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Digital Signal Processing

Chapter 4: Sampling and reconstruction

Dr. Muhammad Shahzad Younis

Electrical Engineering Department


SEECS, NUST
muhammad.shahzad@seecs.edu.pk

Lecture 6
Lecture 6
Periodic Sampling
Sampling refers to acquisition of discrete-time representation
(samples) of continuous time signals
x[n] = xc(nT) - < n <
T = sampling period; fs = 1/ T = sampling frequency (samples/sec)
Ws = 2p/T = sampling frequency (radians/sec)

Practically sampling is implemented using A/D converter, which also


includes quantization step

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Periodic Sampling (Theoretical)
A two-step procedure

x[n] is indexed on integer variable n, so notion


of time, in a sense time is normalized

xs(t) is a continuous-time signal (impulse


train) whereas x[n] is a discrete-time signal

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Bandlimited Signals

BL to 125Hz

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ECG Signal

Typically BL to 150Hz

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Frequency Domain Representation

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Oversampling

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Aliasing

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Exact Recovery of CT signal from its Samples

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Exact Recovery / Aliasing Example

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Exact Recovery / Aliasing Example

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Nyquist-Shannon Sampling Theorem
Signal should be sampled at least at Nyquist frequency
Greater than 2 times the maximum frequency component for
bandlimited (baseband) signals

Continuous time signal is uniquely determined from its sample if

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Moving to Discrete time Fourier Transform

x[n] has a Fourier Transform (DTFT) which is actually periodic of


period 2p, where goes the sampling frequency and repetition of
spectra then?

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Moving to Discrete time Fourier Transform

X(ejw) is a frequency scaled version of X(jW)


Scaling factor is w = W T
Normalization of frequency axis so that W = Ws maps to w = 2p

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Example (4.1)

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Example (4.2)

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Reconstruction of Bandlimited Signal from
Samples
Sampling theorem states that samples represent the signal exactly
(CT signal can be recovered from DT sequence) when
signal is bandlimited

sampling frequency is high enough

sampling period is known

Frequency domain representation of sampling allowed us to


visualize that indeed a low pass filter can recover the original signal
as long as Nyquist criteria is satisfied

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Reconstruction of Bandlimited Signal (D/C)

Run the C/D steps backward

Starting point now is x[n]

Create an impulse train

The nth sample corresponds to the impulse at time t = nT

Recovered signal after LPF : hr(t) Hr(jW)

Convenient choice
of cut-off frequency :

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Reconstruction of Bandlimited Signal (D/C)

Filter causal, oscillatory, not physically realizable

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Reconstruction of Bandlimited Signal (D/C)

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Reconstruction-Another example

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Ideal bandlimited signal reconstruction-
Representation

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Practical reconstruction-Sample & Hold

Sample and Hold

Low Pass Filter

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Discrete-time processing of continuous time
signals
Given a continuous time signal, process it in discrete time and
reconvert to a continuous time signal at output

Overall system properties depend on discrete time system used and


the sampling rate
Note in general C/D and D/C can use different sampling rates but for
now we assume them to be the same

Lecture 6
Ex 4.3 : DT processing of CT signals

Heff (jW)

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