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SEECS, NUST

muhammad.shahzad@seecs.edu.pk

Lecture 6

Lecture 6

Periodic Sampling

Sampling refers to acquisition of discrete-time representation

(samples) of continuous time signals

x[n] = xc(nT) - < n <

T = sampling period; fs = 1/ T = sampling frequency (samples/sec)

Ws = 2p/T = sampling frequency (radians/sec)

includes quantization step

Lecture 6

Periodic Sampling (Theoretical)

A two-step procedure

of time, in a sense time is normalized

train) whereas x[n] is a discrete-time signal

Lecture 6

Bandlimited Signals

BL to 125Hz

Lecture 6

ECG Signal

Typically BL to 150Hz

Lecture 6

Frequency Domain Representation

Lecture 6

Oversampling

Lecture 6

Aliasing

Lecture 6

Exact Recovery of CT signal from its Samples

Lecture 6

Exact Recovery / Aliasing Example

Lecture 6

Exact Recovery / Aliasing Example

Lecture 6

Nyquist-Shannon Sampling Theorem

Signal should be sampled at least at Nyquist frequency

Greater than 2 times the maximum frequency component for

bandlimited (baseband) signals

Lecture 6

Moving to Discrete time Fourier Transform

period 2p, where goes the sampling frequency and repetition of

spectra then?

Lecture 6

Moving to Discrete time Fourier Transform

Scaling factor is w = W T

Normalization of frequency axis so that W = Ws maps to w = 2p

Lecture 6

Example (4.1)

Lecture 6

Example (4.2)

Lecture 6

Reconstruction of Bandlimited Signal from

Samples

Sampling theorem states that samples represent the signal exactly

(CT signal can be recovered from DT sequence) when

signal is bandlimited

visualize that indeed a low pass filter can recover the original signal

as long as Nyquist criteria is satisfied

Lecture 6

Reconstruction of Bandlimited Signal (D/C)

Convenient choice

of cut-off frequency :

Lecture 6

Reconstruction of Bandlimited Signal (D/C)

Lecture 6

Reconstruction of Bandlimited Signal (D/C)

Lecture 6

Reconstruction-Another example

Lecture 6

Ideal bandlimited signal reconstruction-

Representation

Lecture 6

Practical reconstruction-Sample & Hold

Lecture 6

Discrete-time processing of continuous time

signals

Given a continuous time signal, process it in discrete time and

reconvert to a continuous time signal at output

the sampling rate

Note in general C/D and D/C can use different sampling rates but for

now we assume them to be the same

Lecture 6

Ex 4.3 : DT processing of CT signals

Heff (jW)

Lecture 6

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