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How the concept of Information and Communication Technology

(ICT) emerged? Elaborate the application of ICT in classroom

teaching and diagnostic testing. Mention the barriers to use ICT
in education.

ICT is an acronym that stands for Information and Communications Technology.

ICT is the integration of information processing, computing and communication technologies. ICT is changing the way we
learn, work and live in society and are often spoken of in a particular context, such as in education, health care, or
libraries. A good way to think about ICT is to consider all the uses of digital technology that already exist to help individuals,
businesses and organizations use information. ICT covers any product that will store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit or
receive information electronically in a digital form and is concerned with these products. Importantly, it is also concerned with
the way these different uses can work with each other. For example, personal computers, digital television, email, robots.

Information and Communications Technology (ICT) is an extended term for information technology (IT) which stresses
the role of unified communications[1] and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals),
computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to
access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.

The term "information technology" evolved in the 1970s. Its basic concept, however, can be traced to the World War II
alliance of the military and industry in the development of electronics, computers, and information theory. After the 1940s,
the military remained the major source of research and development funding for the expansion of automation to replace
manpower with machine power. Since the 1950s, four generations of computers have evolved.

IT defines as Information Technology, consists of study, design, advance development, accomplishment, support or
administration of computer foundation information system, mostly software application and computer hardware. Information
technology works with the use of electronic computers and computer software to renovate, defend, development, and
broadcast and other information.

The phrase information and communications technology has been used by academic researchers since the 1980s, and the
abbreviation ICT became popular after it was used in a report to the UK government by Dennis Stevenson in 1997, and in
the revised National Curriculum for England, Wales and Northern Ireland in 2000. But in 2012, the Royal
Society recommended that ICT should no longer be used in British schools "as it has attracted too many negative
connotations",[8] and with effect from 2014 the National Curriculum uses the word computing, which reflects the addition
of computer programming into the curriculum.

Application of ICT in classroom teaching and diagnostic testing

ICT enhancing teaching and learning process

In present days the use of ICT in the classroom teaching-learning is very important for it
provides opportunities for teachers and students to operate, store, manipulate, and retrieve
information and encourage independent and active learning, and self-responsibility for
learning such as distance learning, motivate teachers and students to continue using learning
outside school hours. Apart from being the facilitator in the classroom, if the teacher/trainer
uses ICT and activities with specific objectives and effective communication devoid of fear,
shy and hesitation is promised. The use of ICT in education can help improve memory
retention, increase motivation and generally deepen understanding. ICT can also be used to
promote collaborative learning, including role playing, group problem solving activities and
articulated projects. Generally, ICT is promoting new approaches to working and learning, and
new ways of interacting. Consequently, the introduction of ICT into the classroom has
provoked a host of new questions about the evolving nature of pedagogy. Wireless, seamless,
anytime, anywhere communication is happening, and we must be prepared for the changes
this will bring to our classrooms as well as to our society in general.

Motivating to learn.

ICTs such as videos, television and multimedia computer software that combine text, sound,
and colorful, moving images can be used to provide challenging and authentic content that
will engage the student in the learning process. Interactive radio likewise makes use of sound
effects, songs, dramatizations, comic skits, and other performance conventions to compel the
students to listen and become involved in the lessons being delivered. More so than any other
type of ICT, networked computers with Internet connectivity can increase learner motivation
as it combines the media richness and interactivity of other ICTs with the opportunity to
connect with real people and to participate in real world events.

Rapid and easier information delivery

ICT technologies have made it possible to deliver information or study materials in a faster and easier manner in the classroom by
using computer-based or internet-based technologies including: computer, Internet, mobile
telephones, television, online and video conferencing, social media and many others.

Enhanced pedagogical and course design skills

Pedagogy is the art and science of teaching. Pedagogical knowledge is essential while using ICTs in course
delivery at any level of education. ICTs offer flexibility in organisation and design of courses in a suitable and
effective manner that facilitates development of knowledge, skills and competences among learners.

ICT giving up to date and complete information

It is a well known fact that not a single teacher is capable of giving up to date and complete
information in his own subject. The ICT can fill this gap because it can provide access to different
sources of information. It will provide correct information as comprehensive as possible in different
formats with different examples.

Better understanding

ICT provides variety in the presentation of content which helps learners in concentration, better
understanding, and long retention of information which is not possible otherwise.

Improvement of Teaching Learning Process

The super highway and cyber space also help in qualitative improvement of Teaching Learning
Process. ICT provides flexibility to learners which are denied by the traditional process and method.
Flexibility is a must for mastery learning and quality learning.

On INTERNET many websites are available freely which may be utilized by teachers and students for
understanding different concepts, improving vocabulary, developing Reasoning & Thinking, etc. ICT can
help in preparing students for SAT, GRE, TOEFL, etc.


The common observation is that the quality of teaching in the classroom is on the decline. More and
more students are depending on the private tutorial classes. The private tuition also has become a
business. This phenomenon is not only in India but in other countries too. There are about 800
students from USA who have enrolled themselves for Private tuition in Mathematics. It means tuitions
are also being outsourced. This is being done through the use of ICT. There are students who fail to
understand certain concepts or retain certain information. This can be assessed by introducing the
diagnosis in the process of teaching learning. Today, t his is not being done. The reasons might be
large class size, non-availability of diagnostic tests in different subjects, lack of training, money and
desire on the part of teacher, etc. This is the age of technology. These difficulties can be easily over
come with the help of ICT. Sansanwal (2005) developed Computer Based Diagnostic Testing in
Mathematics and Sansanwal and Lulla (2007) developed Computer Based Diagnostic Testing in
Chemistry. Both these were tried out in CBSE affiliated schools situated in Indore. These developed
Computer Based Diagnostic Tests work well and helped the teachers as well as students in identifying
the gray area of each and every student. This can be put on the website of the school and the student
can access it from home also. The student can prepare the topic / chapter and can take the test to find
exactly what he has not understood? The teacher cannot do this manually. The student progress can be
monitored and his performance can be improved. This will develop confidence in students and may
change their attitude towards the subject. It may also help in reducing the suicidal tendency among
students. Students may start enjoying learning. Further, the following are the main advantages of
Computer Based Diagnostic Test.
They do not require any special setting or arrangement. The only requirement is computer
systems and software.
The student can use it even from home if made available on school website.
They do not need any special assistance from teacher. Unlike the paper-pencil test, it does not
require paper setting and paper correction on the part of the teacher.
It saves time on the part of the teacher and students.
The feedback is given immediately after the test is over, which gives an intrinsic reinforcement
to the student.
The student finds it more interesting and motivating as compared to the paper-pencil
diagnostic test.
It can be updated from time to time.
It is economical in terms of money as it requires only one time investment.

There are some limitations of Computer Based Diagnostic Testing (CBDT). These are as follows:
The learner might find it uninteresting or monotonous as compared to paper pencil test.
The teacher might find CBDT difficult to administer if he / she is not a computer savvy.
It faces certain constraints, like, power cut, when it is being administered.
The learner might not take it seriously as he / she is used to the traditional paper and pencil
The development of CBDT is costly and tedious as compared to paper and pencil test.
The use of CBDT requires many computers which may not be available in all the schools.
The learners who are not computer friendly might not feel at ease while giving the test on
Certain technical problems might crop up which can distract the learner while giving the test.
All teachers may not be competent to develop diagnostic test and especially CBDT.
Teacher may not know computer languages that may be used for developing CBDT.


Once the ICT is used for diagnosis purpose, the next step is to organize Remedial Teaching
Programme. The Remedial Teaching can be done by the teacher if some common mistakes are
identified. It may not be feasible to organize Remedial programme for individual students. At this point,
the ICT can be used for giving individual Remedial Programme. It may be Online or off line. The
instructional material if designed specifically for meeting the individual needs of students and uploaded
on the School website and then the ICT can be used for providing Remedial teaching Programme.

barriers to use ICT in education

The use of the ICT for education is not without problems. Therefore, one should expect the
problems to be encountered in using the ICT in education to be evolving as well. There are
some disadvantage of using ICT in education:


Apart from Web sites that claim to help students write term papers, there are numerous cases
of students downloading information from the Net and turning them in for grades. We can
minimize this problem by requiring students to cite research sources. There is an online
service, at, which can assist us in minimizing cases
of plagiarism in the class. This service claims to prevent plagiarism by determining if a term
paper has been copied from the Internet or not.

Student Privacy.

Criminals, marketers, and other persons can easily get information from students when they
are online. These could post danger to students lives or may even lead to litigation against
the school. To avoid this problem, students should be educated on the dangers of giving
information to people online. Parents and teachers need to supervise students online


More and more resources are being put into ICT in schools - the cost of laptops, wireless
broadband, projectors for example contribute a large percentage of the school's budget.

Misuse of ICT

Instead of using their laptops or tablets for their studies and online tests, more often than not
students stray away and visit social networking sites like Facebook or Twitter.

Then, listening to the teachers in lessons are no longer their main priority - they would be too
focused on playing games or visiting social networking sites.

This would result in lower academic grades. However, should the student be focused to their
studies, such activities may not play out and that would mean ICT is an advantage to them.

More dependent on ICT

Using ICT means children can become dependent on computers and technology and not learn how to do things by hand

Language barrier

Not all families use English as their first language neither do they fluently speak it in the home environment. The
disadvantage of the language barrier also effects the development of computer skills, their attitude and
dispositions that are necessary to effectively use the computer.

Teacher Training:

Many teachers are unfamiliar with using ICTs in the classroom and are resistant to
incorporating such technologies into their established pedagogies. To succeed, the use of ICTs
in education needs to be supported by well-trained teachers.

Complexity - if one part of the system breaks down it can affect many others. If the server of a network is
down, for example, no one can work.

Vulnerability - networks are open to abuse in the form of hacking. Viruses spread on a network and it is
open to things like email spams and phishing.