You are on page 1of 24

TRAINING MANUAL - PIPING DOC No.

: 29040-PI-UFR-0025

PIPING LAYOUT Rev. : R0

Uhde India Limited Page : 1

CONTENTS

Page

0.0 Cover Sheet 1

1.0 Introduction 2

2.0 Piping Studies 2

3.0 Thermal Expansion 3

4.0 Critical Piping 3

5.0 Instruments 3

6.0 Piping Arrangement Considerations 3 10

7.0 The Drawings 10

8.0 Piping Arrangement (Typical Sketches) 11 24

Applicable Revision:
Prepared: Checked: Approved:

Date: Date: Date:


First Edition: R0
Prepared: DNL Checked: AKB Approved: RUD

Date: Date: Date:


File Name: C- 24 Server: PUNE: KUMUS 207 VKO: KUMUS 209

Directory: PUNE: Refer \ Pi \ Training Manual VKO: Refer \ Training Manual


TRAINING MANUAL - PIPING DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0025

PIPING LAYOUT Rev. : R0

Uhde India Limited Page : 2

1.0 INTRODUCTION:

The arrangement of piping is probably the most important consideration affecting the layout of
petroleum, petrochemical and similar types of plants. The following in general, is the order of
importance in which piping systems should be considered.

Alloy piping or special materials


Large bore piping or lined pipe.
Low temperature pipe or other piping requiring thick and expensive insulation.
Major headers for utilities or auxiliaries.
The routing of lines involving temperature where expansion and contraction necessitates
flexibility which should preferably be inherent in the layout. Pipe shall be arranged in an
orderly manner and routed as direct as possible.

2.0 PIPING STUDIES:

After a basic equipment layout has been developed, piping study drawings shall be made for
units which have sufficient size and scope to warrant further investigation of equipment
arrangements, pipe rack widths and the like.

For units or areas which obviously do not require extensive study due to simplicity of piping
involved, the piping layout may be started directly which will eventually be issued as
construction drawings.

Responsibility for determining whether study drawings are required and the extent to which
they are to be carried, shall rest with Project Piping Engineer.

The study drawings are intended to serve the following purposes:

To confirm equipment locations for review, comments and/or early approval by various
concerned departments on the plant layout.

As a basic guide to making model, constructions drawings and isometrics.

To help minimize interferences by showing the structural, instrumentation and electrical


groups the intended piping and equipment arrangements.

To enable the analysis of line expansions and supporting systems.

To enable other concerned departments i.e. Pressure vessel, Civil, Structural, Electrical,
Heat Exchanger, Process Departments to develop their work/check their requirements.

In general, study drawings consist of plans, elevations (where necessary) showing unit piping
arrangement fulfilling all conditions laid down in P&ID manifold locations, platform, elevations,
instrumentation etc. And schematic routing diagram of piping piping on the racks. They will
also indicate special requirements like monorails for exchanger bundle pulling or catalyst
loading etc.

Piping Studies are prepared as line diagrams to form the basis of General Arrangement
Drawings and the details shown in the case of piping general arrangement drawings for
construction are not shown to that extent such as control valve manifolds are shown as a
block, only important elevations and arrangements are shown etc.
TRAINING MANUAL - PIPING DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0025

PIPING LAYOUT Rev. : R0

Uhde India Limited Page : 3

3.0 THERMAL EXPANSION:

Arrangement shall provide for flexibility of lines to take care of thermal expansion and
contraction. Large reactions or moments at equipment connection shall be avoided.

4.0 CRITICAL PIPING:

Where dynamic loading, limited pressure drop, or other severe service conditions apply,
particular care be taken while routing the piping.

DYNAMIC LOADING

Dynamic loading may be expected when pulsation flow (such as reciprocating


compressors), high velocity flow, flashing fluid, fluctuating temperature or pressure or
mechanical vibration (including wind) conditions exists.

Piping subject to possible dynamic loading shall be carefully designed and checked to
ensure that the size, configuration, mechanical strength, supports and restraints shall
prevent excessive stress or vibration.

OTHER SEVERE SERVICES

Other severe services include erosive, corrosive, high or low temperature or pressure
conditions, or any fluids containing solids. Many such services require alloy or other special
materials. Piping in these services shall be routed to minimize the effects of service severity
and make most practical use of required special materials.

PIPING AT CONTROL VALVES

Special attention must be paid to any control valve which will contribute to excessive noise or
vibration due to Aerodynamics which must be carefully analyzed and designed so that its size
and configuration downstream of the control valve will minimize these conditions. Special
attention should also be paid for Ejector piping and high vacuum piping.

5.0 INSTRUMENTS:

CONTROL VALVE MANIFOLDS

For control valve manifolds arrangement.

ORIFICE RUNS

Horizontal meter runs are preferred. Necessary straight runs upstream and downstream
orifice plates shall be provided in accordance to api rp 550 part1. Sufficient clearance at
orifice flange for installation of instrument piping and seal pots, where required shall be
provided.

6.0 PIPING ARRANGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:

6.1 PIPE WAY ARRANGEMENT:

In general all piping within process area should be run above grade and piping in trenches
is to be avoided. Pipe bridges, racks and supports should be of the simplest form with a
minimum of cross bracing or in filling of steel work to give the maximum freedom for pipe
routing. On complex plant, pipe bridges or racks may contain two layers of pipe work.
TRAINING MANUAL - PIPING DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0025

PIPING LAYOUT Rev. : R0

Uhde India Limited Page : 4

The plant layout determines the main yard piping runs, The first step in yard piping design
is careful study of plot plan and flow diagram. There are various shapes of yard piping
arrangements such as L, I, T and combination of various shapes. Pipe-ways shall
generally be run overhead for on plot units and shall generally not be more than three
decks high.

To facilitate ease of erection and reduce bending moments, heavy lines (very large
diameter lines, large lines full of liquid) should be located as close to the stanchions as
possible. Lines that require a constant fall, such as flare should be run on an extension on
the bent stanchions, the extension being varied at each bent to suit the fall.

Hot lines requiring expansion loops should be run on the outside edge of the pipe-way.
This will permit the loops to have the greatest depth over the pipe way and it will make it
easier for the loops to be nested.

Take off elevations from pipe ways should be at a constant elevation consistent with the
range of pipe size involved. However, header be located on the pipe way on the side from
which the largest number of off takes are made.

Elevation of yard piping is determined by the highest requirement of the following:

1. Head over a main plant road for major mobile equipment,


2. Headroom for access to equipment under yard.

The size of steel or concrete supporting yard piping should also be taken in account when
considering headroom. Generally those process lines should be located in the top bank
which interconnect to nozzles elevated higher than top yard bank. Process lines with one
end lower than the bottom yard elevation and other end above yard can be located on
either yard elevation. If both ends of a process line are lower than the bottom yard
elevation, they should be located in the bottom bank. The elevation of a line can also be
influenced by valves and instruments in the line. Often a more convenient access platform
can be provided for valves arranged in the top yard bank. The preferred location of orifice
runs is under the bottom bank for more convenient portable ladder access.

Whenever banks of pipe, either at grade or on pipe bridges or on rack change direction, it
is advisable to arrange for a change of elevation. This gives opportunity to change the
sequence of pipes at each change of direction. However some large bore lines can make
a flat turn when entering and leaving yard.

Pipe economy depends primarily on the length of lines arranged in the yard. Fittings and
valves etc. are relatively few as compared to pipe length Fig 1. shows dimensions which
will influence piping cost from a yard piping layout stand point. The careful selection of
dimensions between the yard and process equipment and pipe length interconnecting
equipment on opposite sides of the yard can minimize pipe length. The distance between
pipe rack stanchions and face of the process equipment should preferably be within 2,000
to 3,000mm.

It is preferable to layout a long manifold of control and manual valves with the valve stems
all lined up and the entire arrangement stretching for two or three bays, under the pump
alley. However access ways should always be provided at each bay between rows of
pumps or fences of valve manifolds to gain access to adjacent equipment.

The width and number of banks is influenced by :

1. Number of lines, electrical, instrument trays and space for future lines in the yard, or

2. Space requirement for equipment arrangement under piperack.


TRAINING MANUAL - PIPING DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0025

PIPING LAYOUT Rev. : R0

Uhde India Limited Page : 5

The number of lines can be estimated by preparing piping studies in 1:100 scale with the
total width (W in meter) will be as follows :

W = (F n s) + A
Where,

F = Safety factor = 1.5 if lines have been laid with the help of process flow
diagram.
n = 1.2 if the lines have been laid with fully completed P&IDs.
s = 300 mm (estimated average spacing 250 mm then s = 250 mm)

A in meter is the additional width required

1. for lines larger than 450mm O/D


2. for future lines
3. for instrument trays (about 750mm to 1000mm)for electrical cables (about 750mm to
1000mm)

The total width of rack can be 6M or 12 M having two banks (maximum)

The spacing between yard pipe rack should be 5M to 6M. For lines 1 1/2 below,
intermediate support shall be provided where large numbers of small lines are involved.
Intermediate supporting frame in between two pipe bends shall be provided where
required for supporting lines 1 1/2 and below.

6.2 TOWER PIPING:

A tower is usually a major part of a designers area. It is advisable to treat it as a central


piece of equipment and extend the design around this center. Columns, towers and
vertical vessels are to be arranged in a row with a common centerline if of similar size. If,
however, diameters vary considerably, lining up with a common face will be found to be
beneficial.

During the initial stage of piping studies, piping designer should investigate in co operation
with vessel designer about the preference of lined up towers with interconnecting
platforms, for convenient operation and maintenance access. The platforms are
supported from towers. In such cases, slight alterations in tray spacing, internal piping
arrangement, skirt height and tower length can help to put all tower manholes on same
elevations. In turn. lined up manholes will help platform arrangement, providing also
common access to valve instrument.

When arranging common platforms for several towers in line, allowance must be made
for the differential expansion between towers. Suitably arranged hinges or slots in the
platforms between towers, which introduce flexibility into the platforms shall be provided.
All these feature shall be decided at the early stages of design because they affect good
piping arrangement.

Main work of tower piping is connected with the proper orientation of nozzles and
provision of access to points of operation and maintenance. Generally, platforms of
manholes shall be utilized for operating and maintenance access for valves and
instruments. Small valves and instruments are usually arranged outside the platforms and
are operated from the ladder. Additional platforms are required for operating valves, line
blinds, relief valves (3 and above, orifice plates, transmitter of a level controller and
handling davit.
TRAINING MANUAL - PIPING DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0025

PIPING LAYOUT Rev. : R0

Uhde India Limited Page : 6

The operating aside is usually under pipe rack, so first ladder on tower should be on pipe
rack side. To handle heavy equipment (large size relief valves, large diameter, line
blinds), a davit is usually needed. The davit should be on the side of the vessel away from
the rack. The area at grade should be kept clear for a dropout. for bigger diameter
vessels, two davits shall be furnished. If it is located at the top of the tower, it can serve as
well for lifting and lowering the top internals to grade. Clearance for the lifting tackle to all
points which require handling is essential, as also sufficient access and removal space.
For reactor feeding catalyst, a permanent trolley beam over the filling manholes is usually
provided with adequate access at grade for lifting and removal of the catalyst.

Fig.1 shows plan with segments of its circumference allotted to piping, nozzles, platforms
and ladders, in a pattern which leads to a well designed layout. The complete
circumference of the tower is theoretically available to arrange the items. Piping should be
located radially as far as possible.

Fig.1 also shows the principal features such as manholes, platforms and pipe runs
typically applicable to Tower piping arrangement. Nozzle elevations are determined by
process requirements and manhole elevations by maintenance requirements. For
economy and easy supports, piping should drop or rise immediately upon leaving the
nozzle and run parallel and as close as possible.

To make the orientation, follow the following steps:

Tray Orientation

Right relationship between process nozzles and tower internals is very important. This is
often influenced by reboiler draw off and return nozzles and orientation by flexibility
considerations. Changing from one pass to two pass, the two pass trays shall be rotated
through 90 deg. to upper trays.

Nozzles & Manholes

Orientation of nozzles depends on the type of distributors and process requirements.


Before detailing, details and type of distributors must be known to the designer. Then he
could produce right orientation of nozzles shall be located on tray area and must be
accessible from ladder or platform.

Temperature connections are usually located in the liquid space of tray downcomers. In
some cases, it could be also in vapor space. In front of thermowell nozzles, a clearance of
approximately 600mm is required to remove thermowell.

Pressure connections are usually located on the vapor space just below the trays. All
instrument locations are to be confirmed by process department. Care should be taken
with interference such as between two reinforcing pads, one near the other, nozzle baffle
and down comer and weir dams.

Manholes should preferably be placed on road side on tray area so that it is convenient
for removal and lowering to grade of tower internals. Accessibility, whether internal or
external is very important and is often not given enough consideration. A balance must be
made between the external accessibility of connections from ladders and platforms and
internal accessibility from shell manholes, handholes or removable section of trays.

For example, a shell manhole opening must not be obstructed by internal piping unless
the piping is removable through the manholes or can be slung clear from an internal
hitching point. In either case, the break flange bolts must be accessible from the manhole.

The following considerations must be made at the initial stage of design as they bear
directly on the external arrangement of tower.
TRAINING MANUAL - PIPING DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0025

PIPING LAYOUT Rev. : R0

Uhde India Limited Page : 7

1. Analyze the functions of the internals.

2. Determine the desirable location of the shell connections relative to external


requirements (piping platforms).

3. Layout of the internal piping required to satisfy preferred location shell nozzle and the
preferred tray orientation, and if necessary adjust these to make a workable
adjustment.

Platforms, Ladders and Davit

Platforms are considered as work area for manholes and rest area when an intermediate
area is added, if the height between two work platforms exceeds 9 metres.

Generally, layout analysis should be started from the top of the tower and those having
reboilers should be started from the bottom, but with the designer visualizing the layout as
a whole. There will be no trouble in dropping the large lines (such as overhead vapour
lines) straight down the side of the column. The lower spaces can then be laid out with
piping and nozzles knowing what space is already occupied by these large vertical lines.

Condensers are often located at grade. In such cases, a large overhead lines drop right
alongside the tower to the condenser at grade. Condensers can also be elevated. An
elevated condenser is more convenient from a tower piping layout standpoint because the
large overhead line leaves the immediate vicinity of the tower at a high level, leaving the
lower section open, say, for a ladder from grade to the first platform.

Whether the condenser is at grade or at an elevated level, the flexibility and thermal load
problems connected with large diameter overhead lines must be considered.

For valves and blinds, the best location is directly at tower nozzles. Valves in branch
connections or at nozzle should be in a position where the line will be self draining on both
sides of the valve. A dead leg over closed valve collects liquid or solids. The trapped liquid
can freeze, or , when opening the valve, without draining the leg, can upset process
conditions.

All instruments should be oriented so as not to obstruct the passage way at the ladder
exits or entrance. Convenient access and groupings of instruments and valve will help
inspection and plant operation. Instruments should not be located adjacent to manholes.
The manhole cover can damage instruments when being swung open during
maintenance.

The tower elevation is governed by the following:

1. Net positive suction head requirements if the tower bottom line is a pump suction line.
This can elevate the tower bottom tangent line.

2. Thermo siphon type reboiler circuit can also elevate a tower.

3. Gravity flow from tower bottom or from an elevated nozzle can also elevate a tower.

4. Head room requirements.

To support the tower at the chosen elevation, a steel skirt down to grade or a combination
of a short steel skirt and concrete plinths will be required.
TRAINING MANUAL - PIPING DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0025

PIPING LAYOUT Rev. : R0

Uhde India Limited Page : 8

Piping around tower shall be spaced taking into consideration the structural design of the
supporting arrangement. Special care should be taken to see that supports for cold lines
do not interfere with the other pipes. For supporting tower piping from tower shell,
designer should select proper type . While locating clips, care shall be taken to ensure
that these clips are not located on the circumferential and longitudinal weld seams
indicated in the vessel date sheet.

6.3 EXCHANGER PIPING:

Refer Figures 4 & 5 for the typical Heat Exchanger Piping Arrangement. Piping shall not run in
the way of built-in or mobile handling facilities. Wrench clearance shall be provided at
exchanger flanges.

6.4 PUMP AND TURBINE PIPING:

Pump suction piping shall be arranged with particular care to avoid vapor pockets or
unnecessary pressure drop. Eccentric reducers, properly oriented to avoid vapour pockets,
shall be used for line size reduction. Figures 7, 8 and 9 show the typical Pump Piping
Arrangement.

Pump location

Where practical, line up center lines of all discharge pump nozzles.

Access to Pump and Turbines

Piping at pumps and turbines shall be arranged to provide maintenance access around
pumps and turbines. Removable spool pieces shall be provided as appropriate to permit
maintenance without major disassembly.

Weight and Thermal Stresses

Suitable supports or anchors shall be provided and located for piping to pumps and turbines
so that excessive weight and thermal stresses will not be applied to the casings and access
areas around pumps and turbines are kept free. Careful design consideration shall be given to
piping configuration to minimize these stresses.

6.5 COMPRESSOR PIPING:

Large centrifugal or reciprocating compressors shall be on a raised floor design so that piping
and auxiliaries can be located below main operating platform.

Vibration

Particular attention shall be given to design of piping subject to vibration from dynamic loading
associated with reciprocating compressors. Suctions and discharge lines shall be securely
clamped and small piping around compressors and on the same support as suction and
discharge lines shall be well braced to reduce vibration.

Reciprocating compressor suction and discharge piping shall be run on sleepers at grade, if at
all possible. This arrangement permits simple and effective clamping of the lines.

Removable spool pieces shall be provided at compressors where needed to permit


maintenance without major piping disassembly.
TRAINING MANUAL - PIPING DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0025

PIPING LAYOUT Rev. : R0

Uhde India Limited Page : 9

Suction piping to centrifugal compressors should be designed to allow sufficient straight


length i.e. 5 D minimum of pipe immediately ahead of suction nozzle, to allow dissipation of
undesirable flow distortion caused by elbows, valves, or other fittings upstream and velocity in
line.

6.6 BURNER PIPING AT FIRED HEATERS:

Burner piping shall be kept clear of all access and observation openings. Adequate space
for removal of heater tubes shall be kept for its maintenance. Piping to the burners shall
be made using unions, flexible connectors to provide for easy and convenient removal of
burners for maintenance

Supply piping of fuel gas shall be arranged for equal flow distribution and shall be
provided with condensate leg, knockout pots or other approved methods for the collection
and elimination of condensate.

6.7 OFFSITE AND YARD PIPING:

Offsite

The various systems involved in Offsite piping are as below:

Raw product import and its storage


Intermediate / finished product storage
Product Dispatch / loading facilities

Utilities

Various system of utilities are as below:

Steam, condensate and boiler feed water system.


Compressed air system
Service (plant) air
Instrument air
Cooling water system
Caustic soda system
Flare system
Fire protection system

Storage Tank

There are mainly two types of storage tanks:

Cone roof tank


Floating roof tank

Tank dyke or Tank Farm

Storage tanks are grouped in the dykes which are like earthen dams all around a group of
tanks. The design of these dykes is governed by the regulation of the chief inspector of
explosives who approves the design and arrangement of tank farms and overall plant safety
and fire protection system. There are numerous safety regulations out of which piping
designer must know

Tank spacing on the basis of product classification.


No support, electrical or any other installation shall be allowed in the tank farm other than
those connected with particular tanks.
TRAINING MANUAL - PIPING DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0025

PIPING LAYOUT Rev. : R0

Uhde India Limited Page : 10

The tank dyke height shall not exceed more than 2 m

Pumping Station

Normally three types of pumping facilities are provided as follows:

Feed charge pumps


Intertransfer pumps
Loading pumps

1. Try to group the pumps of common service together at one location


2. Pumping station should be accessible from road.
3. Sufficient space around pump should be kept for operation and maintenance.
4. Pump leakage and dripping of valves should be connected to underground drainage
system.

Yard Piping

In Offsites, piping are run on concrete sleepers, which are minimum 300mm high from the
grade level. The span between two sleepers should be minimum 5m irrespective of sizes of
pipes.

The underground facilities such as cooling water header, effluent collection lines, service
water lines, drinking water lines, sanitary effluent lines, electrical cable trenches, street light
cable trenches, storm water drains, etc. are run close to the road.

An overall study of pipe routing diagram must be prepared carefully because an improvement
in this can save a large amount of piping. Using various piping standards of pipe spacing, the
width of the sleeper is determined. A final figure is arrived at by adding 20 to 30 % more
space which should be kept as a future expansion provision. Pipe-way bridges for crossing
the road are also determined by the study. Once the routing of various lines is finalized, the
next step is to decide the relative elevation of pipe sleeper, tank pad and pumping station.
Suction lines must be self draining towards the pump and at the same time, the pipe sleeper
elevation should not exceed beyond certain limits so that the jump at road crossing is avoided.
The sequence of lines should be adjusted in such a way that there are minimum bends and
jump overs.

Tank Farm Piping

Whenever there is common inlet and outlet of the tanks, there will be a valve manifold, which
connects incoming and outgoing lines. These manifolds should preferably be located outside
the tank farm and approachable from the road. Valves operating platform and cross over
should be provided wherever found necessary for operational ease.

Some times, because of excessive tanks settlement, the piping at tank connections are
overstressed. As such, these pipings are to be analyzed thoroughly. Over stressing of pipe
tank connection can be avoided by placing first pipe support sufficiently away from tank
nozzle.

7.0 THE DRAWINGS:

The piping general arrangement drawings prepared considering all the above aspects are the
drawing for constructions.

In order to have ease in construction, isometric drawings of each one are prepared based on
the general arrangement drawings. Isometrics are drawn proportionally only and are not to
scale. The isometrics form the basis for fabrication of piping. Normally, 2 and above lines are
covered by isometrics.
TRAINING MANUAL - PIPING DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0025

PIPING LAYOUT Rev. : R0

Uhde India Limited Page : 11

8.0 PIPING ARRANGEMENT (TYPICAL SKETCHES):

F I GURE - 1
TRAINING MANUAL - PIPING DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0025

PIPING LAYOUT Rev. : R0

Uhde India Limited Page : 12

FIGURE - 2
TRAINING MANUAL - PIPING DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0025

PIPING LAYOUT Rev. : R0

Uhde India Limited Page : 13

FIGURE - 3
TRAINING MANUAL - PIPING DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0025

PIPING LAYOUT Rev. : R0

Uhde India Limited Page : 14

FIGURE - 4
TRAINING MANUAL - PIPING DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0025

PIPING LAYOUT Rev. : R0

Uhde India Limited Page : 15

FIGURE - 5
TRAINING MANUAL - PIPING DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0025

PIPING LAYOUT Rev. : R0

Uhde India Limited Page : 16

FIGURE - 6
TRAINING MANUAL - PIPING DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0025

PIPING LAYOUT Rev. : R0

Uhde India Limited Page : 17

FIGURE - 7
TRAINING MANUAL - PIPING DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0025

PIPING LAYOUT Rev. : R0

Uhde India Limited Page : 18

FIGURE - 8
TRAINING MANUAL - PIPING DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0025

PIPING LAYOUT Rev. : R0

Uhde India Limited Page : 19

FIGURE 9
TRAINING MANUAL - PIPING DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0025

PIPING LAYOUT Rev. : R0

Uhde India Limited Page : 20

FIGURE - 10
TRAINING MANUAL - PIPING DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0025

PIPING LAYOUT Rev. : R0

Uhde India Limited Page : 21

FIGURE - 11
TRAINING MANUAL - PIPING DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0025

PIPING LAYOUT Rev. : R0

Uhde India Limited Page : 22

FIGURE - 12
TRAINING MANUAL - PIPING DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0025

PIPING LAYOUT Rev. : R0

Uhde India Limited Page : 23

FIGURE -13
TRAINING MANUAL - PIPING DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0025

PIPING LAYOUT Rev. : R0

Uhde India Limited Page : 24

FIGURE - 14