drum

The sand and casting cooling drum has been devised to offer modern foundries the
possibility to cool sand and castings at the same time, to ease castings cleaning and
to control the quantity of fines by means of an appropriate suction.
Obviously, the utilization of a sand and casting cooling drum is to be valued according
to the production typology and to its undeniable advantages on the process.
Poured moulds are taken from shakeout to drum by means of a vibrating conveyor.
The cooling process is based on the evaporation of the residual moisture of return
sand and on the evaporation of the water appropriately added by a conditioning
device, which is made up of two parts: one part adds water into the charging area
(according to incoming temperature) and the other part adds water into the sand
discharge area, if necessary.
Vapour and fines due to process are removed by a suction and filtering system.
Besides easing castings cleaning and core emptying, the rolling of castings and sand
inside the drum homogenizes return sand and consequently reduces mull time.
At the end of the process, clean and cooled sand and castings pass through a screen
which carries out a separation.

In brief, the main advantages are:

Sand cooling: Sand is cooled (50C), homogeneous and with a moisture content of
about 1,6 1,8%.

Castings cooling: Castings come out at the same temperature as the sand and can
immediately be handled doing without intermediate warehouses.

Castings cleaning: The rolling of castings and sand inside the drum eases castings
cleaning and core emptying and consequently reduces sandblasting times.

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These results are achievable thanks to the automatic control of water addition into the

Batch Cooler

The cooling of sands coming from shakeout is extremely important in order to avoid
problems due to excessive temperature, such as difficult bentonite activation, difficult
control of prepared sand compactability, higher water demand, etc..

The aim is to obtain sand with a temperature below 45C. We think it is likewise
important to favour the maximum homogenization of the sand itself.

Operating principle:
The physical principle applied in this plant is the removal of evaporation heat of water
in contact with sand by means of the forced suction of vapour formation in the tank.
Sand is continuously mixed by mixing tools. At the same time, fluidizing air is added to
guarantee an increase of heat exchange surface between sand and air.
The cycle begins with the inlet of cooling and moisturizing water, then hopper opens
and used sand is charged. Thus, the cooling cycle is active from the very first mixing
The vapour formation due to contact between water and sand is continuously
removed by the suction system.
Vapours removed must be treated with a dry filter in order to satisfy emission limits
prescribed by positive law.
The cooler we usually use is a batch cooler, as we think it is a kind of process more
easily controllable and less influenced by stops (for instance, change of templates,
lack of cast iron, etc.).
In fact, a batch process (charge / cooling / discharge) determines incoming and
outcoming parameters on defined parts of sand, so that it is extremely easy to add just
the quantity of water required.

Sand storage silos

Sand storage silos are real machines and not mere containers. Their function is to
allow the curing of bentonite present in the sand: that is, bentonite unites with water
contained in the sand to generate all mechanical characteristics which are required to
produce high quality sand.
Moulding plants working more and more quickly and the tendency to reduce the
sand/casting (+ metal in flask) ratio cause a more and more accentuated utilization of
sand, reduced time of stay in silos and therefore a degradation of the bentonite.
All these problems, together with the age-old problem of the funnel effect in old silos,
induce us to reconsider the silo machine under a new light.

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First of all, during the planning phase of a sand plant it is necessary to project an
effective capacity equal at least to twice the productivity of the sand plant. For
instance, a plant with a muller supplying 80 t/h requires a 160 t silos.
Secondly, it is necessary to guarantee the effective usage of silos planned and to
avoid the funnel effect. In this case, sand flows through one preferential channel only
and forms stratified deposits which decrease of 50% and more the effective capacity
of silos. The utilization of EFB uniform flow silos eliminates this problem. In fact, a
particular geometry of the (stainless steel) cone structure and the introduction of two
baffles connecting the interior of the silos with the surroundings allow to eliminate
moisture in excess and favour a uniform and constant flow of sand.

Intensive mixer

The mixer or muller is rightly considered to be the pulsating heart of the sand
plant. Obviously, it is the most important machine where ideal conditions of
moulding sand are restored.

Over the years, the market has been invaded by the most various types of mixers:
from the first mixers with scrapers to the actual intensive mixers. Today, a mixer must
satisfy the following requirements:

1. Production of constant quality sand

2. High productivity

3. Reliability

4. Reduced maintenance.
In our opinion, to meet these requirements it is necessary to combine the activity of
the mixer with a sand control which supervises its functions.

In fact, they are to be considered as two parts of the same system: arm and mind.

As regards arm, we have chosen a hydraulic working. In fact, our new mixers are
provided with a hydraulic motor: a sturdy piston engine supplies the power necessary
for the movement of all the mixing unit, which turns out to be particularly compact.
The mixing unit is composed of two rotary units rotating on their own axis and whose
movement cover the whole surface of the tank. Moreover, mixing is integrated by a
high speed rotor that guarantees a quick activation of additives.
The planetary driving system supplies a high speed mixing through each rotary unit.
Every rotor is composed of three mixing arms provided with blades working on the
tank bottom, all units are equipped with wearproof inserts. The mixing tank wall is kept
clean by two scrapers provided with wearproof blades.
Used sand is put into the mixer through a measuring hopper placed on the top of the
cover. Sand is put through a slide opening moved by hydraulic cylinders.

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The combined action of rotary units resulting from the sum of the speeds of
planetary system, intensive homogenizer and mixing arms allows to obtain an
optimal mixing of ingredients with low specific consumption and high mixing efficiency
in the cycle time.
Reconditioned sand is discharged through an opening on the tank bottom. Discharge
door rotates in a horizontal plane and is moved by a hydraulic cylinder.

The main advantages of hydraulic motor in comparison with the traditional geared
motor are:
1. high reliability and sturdiness with equal performances
2. possibility of optimizing mixing speed by varying hydraulic motor rpm
3. absorption of inertia due to accidental stops (blackouts) by means of the exhaust
4. restart of mixer at full load with the maximum torque available
5. less components to be serviced
6. possibility of positioning the hydraulic power unit in a safe and clean place.

Mixing cycle

The mixing cycle is the most interesting factor from which to obtain remarkable
improvements of sand quality.
The mixing cycle consists of all operational sequences resulting in the production of
moulding sand. After various field experiences, we have inferred that the sequence
with the best results is the following:
Inlet of water Inlet of return sand Inlet of additives Mixing Discharge
Here is a phase-by-phase analysis of the cycle:

The inlet of water must take place at the beginning of the cycle. Thus, the tank is
systematically cleaned and also cooled. The quickest possible inlet of the maximum
quantity of water at the beginning of the cycle allows the longest possible contact
between water and bentonite and improves the activation of bentonite.
Moreover, water must be added without solution of continuity so avoiding successive
additions in the middle or at the end of the cycle. This guarantees that water binds
with bentonite and will not be found free, with all consequent damages.

The inlet of return sand must take place after water addition: for instance, if the cycle
requires 60 liters of water, return sand begins to be charged after a water addition of
30 liters (50%). This percentage varies according to the tightness of mixer.

The inlet of additives must take place when all water required for the cycle is inside
the mixer. This is needed to minimize any losses of additives due to suction effect. In
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fact, moistened sand incorporates additives more easily. The inlet of additives and
water has to take place as quickly as possible so as to allow the longest possible
contact between the different ingredients.
In brief, it is necessary to minimize inlet times in order to maximize the mixing time,
which is the real active phase of the cycle.

Mixing can be divided into two precise phases:

Pre-mixing: washing water and return sand are inside the tank. During this phase,
sand is moistened and prepared for the addition of other additives. This phase ends a
few seconds after closure of the water inlet valve. This phase lasts from 4 to 12
seconds according to return sand moisture.
Intensive mixing: it is the phase during which all ingredients are inside the mixing
tank and react to develop all physical chemical and mechanical characteristics of the
sand. This phase lasts from 50 to 90 seconds. Lower mixing times usually cause a
lower green strength value and a disomogeneity of the product; higher mixing times
often do not result in an improvement of characteristics, but only in a higher
expenditure of energy and in a reduction of productivity.
Discharge is to be considered a secondary phase. It must be reduced to the minimum
in order to recover time to be devoted to other phases or to be deducted from the total
The above-described mixing cycle is to be considered as the result of the operation of
the intensive mixer and the work of the automatic bond determinator GSC.

Automatic bond determinator GSC

Green sand control in foundry has always been one of the main goals to be achieved
in order to obtain good quality productions and to minimize scraps. So far, sand
control methods were mainly based on the control of return sand moisture and on the
consequent water addition to muller to obtain the desired moisture of prepared sand.
There are also control systems which determine the compactability of mulled sand
and then determine the quantity of water to be added.
All these systems give a partial answer to the demand of quality sand, in particular of
constant quality sand. In fact, they do not allow the automatic control of important
parameters such as strength, active bentonite, total bentonite, permeability and
automatic addition of additives and new sand.
The automatic bond determinator GSC controls mixer operation and addition of water
and additives in order to obtain constant quality sand.
The program uses the following five input data, which are necessary to have a precise
measurement of compactability:
1. return sand temperature
2. return sand moisture

B E L L O I & R O8M AG N O L I
3. batch weight
4. required compactability.
The instrument is essentially composed of three distinct units:

Nr. 1 Temperature, weight and moisture detecting system, with thermocouples,

load cells and moisture probes.
Return sand temperature is monitored by nine thermocouples, which are installed in
groups of three in opposite positions in the batch hopper. In this way, we obtain an
accurate measurement of the average temperature of sand.
Return sand moisture is read as a conductive signal. The control unit controls the
current supply between two electrodes placed in the mixer hopper. The value of the
flow of current in the sand between the two electrodes is proportionate to the quantity
of water in the sand. These electrodes are divided into three isolated sections at
different depths in the hopper.
The third datum is the batch weight. It is obtained by means of load cells. The PC
program is set to stop supply when the preset weight is reached.
Once temperature, moisture and sand weight are determined, the processor
calculates the quantity of water necessary. All water is quickly added through a
flowmeter at the beginning of the cycle in order to obtain an excellent mixing.
These three data are the main part of the control and are measured before sand
enters the mixer. Further data are obtained from the setpoint.
Nr. 1 Automatic lab which takes physical measures of the sand sample taken at the
mixer discharge.
The automatic compactability control TVE is designed to take a sand sample at the
mixer discharge, compress it and then determine its compactability. All operations are
controlled by the GSC program, that provides for one test for every mixing cycle.
Compactability data are given by a printer which records all information acquired: the
processor sends data to a base module that transfers them to the printer.
Printed data are:
1. date hour
2. number of test or cycle
3. return sand temperature
4. return sand conductivity
5. desired compactability
6. measured compactability
7. desired water (measured with pulses)
8. batch weight
9. setpoint
10. mixer motor absorption.

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At the end of the day, an abstract is printed. It indicates the summary of the day, the
number of tests, the number of tests within range, the percentage of tests within
range. Such data are followed by a histogram showing the deviation from setpoint.
For every single mixing cycle the following physical chemical parameters are
compactability, moisture, strength, active bentonite, total bentonite.
Of course, all process parameters are supplied, such as:
incoming sand temperature, number of cycles, mull time, water addition, additives
addition, process analysis, calibrations, alarms.
Nr. 1 Processor which processes data acquired and adjusts additions of water and
additives to obtain the desired compactability and strength. The PLC is connected to a
touch panel, allowing for an immediate and easy display and consultation of
production parameters, system performance and alarms.
Results: Thanks to the Automatic bond control GSC and to a constant high quality
sand, various advantages are obtained in the production cycle, such as:
reduction of rejects
reduction in the number of broken flasks
improvement of casting skin
sand plant operation without supervision
improvement of mixer performances
optimization of the usage of additives
extremely rapid depreciation.


Moulding is the operation that allows to give shape to green sand in order to obtain
impressions as equal as possible to the pattern.
This is one of the most important functions of the production process and deserves a
particular attention both from a technical point of view (selection of the type of
moulding) and from the point of view of the customization of the plant.

Moulding (goals)

Production of castings with a high dimensional accuracy

Castings with an excellent surface finish
Castings of a constant weight
Repeatability of performances

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Low operating cost
Maximum efficiency of the machines.

In order to produce quality castings it is necessary to produce quality moulds. This is

possible by integrating a first-rate moulding sand (see previous chapter) with a
moulding process that exploits its physical features.
Moulding sand has to be used at the best of its distinctive features: compactability and

Quality moulding

Quality moulding means:

Production of moulds with a constant hardness on the whole surface of the flask

Moulds with highly defined particulars

Ability of extracting difficult cores

Use of pattern plates of different materials (wood, resin, metal)

Economicity of the system.

Multi-piston moulding Belloi & Romagnoli

Since 1980 Belloi & Romagnoli has developed the high pressure moulding with multi-
piston head as a moulding technology for its complete lines and machines.
The initial idea that brought to current moulding machines was to supply the foundry
worker with a versatile and efficient machine able to adapt to the various production
conditions: variability of patterns and features of the sand.

Operating principle
The operating principle of moulding machines BELLOI & ROMAGNOLI consists of two
well-distinct phases:

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1- Precompaction
2- Moulding with pistons with differentiated pressures

1- The precompaction of the sand is extremely useful for uniforming the layer of
sand near the pattern. The easiest and cheapest method of compacting sand is to
make it fall, exploiting the force of gravity and turning potential energy into kinetic
energy. As this phenomenon is regulated by the following laws:

Potential energy = mass x gravity x pouring height

Kinetic energy = mass V2

(Impact force) Force x Time = Mass x Speed

it is obvious that the higher the pouring height, the higher the impact force and,
consequently, the compaction effect of the sand on the pattern.

In order to obtain the above-mentioned effect, moulding machines of Belloi &

Romagnoli are equipped with the pre-loading hopper at about 2-meter height from the

2- Moulding with pistons with differentiated pressures

The operation of the multi-piston head Belloi & Romagnoli has been designed and
developed in order to obtain moulds with a constant hardness on all horizontal and
vertical surfaces, also nearest to the flask edge.

To achieve this result, pistons are driven by two differentiated hydraulic circuits: one
for inner pistons and one for outer pistons. By setting two proportional valves, it is
possible to differentiate pressures in both circuits.
When the squeeze cylinder brings the sand in contact with pistons, sand compaction
on the pattern takes place as if the sand between every single piston and the pattern
itself were divided into several zones, in a number equal to the number of pistons.
Each one of these columns compresses according to depth, sand compactability and
pressure exerted by every single piston.

When the compaction of the sand reaches a value greater than the pressure of the
piston, the piston begins to withdraw. The different behaviour of the sand near the
walls of the flask is adjusted by differentiating the pressure values of inner pistons
compared with outer pistons, giving higher specific pressures to outer pistons. (The
surface of outer pistons is different from the surface of inner piston, in order to obtain
higher specific pressures.)
Once all pistons have been activated and have reached their final position according
to the pattern profile, their position is kept and the squeeze cylinder continues its
stroke to obtain the maximum uniformity as to hardness of the mould.

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The last moulding phase is obviously adjustable and allows to obtain the desired


The moulding machine BRA6 Multipress is aimed at the production of green sand
moulds by means of a high pressure moulding and multi-pistons with differentiated
Basically, the machine consists of:
Bearing structure made up of a rigid base in electrowelded and standardized steel
channels, nr. 4 columns in heavy-gauge tubular profile bolted to the base; columns
are solidly connected to the head, that is made in standardized steel structural work.
Multi-piston reaction head made up of plugging cylinders operating in two
differentiated circuits and equipped with aluminium alloy pistons at the end in contact
with the sand.
Sand pre-loading hopper made up of a metal container covered with non-stick
material, equipped with an emptying system with hydraulic multi-dampers and
weighing system with nr. 4 load cells.
Sliding trolley carrying the piston head, made of electrowelded steel channels and
moved by a hydraulic cylinder.
Sand containment frame equipped with nr. 4 hydraulic reaction cylinders.
Rotative transfer device for sliding the pattern, made up of a pivoted bearing frame
and driven by a hydraulic cylinder, equipped with a device for reading and monitoring
the position by means of a linear transducer. Moreover, the transfer is equipped with
references for the location of the pattern bolster for upper and lower plates.
Double action squeeze cylinder, complete with cast iron squeeze plate, guide rods
and relative slide guides. The squeeze plate is constantly kept clean by brushes and
nozzles. Device for reading and monitoring the position of the squeeze plate by means
of a linear transducer.
Automatic batch control according to the moulding feedback.
Flask slide guides made of cemented wheels.
Automatic pattern cleaning device made up of a pneumatic circuit complete with
silenced blowing nozzles.
Automatic release spray device by means of silenced nozzles.

Cycle of operation
The cycle of operation of the machine is the sequence of operations automatically
carried out by the moulding machine for the production of a mould and is as follows:

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The beginning of the cycle coincides with the introduction of the flask into the
moulding machine. At the same time, the transfer device rotates and carries the
pattern to moulding.
The pre-loading hopper is filled during the above-mentioned operations.
The squeeze cylinder begins its vertical stroke. With the squeeze plate it then
engages the pattern bolster, the flask and the containment frame. The dampers of the
pre-loading hopper open and the flask is filled. The multi-piston head is automatically
positioned on the moulding axis and the real compaction phase begins.
At this point, with the flask filled with sand, the squeeze cylinder continues its stroke
and compacts the sand on the pattern.
At the end of this operation, the squeeze cylinder comes down and the shakeout
begins. The descent of the cylinder continues until the squeeze plate reaches its initial
position. Then, a new moulding cycle starts.

High pressure air impact moulding Belloi & Romagnoli

During the last years Belloi & Romagnoli has developed, together with the above-
mentioned multi-piston technology, also the moulding principle based on air impact +
high pressure. This choice has been made in order to make a modern and cost-
effective technology available to all foundries, also to smallest ones.

The B&R COMPACT 4 moulding machine was designed for foundries that require
high quality moulds at low-medium production rates. This machine will provide better
quality and faster production rates than the typical jolt squeeze moulding machine.
The machine uses air impact and a hydraulic squeeze to make the mould. The
moulding media for this machine is green sand.

Operating principle

To make the mould, the compaction of the sand into the flask is first made with an air
impact; the mould is then finished with a hydraulic squeeze. This process allows for a
uniform distribution of the sand during the air impact. The hydraulic squeeze provides
a uniform mould hardness for all of the surfaces and also around the edges of the
The operational settings for the Air Impact and the Hydraulic Squeeze are adjustable
through the operator interface. The cope and drag moulding operations can have
different moulding parameters. This machine can be used with your existing patterns.
There are no problems with using wooden, urethane, aluminium etc. types of patterns.
The noise level emitted from this machine is less than 80 dB(A). This is a very quiet
machine and will provide a notable reduction in the noise levels in the foundry relative
to a typical jolt squeeze moulding.
The sequence of operation for the machine consists of:

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Rotating Table:
The machine produces the cope/drag flasks in succession. While one flask is being
compressed, the other is being filled with sand in preparation for transfer to the
moulding position. The transfer rotates the table 180 degrees.

Sand Charging Position:

The green sand is charged directly into the flask. This can be in the normal method for
the foundry, charging hopper or by charging belt or manually with shovels by the
operator. The entire area of the flask is open to the operator so it is very easy to place
insulators or facing sand, etc..

Moulding Position:
After the flask has been filled with sand, the table rotates into the moulding position
where the lower hydraulic cylinder raises the flask into contact with the air impact
surface. Once the flask is in position with the head, there is a special seal that is
engaged to prevent the leakage of sand and air during the air impact phase of the
moulding. After the impact is complete, the hydraulic squeeze is engaged.

Mould Drawing:
After the completion of the hydraulic squeeze, the ram is retracted. The completed
flask is maintained in position by the rollers on the indexing conveyor. The Indexing
hydraulic cylinder pushes in the next empty flask, which pushes the completed flask
out onto the core setting line.

Changing Patterns:
There is a special cycle for changing patterns that will leave the sand containment
frame at the moulding station while the bolster is rotated to the sand filling station. The
bolster can then be changed out very easily.

The bolster is designed to receive the patterns of the foundry. There are vents
installed around the outside of the bolster to assist in venting the air during the
moulding process. Additional vents are not normally necessary, except for patterns
that have deep pockets or have a complicated surface.



Technical Data

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Flask size: from 500 x 400 to 1200 x 1000 mm
Type of Moulding: Air Impact and Hydraulic Squeeze

Squeeze pressure: adjustable from 2 to 10 Kg per Sq Cm

Air impact force: adjustable
Bolster for patterns steel fabricated
Pattern plates in all standard materials
Operational Controls: SIEMENS S7/300 PLC

The basic design of the moulding machine consist of:

- base frame, 3 supporting columns

- high pressure moulding system by hydraulic driven squeeze plate head

- air-impact moulding system

- rotative transfer device for pattern bolsters changing.

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