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# Digital Signal Processing

## Electrical Engineering Department

SEECS, NUST

Lecture 6
Lecture 6
Periodic Sampling
Sampling refers to acquisition of discrete-time representation
(samples) of continuous time signals
x[n] = xc(nT) - < n <
T = sampling period; fs = 1/ T = sampling frequency (samples/sec)
Ws = 2p/T = sampling frequency (radians/sec)

## Practically sampling is implemented using A/D converter, which also

includes quantization step

Lecture 6
Periodic Sampling (Theoretical)
A two-step procedure

## x[n] is indexed on integer variable n, so notion

of time, in a sense time is normalized

## xs(t) is a continuous-time signal (impulse

train) whereas x[n] is a discrete-time signal

Lecture 6
Bandlimited Signals

BL to 125Hz

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ECG Signal

Typically BL to 150Hz

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Frequency Domain Representation

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Oversampling

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Aliasing

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Exact Recovery of CT signal from its Samples

Lecture 6
Exact Recovery / Aliasing Example

Lecture 6
Exact Recovery / Aliasing Example

Lecture 6
Nyquist-Shannon Sampling Theorem
Signal should be sampled at least at Nyquist frequency
Greater than 2 times the maximum frequency component for
bandlimited (baseband) signals

## Continuous time signal is uniquely determined from its sample if

Lecture 6
Moving to Discrete time Fourier Transform

## x[n] has a Fourier Transform (DTFT) which is actually periodic of

period 2p, where goes the sampling frequency and repetition of
spectra then?

Lecture 6
Moving to Discrete time Fourier Transform

## X(ejw) is a frequency scaled version of X(jW)

Scaling factor is w = W T
Normalization of frequency axis so that W = Ws maps to w = 2p

Lecture 6
Example (4.1)

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Example (4.2)

Lecture 6
Reconstruction of Bandlimited Signal from
Samples
Sampling theorem states that samples represent the signal exactly
(CT signal can be recovered from DT sequence) when
signal is bandlimited

## Frequency domain representation of sampling allowed us to

visualize that indeed a low pass filter can recover the original signal
as long as Nyquist criteria is satisfied

Lecture 6
Reconstruction of Bandlimited Signal (D/C)

## Recovered signal after LPF : hr(t) Hr(jW)

Convenient choice
of cut-off frequency :

Lecture 6
Reconstruction of Bandlimited Signal (D/C)

## Filter causal, oscillatory, not physically realizable

Lecture 6
Reconstruction of Bandlimited Signal (D/C)

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Reconstruction-Another example

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Ideal bandlimited signal reconstruction-
Representation

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Practical reconstruction-Sample & Hold

## Low Pass Filter

Lecture 6
Discrete-time processing of continuous time
signals
Given a continuous time signal, process it in discrete time and
reconvert to a continuous time signal at output

## Overall system properties depend on discrete time system used and

the sampling rate
Note in general C/D and D/C can use different sampling rates but for
now we assume them to be the same

Lecture 6
Ex 4.3 : DT processing of CT signals

Heff (jW)

Lecture 6