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**Designing Concrete Mixtures Designing Concrete Mixtures
**

There are three phases in the development of a concrete There are three phases in the development of a concrete

mixture: specifying, designing, and proportioning mixture: specifying, designing, and proportioning

**ACI Mix Design ACI Mix Design
**

The most common method used in North America is that Water/cement ratio (w/c ratio) theory states that for a

established by ACI Recommended Practice 211.1 given combination of materials and as long as workable

Any mix design procedure will provide a first approximation consistency is obtained, the strength of concrete at a

of the proportions and must be checked by trial batches. given age depends on the w/c ratio.

Local characteristics in materials should be considered. The lower the w/c ratio, the higher the concrete strength.

Whereas strength depends on the w/c ratio, economy

The following sequence of steps should be followed: depends on the percentage of aggregate present that

(1) determine the job parameters - aggregate properties, maximum would still give a workable mix.

aggregate size, slump, w/c ratio, admixtures, The aim of the designer should always be to get concrete

(2) calculation of batch weight, and mixtures of optimum strength at minimum cement content

(3) adjustments to batch weights based on trial mix. and acceptable workability.

**ACI Mix Design ACI Mix Design
**

Air-Entrained Concrete

One of the greatest advances in concrete technology was

the development of air-entrained concrete in the late

1930s.

Today, air entrainment is recommended for nearly all

concretes, principally to improve resistance to freezing

when exposed to water and deicing chemicals.

Air-entrained concrete contains billions of microscopic air

cells

These relieve internal pressure on

the concrete by providing tiny

chambers for the expansion of

water when it freezes.

specified for a given concrete mix. using the lowest slump that will permit handling. ACI Mix Design ACI Mix Design Basic Considerations Strength and Durability -.The material costs are most important in Workability -. placement and handling of fresh concrete curing ACI Mix Design ACI Mix Design Basic Considerations Basic Considerations Economy -. 2. Since cement is more expensive than aggregate. In the slump test the plastic concrete specimen is formed Possible requirements for resistance to freeze-thaw and into a conical metal mold as described in ASTM Standard chemical attack must be considered. being placed and compacted. using a good ratio of coarse to fine aggregate. are generally independent for the mix design. the cement characteristics." that is. it is Water requirements depend on the aggregate rather than clear that cement content should be minimized.A good mix design must be capable of determining the relative costs of different mixes. and 3. 1. and be finishable.CIVL 1112 ACI Mix Design 2/10 ACI Mix Design ACI Mix Design Once the w/c ratio is established and the workability or The flowchart is a representation of consistency needed for the specific design is chosen. with minimal bleeding and The labor and equipment costs. between strength and workability. the the principal properties of “good” concrete rest should be simple manipulation with diagrams and cement tables based on large numbers of trial mixes. the minimum A measure of the degree of consistency and extent of compressive strength and a range of w/c ratios are workability is the slump. Workability should be improved by redesigning the mortar This can be accomplished by faction rather than simply adding more water. concretes. C-143. w/c ratio aggregate Such diagrams and tables allow an estimate of the cement paste and aggregate required mix proportions for various conditions and permit mixing predetermination on small unrepresentative batches. a balance or compromise must be made The mold is lifted. Therefore. leaving the concrete to "slump. except for special segregation. possible use of admixtures. to spread or drop in height. .In general.

Required material information -. As a general rule. unit weight. specific water and air content gravities. ACI Mix Design ACI Mix Design Mix Design Procedures The flowchart is a representation of the principal properties of ACI mix design of concrete 1.CIVL 1112 ACI Mix Design 3/10 ACI Mix Design ACI Mix Design Process of measuring the slump of fresh concrete Process of measuring the slump of fresh concrete ACI Mix Design ACI Mix Design Here are some examples of different measures of slump: This drop in height is the slump measure of the degree of workability of the mix. Choice of slump -. and absorption capacities of aggregates.Generally specified for a particular coarse aggregate job. the lowest slump that will permit adequate placement should be selected. However. w/c ratio cement 2. if not given.sieve analyses of workability – slump both fine and coarse aggregates. moisture adjustment trial mix . an appropriate value may be fine aggregate chosen from Table 1.

the largest available sizes are 3/4 in. ACI Mix Design ACI Mix Design Mix Design Procedures Mix Design Procedures 4.0% 5.5% 4.5% 5.0% 1./yd. Current thought suggests that a reduced maximum aggregate size for a given w/c ratio can achieve higher strengths.0% 1.3) and air content for different slumps and nominal maximum sizes of aggregates Air-Entrained Concrete Maximum aggregate size (in.5% 3.0% 4. and Canada. 3 to 4 385 365 340 325 300 285 245 210 6 to 7 410 385 360 340 315 300 270 - However.5% 7. Estimation of mixing water and air content -. to 1 in.5 2 3 6 One major disadvantage of concrete is its susceptibility to damage 1 to 2 350 335 315 300 275 260 220 190 by single or multiple freeze-thaw cycles.5 inches.0% 6.5% 3.) Slump(in) 0. Recommended Slumps for Various Types of Construction 3.375 0.75 1 1.0% .5% 2.CIVL 1112 ACI Mix Design 4/10 ACI Mix Design ACI Mix Design Mix Design Procedures Table 1.5 2 3 6 1 to 2 305 295 280 270 250 240 225 180 3 to 4 340 325 305 295 275 265 250 200 6 to 7 365 345 325 310 290 280 270 - Air Content Mild 4.5% 5. These restrictions limit maximum aggregate size to 1.0% Extreme 7. concrete can be made frost-resistant by using air- Air Content 3.5% 2.5 0.An Approximate mixing water (lb.0% 0.0% 2.S. Also. ACI Mix Design ACI Mix Design Mix Design Procedures Mix Design Procedures Approximate mixing water (lb.) Slump(in) 0.0% 3./yd.0% 2.3% 0.5% 4.0% 6.The largest maximum aggregate size that will conform to the following limitations: Maximum size should not be larger than: 1/5 the minimum dimension of structural members.3) and air content for different slumps estimation of the amount of water required for air. Maximum aggregate size (in.0% 5. Maximum aggregate size -. except in mass applications.5% 4.5% 1. and nominal maximum sizes of aggregates entrained and non-air-entrained concretes can be Non-Air-Entrained Concrete obtained from Table 2.0% 4.75 1 1.5% 4. in many areas. Concrete is routinely air-entrained in the Northern U.2% entraining admixtures.5 0.0% 3. or 3/4 the clearance between reinforcing rods and forms.375 0.5% 0. 1/3 the thickness of a slab.0% Moderate 6.5% 1.

71 0.75 0.000 0. workability. ACI Mix Design ACI Mix Design Mix Design Procedures Mix Design Procedures Relationship between water/cement ratio and compressive strength of 6.81 To convert from OD to saturated surface dry (SSD) weights. 2.500 0.79 0.86 0.78 0.59 weight of water 4.000 0.44 The value from the table multiplied by the dry-rodded unit 0.76 0.000 0.7 2. (b) Durability -.77 0.68 0.74 0. a minimum cement content is required to ensure good finishability.59 0.84 0.78 0.6 2. or sulfates.000 0.70 0. the amount of 28-day Compressive Non-AE AE cement per unit volume of the concrete is found by Strength (psi) dividing the estimated water content by the w/c ratio.68 0. multiply by [1 + absorption capacity (AC)].69 2.62 0.000 0.74 0.) 2.65 required per cubic foot of concrete).56 0.82 0.72 3.This component is governed by strength and durability requirements (a) Strength -.53 weight (the oven-dry (OD) weight of coarse aggregate 0.66 0.55 0.57 0. Water/cement ratio .8 2.000 0. .60 1.Once the water concrete content and the w/c ratio is determined. Fineness Modulus Max Aggregate (in.000 0.500 0.82 0.750 0.32 7.58 0.000 0.70 0. and strength.77 0.40 w c 6.CIVL 1112 ACI Mix Design 5/10 ACI Mix Design ACI Mix Design Mix Design Procedures Mix Design Procedures 5.61 0. ACI Mix Design ACI Mix Design Mix Design Procedures Mix Design Procedures 7.82 0.48 0.33 --- However.The percent Volume of dry-rodded coarse aggregate per unit volume of concrete for different coarse aggregates and fineness moduli of fine aggregates of coarse aggregate to concrete for a given maximum size and fineness modulus is given by Table 4.57 0. 1.71 0.48 0.000 0.000 0.73 0.64 0.85 0.9 3 0.65 0.If there are severe exposure conditions.75 0.375 0.46 0. the w/c ratio requirements may have to be adjusted. such as freezing and thawing.66 0.72 0.49 0.83 0.54 0.80 0. w/c ratio data for a certain material.45 0.63 0.81 0.50 0.4 2.5 2.87 0.74 3. Estimation of coarse aggregate content .41 0.69 0.73 0.48 weight of cement 5.Without strength vs.76 6.67 0. exposure to seawater. Calculation of cement content -.47 0. a conservative estimate can be made for the accepted 28-day compressive strength from Table 3.

3 ft.4 ftlb3 Cement (ft3) cement lb "Volume" Method -. Estimation of fine aggregate content standard methods to establish the fine aggregate content. Air (ft3) air % 27 ydft 3 3 ACI Mix Design ACI Mix Design Mix Design Procedures Mix Design Procedures Therefore. The SSD weight of the fine aggregate is: VolumeFA ft. 3 3 3 content of the concrete will be affected by the moisture content of the aggregate. We will use the water (ft3) water lb "volume" method.3 lb.3 Value from Table 4 The OD weight of the coarse aggregate ft. Adjustment for moisture in the aggregate -.There are two 8. air. VolumeFA ft. ft.3 Specific Gravity Unit Weight of Fine Aggregate of Water .4 lb.3 SGFA 62. FASSD lb.The water 27 ft. yd. the fine aggregate must occupy a volume of: 9. water.4 ftlb3 volume.This method is the preferred method. Estimation of fine aggregate content -.CIVL 1112 ACI Mix Design 6/10 ACI Mix Design ACI Mix Design Mix Design Procedures Mix Design Procedures The coarse aggregate will occupy: Volume of dry-rodded coarse aggregate per unit volume of concrete for different coarse aggregates and fineness moduli of fine aggregates 27 ft. as it is a 3.15 62. 62.3 Dry-Rodded Unit Weight ACI Mix Design ACI Mix Design Mix Design Procedures Mix Design Procedures 8. the mass method and the volume method.4 ftlb3 somewhat more exact procedure The volume of fine aggregates is found by subtracting the volume Coarse Aggregate (ft3) coarse aggregate lb of cement. lb.3 ft. and coarse aggregate from the total concrete SGCA 62.3 yd. Volume ft.3 yd.3 yd.

surface moisture = 3% .3. Adjustment for moisture in the aggregate -. surface moisture = 0% Fine Aggregate: Bulk specific gravity (SSD) = 2. and finishing characteristics. unit slump should be between 1 and 2 in. and its tendencies to segregate. The The fresh concrete should be tested for slump. absorption capacity = 1%. yield. air content. Adjustment for moisture in the aggregate preceding steps.The water content of the concrete will be affected by the moisture content of the concrete will be affected by the moisture content of the aggregate.3%. Trial batch ground where substantial freezing and thawing may occur.000 lb. and the maximum weight.65. fineness modulus = 2. dry-rodded unit weight = 100 lb. hardened samples should be tested for compressive and flexural The properties of the materials are as follows: strength. Adjustment for moisture in the aggregate -. aggregate size should not exceed ¾ in. The change in the weight water due to the moisture of the aggregate from the stock pile is: WeightWater WeightOD SM AdjustedWeightWater WeightWater WeightWater ACI Mix Design ACI Mix Design Example Mix Design Procedures Concrete is required for an exterior column located above 10.70.CIVL 1112 ACI Mix Design 7/10 ACI Mix Design ACI Mix Design Mix Design Procedures Mix Design Procedures 9.The water 9. bleed. Cement : Type I. specific gravity = 3. Also. AC SM Moisturecontent (MC ) AC SM ACI Mix Design ACI Mix Design Mix Design Procedures Mix Design Procedures 10. The 28-day compressive strength should be 5.Using the proportions developed in the 9. Trial batch -. absorption capacity = 1. content of the aggregate./ft./in2. mix a trial batch of concrete using The weight of aggregate from the stock pile is: only as much water as is needed to reach the desired WeightStock Pile WeightOD 1 MC slump (but not exceeding the permissible w/c ratio).70.15 Coarse Aggregate: Bulk specific gravity (SSD) = 2.

4 2.48 0.500 0.57 0.5% 4.0% 6.82 0.40 6. Estimation of mixing water and air content.3 yd.72 0.5% 7.000 0.57 0.750 0.32 7.) Slump(in) 0. Water/cement ratio.0% 1. Step 2.72 0.7 2. Table 1.5% 3.5 2.000 0.375 0.73 0.0% 5. Maximum aggregate size.66 0.85 0.87 0.53 The OD weight of the coarse aggregate 0.01ft.74 0. the concrete must be air- Step 1.61 0. Based on steps 4 and required w/c ratio to give a 28-day strength of 5.0% 3. The slump is given.79 0. the recommended air content is 6%.9 3 0.0% Moderate 6.5 2 3 6 1 to 2 305 295 280 280 270 250 240 225 180 3 to 4 340 325 305 295 275 265 250 200 6 to 7 365 345 325 310 290 280 270 - Air Content Mild 4.0% 6.55 0.3 2.000 psi.58 0.70 0.71 0.81 0.3. yd.84 0.66 0.5% 4.5% 4.000 0.CIVL 1112 ACI Mix Design 8/10 ACI Mix Design Example ACI Mix Design Example Step 4.76 yd.56 0.82 0.33 --- ACI Mix Design Example ACI Mix Design Example Step 7. 5. yd.78 0.74 0.68 0.01 ft.64 0. Calculation of cement content.60 3 1. 3 yd.6 2.701 lb.0% 4.69 17.500 0. Maximum aggregate size (in.48 0.5 0.71 0.67 0.80 0.54 0.44 0.5% 4. 3 0.0% 5.73 0.5% 1.000 0.5% 3.70 0.0% 6.50 0. From Table 2.63 27 ft. consistent with the water requirement is 280 lb. Estimation of coarse aggregate content.3 6. Value from Fineness Modulus Table 4 Max Aggregate (in.81 Dry-Rodded Unit Weight .59 0.) 2.75 0.86 0.69 0.63 0.000 0.0% Extreme 7.82 0.000 0.65 1.75 0.41 0.5% 2.59 0.0% 3.83 0. yd.70 3 17.46 0.375 0.77 0.3 3./yd.65 0.5% 5. 100 lb. entrained.000 0. From Table3.75 1 1.000 0.5% 5.76 0.48 5. Interpolating The coarse aggregate will occupy: Table 4 for the fineness modulus of the fine aggregate of 2.62 0. the estimate for Step 6.47 0. Choice of slump.49 0.000 3. Given: ¾ inches ACI Mix Design Example ACI Mix Design Example Step 5.3 2.8 2.68 0.4 4.0% 4.77 0.000 0. Since freezing and thawing is important.0% Step 3.3 ft.0% 2. 1. the required cement content is: 28-day Compressive Non-AE AE Strength (psi) 280 lb.45 0.74 weight of cement 700 lb.78 0. Required material information (already given).

49 ft.3 The SSD weight of the fine aggregate is: Coarse Aggregate: 1. The OD weight of the fine aggregate is: Decrease the amount of water required by surface moisture 7.70 x 62.3 Air: 6% x 27ft.15 62.368 Cement (ft3) cement lb 65 62.4 lb.701 lb.23 ft.3 SGFA 62.302 Coarse Aggregate (ft3) coarse aggregate lb 75 62.337 3.4 lb. the fine aggregate must occupy a volume of: Step 9.65 62.3) = 10./ft. Estimation of fine aggregate content by the absolute volume method.4 lb. we will apply a simple rule to adjust the water required.3 19.4 ftlb3 70 62.15 x 62./(3./ft.4 lb. 8.23 ft.3/yd.10 ft. lb. Estimation of fine aggregate content water (ft3) water lb Temperature.56 ft.261 SGCA 62.3 Volume ft. Adjustment for moisture in the aggregate.3 = 4.3 VolumeFA ft.3 62.4 lb.3 Total 19. 3 1. 3 Water: 280 lb.4 ftlb3 80 62./ft.CIVL 1112 ACI Mix Design 9/10 ACI Mix Design Example ACI Mix Design Example Step 8.62 ft. the fine aggregate must occupy a volume of: volume method. Increase the amount of aggregate by the amount equal to the Specific Gravity of Fine Aggregate Unit Weight surface moisture of Water . 27 ft. °F Density.3 Since the moisture level of the fine aggregate in our storage bins can vary./ft.4 ftlb3 60 62.3 = 1.216 Air (ft3) air % 27 ydft 3 3 85 62.77 ft.3 2. ft./62.3) = 3. FASSD lb./(2. Estimation of fine aggregate content by the absolute Therefore.77 ft.166 ACI Mix Design Example Class ACI Mix Design Example Step 8.196 lb.3 Specific Gravity Unit Weight of Fine Aggregate of Water ACI Mix Design Example ACI Mix Design Example Therefore. 27 ft.3 Cement: 700 lb. content of the weight of the fine aggregate ft.3 VolumeFA ft.3 7.

013) fine aggregate Cement = 700 lb.1196 lb./yd.3 = 144.247.01) = 1.CIVL 1112 ACI Mix Design 10/10 ACI Mix Design Example ACI Mix Design Example Step 9.4 lb.3% aggregate from the stock pile is: Moisture Content 1% WeightWater WeightOD SM Coarse aggregate required from the stockpile is: AdjustedWeightWater WeightWater WeightWater 1./ft. Compute stockpile weight based on moisture content The weight of aggregate from the stock pile is: Fine aggregate required from the stockpile is: WeightStock Pile WeightOD 1 MC 1. Adjustment for moisture in the aggregate.718 lb.1.3 ACI Mix Design End of ACI Mix Design Information for concrete mixtures using particular ingredients can be plotted to Questions? illustrate the relationship between ingredients and properties: Slump Aggregate Size w/c Cement content ./yd.3 or 1.3 are: The required mixing water required is: Water = 244 lb.3% Fine aggregate (wet) = 1.043) = 1.1 lb./yd. (0. (1 + 0. .8 lb./yd.3 = 244.909 lb.247 lb./yd.247 lb.701 lb.3% Absorption Capacity 1.043 – 0.718 lb.01 – 0. Moisture Content 4.3 or 244 lb./yd. Adjust the amount of water based on moisture content Thus the estimated batch weights per yd.718 lb. 280 lb. .196 lb. Step 9. Coarse aggregate = 1.3 ACI Mix Design Example ACI Mix Design Example Step 9.01) coarse aggregate Total = 3. (1 + 0. (0.3 The change in the weight water due to the moisture of the Moisture Content 4.

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