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User Manual

Microwave Links

v e r s i o n 3.2.0

AT320_UMM_E0
AT320_UMM_E0
expertsinradionetworkplanning
&optimisationsoftware

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Atoll3.2.0UserManual
Forsk

Atoll3.2.0UserManualReleaseAT320_UMM_E0

Copyright19972013byForsk

Thesoftwaredescribedinthisdocumentisprovidedunderalicenceagreement.Thesoftwaremayonlybeusedorcopiedunderthetermsand
conditionsofthelicenceagreement.Nopartofthisdocumentmaybecopied,reproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpriorauthorisation
fromForsk.

Theproductorbrandnamesmentionedinthisdocumentaretrademarksorregisteredtrademarksoftheirrespectiveregisteringparties.

TheAtolluserdocumentationisaguideandreferenceforusersworkingwithAtoll.Atolliseasytouseandoffersaclear,selfexplanatoryuser
interface.TheuserdocumentationhelpstheusermakeeffectiveandefficientuseofallthefeaturesthatAtolloffers.Theuserdocumentation
aimstofamiliarisetheuserwiththeworkingenvironmentofAtollandenablehimtouseallofAtollsfeaturesandfunctions.

TheAtolluserdocumentationistechnologyspecific.ForeachAtollradiotechnology,theAtollusermanualcontainsinstructionsandinformation
specifictothattechnologyaswellaschaptersdescribingtheAtollworkingenvironmentandthetoolsavailable.

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AT320_UMM_E0 TableofContents

TableofContents

TableofContents ................................................................................ 5
1 TheWorkingEnvironment .................................................................... 15
1.1 TheAtollWorkArea .................................................................................... 15
1.1.1 SelectingaWindow................................................................................... 16
1.1.1.1 SelectingaWindowTab .............................................................................. 16
1.1.1.2 SelectingaWindowfromtheWindowsMenu............................................................ 17
1.1.1.3 UsingtheWindowsDialogue .......................................................................... 17
1.1.2 OrganisingtheAtollWorkspace......................................................................... 18
1.1.2.1 CreatingaNewMapWindow ......................................................................... 18
1.1.2.2 ArrangingToolandExplorerWindowsUsingtheMouse................................................... 18
1.1.2.3 UsingTabGroups ................................................................................... 19
1.1.2.4 ResettingtheWorkspaceLayouttotheDefaultView...................................................... 19

1.2 TheExplorerWindow................................................................................... 19
1.2.1 WorkingwiththeExplorerWindow ...................................................................... 20
1.2.2 WorkingwiththeSiteConfigurationWindow.............................................................. 21
1.2.3 AutomaticallyHidingExplorerWindows.................................................................. 21
1.2.4 DisplayingorHidingObjectsontheMapUsingtheExplorerWindows......................................... 22
1.2.5 WorkingwithLayersUsingtheExplorerWindows .......................................................... 23

1.3 WorkingwithObjects................................................................................... 23
1.3.1 UsingtheObjectContextMenu......................................................................... 23
1.3.1.1 RenaminganObject................................................................................. 24
1.3.1.2 DeletinganObject .................................................................................. 24
1.3.1.3 DisplayingthePropertiesofanObject.................................................................. 24
1.3.2 ModifyingSitesandMicrowaveLinkExtremitiesDirectlyontheMap .......................................... 25
1.3.2.1 SelectingOneofSeveralLinks ......................................................................... 25
1.3.2.2 MovingaSiteUsingtheMouse ........................................................................ 25
1.3.2.3 MovingaSitetoaHigherLocation..................................................................... 26
1.3.2.4 ChangingtheAzimuthoftheAntennaUsingtheMouse ................................................... 26
1.3.2.5 ChangingtheAntennaPositionRelativetotheSiteUsingtheMouse......................................... 26
1.3.2.6 SelectingAnotherSitefortheLinkExtremityUsingtheMouse .............................................. 27
1.3.3 DisplayPropertiesofObjects ........................................................................... 27
1.3.3.1 DefiningtheDisplayPropertiesofObjects ............................................................... 27
1.3.3.2 ExamplesofUsingtheDisplayPropertiesofObjects ...................................................... 32

1.4 WorkingwithMaps ..................................................................................... 33


1.4.1 ChangingtheMapScale ............................................................................... 34
1.4.1.1 ZoomingInandOut ................................................................................. 34
1.4.1.2 ZoomingInonaSpecificArea......................................................................... 34
1.4.1.3 ChoosingaScale.................................................................................... 34
1.4.1.4 ChangingBetweenPreviousZoomLevels ............................................................... 34
1.4.2 UsingFullScreenMode ................................................................................ 35
1.4.3 MovingtheMapintheDocumentWindow ............................................................... 35
1.4.4 UsingthePanoramicWindow........................................................................... 35
1.4.5 CentringtheMapWindowonanObject .................................................................. 36
1.4.6 CentringtheMapWindowonaTableRecord.............................................................. 36
1.4.7 AdjustingtheMapWindowtoaSelection................................................................. 36
1.4.8 MeasuringDistancesontheMap ........................................................................ 36
1.4.9 DisplayingRulersAroundtheMap ....................................................................... 37
1.4.10 DisplayingtheMapScale............................................................................... 37
1.4.11 DisplayingtheMapLegend ............................................................................. 38
1.4.12 UsingZonesintheMapWindow ........................................................................ 38
1.4.12.1 FilteringZones...................................................................................... 38
1.4.12.2 TheComputationZone............................................................................... 39
1.4.12.3 TheFocusZone ..................................................................................... 40
1.4.12.4 UsingPolygonZoneEditingTools...................................................................... 41

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1.4.12.5 UsingaPrintingZone ................................................................................43


1.4.12.6 UsingaGeographicExportZone .......................................................................43
1.4.13 EditingPolygons,Lines,andPoints .......................................................................45
1.4.13.1 AddingaVectorLayer ................................................................................45
1.4.13.2 CreatingPolygons,Lines,andPoints ....................................................................45
1.4.13.3 EditingtheShapeofPolygonsandLines .................................................................46
1.4.13.4 CombiningorCroppingPolygonsUsingtheToolbar .......................................................46
1.4.13.5 EditingaPoint......................................................................................48
1.4.13.6 EditingContours,Lines,andPointsUsingtheContextMenu ................................................48
1.4.14 CopyingtheContentofaZoneintoAnotherApplication .....................................................49
1.4.15 MapWindowPointers.................................................................................49

1.5 WorkingwithDataTables ...............................................................................50


1.5.1 OpeningaDataTable ..................................................................................51
1.5.2 Adding,Deleting,andEditingDataTableFields.............................................................51
1.5.2.1 AccessinganObjectTypesTableFields .................................................................51
1.5.2.2 AddingaFieldtoanObjectTypesDataTable............................................................52
1.5.2.3 DeletingaFieldfromanObjectTypesDataTable.........................................................52
1.5.3 OpeninganObjectsRecordPropertiesDialoguefromaTable................................................53
1.5.4 DefiningtheTableFormat ..............................................................................53
1.5.5 EditingtheContentsofaTable..........................................................................56
1.5.5.1 EditingTableEntriesDirectlyintheTable................................................................56
1.5.5.2 CopyingandPastinginTables .........................................................................57
1.5.5.3 SearchingforandReplacingTextEntriesinTables ........................................................59
1.5.6 ViewingaStatisticalAnalysisofTableContents ............................................................60
1.5.7 ExportingTablestoTextFilesandSpreadsheets ............................................................60
1.5.8 ImportingTablesfromTextFiles .........................................................................62
1.5.9 ExportingTablestoXMLFiles ...........................................................................63
1.5.10 ImportingTablesfromXMLFiles.........................................................................63

1.6 PrintinginAtoll.........................................................................................64
1.6.1 PrintingDataTablesandReports ........................................................................64
1.6.2 PrintingaMap........................................................................................64
1.6.2.1 PrintingRecommendations ...........................................................................64
1.6.2.2 DefiningthePrintingZone ............................................................................65
1.6.2.3 DefiningthePrintLayout .............................................................................66
1.6.3 PreviewingYourPrinting...............................................................................68
1.6.4 PrintingaDockingWindow.............................................................................68
1.6.5 PrintingAntennaPatterns..............................................................................68

1.7 Grouping,Sorting,andFilteringData.......................................................................69
1.7.1 GroupingDataObjects .................................................................................69
1.7.1.1 GroupingDataObjectsbyaSelectedProperty............................................................69
1.7.1.2 ConfiguringtheGroupBySubmenu ....................................................................70
1.7.1.3 GroupingMicrowaveLinksbySite ......................................................................70
1.7.1.4 AdvancedGrouping..................................................................................71
1.7.1.5 ExamplesofGrouping ................................................................................72
1.7.2 SortingData..........................................................................................72
1.7.2.1 SortingDatainTables ................................................................................72
1.7.2.2 AdvancedSorting....................................................................................73
1.7.3 FilteringData.........................................................................................74
1.7.3.1 FilteringinDataTablesbySelection ....................................................................74
1.7.3.2 AdvancedDataFiltering..............................................................................75
1.7.3.3 RestoringAllRecords ................................................................................76
1.7.3.4 AdvancedFiltering:Examples..........................................................................77
1.7.4 UserConfigurations ...................................................................................79
1.7.4.1 SavingaUserConfiguration...........................................................................79
1.7.4.2 LoadingaUserConfiguration ..........................................................................80
1.7.5 SiteLists .............................................................................................80
1.7.5.1 CreatingaSiteList ...................................................................................80
1.7.5.2 AddingaSitetoaListintheNetworkExplorer ...........................................................81
1.7.5.3 AddingaSitetoaListfromtheMapWindow ............................................................81
1.7.5.4 AddingSitestoaListUsingaZone......................................................................81
1.7.5.5 EditingaSiteList....................................................................................82
1.7.5.6 ImportingaSiteList..................................................................................82
1.7.5.7 ExportingaSiteList ..................................................................................82
1.7.5.8 FilteringonaSiteList ................................................................................83
1.7.6 FolderConfigurations ..................................................................................83

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1.7.6.1 CreatingaFolderConfiguration........................................................................ 83
1.7.6.2 ApplyingaSavedFolderConfiguration .................................................................. 83
1.7.6.3 ReapplyingtheCurrentFolderConfiguration ............................................................ 84
1.7.6.4 SavingaFolderConfigurationinanExternalFile.......................................................... 84
1.7.6.5 LoadingaFolderConfigurationfromanExternalFile ...................................................... 84
1.7.6.6 DeletingaFolderConfiguration........................................................................ 84
1.7.7 CreatingandComparingViews .......................................................................... 85
1.7.8 FilteringDataUsingaFilteringZone...................................................................... 85

1.8 TipsandTricks......................................................................................... 86
1.8.1 UndoingandRedoing.................................................................................. 86
1.8.2 RefreshingMapsandFolders........................................................................... 86
1.8.3 SearchingforObjectsontheMap ....................................................................... 86
1.8.3.1 SearchingforaMapObjectbyItsName ................................................................ 86
1.8.3.2 SearchingforaMapObjectusingAnyTextProperty ...................................................... 87
1.8.3.3 SearchingforaPointontheMap...................................................................... 87
1.8.4 UsingtheStatusBartoGetInformation .................................................................. 88
1.8.5 SavingInformationDisplayedintheEventViewer .......................................................... 88
1.8.6 UsingIconsfromtheToolbar ........................................................................... 88
1.8.7 UsingShortcutsinAtoll................................................................................ 91

2 StartinganAtollProject ........................................................................ 95
2.1 BeforeStartingaMicrowavePlanningProject ............................................................... 95

2.2 CreatinganAtollDocument .............................................................................. 95


2.2.1 CreatingaNewAtollDocumentfromaTemplate .......................................................... 95
2.2.1.1 TemplatesAvailable................................................................................. 96
2.2.1.2 CreatingaNewAtollDocumentfromaTemplate ......................................................... 96
2.2.1.3 DefiningaNewAtollDocument ....................................................................... 97
2.2.2 WorkinginaMultiUserEnvironment................................................................... 100
2.2.2.1 TheAtollMultiUserEnvironment .................................................................... 100
2.2.2.2 CreatingaNewAtollDocumentfromaDatabase ........................................................ 101
2.2.2.3 WorkingWithaDocumentonaDatabase .............................................................. 102
2.2.2.4 RefreshinganAtollDocumentfromtheDatabase ....................................................... 104
2.2.2.5 ArchivingtheModificationsofanAtollDocumentintheDatabase ......................................... 104

2.3 MakingaBackupofYourDocument...................................................................... 107


2.3.1 ConfiguringAutomaticBackup......................................................................... 108
2.3.2 RecoveringaBackup ................................................................................. 108

2.4 MakingandSharingPortableAtollProjects................................................................ 109

3 GeographicData................................................................................ 113
3.1 GeographicDataTypes ................................................................................. 113

3.2 SupportedGeographicDataFormats ..................................................................... 114

3.3 ImportingGeoDataFiles ............................................................................... 115


3.3.1 ImportingaRasterformatGeoDataFile................................................................. 115
3.3.2 ImportingaVectorformatGeoDataFile ................................................................ 116
3.3.3 ImportingMSIPlanetData ........................................................................... 117
3.3.3.1 ImportingOneMSIPlanetDataType................................................................. 117
3.3.3.2 ImportingaMSIPlanetDatabase.................................................................... 118
3.3.4 ImportingaWMSRasterformatGeoDataFile............................................................ 119
3.3.5 GroupingGeoDataFilesinFolders ..................................................................... 120
3.3.6 EmbeddingGeographicData........................................................................... 121
3.3.7 RepairingaBrokenLinktoaGeoDataFile ............................................................... 121

3.4 DigitalTerrainModels.................................................................................. 121

3.5 ClutterClasses........................................................................................ 122


3.5.1 AssigningNamestoClutterClasses ..................................................................... 122
3.5.2 DefiningClutterClassProperties ....................................................................... 122
3.5.3 AddingaClutterClass ................................................................................ 123
3.5.4 RefreshingtheListofClutterClasses .................................................................... 123
3.5.5 DisplayingTotalSurfaceAreaperClutterClass............................................................ 124

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3.6 ClutterHeights....................................................................................... 124

3.7 Contours,Lines,andPoints ............................................................................. 124


3.7.1 ManagingtheDisplayofaVectorLayer ................................................................. 124
3.7.2 ManagingthePropertiesoftheVectorLayer ............................................................ 125
3.7.3 MovingaVectorLayertotheNetworkExplorer.......................................................... 125

3.8 ScannedImages...................................................................................... 126


3.8.1 ImportingSeveralScannedImages ..................................................................... 126
3.8.2 DefiningtheDisplayPropertiesofScannedImages ....................................................... 126

3.9 GeoclimaticMaps..................................................................................... 127


3.9.1 ManagingGeoclimaticMapProperties ................................................................. 127
3.9.2 DisplayingGeoclimaticStatistics ....................................................................... 127

3.10 DisplayingOnlineMaps ................................................................................ 128

3.11 SettingthePriorityofGeoData......................................................................... 129


3.11.1 SettingtheDisplayPriorityofGeoData ................................................................. 129
3.11.2 SettingthePriorityofGeoDatainCalculations........................................................... 130
3.11.2.1 Example1:TwoDTMMapsRepresentingDifferentAreas................................................ 130
3.11.2.2 Example2:ClutterClassesandDTMMapsRepresentingtheSameArea.................................... 131
3.11.2.3 Example3:TwoClutterClassMapsRepresentingaCommonArea ......................................... 131

3.12 DisplayingInformationAboutGeoData .................................................................. 132

3.13 GeographicDataSets.................................................................................. 132


3.13.1 ExportingaGeoDataSet ............................................................................. 133
3.13.2 LoadingaGeoDataSet .............................................................................. 133

3.14 EditingGeographicData ............................................................................... 134


3.14.1 EditingClutterClassMaps............................................................................ 134
3.14.1.1 CreatingaClutterPolygon .......................................................................... 134
3.14.1.2 EditingClutterPolygons............................................................................ 134
3.14.1.3 DisplayingtheCoordinatesofClutterPolygons......................................................... 135
3.14.1.4 DeletingClutterPolygons ........................................................................... 135
3.14.2 EditingGeoclimaticMaps............................................................................. 135

3.15 SavingGeographicData................................................................................ 136


3.15.1 SavingModificationstoanExternalFile ................................................................. 137
3.15.1.1 ExportinganEditedClutterClassMapinaRasterFormatFile ............................................. 137
3.15.1.2 ExportinganEditedVectorLayerinVectorFormatFile .................................................. 138
3.15.2 UpdatingtheSourceFile ............................................................................. 138
3.15.3 CombiningSeveralRasterFilesintoOneFile ............................................................. 139
3.15.4 ExportinganEmbeddedFile .......................................................................... 139
3.15.5 CreatingaNewFilefromaLargerFile .................................................................. 140

4 AntennasandEquipment .................................................................... 143


4.1 DefiningtheListofManufacturers....................................................................... 144

4.2 DefiningAntennas.................................................................................... 144


4.2.1 CreatinganAntenna................................................................................. 145
4.2.2 ImportingMicrowaveAntennas ....................................................................... 146
4.2.3 EditingMicrowaveAntennaPatterns ................................................................... 147
4.2.4 DisplayingAntennaPatternsWithaFixedScale.......................................................... 148
4.2.5 PrintingMicrowaveAntennaPatterns.................................................................. 148

4.3 MicrowaveRadios.................................................................................... 149


4.3.1 CharacteristicsofaRadioSeries....................................................................... 149
4.3.2 CreatingaRadioSeries............................................................................... 150
4.3.3 ModifyingtheCharacteristicsofaRadioSeries........................................................... 151
4.3.4 DescriptionofaRadio ............................................................................... 155
4.3.5 CreatingorModifyingaRadio ......................................................................... 160
4.3.6 ImportingMicrowaveRadios.......................................................................... 161
4.3.7 AdvancedConfiguration.............................................................................. 161
4.3.7.1 InterferenceReductionFactor ....................................................................... 161
4.3.7.2 TheoreticalGraphs ................................................................................ 164

4.4 MicrowaveFeeders................................................................................... 165

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4.4.1 DefinitionofFeeders................................................................................. 165


4.4.2 CreatingorModifyingFeeders......................................................................... 166

4.5 MicrowaveAntenna/Radio/FeederCompatibility........................................................... 166


4.5.1 DefiningCompatibilityManually ....................................................................... 166
4.5.1.1 UsingtheMicrowaveAntenna/FeederCompatibilityTable ................................................ 167
4.5.1.2 UsingtheMicrowaveAntennaRadioCompatibilityTable................................................. 167
4.5.2 UsingAssistantstoDefineCompatibility ................................................................. 167
4.5.2.1 UsingtheAssistanttoDefineAntenna/FeederCompatibility .............................................. 168
4.5.2.2 UsingtheAssistanttoDefineAntenna/RadioCompatibility ............................................... 168

5 MicrowaveSettings............................................................................ 173
5.1 MicrowaveFrequencyBands............................................................................ 173

5.2 DefiningMicrowaveLinkFrequencyBands................................................................. 174

5.3 DefiningMicrowaveLinkFrequencySubbands ............................................................. 174


5.3.1 ExampleofCreatingaFrequencySubband .............................................................. 176
5.3.2 ImportingCustomChannels ........................................................................... 177

5.4 DefiningLinkClassesandPerformanceObjectives .......................................................... 177


5.4.1 LinkClasses ......................................................................................... 178
5.4.2 DefiningPerformanceObjectives ....................................................................... 178
5.4.2.1 DefiningQualityObjectives.......................................................................... 179
5.4.2.2 DefiningAvailabilityObjectives ....................................................................... 179

5.5 DefiningConfigurations ................................................................................ 180


5.5.1 CreatingorModifyingModulations..................................................................... 180
5.5.2 CreatingorModifyingDigitalTrunks.................................................................... 181
5.5.3 CreatingorModifyingCapacities....................................................................... 182
5.5.4 CreatingorModifyingBranchingTypes .................................................................. 184
5.5.5 CreatingorModifyingOperationModes ................................................................. 185

5.6 DefiningTransmissionLinkTypes ........................................................................ 186

6 WorkingwithCalculationsinAtoll ......................................................... 189


6.1 UsingPropagationModelsinMicrowaveProjects ........................................................... 189
6.1.1 WorkingwiththeMicrowavePropagationModel ......................................................... 189
6.1.2 WorkingwiththeMicrowaveITURP.452Model.......................................................... 191
6.1.3 WorkingwiththeMicrowaveEBandPropagationModel ................................................... 193

6.2 DefiningParametersthatAffectCalculations ............................................................... 194


6.2.1 GlobalParameters................................................................................... 194
6.2.2 MicrowaveLinkParameters........................................................................... 198
6.2.2.1 DefiningParametersforaSingleMicrowaveLink........................................................ 198
6.2.2.2 DefiningParametersforAllMicrowaveLinks............................................................ 202
6.2.2.3 DefiningParametersthatAffectCalculationsforaGroupofMicrowaveLinks ................................ 205
6.2.2.4 RecalculatingMicrowaveLinkParameters .............................................................. 209

7 MicrowaveLinkProjects ...................................................................... 213


7.1 DesigningaMicrowaveLinkNetwork..................................................................... 213

7.2 PlanningandOptimisingMicrowaveSites ................................................................. 214


7.2.1 CreatingSites....................................................................................... 215
7.2.1.1 SiteDescription .................................................................................... 215
7.2.1.2 CreatingorModifyingaSite ......................................................................... 215
7.2.2 SiteSurveyTools .................................................................................... 216
7.2.2.1 DisplayingtheLineofSightAreaAroundOneSite ....................................................... 216
7.2.2.2 AnalysingtheLineofSightBetweenCandidateSites ..................................................... 217
7.2.2.3 FindingtheBestRouteBetweenTwoSites ............................................................. 220
7.2.2.4 DisplayingtheTerrainProfileBetweenCandidateSites ................................................... 221
7.2.2.5 Displayinga360ViewAroundOneSite ............................................................... 223
7.2.3 ToolsinAtollforFindingNewSites ..................................................................... 225

7.3 CreatingLinks......................................................................................... 226


7.3.1 CreatingMicrowaveLinks............................................................................. 227

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7.3.1.1 DefinitionofaMicrowaveLink....................................................................... 227


7.3.1.2 CreatingorModifyingaMicrowaveLink............................................................... 233
7.3.1.3 DefiningPortParameters ........................................................................... 233
7.3.1.4 PlacingaNewMicrowaveLinkUsingtheMicrowaveLinkTemplate ........................................ 235
7.3.1.5 ManagingMicrowaveLinkTemplates ................................................................. 236
7.3.2 CreatingOtherTransmissionLinks ..................................................................... 238
7.3.2.1 DefinitionofOtherTransmissionLinks................................................................ 238
7.3.2.2 CreatingorModifyingOtherTransmissionLinks........................................................ 239
7.3.2.3 PlacingOtherTransmissionLinksDirectlyontheMap ................................................... 239
7.3.3 ModifyingSitesandLinksDirectlyontheMap ........................................................... 240
7.3.4 DisplayingTipsforSitesandLinks ...................................................................... 240
7.3.5 AddingaPassiveRepeatertoaMicrowaveLink.......................................................... 240
7.3.5.1 DefinitionofaPassiveRepeater ..................................................................... 241
7.3.5.2 OpeningthePassiveRepeatersTable................................................................. 241
7.3.5.3 CreatingorModifyingaPassiveRepeater.............................................................. 242
7.3.5.4 PlacingaPassiveMicrowaveRepeaterontheMapUsingtheMouse ....................................... 242
7.3.5.5 CreatingSeveralPassiveRepeaters ................................................................... 243
7.3.6 CheckingDataConsistency ........................................................................... 243
7.3.7 SettingtheWorkingAreaofanAtollDocument.......................................................... 244

7.4 AnalysingthePathProfile .............................................................................. 244


7.4.1 DisplayingthePathProfile ............................................................................ 244
7.4.1.1 ViewingaMicrowaveLinkProfile .................................................................... 244
7.4.1.2 StudyingMicrowaveLinkClearance .................................................................. 245
7.4.1.3 DefiningtheDisplayoftheMicrowaveLinkProfile...................................................... 245
7.4.1.4 ZoomingInontheProfile ........................................................................... 247
7.4.1.5 PrintingaMicrowaveLinkProfile .................................................................... 247
7.4.1.6 DisplayingMicrowaveLinkClearanceValuesAlongtheProfile ............................................ 247
7.4.1.7 ModifyingMicrowaveLinkProfileValues .............................................................. 249
7.4.2 DeterminingMicrowaveLinkAntennaHeights........................................................... 252
7.4.2.1 AdjustingMicrowaveAntennaHeightsUsingtheMouse................................................. 252
7.4.2.2 DefiningMicrowaveAntennaHeights ................................................................. 253
7.4.2.3 AutomaticallyOptimisingMicrowaveAntennaHeights .................................................. 253

7.5 AnalysingMicrowaveLinkReliability..................................................................... 254


7.5.1 AnalysingaSingleMicrowaveLink..................................................................... 254
7.5.1.1 CalculatingMicrowaveLinkRequiredMargins .......................................................... 254
7.5.1.2 CalculatingaMicrowaveAnalysisReport.............................................................. 255
7.5.1.3 CalculatingaMicrowaveLinkDesignSummary......................................................... 256
7.5.1.4 ModifyingMicrowaveLinkCalculationParameters ...................................................... 257
7.5.1.5 ConfiguringtheContentsoftheMicrowaveReports..................................................... 258
7.5.1.6 PrintingaMicrowaveReport........................................................................ 259
7.5.1.7 ExportingaMicrowaveReport....................................................................... 259
7.5.2 AnalysingMicrowaveLinks ........................................................................... 259
7.5.2.1 SettingaMicrowaveLinkasActive................................................................... 260
7.5.2.2 DefiningtheContentsoftheLinkBudgetsReport ....................................................... 260
7.5.2.3 CalculatingMultipleMicrowaveLinkBudgets .......................................................... 261
7.5.2.4 LinkBudgetCalculationValidity ...................................................................... 261
7.5.3 PerformingamEndtoEndReliabilityAnalysis ........................................................... 262
7.5.3.1 CreatingMultihops................................................................................ 262
7.5.3.2 PerforminganEndtoEndReliabilityAnalysis .......................................................... 264

7.6 StudyingReflection ................................................................................... 264


7.6.1 DisplayingReflection ................................................................................ 265
7.6.2 AnalysingReflections................................................................................ 266
7.6.2.1 DisplayingtheReflectionAnalysisReport .............................................................. 266
7.6.2.2 ConfiguringtheReflectionAnalysisReport............................................................. 269
7.6.2.3 ModifyingReflectionAnalysisParameters............................................................. 269
7.6.3 SolutionsforReflectionProblems ...................................................................... 270

7.7 PlanningMicrowaveLinkChannels ...................................................................... 271


7.7.1 CheckingMicrowaveLinkSiteParities.................................................................. 271
7.7.1.1 CheckingSiteParitiesontheMap.................................................................... 271
7.7.1.2 CreatingaReportonSiteParities .................................................................... 274
7.7.1.3 UsingtheFindonMapTooltoDisplayChannelReuse ................................................... 274
7.7.2 PerformingSemiautomaticChannelAllocation .......................................................... 275
7.7.3 WorkingwiththeFrequencySpectrumAnalyser ......................................................... 276
7.7.4 DisplayingThirdorderIntermodulationProducts ......................................................... 278

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7.8 AnalysingInterference ................................................................................. 279


7.8.1 InterferenceReductionFactor ......................................................................... 279
7.8.1.1 DefiningIRFGraphsManually........................................................................ 280
7.8.1.2 DefiningIRFGraphswiththeAssistant ................................................................. 281
7.8.2 UsingIRFinInterferenceCalculations................................................................... 282
7.8.3 AnalysingtheInterferenceonaSingleMicrowaveLink ..................................................... 282
7.8.3.1 DisplayingInterferenceintheFormofaReport......................................................... 282
7.8.3.2 DisplayingSite A/Site BInterferenceDetails ............................................................ 284
7.8.4 PerforminganInterferenceAnalysisonMultipleMicrowaveLinks ........................................... 284
7.8.4.1 DefiningtheContentsoftheInterferenceReport ........................................................ 284
7.8.4.2 CalculatingInterferenceonMultipleMicrowaveLinks .................................................... 285
7.8.5 ManagingInterferenceCalculationValidity............................................................... 285
7.8.6 DisplayingInterferenceontheMap ..................................................................... 286
7.8.6.1 DisplayingAllInterferenceforaMicrowaveLinkontheMap .............................................. 286
7.8.6.2 DisplayingInterferenceonorCausedbytheSelectedSiteofaMicrowaveLink............................... 287
7.8.6.3 DefiningHowInterfererandInterferedLinkExtremitiesAreDisplayed...................................... 287

7.9 ExportingCustomReports .............................................................................. 288


7.9.1 ExportingaCustomReportforOneMicrowaveLink....................................................... 288
7.9.2 ExportingaCustomReportforSeveralMicrowaveLinks.................................................... 288

7.10 AdvancedConfiguration ................................................................................ 289


7.10.1 PointtoMultipointSystems........................................................................... 289
7.10.1.1 CreatingaPointtoMultipointSystem ................................................................. 289
7.10.1.2 PointtoMultipointSystemProperties................................................................. 291
7.10.1.3 SettingallMicrowaveLinksofaPointtoMultipointSystemasActive....................................... 292
7.10.1.4 AddingaMicrowaveLinktoaPointtoMultipointSystem ................................................. 292
7.10.1.5 AddingaMicrowaveLinktoaPointtoMultipointSystemUsingtheMouse .................................. 292
7.10.1.6 DeletingaMicrowaveLinkfromaPointtoMultipointSystem ............................................. 293
7.10.1.7 DeletingaPointtoMultipointSystem ................................................................. 293
7.10.1.8 MappingMicrowaveLinkstoPointtoMultipointSystemsUsingthePMPLinkMappingTable .................. 293
7.10.1.9 AdjustingtheAntennaofthePointtoMultipointHub .................................................... 294
7.10.1.10 AdjustingtheAntennaofthePointtoMultipointHubUsingtheMouse..................................... 294

Index .............................................................................................. 295

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12
Chapter1
TheWorking
Environment
ThischapterpresentstheAtollworkingenvironmentand Inthischapter,thefollowingareexplained:
explainsthetoolsandshortcutsavailable.
"TheAtollWorkArea"onpage 15
"TheExplorerWindow"onpage 19
"WorkingwithObjects"onpage 23
"WorkingwithMaps"onpage 33
"WorkingwithDataTables"onpage 50
"PrintinginAtoll"onpage 64
"Grouping,Sorting,andFilteringData"onpage 69
"TipsandTricks"onpage 86
Atoll3.1.0UserManual
Chapter1:WiMAXBWANetworks Forsk2013

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1 TheWorkingEnvironment
TheAtollworkingenvironmentisbothpowerfulandflexible.Itprovidesacomprehensiveandintegratedsetoftoolsand
featuresthatallowyoutocreateanddefineyourmicrowaveplanningprojectinasingleapplication.Atollincludesadvanced
multitechnologynetworkplanningfeatures(e.g.,CDMA/LTE),andacombinedsingleRAN,multiRATGSM/UMTS/LTEMonte
Carlosimulatorandtrafficmodel.Youcansavetheentireprojectasasinglefile,oryoucanlinkyourprojecttoexternalfiles.
TheAtollworkingenvironmentusesfamiliarWindowsinterfaceelements,withtheabilitytohaveseveraldocumentwindows
openatthesametime,supportfordraganddrop,contextmenus,andsupportforstandardWindowsshortcuts,forexample,
forcuttingandpasting.Atollnotonlyenablesyoutocreateandworkonyourplanningproject,butalsooffersyouawide
rangeofoptionsforcreatingandexportingresultsbasedonyourproject.Theworkingenvironmentprovidesawideselection
oftoolstofacilitatemicrowaveplanning,suchasasearchtooltolocateeitherasite,apointonthemap,oravector.
TheNetworkexplorer,theGeoexplorer,andtheParametersexplorerplayacentralroleinAtoll.Theexplorerscontainmost
oftheobjectsinadocumentarrangedinfolders.
Usingtheexplorerwindows,youcanmanageallobjectsintheAtolldocument:sites,calculations,etc.,aswellasgeographic
datasuchastheDigitalTerrainModel(DTM),andclutterclasses.Youcan,forexample,definevariouscoveragepredictions
orconfiguretheparametersordisplayofdataobjects.
Thecontentofthefoldersintheexplorerwindowscanbedisplayedintables,allowingyoutomanagelargeamountsofdata.
Youcansortandfilterthedatainatable,orchangehowthedataisdisplayed.Youcanalsoenterlargeamountsofinformation
intoatablebyimportingdataorbycuttingandpastingtheinformationfromanyWindowsspreadsheetintothetable.
ThemapistheworkingareaforyourdocumentandAtollprovidesmanytoolsforworkingwiththemap.Youcanchangethe
viewbymovingorzoominginoroutandyoucanchoosewhichobjectsaredisplayedandhowtheyaredisplayed.Youcan
alsoexportthecurrentdisplaydefinition,orconfiguration,touseitinotherdocuments.
ThischapterprovidesanoverviewoftheAtollworkingenvironment.
Thischapterexplainsthefollowingtopics:
"TheAtollWorkArea"onpage 15
"TheExplorerWindow"onpage 19
"WorkingwithObjects"onpage 23
"WorkingwithMaps"onpage 33
"WorkingwithDataTables"onpage 50
"PrintinginAtoll"onpage 64
"Grouping,Sorting,andFilteringData"onpage 69
"TipsandTricks"onpage 86.

1.1 TheAtollWorkArea
TheAtollworkarea,showninFigure 1.1onpage 16,consistsofthemainwindowwherethemapwindowanddatatablesand
reportsaredisplayedandtheexplorerwindows.Theexplorerwindowscontainthedata,objects,andparametersofadocu
ment,arrangedinfolders.Itispresentedindetailin"TheExplorerWindow"onpage 19.

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Toolbar

Documentwindow
(map)

Workspace

Geoexplorer
(docked)

Panoramicwindow
(floating)

FindonMapwindow
(docked)
Figure 1.1:Atolluserinterface

Atolloffersavarietyoftoolstohelpyouplananetworkandenablesyoutokeepallthetoolsyouneedopenatthesametime
tosimplifyyourwork.Additionally,youcanhaveseveralAtolldocumentsopenatthesametimeorseveraldifferentviewsof
thesamedocumentopenatthesametime.
AtollenablesyoutomanagetheplacementandappearanceofthesetoolsandwindowsinordertomakeusingAtollaseffi
cientaspossible.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"SelectingaWindow"onpage 16
"OrganisingtheAtollWorkspace"onpage 18.

1.1.1 SelectingaWindow
Whenworkingonaproject,youusuallyhavemorethanonewindowopen.YoumighthaveseveralAtolldocumentsopen,or
youmighthaveseveralwindowsopeninonedocument,includingdatatablesandmorethanonemapwindow.
Windowtabsofdifferentdocumentsaredisplayedusingadifferentcolour.Thetabtitleofthecurrentlyselectedwindowis
displayed in bold characters. In order to avoid very long window tabs, window tab titles longer than approximately
40 charactersaretruncated.However,thecompletetitleisvisibleintiptextdisplayedwhenthemouseisplacedoverthe
windowtab.ThetiptextalsodisplaysthepathtotheATLfiletowhichthewindowbelongs.
InAtollyoucanmovefromonedocumentwindowtoanotherinseveraldifferentways:
"SelectingaWindowTab"onpage 16
"SelectingaWindowfromtheWindowsMenu"onpage 17
"UsingtheWindowsDialogue"onpage 17.

1.1.1.1 SelectingaWindowTab
InAtoll,allopenwindowsordatatablesareidentifiedbyatabatthetopofthemapwindowortabgroup(seeFigure 1.2).
Toselectawindowtab:
Clickthetabofthewindowyouwanttoselect.

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Figure 1.2:Windowtabs

Iftherearemorewindowsopenthancanbedisplayedatthetopofthemapwindow,youcanselectthewindowyouwant,
youcanselectthewindowyouwantfromtheWindowsmenu(formoreinformation,see"SelectingaWindowfromthe
WindowsMenu"onpage 17)orusingtheWindowsdialogue(formoreinformation,see"UsingtheWindowsDialogue"on
page 17).

Youcanalsorearrangethewindowsbyclickinganddraggingatabhorizontallytoanew
position.

1.1.1.2 SelectingaWindowfromtheWindowsMenu
Whenyouhaveseveraldocumentwindows,datatables,ormapwindowsopen,youcanselectawindowusingtheWindows
menu.
ToselectawindowusingtheWindowsmenu:
1. ClickWindows.TheWindowsmenuappears.
2. SelectthewindowyouwanttoworkwithfromthelistintheWindowsmenu.

YoucanalsoselectawindowbyclickingtheActiveFilesbutton( )totherightofthe
tabsinthemapwindowandselectingthewindowfromthelistthatappears.

1.1.1.3 UsingtheWindowsDialogue
AtolloffersaWindowsdialoguetosimplifyworkingwithmultiplewindows.YoucanusetheWindowsdialoguetoselecta
documentwindowordatatablethatisalreadyopen,tocloseadocumentwindow,ortosavetheAtolldocumentassociated
withthatwindow.
TousetheWindowsdialogue:
1. SelectWindows >Windows.TheWindowsdialogueappears.
Selectingawindow:
a. SelectthewindowfromtheSelectlist.
b. ClickActivate.TheWindowsdialogueclosesandtheselectedwindowismadetheactiveone.
Savingoneormoredocuments:
a. SelectthewindoworwindowsassociatedwiththedocumentsyouwanttosavefromtheSelectlist.
Youcanselectcontiguouswindowsbyclickingthefirstwindowanddraggingtothelastwindowoftheselection,
orbyclickingthefirstcell,pressingSHIFTandclickingthelastwindow.Youcanselectnoncontiguouswindowsby
pressingCTRLandclickingeachwindowinthelistseparately.
b. ClickSave.Atollsavesthedocumentsassociatedwiththeselecteddocumentwindows.
Closingoneormorewindows:
a. SelectthewindoworwindowsyouwanttoclosefromtheSelectlist.
Youcanselectcontiguouswindowsbyclickingthefirstwindowanddraggingtothelastwindowoftheselection,
orbyclickingthefirstcell,pressingSHIFTandclickingthelastwindow.Youcanselectnoncontiguouswindowsby
pressingCTRLandclickingeachwindowinthelistseparately.
b. ClickCloseWindow(s).Atollclosestheselecteddocumentwindows.Ifoneofthewindowsisthelastdocument
windowopenofadocumentandthereareunsavedchanges,Atollasksyouwhetheryouwanttosavethechanges
beforeclosing.
2. ClickOKtoclosetheWindowsdialogue.

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1.1.2 OrganisingtheAtollWorkspace
Atollenablesyoutoorganisetheworkspacetobestsuityourneeds.Youcancreateseveralmapwindowsofthesameproject,
therebysimultaneouslyviewingseveralareasofthesameproject.Youcanalsorearrangethewindowsoftheworkspaceto
suityourneeds.Youcanmovethemtodifferentareasoftheworkspaceorgroupthem.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"CreatingaNewMapWindow"onpage 18
"ArrangingToolandExplorerWindowsUsingtheMouse"onpage 18
"UsingTabGroups"onpage 19
"ResettingtheWorkspaceLayouttotheDefaultView"onpage 19.

1.1.2.1 CreatingaNewMapWindow
WhenworkingonanAtollproject,especiallywhenyouareworkingonalarger,complexradioplanningproject,youmight
wanttobeabletoviewadifferentpartoftheprojectwithoutlosingthefocusontheoriginalarea.Atollenablesyoutoopen
severalmapwindowsofthesameproject.Thispermitsyoutoverifydataortovisuallycomparetwoseparateareasofthe
project.
Toopenanewmapwindow:
SelectWindow >NewMapWindow.AtollcreatesanewmapwindowofthecurrentAtollproject.Youcanworkwith
thenewmapwindowasyouwouldwithanyAtollmapwindow.

1.1.2.2 ArrangingToolandExplorerWindowsUsingtheMouse
Whileworkingonaradioplanningproject,youwillnormallyhaveseveraltoolorexplorerwindowsopenatthesametime.
Atollenablesyoutousethemousetopositiontoolandexplorerwindowstooptimiseyourworkspace.Youcanclickthetitle
ofthetoolorexplorerthatyouwanttorepositionanddragittoanewpositionorfloatitovertheworkspace.
Toarrangetoolandexplorerwindowsusingthemouse:

1. Clickthetitleofthetoolorexplorer.

2. Dragthewindowicontowardsthenewposition.
ApositioningiconappearsovertheAtollworkspace.

3. Placethewindowiconoverthepartofthepositioningiconcorresponding
tothenewpositionofwindow.
AnoutlineappearsovertheAtollworkspacetoindicatethenewposition
ofthewindow.

Ifyoureleasethewindowiconwithoutplacingitoverpositioningicon,youcanfloatthe
toolorexplorerwindowovertheworkspace.

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4. Releasethemouse.Thewindowtakesitsnewposition.

1.1.2.3 UsingTabGroups
When working with large numbers of documents or document windows, you can facilitate your work by arranging the
windowsingroupsoftabbedwindows.Onlymapwindowsdatatablescanbegroupedintabgroups;tabgroupsdonotapply
totoolsandexplorerwindows.
Tomoveadocumentwindowtoatabgroup:

1. Clickthetitleofthedocumentwindow.

2. Dragthewindowicontowardsthecentreofthemapwindow.

3. Releasethemouse.Acontextmenuappears.

4. Selectoneofthefollowingfromthecontextmenu:

New Horizontal Tab Group: Atoll creates a new horizontal tab group and adds the selected document
windowtoit.
NewVerticalTabGroup:Atollcreatesanewverticaltabgroupandaddstheselecteddocumentwindowtoit.
YoucanalsoaddadocumentwindowtoanewtabgroupbyclickingitstitleandthenselectingNewHorizontalTab
GrouporNewVerticalTabGroupfromtheWindowsmenu.

Ifyoudragthewindowicontotheloweredgeorrightedgeofanexistingtabgroup
evenifthereisonlyonetabgroupanoutlineappearstoindicatethetabgroupthe
windowwillautomaticallybeaddedtowhenyoureleasethemouse.

1.1.2.4 ResettingtheWorkspaceLayouttotheDefaultView
Atolloffersauserinterfacethatcanbeeasilyandquicklycustomisedtosuityourneedsandyourcurrenttask.However,you
mightwanttoquicklyreturnthelayoutoftheworkspacetoitsdefaultsettings.
Toreturnthelayoutoftheworkspacetothedefaultsettings:
SelectWindow >ResetWindowLayout.Atollresetsthedisplayofallwindowsandtoolbarstotheirdefaultpositions
andsizes.

1.2 TheExplorerWindow
TheexplorerwindowplaysacentralroleinAtoll.Thetabsoftheexplorerwindowcontainthedataandobjectsofadocument,
arrangedinfolders.EachobjectandfolderintheNetwork,Geo,andParametersexplorershasacontextspecificmenuthat
youcanaccessbyrightclicking.Youcanmodifyitemsatthefolderlevel,withchangesaffectingallitemsinthefolder,oryou

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canaccessandedititemsindividually.Aswell,mostfoldercontentscanalsobeaccessedinatable,allowingyoutomanage
largeamountsofinformation.Forinformationonworkingwithtables,see"WorkingwithDataTables"onpage 50.
Inthissection,thefollowingaredescribed:
"WorkingwiththeExplorerWindow"onpage 20
"WorkingwiththeSiteConfigurationWindow"onpage 21
"AutomaticallyHidingExplorerWindows"onpage 21
"DisplayingorHidingObjectsontheMapUsingtheExplorerWindows"onpage 22
"WorkingwithLayersUsingtheExplorerWindows"onpage 23.

1.2.1 WorkingwiththeExplorerWindow
Therearethreeprincipalexplorers:theNetworkexplorer,theGeoexplorer,andtheParametersexplorer;eachexplorerhas
objectsandfolderscontainingobjects.
Tomovefromonetabtoanother:
SelecttheexplorerattheleftoftheAtollworkingenvironment.
Youcanopenafolderinanexplorertoviewitscontents.EachfoldercontainingatleastoneobjecthasanExpand( )or
Contractbutton( )totheleftofitsname.
Toexpandafoldertodisplayitscontents:
ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftofitsname.
Thethreeexplorersare:

TheNetworkExplorer:TheNetworkexplorerenablesyoutomanageradiodataandcalculations.Dependingon
themodulesinstalledwithAtoll,theNetworkexplorerhasthefollowingfolders:
Sites
Transmitters
Predictions
UMTSSimulations,CDMA2000Simulations,WiMAXSimulations,WiFiSimulations,orLTESimulations
Trafficanalysis(GSM/GPRS/EDGEprojectsonly)
Interferencematrices(GSM/GPRS/EDGE,LTE,andWiMAXprojectsonly)
Subscriberlists(LTE,WiMAX,andWiFiprojectsonly)
Multipointanalyses
Automaticcellplanningresults(GSM/GPRS/EDGE,UMTS,LTE,andWiMAXonly)
Hexagonaldesign
Microwavelinks
CWMeasurementsanddrivetestdata

TheGeoexplorer:TheGeoexplorerenablesyoutomanagegeographicdata.Thenumberoffoldersdependson
thenumberandtypesofgeographicaldatatypes(vectordata,scannedimages,etc.)youimportorcreate:
Clutterclasses
Clutterheights
Digitalterrainmodel
Geoclimaticparameters
Anyothergeodatamap
Trafficmaps(GSM/GPRS/EDGE/TDMA,UMTSHSPA,CDMA2000,LTE,WiMAX,andWiFi)

TheParametersexplorer:TheParametersexplorerenablesyoutomanagethepropagationmodelsandaddi
tionalmodules.Itcontains:
PropagationModels:TheParametersexplorerhasaPropagationModelsfolderwiththefollowingpropagation
models:
CostHata
ErcegGreenstein(SUI)
ITU1546
ITU3707(Vienna93)
ITU5265
ITU529
LongleyRice
MicrowaveITURP.452Model
MicrowavePropagationModel
OkumuraHata
StandardPropagationModel
WLL

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RadioNetworkEquipment:TheRadioNetworkEquipmentfoldercontainsantennamodels,transmittermodels,
repeaterandsmartantennaequipment,andwaveguides,cables,andfeeders.
TrafficParameters:TheTrafficParametersfoldercontainsservices,mobilitytypes,terminals,userprofiles,and
environments.
Network Settings: The Network Settingsfolder containsstation templates, frequencies and frequency bands,
bearers,receptionequipment,qualityindicators,etc.
Microwavelinknetworksettingsandequipment
TheAFPmodelsavailableinyourAtollinstallation.
AnyadditionalmodulecreatedusingtheAPI.

1.2.2 WorkingwiththeSiteConfigurationWindow
UsingtheSiteConfigurationwindow,youcanviewthetransmittersthatareonanysiteandthenviewthepropertiesofany
transmitter.Thetransmittersoftheselectedsitearedisplayedinahierarchicalseriesoffolders(seeFigure 1.3).
TodisplaytheSiteConfigurationwindow:
SelectView >SiteConfigurationWindow.TheSiteConfigurationwindowappears.

Figure 1.3:TheSiteConfigurationwindow

TheSiteConfigurationwindowappearswhereitwaslastplaced.Ifyouresetthewindowlayout,itappearsasatabalongwith
theNetwork,Geo,andParametersexplorers.
Todisplaythetransmittersonasite:
1. SelectthesiteinthemapwindoworintheSitesfolderintheNetworkexplorer.
2. SelecttheSiteConfigurationwindow.ThesiteisdisplayedintheSiteConfigurationwindow.Thetransmitterslocated
onthatsitearedisplayedinfoldersidentifyingtheirradioplanningtechnology.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftofafoldertoexpandthefolderandviewthecontents.

YoucanviewthepropertiesofatransmitterdisplayedintheSiteConfigurationwindow
bydoubleclickingit.

1.2.3 AutomaticallyHidingExplorerWindows
Byhavingtheexplorersvisible,youhaveimmediateaccesstotheirdataandobjects.Sometimes,however,thatyoumight
wantmoreofthemapwindowtobedisplayed.Atollenablesyoutoautohidetheexplorers,therebyenablingyoutoseemore
ofthemapwindow.Whenautohideisactivatedonanexplorerwindow,allthreeexplorerwindowsarereducedtovertical
tabsattheedgeoftheworkarea(seeFigure 1.4).Thehiddenexplorersreappearswhenyoumovethepointeroverit.

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Figure 1.4:AutohideactivatedfortheexplorerwindowsandforFindonMap

Toautohidetheexplorerwindows:
Intherighthandcorneroftheexplorerwindowtitlebar,besidetheCloseicon( ),clicktheAutohideicon( ).
Theexplorerwindowsarereducedtoverticaltabsattheedgeoftheworkarea(seeFigure 1.4).
Youcandisplaytheexplorerwindowbyrestingthepointeroverthenameoftheexplorerwindow.
Todeactivateautohide:
In the righthand corner of the explorer title bar, beside the Close icon ( ), click the Autohide icon ( ). The
explorerwindowsarerestoredtotheirformerpositions.
Youcandisplaytheexplorerbyrestingthepointeroverthenameoftheexplorer.

Youcanalsoautohidemosttoolwindows,forexample,theFindonMapwindow,the
Legendwindow,theDriveTestDatawindow,etc.

1.2.4 DisplayingorHidingObjectsontheMapUsingtheExplorer
Windows
Youcanusetheexplorerwindowstodisplayorhideobjectsonthemap.Byhidingonetypeofobject,anothertypeofobject
ismoreplainlyvisible.Forexample,youcouldhideallpredictionsbutone,sothattheresultsofthatpredictionaremore
clearlydisplayed.

Hiding an object affects only its visibility in the map window; it will still be taken into
considerationduringcalculations.

Tohideanobjectonthemap:
1. Selecttheexplorer(theNetworkexplorerortheGeoexplorer)thatcontainsthatobject.
2. Clearthecheckbox( )immediatelytotheleftoftheobjectname.Thecheckboxappearscleared( )andtheobject
isnolongervisibleonthemap.

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Youcanhidethecontentsofanentirefolderbyclearingthecheckboxtotheleftofthe
foldername.Whenthecheckboxofafolderappearsgreyed( ),itindicatesthatthe
foldercontainsbothvisibleandhiddenobjects.

1.2.5 WorkingwithLayersUsingtheExplorerWindows
InAtoll,themapismadeofobjectsarrangedinlayers.Thelayersonthetop(asarrangedontheNetworkandGeotabs)are
themostvisibleonthescreenandinprint.Thevisibilityofthelowerlayersdependsonwhichlayersareaboveandvisible(see
"DisplayingorHidingObjectsontheMapUsingtheExplorerWindows"onpage 22)andonthetransparencyoftheselayers
(see"DefiningtheTransparencyofObjectsandObjectTypes"onpage 30).
Tomovealayerupordown:
1. Selecttheexplorer(theNetworkexplorerortheGeoexplorer)thatcontainsthatobject.
2. Clickanddragtheobjecttoitsnewposition.Asyoudragtheobject,ahorizontalblacklineindicateswheretheobject
willremainwhenyoureleasethemousebutton(seeFigure 1.5).

Figure 1.5:Movingalayer

Beforeyouprintamap,youshouldpayattentiontothearrangementofthelayers.For
moreinformation,see"PrintingRecommendations"onpage 64.

1.3 WorkingwithObjects
InAtoll,theitemsfoundintheexplorer(theNetworkexplorerortheGeoexplorer)anddisplayedonthemaparereferredto
asobjects.MostobjectsinAtollbelongtoanobjecttype.Forexample,atransmitterisanobjectofthetypetransmitter.
Atollenablesyoutocarryoutmanyoperationsonobjectsbyclickingtheobjectdirectlyorbyrightclickingtheobjectand
selectingtheoperationfromthecontextmenu.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"UsingtheObjectContextMenu"onpage 23
"ModifyingSitesandMicrowaveLinkExtremitiesDirectlyontheMap"onpage 25
"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 27.

1.3.1 UsingtheObjectContextMenu
InAtoll,anobjectscontextmenugivesyouaccesstocommandsspecifictothatobjectaswellastocommandsthatare
commontomostobjects.Inthissection,thefollowingcontextmenucommandscommontoallobjectstypesareexplained:
Rename:"RenaminganObject"onpage 24.
Delete:"DeletinganObject"onpage 24.
Properties:"DisplayingthePropertiesofanObject"onpage 24.

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1.3.1.1 RenaminganObject
YoucanchangethenameofanobjectinAtoll.
Torenameanobject:
1. Rightclicktheobjecteitheronthemaporintheexplorer(theNetworkexplorerortheGeoexplorer).Thecontext
menuappears.
2. SelectRenamefromthecontextmenu.
3. EnterthenewnameandpressENTERtochangethename.

InAtoll,objectssuchassitesarenamedwithdefaultprefixes.Individualobjectsaredistin
guishedfromeachotherbythenumberaddedautomaticallytothedefaultprefix.Youcan
changethedefaultprefixforsitesbyeditingtheatoll.inifile.Formoreinformation,seethe
AdministratorManual.

1.3.1.2 DeletinganObject
Youcandeleteobjectsfromeitherthemaporfromtheexplorer(theNetworkexplorerortheGeoexplorer).
Todeleteanobject:
1. Rightclicktheobjecteitheronthemaporintheexplorer(theNetworkexplorerortheGeoexplorer).Thecontext
menuappears.
2. SelectDeletefromthecontextmenu.Theselectedobjectisdeleted.

1.3.1.3 DisplayingthePropertiesofanObject
YoucanmodifythepropertiesofanobjectinthePropertiesdialogue.
ToopenthePropertiesdialogueofadataobject:
1. Rightclicktheobjecteitheronthemaporintheexplorer(theNetworkexplorerortheGeoexplorer).Thecontext
menuappears.

Whenyouareselectingdataobjectsonthemap,itcanbedifficulttoensurethatthe
correctobjecthasbeenselected.Whenasiteisselected,thesite(anditsname)is
surroundedbyablackframe( ).Whenatransmitterisselected,bothendsofits
iconhaveagreenpoint( ).Whenthereismorethanonemicrowavelinkwithwith
thesameazimuth,clickingthetransmittersinthemapwindowopensacontextmenu
allowingyoutoselectthetransmitteryouwant(see"SelectingOneofSeveralLinks"on
page 25).

2. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogueappears.

SwitchingBetweenPropertyDialogues

YoucanswitchbetweenthePropertiesdialoguesofitems(antennas,sites,etc.)inthesamefolderordefinedviewinthe
explorer(theNetworkexplorerortheGeoexplorer)byusingthebrowsebuttons( )inthelowerleftcorner
ofeachPropertiesdialogue:

:jumptothefirstiteminthelist
:jumptothepreviousiteminthelist
:jumptothenextiteminthelist
:jumptothelastiteminthelist
Ifyouhavemadeanychangestothepropertiesofanitem,Atollpromptsyoutoconfirmthesechangesbeforeswitchingto
thenextPropertiesdialogue.
Youcanusethis,forexample,toaccessthepropertiesofcositetransmitterswithoutclosingandreopeningtheProperties
dialogue.Switchingisperformedwithinthefolderor,ifyouhavecreatedaview,withintheview.Forexample:
Iftransmittersaregroupedbysite,youcanswitchonlywithinonesite(cositetransmitters).
Iftransmittersaregroupedbyaflag,youcanswitchonlywithinthisgroup.
Iftransmittersaregroupedbyactivityandbyaflag,youcanswitchonlywithintransmittershavingthesameactivity
andthesameflag.

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Thebrowsebuttonsarenotavailable:
Whencreatinganewitem.
WhenopeninganitemsPropertiesdialoguebydoubleclickingitsrecordinatable.
Forrepeaterproperties.
Forpropagationmodelproperties.
TheDisplaytabofthePropertiesdialogueisexplainedin"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 27.

1.3.2 ModifyingSitesandMicrowaveLinkExtremitiesDirectlyon
theMap
Inacomplexmicrowaveorplanningproject,itcanbedifficulttofindthedataobjectintheNetworkexplorer,althoughit
mightbevisibleinthemapwindow.AtollletsyouaccessthePropertiesdialogueofsitesandmicrowavelinksdirectlyfrom
themap.Youcanalsochangethepositionofasitebydraggingit,orbylettingAtollfindahigherlocationforit.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"SelectingOneofSeveralLinks"onpage 25
"MovingaSiteUsingtheMouse"onpage 25
"MovingaSitetoaHigherLocation"onpage 26
"ChangingtheAzimuthoftheAntennaUsingtheMouse"onpage 26"ChangingtheAntennaPositionRelativetothe
SiteUsingtheMouse"onpage 26
"SelectingAnotherSitefortheLinkExtremityUsingtheMouse"onpage 27.

1.3.2.1 SelectingOneofSeveralLinks
Ifthereismorethanonelinkwiththesameazimuth,Atollenablesyoutoselectaspecificlink.
Toselectoneofseverallinkwiththesameazimuth:
1. In the map window, click thelinks. A context menu appears with a list of thelinks with the same azimuth
(seeFigure 1.6).

Figure 1.6:Selectingonelink

2. Selectthelinkfromthecontextmenu.

Whenyouselectalink,bothendsappearwhiteandthelinkitselfappearsoutlined( ).

1.3.2.2 MovingaSiteUsingtheMouse
YoucanmoveasitebyeditingthecoordinatesontheGeneraltaboftheSitePropertiesdialogue,orbyusingthemouse.
Tomoveasiteusingthemouse:
1. Clickanddragthesitetothedesiredposition.Asyoudragthesite,theexactcoordinatesofthepointerscurrentloca
tionarevisibleintheStatusbar.
2. Releasethesitewhereyouwouldliketoplaceit.Bydefault,Atolllocksthepositionofasite.Whenthepositionofa
siteislocked,Atollasksyoutoconfirmthatyouwanttomovethesite.
3. ClickYestoconfirm.

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Whilethismethodallowsyoutoplaceasitequickly,youcanadjustthelocationmore
preciselybyeditingthecoordinatesontheGeneraltaboftheSitePropertiesdialogue.

1.3.2.3 MovingaSitetoaHigherLocation
Ifyouwanttoimprovethelocationofasite,intermsofreceptionandtransmission,Atollcanfindahigherlocationwithina
specifiedradiusfromthecurrentlocationofthesite.
TohaveAtollmoveasitetoahigherlocation:
1. Rightclickthesiteinthemapwindow.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectMovetoaHigherLocation.
3. IntheMovetoaHigherLocationdialogue,entertheradiusoftheareainwhichAtollshouldsearchandclickOK.Atoll
movesthesitetothehighestpointwithinthespecifiedradius.

1.3.2.4 ChangingtheAzimuthoftheAntennaUsingtheMouse
In Atoll, you can set the azimuth of a links antenna by modifying it on the Radio tab of the Microwave Link Properties
dialogue,oryoucanmodifyitonthemap,usingthemouse.
Tomodifytheazimuthoftheantennausingthemouse:

1. IntheNetworkexplorer,movetheMicrowaveRadioLinksfolderontopoftheSitesfolder
asexplainedin"WorkingwithLayersUsingtheExplorerWindows"onpage 23.
2. Onthemap,clickthelinkextremitywhoseazimuthyouwanttomodify.
3. Movethepointertotheendoftheantennawithagreencircle( ).Anarcwithanarrow
appearsunderthepointer.
4. Clickthegreencircleanddragittochangetheantennasazimuth.
Thecurrentazimuthoftheantennaisdisplayedinthefarleftofthestatusbar.Itisdefined
indegrees,with0indicatingnorth.
5. Releasethemousewhenyouhavesettheazimuthtothedesiredangle.
TheantennasazimuthrelativetothelinkdirectionismodifiedontheRadiotaboftheMicro
waveLinkPropertiesdialogue.

Ifyoumakeamistakewhenchangingtheazimuth,youcanundoyourchangesbyusing

Undo(byselectingEdit >Undo,bypressingCTRL+Z,orbyclicking inthetoolbar)to


undothechangesmade.

1.3.2.5 ChangingtheAntennaPositionRelativetotheSiteUsingtheMouse
Bydefault,antennasareplacedonthesite.However,antennasareoccasionallynotlocateddirectlyonthesite,butashort
distanceaway.InAtoll,youcanchangethepositionoftheantennarelativetothesiteeitherbyadjustingtheDxandDy
parameters or by entering the coordinates of the antenna position on the General tab of the Microwave link Property
dialogue.DxandDyarethedistanceinmetresoftheantennafromthesiteposition.Youcanalsomodifythepositionofthe
antennaonthemap,usingthemouse.
Tomoveamicrowavelinkextremityusingthemouse:

1. IntheNetworkexplorer,movetheMicrowaveRadioLinksfolderonthetopoftheSites
folderasexplainedin"WorkingwithLayersUsingtheExplorerWindows"onpage 23.
2. Onthemap,clickthelinkextremityyouwanttomove.
3. Movethepointertotheendoftheantennawithagreenrectangle( ).Acrossappearsunder
thepointer.
4. Clickthegreenrectangleanddragittochangetheantennaspositionrelativetothesite.
Thecurrentcoordinates(xandy)oftheantennaaredisplayedinthefarrightofthestatus
bar.
5. Releasethemousewhenyouhavemovedtheselectedlinkextremitytothedesiredposition.
ThepositionoftheselectedlinkextremityismodifiedontheGeneraltaboftheMicrowave
LinkPropertiesdialogue.

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Ifyoumakeamistakewhenchangingthepositionofthelinkextremity,youcanundoyour

changesbyusingUndo(byselectingEdit >Undo,bypressingCTRL+Z,orbyclicking
inthetoolbar)toundothechangesmade.

1.3.2.6 SelectingAnotherSitefortheLinkExtremityUsingtheMouse
InAtoll,youcanchangethelinkextremityandplaceitonanothersiteusingthemouse.
Toselectanothersiteforthelinkextremityonthemap:

1. IntheNetworkexplorer,movetheMicrowaveRadioLinksfolderonthetopoftheSites
folderasexplainedin"WorkingwithLayersUsingtheExplorerWindows"onpage 23.
2. Onthemap,clickthelinkextremityyouwanttomove.
3. Movethepointertotheendoftheantennawithagreenrectangle( ).Acrossappearsunder
thepointer.
4. Clickthegreenrectangleanddragittotheothersiteonthemap.
5. Releasethemousewhentheframeappearsaroundthesite,indicatingitisselected.
ThesitefortheselectedlinkextremityismodifiedontheGeneraltaboftheMicrowaveLink
Propertiesdialogueandthelinkisrenamed.

Ifyoumakeamistakewhenchangingthepositionofthelinkextremity,youcanundoyour

changesbyusingUndo(byselectingEdit >Undo,bypressingCTRL+Z,orbyclicking
inthetoolbar)toundothechangesmade.

1.3.3 DisplayPropertiesofObjects
InAtoll,mostobjects,suchassites,belongtoanobjecttype.Howanindividualobjectappearsonthemapdependsonthe
settings on the Display tab of the object types Properties dialogue. The Display tab is similar for all object types whose
appearancecanbeconfigured.OptionsthatareinapplicableforaparticularobjecttypeareunavailableontheDisplaytabof
itsPropertiesdialogue(seeFigure 1.7).
Inthissection,thedisplayoptionsareexplained,followedbyafewexamplesofhowyoucanusethemwhileworkingonyour
Atolldocument(see"ExamplesofUsingtheDisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 32).
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"DefiningtheDisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 27
"ExamplesofUsingtheDisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 32.

1.3.3.1 DefiningtheDisplayPropertiesofObjects
WhenyouaccessthePropertiesdialogueofagroupofobjects,forexample,whenyouaccessthePropertiesdialogueofthe
Sitesfolder,theDisplaytabwillshowoptionsapplicabletoallobjectsinthatgroup(seeFigure 1.7).

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Figure 1.7:TheDisplaytabforSites

WhenyouaccessthePropertiesdialogueofanindividualobject,theDisplaytabwillonlyshowtheoptionsapplicabletoan
individualobject(seeFigure 1.8).

Figure 1.8:TheDisplaytabforanindividualsite

Todefinethedisplaypropertiesofanobjecttype:
1. Rightclicktheobjecttypefoldereitheronthemaporintheexplorer(theNetworkexplorerortheGeoexplorer).The
contextmenuappears
2. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogueappears.
3. SelecttheDisplaytab.Dependingontheobjecttype,thefollowingoptionsareavailable:
"DefiningtheDisplayType"onpage 28
"DefiningtheTransparencyofObjectsandObjectTypes"onpage 30
"DefiningtheVisibilityScale"onpage 30
"DefiningtheObjectTypeLabel"onpage 30
"DefiningtheObjectTypeTipText"onpage 31
"AddinganObjectTypetotheLegend"onpage 31
4. Setthedisplayparameters.
5. ClickOK.

DefiningtheDisplayType

Dependingontheobjectselected,youcanchoosefromthefollowingdisplaytypes:unique,discretevalues,valueintervals,
orautomatic.

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Tochangethedisplaytype:
1. AccesstheDisplaytabofthePropertiesdialogueasexplainedin"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 27.
2. SelectthedisplaytypefromtheDisplayTypelist:
Unique: defines the same symbol for all objects of this type. By defining a unique symbol for an object type,
objectsofdifferenttypes,forexample,sites,areimmediatelyidentifiable.
i. Tomodifytheappearanceofthesymbol,clickthesymbolinthetablebelow.TheSymbolStyledialogueap
pears.
ii. Modifythesymbolasdesired.
iii. ClickOKtoclosetheSymbolStyledialogue.
Discretevalues:definesthedisplayofeachobjectaccordingtothevalueofaselectedfield.Thisdisplaytypecan
beusedtodistinguishobjectsofthesametypebyonecharacteristic.Forexample,youcouldusethisdisplaytype
todistinguishtransmitterbyantennatype,ortodistinguishinactivefromactivesites.
i. SelectthenameoftheFieldbywhichyouwanttodisplaytheobjects.
ii. YoucanclicktheActionsbuttontoaccesstheActionsmenu.Forinformationonthecommandsavailable,see
"UsingtheActionsButton"onpage 29.
iii. Tomodifytheappearanceofasymbol,clickthesymbolinthetablebelow.TheDisplayParametersdialogue
appears.
iv. Modifythesymbolasdesired.
v. ClickOKtoclosetheDisplayParametersdialogue.
Valueintervals:definesthedisplayofeachobjectaccordingtosetrangesofthevalueofaselectedfield.Thisdis
playtypecanbeused,forexample,todistinguishsignalstrengthandthealtitudeofsites.
i. SelectthenameoftheFieldbywhichyouwanttodisplaytheobjects.
ii. Definetherangesdirectlyinthetablebelow.Foranexample,seeFigure 1.10onpage 32.
iii. YoucanclicktheActionsbuttontoaccesstheActionsmenu.Forinformationonthecommandsavailable,see
"UsingtheActionsButton"onpage 29.
iv. Tomodifytheappearanceofasymbol,clickthesymbolinthetable.TheDisplayParametersdialogueappears.
v. Modifythesymbolasdesired.
vi. ClickOKtoclosetheDisplayParametersdialogue.

Whenyoucreateanewmapobject,forexample,anewsite,youmustclickthe
Refreshbutton( )forAtolltoassignacolourtonewlycreatedobjectaccording
tothesetdisplaytype.
Youcandefinethedefaultsymbolusedforsitesandhowitisdisplayedbyediting
anoptionintheatoll.inifile.Formoreinformation,seetheAdministratorManual.

UsingtheActionsButton

TheActionsbuttonontheDisplaytabofthePropertiesdialogueallowsyoutomodifythedisplaytypeasdefinedin"Defining
theDisplayType"onpage 28.
ToaccesstheActionsmenu:
1. AccesstheDisplaytabofthePropertiesdialogueasexplainedin"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 27.
2. ClicktheActionsbutton.TheActionsmenugivesyouaccesstothefollowingcommands:
Properties:AtolldisplaystheDisplayParametersdialogue,enablingyoutodefinetheappearanceoftheselected
symbolinthetable.
Selectall:Atollselectsallthevaluesinthetable.
Delete:Atollremovestheselectedvaluefromthetable.
Insertbefore:Whentheselecteddisplaytypeisvalueintervals,Atollinsertsanewthresholdinthetablebefore
thethresholdselectedinthetable.
Insertafter:Whentheselecteddisplaytypeisvalueintervals,Atollinsertsanewthresholdinthetableafterthe
thresholdselectedinthetable.
Shading:AtollopenstheShadingdialogue.When"ValueIntervals"istheselecteddisplaytype,youselectShading
todefinethenumberofvalueintervalsandconfiguretheircolour.Entertheupperandlowerlimitsofthevalue
in the First Break and Last Break boxes respectively, and enter a value in the Interval box. Define the colour
shadingbychoosingaStartColourandanEndColour.Thevalueintervalswillbedeterminedbythesetvalues
andcolouredbyashadegoingfromthesetstartcolourtothesetendcolour.

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When"DiscreteValues"istheselecteddisplaytype,youselectShadingtochooseaStartColourandanEndCol
our.
DisplayConfiguration:SelectLoadifyouwanttoimportanexistingdisplayconfiguration.SelectSaveifyouwant
tosavethedisplaysettingsofthecurrentobjectinadisplayconfigurationfile,sothatyoucansharethemwith
otherusersorusetheminotherdocuments.

DefiningtheTransparencyofObjectsandObjectTypes

Youcanchangethetransparencyofsomeobjects,suchaspredictions,andsomeobjecttypes,suchasclutterclasses,toallow
objectsonlowerlayerstobevisibleonthemap.
Tochangethetransparency:
1. AccesstheDisplaytabofthePropertiesdialogueasexplainedin"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 27.
2. MovetheTransparencyslidertotherighttomaketheobjectorobjecttypemoretransparentortothelefttomake
itlesstransparent.

DefiningtheVisibilityScale

Youcandefineavisibilityrangeforobjecttypes.Anobjectisvisibleonlyifthescale,asdisplayedontheMaptoolbar,iswithin
thisrange.Thiscanbeusedto,forexample,preventthemapfrombeingclutteredwithsymbolswhenyouareatacertain
scale.
Visibilityrangesaretakenintoaccountforscreendisplay,andforprintingandpreviewingprinting.Theydonotaffectwhich
objectsareconsideredduringcalculations.
Todefineanobjectvisibilityrange:
1. AccesstheDisplaytabofthePropertiesdialogueasexplainedin"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 27.
2. EnteraVisibilityScaleminimuminthebetween 1:textbox.
3. EnteraVisibilityScalemaximumintheand 1:textbox.

DefiningtheObjectTypeLabel

Formostobjecttypes,suchassites,youcandisplayinformationabouteachobjectintheformofalabelthatisdisplayedwith
theobject.Youcandisplayinformationfromeveryfieldinthatobjecttypesdatatable,includingfromfieldsthatyouadd.
Todefinealabelforanobjecttype:
1. AccesstheDisplaytabofthePropertiesdialogueasexplainedin"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 27.

2. ClicktheBrowsebutton( )besidetheLabelbox.TheFieldSelectiondialogueappears(seeFigure 1.9).

Figure 1.9:Definingalabel

3. Selectthefieldswhichyouwanttodisplayinthelabel:
a. Toselectafieldtobedisplayedinthelabelfortheobjecttype,selectthefieldintheAvailableFieldslistandclick
tomoveittotheSelectedFieldslist.

b. ToremoveafieldfromtheSelectedFieldslist,selectthefieldintheSelectedFieldslistandclick toremove
it.

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c. Tochangetheorderofthefields,selectafieldandclick or tomoveitupordowninthelist.Theobjectswill
begroupedintheorderofthefieldsintheSelectedFieldslist,fromtoptobottom.
4. ClickOKtoclosetheFieldSelectiondialogueandclickOKtoclosethePropertiesdialogue.

Formostobjecttypes,youcanalsodisplayobjectinformationintheformoftiptextthat
isonlyvisiblewhenyoumovethepointerovertheobject.Thisoptionhastheadvantage
ofnotfillingthemapwindowwithtext.Formoreinformationontiptext,see"Definingthe
ObjectTypeTipText"onpage 31.

Whenyouhavedefinedalinkforamicrowavelink,youcanchangeitspositiononthemapusingthemouse.
Tochangethepositionofamicrowavelinklabelusingthemouse:
1. Selectthelinkinthemapwindow.
2. Clickthelinklabelanddragittothenewposition.

Whenyoumoveoneofthesitesdefiningamicrowavelinkorwhenyouloadaconfigura
tion,Atollresetsthepositionofthelabeltoitsdefaultposition.

DefiningtheObjectTypeTipText

Formostobjecttypes,suchassitesandmicrowavelinks,youcandisplayinformationabouteachobjectintheformoftiptext
thatisonlyvisiblewhenyoumovethepointerovertheobject.Youcandisplayinformationfromeveryfieldinthatobject
typesdatatable,includingfromfieldsthatyouadd.
Intheexplorer(theNetworkexplorerortheGeoexplorer),thetiptextdisplaysthetotalnumbersofelementspresentinthe
Sites,Links,MultiHops,andPointtoMultipointfolders,andtheview.
Todefinetiptextforanobjecttype:
1. AccesstheDisplaytabofthePropertiesdialogueasexplainedin"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 27.

2. ClicktheBrowsebutton( )besidetheTipTextbox.TheFieldSelectiondialogueappears(seeFigure 1.9).


3. Selectthefieldswhichyouwanttodisplayinthetiptext:
a. Toselectafieldtobedisplayedinthetiptextfortheobjecttype,selectthefieldintheAvailableFieldslistand
click tomoveittotheSelectedFieldslist.

b. ToremoveafieldfromtheSelectedFieldslist,selectthefieldintheSelectedFieldslistandclick toremove
it.

Formostobjecttypes,youcanalsodisplayobjectinformationintheformofalabelthatis
displayedwiththeobject.Thisoptionhastheadvantageofkeepobjectrelatedinforma
tionpermanentlyvisible.Formoreinformationontiptext,see"DefiningtheObjectType
Label"onpage 30.

Onceyouhavedefinedthetiptext,youmustactivatethetiptextfunctionbeforeitappears.
Todisplaytiptext:

ClicktheDisplayTipsbutton( )onthetoolbar.Tiptextwillnowappearwhenthepointerisovertheobject.

AddinganObjectTypetotheLegend

Youcandisplaytheinformationdefinedbythedisplaytype(see"DefiningtheDisplayType"onpage 28)inyourAtolldocu
ments legend. Only visible objects appear in the Legend window. For information on displaying or hiding objects, see
"DisplayingorHidingObjectsontheMapUsingtheExplorerWindows"onpage 22.
InFigure 1.10,ontheDisplaytabofasignallevelprediction,theintervalsdefinedare:
Signallevel>=65 red
65>Signallevel>=105 shadingfromredtoblue(9intervals)
Signallevel<105 notshowninthecoverage.
TheentriesintheLegendcolumnwillappearintheLegendwindow.

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Figure 1.10:DefinedthresholdsastheywillappearintheLegend

Withvalueintervals,youcanenterinformationintheLegendcolumntobedisplayedonthelegend.Ifthereisnoinformation
enteredinthiscolumn,themaximumandminimumvaluesaredisplayedinstead.
1. AccesstheDisplaytabofthePropertiesdialogueasexplainedin"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 27.
2. SelecttheAddtolegendcheckbox.Thedefineddisplaywillappearonthelegend.
TodisplaytheLegendwindow:
SelectView>LegendWindow.TheLegendwindowappears.
YoucanalsodisplaythecommentsdefinedinthepropertiesofacoveragepredictionintheLegendwindowbysettingan
optionintheatoll.inifile.Formoreinformationaboutsettingoptionsintheatoll.inifile,seetheAdministratorManual.

1.3.3.2 ExamplesofUsingtheDisplayPropertiesofObjects
Inthissectionarethefollowingexamplesofhowdisplaypropertiesofobjectscanbeused:
"AutomaticDisplayTypeServerCoveragePredictions"onpage 32
"ShadingSignalLevelCoveragePrediction"onpage 33.

AutomaticDisplayTypeServerCoveragePredictions

Whenmakingabestserverprediction,Atollcalculates,foreachpixelonthemap,whichserverisreceivedthebest.Ifthe
selecteddisplaytypefortransmittersis"Automatic,"Atollcolourseachpixelonthemapaccordingtothecolourofthetrans
mitterthatisbestreceivedonthatpixel.Thisway,youcanidentifyimmediatelywhichtransmitterisbestreceivedoneach
pixel.Thefollowingtwofiguresshowtheresultsofthesamebestserverareaandhandovermargincoverageprediction.
InFigure 1.11,thetransmitterdisplaytypeis"DiscreteValues,"withthesitenameasthechosenvalue.Thedifferencein
colourisinsufficienttomakeclearwhichtransmitterisbestreceivedoneachpixel.InFigure 1.12,thetransmitterdisplaytype
is"Automatic."BecauseAtollensuresthateachtransmitterhasadifferentcolourthanthetransmitterssurroundingit,the
predictionresultsarealsoimmediatelyvisible.

Figure 1.11:Valueintervaldisplaytype Figure 1.12:Automaticdisplaytype

Todisplaytheresultsofaservercoveragepredictionwiththetransmitterssettotheautomaticdisplaytype:
1. RightclicktheTransmittersfolderintheNetworkexplorer.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogueappears.
3. SelecttheDisplaytab.
4. Select"Automatic"astheDisplayType.
5. ClickOK.

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6. ClicktheRefreshbutton( )toupdatethedisplayofthepredictionresults.

ShadingSignalLevelCoveragePrediction

Atolldisplaystheresultsofasignallevelpredictionasvalueintervals.Onthemap,thesevalueintervalsappearasdifferences
ofshading.YoucanusetheShadingcommandtodefinetheappearanceofthesevalueintervalstomaketheresultseasierto
readormorerelevanttoyourneeds.Forexample,youcanchangetherangeofdatadisplayed,theintervalbetweeneach
break,oryoucanchangethecolourstomaketheintervalsmorevisible.
Inthisexample,Figure 1.13showstheresultsofthebestsignallevelplotfrom60 dBmto105 dBm.However,ifyouaremore
interestedinreceptionfrom80 dBmto105 dBm,youcanchangetheshadingtodisplayonlythosevalues.Theresultisvisi
bleinFigure 1.14.

Figure 1.13:Shadingfrom60 dBmto105 dBm Figure 1.14:Shadingfrom80 dBmto105 dBm

Tochangehowtheresultsofasignallevelcoveragepredictionaredisplayed:
1. ExpandthePredictionsfolderintheNetworkexplorerandrightclickthesignallevelprediction.Thecontextmenu
appears.
2. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogueappears.
3. SelecttheDisplaytab.
4. ClickActionstodisplaythemenuandselectShading.TheShadingdialogueappears.
5. ChangethevalueoftheFirstBreakto"80".LeavethevalueoftheLastBreakat"105."
6. ClickOKtoclosetheShadingdialogue.
7. ClickOKtoclosethePropertiesdialogueandapplyyourchanges.

1.4 WorkingwithMaps
Atollhasthefollowingfunctionstohelpyouworkwithmaps:
"ChangingtheMapScale"onpage 34
"UsingFullScreenMode"onpage 35
"MovingtheMapintheDocumentWindow"onpage 35
"UsingthePanoramicWindow"onpage 35
"CentringtheMapWindowonanObject"onpage 36
"CentringtheMapWindowonaTableRecord"onpage 36
"AdjustingtheMapWindowtoaSelection"onpage 36
"MeasuringDistancesontheMap"onpage 36
"DisplayingRulersAroundtheMap"onpage 37
"DisplayingtheMapScale"onpage 37
"DisplayingtheMapLegend"onpage 38
"UsingZonesintheMapWindow"onpage 38
"EditingPolygons,Lines,andPoints"onpage 45
"CopyingtheContentofaZoneintoAnotherApplication"onpage 49.
"MapWindowPointers"onpage 49.

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1.4.1 ChangingtheMapScale
Youcanchangethescaleofthemapbyzoominginorout,byzoominginonaspecificareaofthemap,orbychoosingascale.
Atollalsoallowsyoutodefineazoomrangeoutsideofwhichcertainobjectsarenotdisplayed(see"DefiningtheVisibility
Scale"onpage 30).

1.4.1.1 ZoomingInandOut
Atolloffersseveraltoolsforzoominginandoutonthemap.Whenyouzoominoroutonthemap,youdosobasedonthe
positionofthecursoronthemap.
Tozoominonthemap:

1. ClicktheZoomicon( )ontheMaptoolbar(orpressCTRL+Q).
2. Clickthemapwhereyouwanttozoomin.

You can also zoom in by pressing CTRL++, by selecting Zoom > ZoomIn from theView
menu,orbyholdingdowntheCTRLkeyandrotatingthemousewheelbuttonforward.

Tozoomoutonthemap:

1. ClicktheZoomicon( )ontheMaptoolbar(orpressCTRL+Q).
2. Rightclickthemapwhereyouwanttozoomout.

YoucanalsozoomoutbypressingCTRL+,byselectingZoom >ZoomOutfromtheView
menu,orholdingdowntheCTRLkeyandrotatingthemousewheelbuttonbackward.

1.4.1.2 ZoomingInonaSpecificArea
Tozoominonaspecificareaofthemap:

1. ClicktheZoomAreaicon( )ontheMaptoolbar(orpressCTRL+W).
2. Clickinthemapononeofthefourcornersoftheareayouwanttoselect.
3. Dragtotheoppositecorner.Whenyoureleasethemousebutton,Atollzoomsinontheselectedarea.

1.4.1.3 ChoosingaScale
Tochooseascale:

1. Clickthearrownexttothescalebox( )ontheMaptoolbar.
2. Selectthescalefromthelist.
Ifthescalevalueyouwantisnotinthelist:

1. Clickinthescalebox( )ontheMaptoolbar.
2. Enterthedesiredscale.
3. PressENTER.Atollzoomsthemaptotheenteredscale.

1.4.1.4 ChangingBetweenPreviousZoomLevels
Atollsavesthelastfivezoomlevels,allowingyoutomovequicklybetweenpreviouszoomlevelsandzoomedareas.
Tomovebetweenzoomlevels:

ClickthePreviousZoombutton( )toreturntoazoomlevelyouhavealreadyused(orpressALT+).
Onceyouhavereturnedtoapreviouszoomlevel,clicktheNextZoombutton( )toreturntothelatestzoomlevel
(orpressALT+).

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1.4.2 UsingFullScreenMode
Atollenablesyoutoexpandthemapwindowtofilltheentirecomputerscreen,temporarilyhidingtheexplorerwindowsand
thetoolbars.ThemenusremainvisibleandaCloseFullScreenbuttonappears,enablingyoutoquicklyreturntothenormal
view.
Toenablefullscreenmode:
SelectView >FullScreen.Themapwindowexpandstofillthecomputerscreen.

YoucanmovetheCloseFullScreenbuttonbyclickinganddraggingtheFullScreentitle
baraboveit.IfyouinadvertantlymovetheCloseFullScreenbuttonoffscreen,youcan
stillreturntothenormalviewbyselectingView >FullScreenagainorbypressingESC.

Withthetoolbarsandscrollbarshidden,youcanstillnavigatearoundthemapwindowusingthekeyboardshortcuts:
CTRL++:Zoominonthemap
CTRL+:Zoomoutonthemap
CTRL+Q:SelectZoomIn/Outtool(leftclicktozoominandrightclicktozoomout)
CTRL+D:Movethemapinthemapwindow
ALT+:Previouszoomandlocationonthemap

ALT+:Nextzoomandlocationonthemap.

1.4.3 MovingtheMapintheDocumentWindow
Youcanmovethemapinthedocumentwindowusingthemouse.
Tomovethemapinthedocumentwindow:

1. ClicktheMoveMapWindowbutton( )ontheMaptoolbar(orpressCTRL+D).
2. Movethepointeroverthemapanddragthemapinthedesireddirection.

Youcanalsomovethemapinthedocumentwindowbyplacingthepointeroverthemap,
pressingthemousewheel,anddraggingthemapinthedesireddirection.

1.4.4 UsingthePanoramicWindow
ThePanoramicwindowdisplaystheentiremapwithalloftheimportedgeographicdata.Adarkrectangleindicateswhatpart
ofthegeographicdataispresentlydisplayedinadocumentwindow,helpingyousituatethedisplayedareainrelationtothe
entiremap.
YoucanusethePanoramicwindowto:
Zoominonaspecificareaofthemap
Resizethedisplayedmaparea
Movearoundthemap.
Tozoominonaspecificareaofthemap:
1. ClickinthePanoramicwindowononeofthefourcornersoftheareayouwanttozoominon.
2. Dragtotheoppositecorner.Whenyoureleasethemousebutton,Atollzoomsinontheselectedarea.
Toresizethedisplayedmaparea:
1. ClickinthePanoramicwindowonacornerorborderofthezoomarea(i.e.,thedarkrectangle).
2. Dragthebordertoitsnewposition.
Tomovearoundthemap:
1. Clickinthezoomarea(i.e.,thedarkrectangle)inthePanoramicwindow.
2. Dragtherectangletoitsnewposition.

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1.4.5 CentringtheMapWindowonanObject
Youcancentrethemaponanyselectedobject,forexample,atransmitter,asite,oneorallpredictions,oronanyzoneinthe
ZonesfolderintheGeoexplorer.Whencentringthemapwindowonanobjectthecurrentscaleiskept.
Youcanselecttheobjectinthemapwindoworintheexplorer.
Tocentrethemapwindowonaselectedobject:
1. Rightclicktheobjectinthemapwindoworintheexplorer.
2. SelectCentreinMapWindowfromthecontextmenu.

Ifyouwanttoquicklyfindanobject,suchasasite,onthemap,youcanselectitinthe
explorerandthenselecttheCentreinMapWindowcommand.

1.4.6 CentringtheMapWindowonaTableRecord
Youcancentrethemaponanyrecordinthefollowingtables:
Sitestable
Transmitterstable
Anyvectortable.
Whencentringthemapwindowonanobjectthecurrentscaleiskept.
Tocentrethemapwindowonatablerecord:
1. Openthetable.
2. Rightclicktherecord.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectCentreinMapWindowfromthecontextmenu.

1.4.7 AdjustingtheMapWindowtoaSelection
YoucanadjustthemapwindowtodisplaythecontentsoftheSitesfolder(orofaview),orasetofmeasurementdatapoints,
oroneorallpredictions,oranyobjectorzoneintheGeoexplorer.Whenyouadjustthemapwindowtodisplayaselection,
Atolloptimisesthedisplaybychangingthescaleandpositionsothattheselection(forexample,thesites)iscompletely
displayedinthemapwindow.
Toadjustthemapwindowtoafolderorobjectintheexplorer:
1. Rightclickthefolderorobjectintheexplorer.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectAdjustMapWindowfromthecontextmenu.

Youcanalsoadjustthemapwindowtoarecord(polygonorline)inavectortable.Themap
windowisthenadjustedsothatthepolygon(orline)entirelyoccupiesthedisplayedmap.

1.4.8 MeasuringDistancesontheMap
YoucanmeasuredistancesonthemapbyusingtheDistanceMeasurementtool.TheDistanceMeasurementtoolalsogives
youtheazimuthofalinesegment.YoucanalsousetheDistanceMeasurementtooltomeasuredistancebetweenseveral
pointsalongapolyline.Asyoumeasure,Atolldisplaysthefollowinginformation:
Path:Thetotaldistancebetweenthefirstpointandthelastpointofalinesegmentorapolyline.
Line:Thedistancebetweenthefirstpointandthepointersposition(foralinesegment),ordistancebetweenthelast
pointandthepointersposition(forapolyline).
Total:Thetotaldistancebetweenthefirstpointandthepointerslocation.
Azimuth:Theazimuthofthepointerspositionwithrespecttothefirstpointofalinesegment,orwithrespecttothe
lastpointofapolyline.

WhentheDistanceMeasurementtoolisactive,theinformationinthestatusbarchanges
from"Ready"tothefollowingwhenyouclickthefirstpoint:
"Path=0m,Line=0m;Total=0m;Azimuth=0"

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Tomeasureadistanceonthemapbetweentwopoints:

1. ClicktheDistanceMeasurementbutton( )onthetoolbar.
2. Clickthestartingpointonthemap.Asyoumovethepointerawayfromthefirstpoint,Atollmarkstheinitialposition
andconnectsittothepointerwithaline.Thestatusbardisplaysthedistancecoveredbythepointerthusfar("Path
=0m"and"Line=Total"),andtheazimuthofthepointerslocationwithrespecttothefirstpoint.Asyoumovethe
pointerawayfromthefirstpoint,themeasurement"Line"increasesfrom0 mtothedistancecoveredbythepointer
thusfar.
3. Clickthemapwhereyouwanttoendmeasurement.
Thestatusbardisplaysthesameinformationasinstep 2.(exceptthat"Path=Total"and"Line=0m").
4. Doubleclickanywhereonthemaptoexitdistancemeasurementandclearthelinesegmentfromthemap.
Tomeasureadistanceonthemapbetweenseveralpoints:

1. ClicktheDistanceMeasurementbutton( )onthetoolbar.
2. Clickthefirstpointonthemap.Asyoumovethepointerawayfromthefirstpoint,Atollmarkstheinitialpositionand
connectsittothepointerwithaline.Thestatusbardisplaysthedistancemeasuredthusfar("Path=0m"and"Line
=Total"),andtheazimuthofthepointerslocationwithrespecttothefirstpoint.Asyoumovethepointerawayfrom
thefirstpoint,themeasurement"Line"increasesfrom0 mtothedistancecoveredbythepointerthusfar.
3. Clickthenextpointonthemap.Thestatusbardisplaysthesameinformationasinstep 2.(exceptthat"Path=Total"
and"Line=0m").
4. Continueclickingpointsuntilyouhaveclickedthelastpoint.IntheexampleinFigure 1.15,"Site052"isthefirstpoint,
"Site055"isthelastpoint,thepointerslocationis422 mawayfromthelastpointanditsazimuthis166withrespect
tothelastpoint.
5. Doubleclickanywhereonthemaptoexitdistancemeasurementandclearthepolylinefromthemap.

Figure 1.15:Measurementdatainthestatusbar

1.4.9 DisplayingRulersAroundtheMap
Youcandisplayrulersaroundthemapinthedocumentwindow.
Todisplayrulers:
1. SelectDocument >Preferences.ThePreferencesdialogueappears.
2. InthePreferencesdialogue,clicktheCoordinatestab.
3. UnderDisplayrulersandscale,selectwhereyouwanttherulerstobedisplayedinthemapwindow.
4. ClickOK.

1.4.10 DisplayingtheMapScale
Youcandisplaythemapscaleinthemapwindow.
Todisplaythemapscale:
1. SelectDocument >Preferences.ThePreferencesdialogueappears.
2. InthePreferencesdialogue,clicktheCoordinatestab.
3. UnderDisplayrulersandscale,selecttheScaleonmapcheckbox.
4. ClickOK.

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1.4.11 DisplayingtheMapLegend
Youcandisplayamaplegend.Thelegendwillcontaintheinformationontheobjecttypesthatyouhaveaddedtoit.Forinfor
mationonaddingobjecttypestothelegend,see"AddinganObjectTypetotheLegend"onpage 31.
Todisplaythelegend:
SelectView >LegendWindow.

1.4.12 UsingZonesintheMapWindow
IntheGeoexplorer,Atollprovidesyouwithasetoftoolscalledzones.Thezonesareatypeofpolygon,whichcanbecreated
andmodifiedinthesamewayascontours,lines,orpoints.Zonescanbeusedtodefineareasofthemapforthefollowing
purposes:

FilteringZone:Thefilteringzoneisagraphicalfilterthatrestrictstheobjectsdisplayedonthemapandinthe
Networkexplorertotheobjectsinsidethefilteringzone.Italsorestrictswhichobjectsareusedincalculationssuch
ascoveragepredictions,etc.
Formoreinformationonthefilteringzone,see"FilteringZones"onpage 38.

ComputationZone:Thecomputationzoneisusedtodefinewhichmicrowavelinksaretobetakenintoconsider
ationincalculations(i.e.,linkbudget,interferenceanalysis,etc.,).
Formoreinformationonthecomputationzone,see"TheComputationZone"onpage 39.

FocusZone:Withthefocuszone,youcanselecttheareasofcoveragepredictionsorothercalculationsonwhich
youwanttogeneratereportsandresults.
Formoreinformationonthefocuszone,see"TheFocusZone"onpage 40.

PrintingZone:Theprintingzoneallowsyoutodefinetheareatobeprinted.
Formoreinformationonprintingusingtheprintingzone,see"UsingaPrintingZone"onpage 43.

GeographicExportZone:Thegeographicexportzoneisusedtodefinepartofthemaptobeexportedasabitmap.
Formoreinformationonthegeographicexportzone,see"UsingaGeographicExportZone"onpage 43.

Zonesaretakenintoaccountwhetherornottheyarevisible.Inotherwords,ifyouhave
drawnazone,itwillbetakenintoaccountwhetherornotitsvisibilitycheckboxinthe
ZonesfolderoftheGeoexplorerisselected.Forexample,ifyouhavefilteredthesites
usingafilteringzone,thesitesoutsidethefilteringzonewillnotbetakeninto
considerationincoveragepredictions,evenifyouhaveclearedthefilteringzones
visibilitycheckbox.Youwillhavetodeletethezoneifyounolongerwanttoselectsites
usingafilteringzone.

Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"FilteringZones"onpage 38
"TheComputationZone"onpage 39
"TheFocusZone"onpage 40
"UsingPolygonZoneEditingTools"onpage 41
"UsingaPrintingZone"onpage 43
"UsingaGeographicExportZone"onpage 43.

1.4.12.1 FilteringZones
ThefilteringzoneisagraphicalfilterthatrestrictstheobjectsdisplayedonthemapandintheNetworkexplorertotheobjects
insidethefilteringzone.Italsorestrictswhichobjectsareusedincalculationssuchascoveragepredictions,etc.Bylimiting
thenumberofsites,youcanreducethetimeandcostofcalculationsandmakevisualisationofdataobjectsonthemap
clearer.
Thefilteringzoneistakenintoaccountwhetherornotitisvisible.Inotherwords,ifyouhavedrawnazone,itwillbetaken
intoaccountwhetherornotitsvisibilitycheckboxintheZonesfolderoftheGeoexplorerisselected.Youwillhavetodelete
thezoneifyounolongerwanttoselectsitesusingafilteringzone.
Tocreateafilteringzone:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftofZonesfoldertoexpandthefolder.

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3. RightclicktheFilteringZonefolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. Fromthecontextmenu,selectoneofthefollowing:
DrawPolygon
i. Clickonceonthemaptostartdrawingthezone.
ii. Clickonceonthemaptodefineeachpointonthemapwheretheborderofthezonechangesdirection.
iii. Clicktwicetofinishdrawingandclosethezone.
DrawRectangle
i. Clickthepointonthemapthatwillbeonecorneroftherectanglethatwilldefinethefilteringzone.
ii. Dragtotheoppositecorneroftherectanglethatwilldefinethefilteringzone.Whenyoureleasethemouse,
thefilteringzonewillbecreatedfromtherectangledefinedbythetwocorners.
Thefilteringzoneisdelimitedbyablueline.Thedataobjectsoutsideoftheselectedzonearefilteredout.Inthe
Networkexplorer,anyfolderwhosecontentisaffectedbythefilteringzoneappearswithaspecialicon( ),toindi
catethatthefoldercontentshavebeenfiltered.
Youcanalsocreateafilteringzoneasfollows:

VectorEditortoolbar:YoucanusetheNewPolygon( )andNewRectangle( )buttonsavailableintheVector


Editortoolbartodrawthefilteringzone.
Existingpolygon:YoucanuseanyexistingpolygonasafilteringzonebyrightclickingitonthemaporintheGeo
explorerandUseAs >FilteringZonefromthecontextmenu.Youcanalsocombineanexistingfilteringzonewithany
existingpolygonbyrightclickingitonthemaporintheGeoexplorerandselectingAddTo >FilteringZonefromthe
contextmenu.
Importingapolygon:Ifyouhaveafilewithanexistingpolygon,forexample,apolygondescribinganadministrative
area,youcanimportitanduseitasafilteringzone.YoucanimportitbyrightclickingtheFilteringZonefolderinthe
GeoexplorerandselectingImportfromthecontextmenu.

FitZonetoMapWindow:YoucancreateafilteringzonethesizeofthemapwindowbyrightclickingtheFiltering
ZonefolderintheGeoexplorerandselectingFitZonetoMapWindowfromthecontextmenu.
Onceyouhavecreatedafilteringzone,youcanuseAtollspolygoneditingtoolstoeditit.Formoreinformationonthepoly
goneditingtools,see"UsingPolygonZoneEditingTools"onpage 41.

Youcansavethefilteringzone,sothatyoucanuseitinadifferentAtolldocument,inthe
followingways:
Savingthefilteringzoneintheuserconfiguration:Forinformationonsavingthe
fiiltering zone in a user configuration, see "Saving a User Configuration" on
page 79.
Exportingthefilteringzone:Youcanexportthefilteringzonebyrightclickingthe
FilteringZoneintheGeoexplorerandselectingExportfromthecontextmenu.

1.4.12.2 TheComputationZone
ThecomputationzoneisusedtodefinetheareawhereAtollcarriesoutcalculations.Whenyoumakealinkbudgetoryou
studyinterference,Atollcalculatesallthemicrowavelinksthatareactive,filtered(i.e.,thatareselectedbythecurrentfilter
parameters),andintersectsthecomputationzone.
Whenworkingwithalargenetwork,thecomputationzoneallowsyoutorestrictyourcoveragepredictionstothepartofthe
networkyouarecurrentlyworkingon.Byallowingyoutoreducethenumberofmicrowavelinksstudied,Atollreducesboth
thetimeandcomputerresourcesnecessaryforcalculations.
Ifthereisnocomputationzonedefined,Atollmakesitscalculationsonallmicrowavelinksthatareactiveandfilteredandfor
theentireextentofthegeographicaldataavailable.
Thecomputationzoneistakenintoaccountwhetherornotitisvisible.Inotherwords,ifyouhavedrawnacomputationzone,
itwillbetakenintoaccountwhetherornotitsvisibilitycheckboxintheZonesfolderoftheGeoexplorerisselected.Youwill
havetodeletethecomputationzoneifyounolongerwanttodefineanareaforcalculations.
Tocreateacomputationzone:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheZonesfolder.
3. RightclicktheComputationZone.Thecontextmenuappears.

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4. Fromthecontextmenu,selectoneofthefollowing:
DrawPolygon
i. Clickonceonthemaptostartdrawingthezone.
ii. Clickonceonthemaptodefineeachpointonthemapwheretheborderofthezonechangesdirection.
iii. Clicktwicetofinishdrawingandclosethezone.
DrawRectangle
i. Clickthepointonthemapthatwillbeonecorneroftherectanglethatwilldefinethecomputationzone.
ii. Dragtotheoppositecorneroftherectanglethatwilldefinethecomputationzone.Whenyoureleasethe
mouse,thecomputationzonewillbecreatedfromtherectangledefinedbythetwocorners.
Thecomputationzoneisdelimitedbyaredline.
Youcanalsocreateacomputationzoneasfollows:

VectorEditortoolbar:YoucanusetheNewPolygon( )andNewRectangle( )buttonsavailableintheVector


Editortoolbartodrawthecomputationzone.
Existingpolygon:YoucanuseanyexistingpolygonasacomputationzonebyrightclickingitonthemaporintheGeo
explorerandselectingUseAs >ComputationZonefromthecontextmenu.Youcanalsocombineanexistingcompu
tationzonewithanyexistingpolygonbyrightclickingitonthemaporintheGeoexplorerandselectingAddTo >
ComputationZonefromthecontextmenu.
Importingapolygon:Ifyouhaveafilewithanexistingpolygon,forexample,apolygondescribinganadministrative
area,youcanimportitanduseitasacomputationzone.YoucanimportitbyrightclickingtheComputationZonein
theGeoexplorerandselectingImportfromthecontextmenu.
FitZonetoMapWindow:YoucancreateacomputationzonethesizeofthemapwindowbyrightclickingtheCom
putationZoneintheGeoexplorerandselectingFitZonetoMapWindowfromthecontextmenu.

Onceyouhavecreatedacomputationzone,youcanuseAtollspolygoneditingtoolstoeditit.Formoreinformationonthe
polygoneditingtools,see"UsingPolygonZoneEditingTools"onpage 41.

Youcansavethecomputationzone,sothatyoucanuseitinadifferentAtolldocument,
inthefollowingways:
Savingthecomputationzoneintheuserconfiguration:Forinformationonsaving
thecomputationzoneinauserconfiguration,see"SavingaUserConfiguration"on
page 79.
Exportingthecomputationzone:Youcanexportthecomputationzonebyright
clickingtheComputationZoneintheGeoexplorerandselectingExportfromthe
contextmenu.

1.4.12.3 TheFocusZone
Usingthefocuszone,youcandefineanareaonwhichstatisticscanbedrawnandonwhichreportsaremade.
Itisimportantnottoconfusethecomputationzoneandthefocuszone.Thecomputationzonedefinesthesitesandmicro
wavelinkscalculatedinlinkbudget,interferencepredictions,etc.andthepotentialinterfererswhilethefocuszonefiltersthe
displayedresults.
Atollbasesthestatisticsontheareacoveredbythefocuszone;ifnofocuszoneisdefined,Atollwillusethecomputation
zone.However,byusingafocuszoneforthereport,youcandisplaythestatisticsforaspecificnumberofsites,insteadof
displayingstatisticsforeverysitethathasbeencalculated.
Atolltakesthefocuszoneintoaccountwhetherornottheyarevisible.Inotherwords,ifyouhavedrawnafocuszone,itwill
betakenintoaccountwhetherornotitsvisibilitycheckboxintheZonesfolderintheGeoexplorerisselected.Youwillhave
todeletethezoneifyounolongerwanttodefineanareaforreports.

Afocuszonecanconsistofmorethanonepolygon.Thepolygonsofafocuszonemustnot
intersectoroverlapeachother.

Todefineafocuszone:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheZonesfolder.
3. RightclicktheFocusZonefolder.Thecontextmenuappears.

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4. Fromthecontextmenu,selectoneofthefollowing:
DrawPolygon
i. Clickonceonthemaptostartdrawingthefocuszone.
ii. Clickonceonthemaptodefineeachpointonthemapwheretheborderofthefocuszonechangesdirection.
iii. Clicktwicetofinishdrawingandclosethefocuszone.
DrawRectangle
i. Clickthepointonthemapthatwillbeonecorneroftherectanglethatwilldefinethefocuszone.
ii. Dragtotheoppositecorneroftherectanglethatwilldefinethefocuszone.Whenyoureleasethemouse,the
focuszonewillbecreatedfromtherectangledefinedbythetwocorners.
Afocuszoneisdelimitedbyagreenline.IfyouclearthezonesvisibilitycheckboxintheZonesfolderintheGeo
explorer,itwillnolongerbedisplayedbutwillstillbetakenintoaccount.
Youcanalsocreateafocuszoneinoneofthefollowingways:

VectorEditortoolbar:YoucanusetheNewPolygon( )andNewRectangle( )buttonsavailableintheVector


Editortoolbartodrawthefocuszone.
Existingpolygon:YoucanuseanyexistingpolygonasafocuszonebyrightclickingitonthemaporintheGeoexplorer
andselectingUseAs >FocusZonefromthecontextmenu.Youcanalsocombineanexistingfocuszonewithany
existingpolygonbyrightclickingitonthemaporintheGeoexplorerandselectingAddTo >FocusZonefromthe
contextmenu.
Importingapolygon:Ifyouhaveafilewithanexistingpolygon,forexample,apolygondescribinganadministrative
area,youcanimportitanduseitasafocuszone.YoucanimportitbyrightclickingtheFocusZonefolderintheGeo
explorerandselectingImportfromthecontextmenu.
FitZonetoMapWindow:YoucancreateafocuszonethesizeofthemapwindowbyrightclickingtheFocusZone
folderintheGeoexplorerandselectingFitZonetoMapWindowfromthecontextmenu.

Youcansavethefocuszone,sothatyoucanuseitinadifferentAtolldocument,inthe
followingways:
Saving the focus zone in the user configuration: For information on saving the
focuszoneinauserconfiguration,see"SavingaUserConfiguration"onpage 79.
Exportingthefocuszone:YoucanexportthefocuszonebyrightclickingtheFocus
ZonefolderintheGeoexplorerandselectingExportfromthecontextmenu.

1.4.12.4 UsingPolygonZoneEditingTools
Atollprovidesyouwithseveraldifferentwaysofeditingthecomputationzone,focuszone,andfilteringzones.Youcanedit
thesezonesbyeditingthepointsthatdefinethem,bycombiningseveralpolygons,orbydeletingpartsofthepolygonsthat
makeupthesezones.Whenyounolongerneedthezone,youcandeleteitfromthemap.
Thecomputationandfocuspolygonscancontainholes.Theholeswithinpolygonalareasaredifferentiatedfromoverlaying
polygonsbytheorderofthecoordinatesoftheirvertices.Thecoordinatesoftheverticesofpolygonalareasareinclockwise
order,whereasthecoordinatesoftheverticesofholeswithinpolygonalareasareincounterclockwiseorder.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"EditingPolygonZones"onpage 41
"RemovingaPolygonZone"onpage 43.

1.4.12.4.1 EditingPolygonZones
Atollenablesyoutoeditapolygonzoneinseveraldifferentways.Thefirststepistoselectit,eitherby:
SelectingthepolygonzoneintheZonesfolderintheGeoexplorer
Selectingthepolygonzonebyclickingitonthemap,or
SelectingthepolygonzonefromthelistintheVectorEditortoolbar.

Thesecondstepistoputthezoneineditingmode:
RightclickthezoneyouwanttoeditinthemapwindowandselectEditZonefromthecontextmenu,or
RightclickthezoneintheZonesfolderintheGeoexplorerandselectEditZonefromthecontextmenu.

IfthezonehasbeenselectedfromthelistintheVectorEditortoolbar,itisautomatically
putineditingmode.

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Onceyouhavethepolygonzoneineditingmode,youcanedititasexplainedinthefollowingsections:
"EditingthePointsofaPolygonZone"onpage 42
"EditingPolygonZonesUsingtheToolbar"onpage 42
"EditingPolygonZonesUsingtheContextMenu"onpage 43.

EditingthePointsofaPolygonZone

Toeditapointofapolygonzone:
1. Putthepolygonzoneineditingmodeasexplainedin"EditingPolygonZones"onpage 41.
2. Selectthepolygonzone.Youcannowedititby:
Movingapoint:

i. Positionthepointeroverthepointyouwanttomove.Thepointerchanges( ).
ii. Dragthepointtoitsnewposition.
Addingapointtothepolygonzone:

i. Positionthepointeroverthepolygonzoneborderwhereyouwanttoaddapoint.Thepointerchanges( ).
ii. RightclickandselectInsertPointfromthecontextmenu.Apointisaddedtothepolygonzoneborderatthe
positionofthepointer.
Deletingapointfromapolygonzone:

i. Positionthepointeroverthepointyouwanttodelete.Thepointerchanges( ).
ii. RightclickandselectDeletePointfromthecontextmenu.Thepointisdeleted.

EditingPolygonZonesUsingtheToolbar

InAtoll,youcancreatecomplexpolygonzonesbyusingthetoolsontheVectorEditortoolbar.Thefiltering,computation,
andfocuszonepolygonscancontainholes.Theholeswithinpolygonalareasaredifferentiatedfromoverlayingpolygonsby
the order of the coordinates of their vertices. The coordinates of the vertices of polygonal areas are in clockwise order,
whereasthecoordinatesoftheverticesofholeswithinpolygonalareasareincounterclockwiseorder.
ToeditapolygonzoneusingtheiconsontheVectorEditortoolbar:
1. Putthepolygonzoneineditingmodeasexplainedin"EditingPolygonZones"onpage 41.
2. Clickthecontourtoedit.TheVectorEditortoolbarhasthefollowingbuttons:

:Tocombineseveralpolygonzones:

i. IntheVectorEditortoolbar,clicktheCombinebutton( ).
ii. Clickonceonthemapwhereyouwanttobegindrawingthenewpolygonzone.
iii. Clickeachtimeyouchangeanglesontheborderdefiningtheoutsideofthepolygonzone.
iv. Doubleclicktoclosethepolygonzone.
v. Drawmorepolygonzonesifdesired.Atollcreatesagroupofpolygonsoftheselectedandnewcontours.If
polygonzonesoverlap,Atollmergesthem.

:Todeletepartoftheselectedpolygonzone:

i. IntheVectorEditortoolbar,clicktheDeletebutton( ).
ii. Drawtheareayouwanttodeletefromtheselectedpolygonzonebyclickingonceonthemapwhereyouwant
tobegindrawingtheareatodelete.
iii. Clickeachtimeyouchangeanglesontheborderdefiningtheoutsideofthearea.
iv. Doubleclicktoclosethearea.Atolldeletestheareafromtheselectedcontour.

:Tocreateapolygonoutoftheoverlappingareaoftwopolygons:

i. IntheVectorEditortoolbar,clicktheIntersectionbutton( ).
ii. Clickonceonthemapwhereyouwanttobegindrawingthepolygonthatwilloverlaptheselectedone.
iii. Clickeachtimeyouchangeanglesontheborderdefiningtheoutsideofthepolygon.
iv. Doubleclicktoclosethepolygon.Atollcreatesanewpolygonoftheoverlappingareaofthetwopolygons
anddeletesthepartsofthepolygonsthatdonotoverlap.

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:Tosplittheselectedpolygonintoseveralpolygons:

i. IntheVectorEditortoolbar,clicktheSplitbutton( ).
ii. Clickonceonthemapwhereyouwanttobegindrawingthepolygonthatwillsplittheselectedone.
iii. Clickeachtimeyouchangeanglesontheborderdefiningtheoutsideofthepolygon.
iv. Doubleclicktoclosethepolygon.Atollseparatestheareacoveredbythepolygonfromtheselectedpolygon
andcreatesanewpolygon.

EditingPolygonZonesUsingtheContextMenu

Whenyouareeditingpolygonzones,youcanaccesscertaincommandsusingthecontextmenu.
Toeditapolygonzoneusingthecontextmenu:
1. Clickthepolygonzoneyouwanttoedit.
2. Rightclickthepolygonzonetodisplaythecontextmenuandselectoneofthefollowing:
Properties:SelectPropertiestoopenthePropertiesdialogueoftheselectedpolygonzone.ThePropertiesdia
loguegivesthecoordinatesofeachpointthatdefinesthepositionandshapeofthepolygonzone.
InsertPoint:SelectInsertPointtoaddapointtotheborderofthecontouratthepositionofthepointer.
Move:
i. SelectMovefromthecontextmenutomovethecontour,line,orpointonthemap.
ii. Movethecontour,line,orpoint.
iii. Clicktoplacethecontour,line,orpoint.
Quitedition:SelectQuitEditiontoexiteditingmode.
Delete:SelectDeletetoremovetheselectedcontour,line,orpointfromthemap.

1.4.12.4.2 RemovingaPolygonZone
Whenyounolongerneedapolygonzone,youcanremovethezoneandredisplayalldataobjects.
Toremoveapolygonzone:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftofZonesfoldertoexpandthefolder.
3. Rightclickthefoldercontainingthezoneyouwanttoremove.
4. Fromthecontextmenu,selectDeleteZone.Thepolygonzoneisremovedandalldocumentdataarenowdisplayed.

YoucanalsodeleteitbyrightclickingitsborderonthemapandselectingDeletefrom
thecontextmenu.

1.4.12.5 UsingaPrintingZone
Theprintingzoneallowsyoutodefinetheareatobeprinted.Forinformationonusingtheprintingzone,see"Definingthe
PrintingZone"onpage 65.

1.4.12.6 UsingaGeographicExportZone
If you want to export part of the map as a bitmap, you can define a geographic export zone. After you have defined a
geographicexportzone,Atolloffersyoutheoptionofexportingonlytheareacoveredbythezoneifyouexportthemapas
arasterimage.
Todefineageographicexportzoneandexportthemap:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheZonesfolder.
3. RightclicktheGeographicExportZonefolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. Fromthecontextmenu,selectoneofthefollowing:
DrawPolygon
i. Clickonceonthemaptostartdrawingthezone.

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ii. Clickonceonthemaptodefineeachpointonthemapwheretheborderofthezonechangesdirection.
iii. Clicktwicetofinishdrawingandclosethezone.
DrawRectangle
i. Clickthepointonthemapthatwillbeonecorneroftherectanglethatwilldefinethezone.
ii. Dragtotheoppositecorneroftherectanglethatwilldefinethezone.Whenyoureleasethemouse,thezone
willbecreatedfromtherectangledefinedbythetwocorners.
FitZonetoMapWindow
Atollcreatesageographicexportzonethatfitsthemapwindow.
Thegeographicexportzoneisdelimitedbyalightpurpleline.Ifyouclearthegeographicexportzonesvisibilitycheck
boxintheZonesfolderintheGeoexplorer,itwillnolongerbedisplayedbutwillstillbetakenintoaccount.
Youcanalsocreateageographicexportzoneasfollows:

VectorEditortoolbar:YoucanusetheNewPolygon( )andNewRectangle( )buttonsavailableinthe


VectorEditortoolbartodrawthegeogaphicexportzone.
Existingpolygon:Youcanuseanyexistingpolygonasageographicexportzonebyrightclickingitonthemapor
intheGeoexplorerandselectingUseAs >GeographicExportZonefromthecontextmenu.Youcanalsocombine
anexistinggeographicexportzonewithanyexistingpolygonbyrightclickingitonthemaporintheGeoexplorer
andselectingAddTo >GeographicExportZonefromthecontextmenu.The"effective"geographicexportzone
willbetherectangleencompassingtheseveralpolygonscomposingthegeographicexportzone.
Importingapolygon:Ifyouhaveafilewithanexistingpolygon,youcanimportitanduseitasageographicexport
zone.YoucanimportitbyrightclickingtheGeographicExportZonefolderintheGeoexplorerandselecting
Importfromthecontextmenu.
FitZonetoMapWindow:Youcancreateageographicexportzonethesizeofthemapwindowbyrightclicking
itonthemaporintheGeoexplorerandselectingFitZonetoMapWindowfromthecontextmenu.
Onceyouhavecreatedageographicexportzone,youcanuseAtollspolygoneditingtoolstoeditit.Formoreinfor
mationonthepolygoneditingtools,see"UsingPolygonZoneEditingTools"onpage 41.

Youcansavethegeographicexportzone,sothatyoucanuseitinadifferentAtolldocu
ment,inthefollowingways:
Savingthegeographicexportzoneintheuserconfiguration:Forinformationon
savingthegeographicexportzoneinauserconfiguration,see"SavingaUserCon
figuration"onpage 79.
Exportingthegeographicexportzone:Youcanexportthegeographicexportzone
by rightclicking the Geographic Export Zone in the Geo explorer and selecting
Exportfromthecontextmenu.

Thegeographicexportzonecanonlyexportinrasterformat.Youcannotexportinraster
formatifthecoveragepredictionwasmadepertransmitter(forexample,coverage
predictionswiththedisplaytypesetbytransmitter,byatransmitterattribute,bysignal
level,bypathloss,orbytotallosses).Onlythecoverageareaofasingletransmittercan
beexportedinrasterformat.

5. SelectFile >SaveImageAs.TheMapExportdialogueappears,withtheoptionGeographicexportzoneselected.
6. ClickExport.TheSaveAsdialogueappears.
7. IntheSaveasdialogue,selectadestinationfolder,enteraFilename,andselectafiletypefromtheSaveastypelist.
Thefollowingfileformatsaresupported:BMP,PNG,ArcViewGrid(TXT),TIFF,BIL,JPEG2000,andJPG.Ifyouwantto
usethesavedfileasadigitalterrainmodel,youshouldselecttheTIF,BIL,orTXTformat.WhensavinginBILformat,
Atollallowsyoutosavefileslargerthan2 Gb.
8. ClickSave.TheExportedImageSizedialogueappears.
9. Youcandefinethesizeoftheexportedimageinoneoftwoways:
Scale:Ifyouwanttodefinethesizebyscale,selectScale,enterascaleinthetextboxandaresolution.Ifyouwant
toexporttheimagewithrulers,selectIncludeRulers.
Pixelsize:Ifyouwanttodefinethesizebypixelsize,selectPixelsize,andenterapixelsizeinthetextbox.

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Ifyouwanttousetheexportedfileasadigitalterrainmodel,youmustdefinethesizeof
theexportedimagebypixelsize.Atollthencreatesageoreferencefilefortheexported
image.

10. ClickOK.

1.4.13 EditingPolygons,Lines,andPoints
Atollusesdifferenttypesofpolygons,lines,andpointsinthemapwindow.Forexample,thezonessuchasthecomputation
andfocuszone,describedin"UsingZonesintheMapWindow"onpage 38,arespecifictypesofpolygons.Anothertypeof
polygon,calledcontours,canalongwithlinesandpoints,beusedtoaddadditionalinformationtogeographicdata.
Atollprovidesyouwithseveraldifferentwaysofeditingthepolygons,lines,andpoints.Youcanmoveordeletethepoints
thatdefinepolygons,lines,andpoints.Youcaneditpolygonsbyeditingthepointsthatdefinethem,bycombiningseveral
polygons,orbydeletingpartsofthepolygons.
Polygons,includingthecomputationandfocuszonepolygonscancontainholes.Theholeswithinpolygonalareasarediffer
entiatedfromoverlayingpolygonsbytheorderofthecoordinatesoftheirvertices.Thecoordinatesoftheverticesofpolyg
onalareasareinclockwiseorder,whereasthecoordinatesoftheverticesofholeswithinpolygonalareasareincounter
clockwiseorder.
Whenyounolongerneedthepolygon,line,orpoint,youcandeleteitfromthemap.
Inthissection,thedifferentwaysofeditingpolygons,lines,andpointsareexplained:
"AddingaVectorLayer"onpage 45
"CreatingPolygons,Lines,andPoints"onpage 45
"EditingtheShapeofPolygonsandLines"onpage 46
"CombiningorCroppingPolygonsUsingtheToolbar"onpage 46
"EditingaPoint"onpage 48
"EditingContours,Lines,andPointsUsingtheContextMenu"onpage 48.

1.4.13.1 AddingaVectorLayer
Youcanaddvectorobjectssuchaspolygons,linesorpointstogeographicalmapinformationinaprojectbyfirstcreatinga
vectorlayer.Youcanalsomodifycertaingeographicdatamaps,forexample,geoclimaticmaps,byaddingavectorlayerto
themandafterwardsaddingpolygons,linesandpoints.Forinformationonmodifyingcertaingeographicdatamapsbyadding
avectorlayer,see"EditingGeoclimaticMaps"onpage 135.
ToaddavectorlayertotheGeoexplorer:

ClicktheNewVectorLayerbutton( )ontheVectorEditortoolbar.
Atollcreatesafoldercalled"Vectors"intheGeoexplorer.
Forinformationonaddingvectorobjectssuchascontours,lines,andpointstothevectorlayer,see"CreatingPolygons,Lines,
andPoints"onpage 45.

1.4.13.2 CreatingPolygons,Lines,andPoints
Onceyouhavecreatedavectorlayer,asexplainedin"AddingaVectorLayer"onpage 45,youcanaddpolygons,lines,and
pointstoit.
Toaddapolygon,line,orpointtoavectorlayer:
1. RightclickthevectorlayerintheGeoexplorer.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectEditfromthecontextmenu.ThetoolsontheVectorEditortoolbarareavailable.

Youcanalsomakethevectortoolsavailablebyselectingthevectorlayertoeditfrom
theVectorEditortoolbarlist.BecauseAtollnamesallnewvectorlayers"Vectors"by
default,itmightbedifficulttoknowwhichVectorsfolderyouareselecting.Byrenaming
eachvectorsfolder,youcanensurethatyouselectthecorrectfolder.Forinformationon
renamingobjects,see"RenaminganObject"onpage 24.

IftheVectorEditortoolbarisnotvisible,selectView >Toolbars >VectorEditor.


3. ClickoneofthefollowingbuttonsontheVectorEditortoolbar:

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NewPolygon:
a. Clickonceonthemapwhereyouwanttobegindrawingthecontour.
b. Clickeachtimeyouchangeanglesontheborderdefiningtheoutsideofthecontour.
c. Doubleclicktoclosethecontour.

NewRectangle:
a. Clickthepointonthemapthatwillbeonecorneroftherectangle.
b. Dragtotheoppositecorneroftherectangle.
c. Releasethemousetocreatetherectangledefinedbythetwocorners.

Ifthepolygonorrectangleisonthevectorlayerofageoclimaticmap,,youmustdefinethe
valuethepolygonorrectanglerepresentsandmapthevectorlayer.Formoreinformation,
see"EditingGeoclimaticMaps"onpage 135.

NewLine:
a. Clickonceonthemapwhereyouwanttobegintheline.
b. Clickeachtimeyouchangeanglesontheline.
c. Doubleclicktoendtheline.

NewPoint:Clickonceonthemapwhereyouwanttoplacethepoint.
4. PressESCtodeselectthecurrentlyselectedbuttonontheVectorEditortoolbar.

1.4.13.3 EditingtheShapeofPolygonsandLines
Youcanedittheshapeofpolygonsandlinesonthevectorlayer.
Toedittheshapeofpolygonsandlines:
1. Intheexplorer(theNetworkexplorerortheGeoexplorer)containingthevectorlayer,rightclickthevectorlayer
folder.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectDrawfromthecontextmenu.ThevectortoolsontheVectorEditortoolbarareactivated.

Youcanalsoactivatethevectortoolsbyselectingthevectorlayertoeditfromthe
VectorEditortoolbarlist.

3. Selectthecontourorline.Youcannoweditby:
Movingapoint:

i. Positionthepointeroverthepointyouwanttomove.Thepointerchanges( ).
ii. Dragthepointtoitsnewposition.Ifyouareeditingarectangle,theadjacentpointsontherectanglechange
positionaswell,inorderfortherectangletoretainitsshape.
Addingapointtoacontouroraline:

i. Positionthepointeroverthecontourborderorlinewhereyouwanttoaddapoint.Thepointerchanges( ).
ii. RightclickandselectInsertPointfromthecontextmenu.Apointisaddedtothecontourborderorlineatthe
positionofthepointer.
Deletingapointfromacontouroraline:

i. Positionthepointeroverthepointyouwanttodelete.Thepointerchanges( ).
ii. RightclickandselectDeletePointfromthecontextmenu.Thepointisdeleted.

1.4.13.4 CombiningorCroppingPolygonsUsingtheToolbar
InAtoll,youcancreatecomplexcontoursbyusingthetoolsontheVectorEditortoolbar.

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ToeditavectorobjectusingtheiconsontheVectorEditortoolbar:
1. Intheexplorer(theNetworkexplorerortheGeoexplorer)containingthevectorlayer,rightclickthevectorlayer
folder.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectDrawfromthecontextmenu.ThevectortoolsontheVectorEditortoolbarareactivated.

Youcanalsoactivatethevectortoolsbyselectingthevectorlayertoeditfromthe
VectorEditortoolbarlist.

3. Clickthecontourtoedit.TheVectorEditortoolbarenablesyoutoperformthefollowingfunctions:

:Tocombineanexistingcontourwithanewone:

i. OntheVectorEditortoolbar,clicktheCombinebutton( ).
ii. Clickonceonthemapwhereyouwanttobegindrawingthenewcontour.
iii. Clickeachtimeyouchangeanglesontheborderdefiningtheoutsideofthecontour.
iv. Doubleclicktoclosethecontour.
v. Drawmorecontoursifdesired.Atollcreatesagroupofpolygonsoftheselectedandnewcontours.Ifcontours
overlap,Atollmergesthem.

:Tocombinetwoexistingcontours:

i. IntheVectorEditortoolbar,clicktheCombinebutton( ).
ii. Clickthecontourthatyouwanttocombinewiththeselectedone.Atollcombinesthetwoselectedcontours
intoasingleobject,mergingthemiftheyoverlap.

:Todrawaholeintheselectedcontour:

i. IntheVectorEditortoolbar,clicktheDeletebutton( ).
ii. Drawtheareayouwanttodeletefromtheselectedcontourbyclickingonceinthecontourwhereyouwant
tobegindrawingtheareatodelete.
iii. Clickeachtimeyouchangeanglesontheborderdefiningtheoutsideofthearea.
iv. Doubleclicktoclosethearea.Atolldeletestheareafromtheselectedcontour.

:Todeleteanareaoftheselectedcontourthatisoverlappedbyanothercontour:

i. IntheVectorEditortoolbar,clicktheDeletebutton( ).
ii. Clickthecontour(whichoverlapstheselectedcontour)todeletetheoverlappingareafromthefirstselected
contour.Atolldeletestheareacoveredbythesecondcontourfromthefirstcontour.

:Tocreateacontouroutoftheoverlappingareaofanexistingcontourandanewone:

i. IntheVectorEditortoolbar,clicktheIntersectionbutton( ).
ii. Clickonceonthemapwhereyouwanttobegindrawingthecontourthatwilloverlaptheselectedone.
iii. Clickeachtimeyouchangeanglesontheborderdefiningtheoutsideofthecontour.
iv. Doubleclicktoclosethecontour.Atollcreatesanewcontouroftheoverlappingareaofthetwocontoursand
deletesthepartsofthecontoursthatdonotoverlap.

:Tocreateacontouroutoftheoverlappingareaoftwoexistingcontours:

i. IntheVectorEditortoolbar,clicktheIntersectionbutton( ).
ii. Clickthecontour(whichoverlapstheselectedcontour)thatyouwanttointersectwiththefirstselectedcon
tour.Atollcreatesanewcontourfromtheareaofthetwocontoursthatoverlapsanddeletesthepartsofthe
contoursthatdonotoverlap.

:Tosplittheselectedcontourintotwocontours:

i. IntheVectorEditortoolbar,clicktheSplitbutton( ).
ii. Clickonceonthemapwhereyouwanttobegindrawingthecontourthatwillsplittheselectedcontour.

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iii. Clickeachtimeyouchangeanglesontheborderdefiningtheoutsideofthecontour.
iv. Doubleclicktoclosethecontour.Atolldeletestheareadefinedbythenewlydrawncontourfromtheselected
contour,therebycreatingtwonewcontours.

:Tosplitoverlappingcontoursintothreecontours:

i. IntheVectorEditortoolbar,clicktheSplitbutton( ).
ii. Clickthecontour(whichoverlapstheselectedcontour)thatyouwanttousetocropthefirstselectedcontour.
Atollseparatestheoverlappingareafromthefirstselectedcontour,therebycreatingthreecontours:thefirst
contourminustheareaoverlappedbythesecond,thesecondcontour(whichremainsunchanged,andathird
contourcreatedfromtheareadeletedfromthefirstselectedcontour.

1.4.13.5 EditingaPoint
Toeditapoint:
1. Intheexplorer(theNetworkexplorerortheGeoexplorer)containingthevectorlayer,rightclickthevectorlayer
folder.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectDrawfromthecontextmenu.ThevectortoolsontheVectorEditortoolbarareactivated.

Youcanalsoactivatethevectortoolsbyselectingthevectorlayertoeditfromthe
VectorEditortoolbarlist.

3. Selectthepoint.Youcannoweditby:
Moving:

i. Clickthepointyouwanttomove.Thepointerchanges( ).
ii. Dragthepointtoitsnewposition.
Deletingapoint:

i. Clickthepointyouwanttodelete.Thepointerchanges( ).
ii. RightclickandselectDeletefromthecontextmenu.Thepointisdeleted.

1.4.13.6 EditingContours,Lines,andPointsUsingtheContextMenu
Whenyouareeditingcontours,lines,andpoints,youcanaccesscertaincommandsusingthecontextmenu.
Toeditavectorobjectusingthecontextmenu:
1. Clickthevectorobjectyouwanttoedit.
2. Rightclickthevectorobjecttodisplaythecontextmenuandselectoneofthefollowing:
Delete:SelectDeletetoremovetheselectedcontour,line,orpointfromthemap.
ConverttoLine:SelectConverttoLinetoconverttheselectedcontourtoaline.
ConverttoPolygon:SelectConverttoPolygontoconverttheselectedlinetoacontour.
OpenLine:SelectOpenLinetoremovethesegmentbetweenthelastandthefirstpoint.
CloseLine:SelectCloseLinetoaddasegmentbetweenthelastandthefirstpointoftheline.
InsertPoint:SelectInsertPointtoaddapointtotheborderofthecontouratthepositionofthepointer.
Move:
i. SelectMovefromthecontextmenutomovethecontour,line,orpointonthemap.
ii. Movethecontour,line,orpoint.
iii. Clicktoplacethecontour,line,orpoint.
Quitedition:SelectQuitEditiontoexiteditingmode.
Properties:SelectPropertiestoopenthePropertiesdialogueoftheselectedcontour,line,orpoint.TheProper
tiesdialoguehastwotabs:
General:TheGeneraltabgivesthenameofthevectorLayer,theSurfaceoftheobject,andanyPropertiesof
thecontour,line,orpoint.
Geometry:Thistabgivesthecoordinatesofeachpointthatdefinesthepositionandshapeofthecontour,
line,orpoint.

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Onlythecommandsrelevanttotheselectedcontour,line,orpointaredisplayedinthe
contextmenu.

1.4.14 CopyingtheContentofaZoneintoAnotherApplication
Youcancopythecontentofoneofthefollowingzonesofthemapwindowintoadocumentcreatedusinganotherapplication:
Filteringzone
Focuszone
Computationzone
Hotspot
Printingzone
Geographicalexportzone
Tocopythecontentofazoneintoadocumentcreatedusinganotherapplication:
1. Selectthezoneinthemapwindow,orexpandtheZonesfolderintheGeoexplorerandselectthezone.
Youcancopythecontentsofthezoneinthefollowingways:
SelectEdit >Copy(orpressCtrl+C)tocopyabitmapimageoftheselectedzone,or
a. SelectEdit >AdvancedCopy.TheAdvancedCopydialogueappears.
b. Selectoneofthefollowing:
Bitmapimage:SelectBitmapImagetocopythecontentsofthezoneasabitmapandthenselecteitherScreen
resolutionorCustomresolutionandenterthecustomresolutioninthetextbox.Thedefaultcustomresolu
tionis50 m.
MetafileImage:SelectMetafileImagetocopythecontentsofthezoneasaWindowsmetafile.
GeoreferenceCoordinates:SelectGeoreferenceCoordinatestocopythegeoreferencecoordinatestothe
clipboard.Theywillbepastedasthecoordinates.
2. OpentheapplicationintowhichyouwanttopastetheimageandselectEdit >Paste(orpressCtrl+V).Thezoneofthe
mapispastedasanimage(orasgeoreferencecoordinates)intothenewdocument.

1.4.15 MapWindowPointers
InAtoll,thepointerappearsindifferentformsaccordingtoitsfunction.Eachpointerisdescribedbelow:

Appearance Description Meaning


Thezoneselectionpointerindicatesthat,onthemap,youcandefineazonetoprint
Selectionarrow orcopyand,inthePanoramicwindow,youcandefinethezonetobedisplayedon
themap.Todefineazone,clickanddragdiagonally.

Thepolygondrawingpointerindicatesyoucandrawazonetofiltereithersitesor
links,drawcomputation/focus/filtering/printing/geographicexportzones,ordraw
Polygondrawing
vectororrasterpolygonsonthemap.Todrawapolygon,clickoncetostart,and
pointer
eachtimeyouchangeanglesontheborderdefiningtheoutsideofthepolygon.
Closethepolygonbyclickingtwice.

Therectangledrawingpointerindicatesyoucandrawcomputation/focus/filtering/
Rectangledrawing
printing/geographicexportzones,ordrawvectororrasterrectanglesonthemap.
pointer
Todefineazone,clickanddragdiagonally.

Hand Thehandpointerindicatesyoucanmovethevisiblepartofthedisplayedmap.

Thezoompointerindicatesyoucanclicktozoominandrightclicktozoomoutat
Zoomtool
thelocationofthemousepointer

Thezoomareapointerindicatesyoucanzoominonanareaofthebyclickingand
Zoomarea
draggingtodefinethearea.

Thepencilpointerindicatesyoucancreateapolygonalclutterzone,byclickingonce
Pencil tostartthepolygon,oncetocreateeachcorner,andbydoubleclickingtoclosethe
polygon.

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Appearance Description Meaning


Thedeletionpointerindicatesthatyoucandeleteanewlycreatedpolygonalclutter
Deletion
zonebyclickingitsborder.

Thepositionindicatorpointerindicatesyoucanselecttheborderofapolygon.
Positionindicator Rightclickingthepolygonborderopensacontextmenuallowingyoutoaddapoint,
deletethepolygon,orcentrethemaponthepolygon.

Theselect/createpointspointerindicatesyoucanmodifythepolygoninthemap
window.Youcanaddanewpointandmodifythepolygoncontourbyclickingonone
Select/create
oftheedgesanddragging.Youcanmoveanexistingpointbyclickinganddragging
points
anexistingpoint.Youcanrightclicktoopenacontextmenutodeleteapoint,
deletethepolygon,orcentrethemaponthepolygon.

Microwavelink Themicrowavelinkpointerindicatesyoucanclickapointonthemaptocreatethe
start firstpointofamicrowavelink.Onceyouhavecreatedthefirstpoint,themicrowave
End linkpointerchangesandthenextclickendsthelink.

Themultihopandmultipointpointerindicatesyoucanclickoncetocreatethefirst
Multihoporpoint pointofamultihoplinkorthehubofapointtomultipointlink.Inthecaseofa
tomultipoint multihoplink,eachsubsequentclickcreatesanotherpointinthelink.Inthecaseof
microwavelink apointtomultipoint,eachsubsequentlinkcreatesanewpoint,connectedtothe
hubbyalink.
Rotatehub
Therotatehubantennapointerindicatesyoucanclickthehubantennaanddragit
antennaofpoint
toanewpositiontochangetheazimuthofthehubantenna.
tomultipointlink
Themeasurementpointerindicatesyoucanclickonthemaptosetthestartpointof
Measurementson
yourmeasurement.Asyoumovethepointer,thedistancebetweenthefirstpoint
themap
andthepointerisdisplayedinthestatusbar.

Theterrainsectionpointerindicatesthatyoucancreateaterrainsectionbyclicking
onceonthemaptocreatethefirstpointandoncemoretocreatethesecondpoint.
Terrainsection
TheterrainprofilebetweenthetwopointsisdisplayedinthePointAnalysiswindow
andstoredunderTerrainSectionsintheGeoexplorer.

1.5 WorkingwithDataTables
Atollstoresobjectdata(sites,antennas,microwavelinks,etc.)intheformoftables,containingalltheirparametersandchar
acteristics.Thedatacontainedinpredictionreportsarealsostoredintheformoftables.
Youcanaddcolumnstothedatatableandyoucandeletecertaincolumns.Whenyoucreateanewcolumn,youcancreatea
defaultvalueforafieldyoucreate.Youcanalsocreatealistofchoices(fortextfields)fromwhichtheusercanchoosewhen
fillinginthefield.
Youcanfilter,sort,andgroupthedatacontainedinthesetables,andviewastatisticalanalysisofthedata.Youcanalsoexport
thedataorimportdataintotheAtolldatatables.Theoptionsforworkingwithdatatablesareavailablefromthecontext
menuorfromtheTabletoolbardisplayedabovethetable.
Atollallowsyoutonavigatethroughthedataintablesbyeitherusingtheverticalorhorizontalscrollbars,themousewheel,
orbymovingthroughthetablecellbycellusingthecursorkeysorthetabkey.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 51
"Adding,Deleting,andEditingDataTableFields"onpage 51
"EditingtheContentsofaTable"onpage 56
"OpeninganObjectsRecordPropertiesDialoguefromaTable"onpage 53
"DefiningtheTableFormat"onpage 53
"CopyingandPastinginTables"onpage 57
"ViewingaStatisticalAnalysisofTableContents"onpage 60
"ExportingTablestoTextFilesandSpreadsheets"onpage 60
"ImportingTablesfromTextFiles"onpage 62
"ExportingTablestoXMLFiles"onpage 63
"ImportingTablesfromXMLFiles"onpage 63.

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1.5.1 OpeningaDataTable
Toopenadatatable:
1. SelecttheNetworkorParametersexplorer.
2. Rightclickthedatafolderofwhichyouwanttodisplaythedatatable.
3. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.

1.5.2 Adding,Deleting,andEditingDataTableFields
Thedataforeachobjecttypeisstoredintheformofadatatable.EverydatatableinAtolliscreatedwithadefaultsetof
columns,eachcorrespondingtoafield.Inthissection,thefollowingfunctionsareexplained:
"AccessinganObjectTypesTableFields"onpage 51
"AddingaFieldtoanObjectTypesDataTable"onpage 52
"DeletingaFieldfromanObjectTypesDataTable"onpage 52

1.5.2.1 AccessinganObjectTypesTableFields
Thefieldscontainedinanobjecttypestablearedefinedinadialogue.
Toaccessanobjecttypestablefields:
1. IntheNetworkorParametersexplorer,openthedatatableasdescribedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 51.
2. Rightclickthetableinthemapwindow.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectTableFieldsfromthecontextmenu.Adialogueappearswhereyoucanviewtheexistingfieldsandaddor
deletenewones.
Thedialoguedisplaysthefollowinginformationforeachtypeofdata(seeFigure 1.16):
Name:Thenameofthefieldinthedatabase.
Legend:Thenameofthefieldasitappearsintheuserinterface.

Legendsofsomefieldsmaybefollowedby:
"(NOTUSED)"indicatingthatthefieldisnotusedinthecurrentAtollrelease.The
correspondingcolumnishiddeninthedatatable.
"(OBSOLETE)"indicatingthatthefieldisobsoleteandwillberemovedinafuture
Atollrelease.Thecorrespondingcolumnisnotavailableinthedatatable.

Type:Thetypeofthefield.
Size:Themaximumsizeofthefield.
Default:Thedefaultvalueofthefield.
Group:Thegrouptowhichthefieldbelongs.WhenopeninganAtolldocumentfromadatabase,youcanselecta
groupofcustomfieldstobeloadedfromthedatabase,insteadofloadingallcustomfields.

Figure 1.16:TheTabletab

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ItisalsopossibletosetdefaultvaluesandchoicelistsforstandardAtolldatabasefields.
Formoreinformation,seetheAdministratorManual.

1.5.2.2 AddingaFieldtoanObjectTypesDataTable
Youcanaddacustomfieldtoanyobjecttypesdatatable.
Toaddacustomfieldtoanobjecttypesdatatable:
1. Accesstheobjecttypestablefieldsasexplainedin"AccessinganObjectTypesTableFields"onpage 51.
2. ClickAdd.TheFieldDefinitiondialogueappears(seeFigure 1.17).
3. TheFieldDefinitiondialoguehasthefollowingtextboxes:
Name:EntertheNameforthefieldthatwillappearinthedatabase
Type:Selectatypeforthefield(text,shortinteger,longinteger,single,double,true/false,date/time,orcurrency)
Size:TheSizefieldisonlyavailableifyouhaveselected"text"astheType.Enterasizeincharacters.
Group:Ifdesired,youcandefineaGroupthatthiscustomfieldwillbelongto.WhenyouopenanAtolldocument
fromadatabase,youcanthenselectaspecificgroupofcustomfieldstobeloadedfromthedatabase,insteadof
loadingallcustomfields.
Legend:EnterthenameforthefieldthatwillappearintheAtolluserinterface.
Readonly:SelecttheReadonlycheckboxifyouwantthecustomfieldtobenonmodifiableintheuserinterface.
Defaultvalue:Ifyouwant,enteradefaultvaluethatwillappeareachtimeyoucreateanewrecordofthisobject
type.
Choicelist:TheChoicelistfieldisonlyavailableifyouhaveselected"text"astheType.Youcancreateachoice
listbyenteringthelistitemsintheChoicelisttextboxandpressingENTERaftereachlistitem,keepingeachchoice
onaseparateline.
SelecttheRestrictedcheckboxifyouwantthecustomfieldtoonlyacceptvalueslistedintheChoicelisttextbox.
CleartheRestrictedcheckboxifyouwanttoallowuserstoentervaluesotherthanthoseinthechoicelist.
4. ClickOKtoreturntotheobjecttypetable.

Userorcustomfieldsareforinformationonlyandarenottakenintoaccountinanycalcu
lation.YoucanfindthesefieldsontheOtherPropertiestabofanobjecttypesProperties
dialogue.

Figure 1.17:TheFieldDefinitiondialogue

1.5.2.3 DeletingaFieldfromanObjectTypesDataTable
Youcandeletecustomfieldsfromanobjecttypesdatatable.Customfieldsarethefieldsthattheuseraddstoanobject
typesdatatable,asexplainedin"AddingaFieldtoanObjectTypesDataTable"onpage 52.
Todeleteacustomfieldfromanobjecttypesdatatable:

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Alldatastoredinthefieldwillbelostwhenyoudeletethefielditself.Makesurethatyou
arenotdeletingimportantinformation.

1. Accesstheobjecttypestablefieldsasexplainedin"AccessinganObjectTypesTableFields"onpage 51.
2. Selectthecustomfieldthatyouwanttodelete.

Somefieldscannotbedeleted.IfyouselectafieldandtheDeletebuttonremains
unavailable,theselectedfieldisnotacustomfieldandcannotbedeleted.

3. ClickDelete.Thefieldisdeletedfromtheobjecttypesdatatable.

1.5.3 OpeninganObjectsRecordPropertiesDialoguefromaTable
YoucanopentheRecordPropertiesdialogueofanobject,forexample,asite,antenna,transmitter,orcell,fromitsdatatable.
ToopentheRecordPropertiesdialogueofanobject:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 51.
2. Rightclicktherecordwhosepropertiesyouwanttosee.
3. SelectRecordPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.

YoucanalsoopentheRecordPropertiesdialoguebydoubleclickingtherecord.Toavoid
editingtherecordwhenyoudoubleclick,doubleclicktheleftmarginoftherecordinstead
oftherecorditself.YoucanalsoselecttherecordandclicktheRecordPropertiesbutton
( )intheTabletoolbar.

1.5.4 DefiningtheTableFormat
Atollletsyouformatthedatatablessothatthedatapresentedismorelegibleorbetterpresented.Youcanchangetheformat
ofthedatatableby:
"FormattingtheColumnHeaders"onpage 53
"FormattingTableCells"onpage 54
"ChangingColumnWidthorRowHeight"onpage 54
"DisplayingorHidingaColumn"onpage 55
"FreezingorUnfreezingaColumn"onpage 55
"MovingColumns"onpage 56

FormattingtheColumnHeaders

Todefinetheformatofthecolumnheaders:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 51.
2. Rightclickthetable.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectFormat>HeaderFormatfromthecontextmenu.TheFormatdialogueappears.
4. TheFormatdialoguehasthefollowingtabs:
Font:YoucanselecttheFont,Outline(thefontstyle),fontSize,Effects,andTextcolour.
Colour:YoucanselectthecolourofthecolumnheadersbyselectingaForegroundcolour,aBackgroundcolour,
andapatternfromthelistbox.Youcanalsoselecta3DEffectfortheheader.
Borders:YoucanselecttheBorder,theType,andtheColourforeachcolumnheader.
Alignment:YoucanselectboththeHorizontalandVerticalalignmentofthecolumnheadertext.TheAlignment
tabhasadditionaloptionsaswell,allowingyoutoenableWraptext,Autosize,andAllowenter.
5. ClickOK.

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FormattingTableCells

Todefinetheformatofthetablecells:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 51.
2. Rightclickthetable.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectFormat>CellFormatfromthecontextmenu.TheFormatdialogueappears.
4. TheFormatdialoguehasthefollowingtabs:
Font:YoucanselecttheFont,Outline(thefontstyle),fontSize,Effects,andTextColour.
Colour:Youcanselectthebackgroundcolour(Interior)ofthecolumnheaders,byselectingaForegroundcolour,
aBackgroundcolour,andapatternfromthelistbox.Youcanalsoselecta3DEffectfortheheader.
Borders:YoucanselecttheBorder,theType,andtheColourforeachcolumnheader.
Alignment:YoucanselectboththeHorizontalandVerticalalignmentofthecolumnheadertext.TheAlignment
tabhasadditionaloptionsaswell,allowingyoutoenableWraptext,Autosize,andAllowenter.
5. ClickOK.

ChangingColumnWidthorRowHeight

Youcanchangethecolumnwidthandrowheightinadatatable.Whenyouchangethecolumnwidth,youchangethewidth
onlyfortheselectedcolumn.Whenyouchangetherowheight,however,youchangetherowheightforeveryrowinthe
table.
Tochangethecolumnwidth:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 51.
2. Clicktheborderseparatingtwocolumnheadersanddragtochangethecolumnwidth(seeFigure 1.18).
Tochangetherowheight:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 51.
2. Clicktheborderseparatingtworowsanddragtochangetherowheight(seeFigure 1.19).

Thewidthorheightofthecolumnsorrowschangeonceyoureleasethemouse.

Figure 1.18:Changingcolumnwidth

Figure 1.19:Changingrowheight

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DisplayingorHidingaColumn

Youcanchoosewhichcolumnsindatatablestodisplayorhide.
Todisplayorhideacolumn:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 51.
2. Rightclickthetable.Thecontextmenuappears.

3. SelectDisplayColumnsfromthecontextmenuorclicktheDisplayColumnsbutton( )intheTabletoolbar.The
ColumnstoBeDisplayeddialogueappears(seeFigure 1.20).
4. Todisplayacolumn,selectitscheckbox.
5. Tohideacolumn,clearitscheckbox.

YoucanalsohideacolumnbyrightclickingonitsheaderandselectingHideColumns
fromthecontextmenuorbyclickingtheHideColumnsbutton( )intheTable
toolbar.YoucanhidemorethanonecolumnbypressingCTRLwhileselectingthe
columnsandthenclickingtheHideColumnsbutton( ).

6. ClickClose.

Figure 1.20:TheColumnstoBeDisplayeddialogue

FreezingorUnfreezingaColumn

InAtoll,youcanfreezeoneormorecolumnsofadatatablesothattheyalwaysremainvisibleasyouscrollhorizontally
throughthetable.Forexample,whilescrollingthroughtheSitestable,youmightwanttohavetheNamecolumnalwaysvisi
ble.Youcankeepthiscolumn,oranyothercolumnvisible,byfreezingit.
Tofreezeacolumn:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 51.
2. Selecttheheaderofthecolumnyouwanttofreeze.Clickanddragoverseveralheaderstoselectmorethanone
columntofreeze.

Youcanonlyfreezeadjacentcolumns.

3. RightclicktheselectedheaderorheadersandselectFreezeColumnsfromthecontextmenuorclicktheFreezeCol
umnsbutton( )intheTabletoolbar.Frozencolumnsaregroupedtotheleftofthetableandseparatedfromother
columnswithaverticalredline.

Youcannotfreezeacolumninareporttable.

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Tounfreezecolumns:
RightclickthetableandselectUnfreezeAllColumnsfromthecontextmenuorclicktheUnfreezeAllColumnsbutton
( )intheTabletoolbar.

MovingColumns

InAtoll,youcanchangethecolumnordersothatyoucangroupsimilarcolumnsorpresentdatainadeterminedorder.
Tomoveacolumn:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 51.
2. Selectthe headerofthe column youwanttomove.Click anddragoverseveralheadersto selectmorethan one
columntomove.

Youcanonlymoveseveralcolumnsatthesametimewhentheyareadjacent.

3. Clickagainontheselectedcolumnanddragtothedesiredarea.Asyoudragthecolumn,thepositionthecolumnwill
occupyisindicatedbyaredline(seeFigure 1.21).

Figure 1.21:Movingcolumns

4. Releasethemousecolumntoplacethecolumn.

ItmightbenecessarytoclickRefresh intheMaptoolbarforyourchangestoappear.

1.5.5 EditingtheContentsofaTable
YoucaneditthecontentofatableinAtollinseveraldifferentways:
"EditingTableEntriesDirectlyintheTable"onpage 56
"CopyingandPastinginTables"onpage 57
"SearchingforandReplacingTextEntriesinTables"onpage 59.

1.5.5.1 EditingTableEntriesDirectlyintheTable
Toedittableentriesdirectlyinthetable:
1. ClicktheNetworkorParametersexplorer.
2. Rightclickthedatafolderofwhichyouwanttodisplaythedatatable.
3. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.
4. Editthecontentofthetablebyenteringthevaluedirectlyinthefield(seeFigure 1.22).
5. Clickelsewhereinthetablewhenyouhavefinishedupdatingthetable.Yourchangesareautomaticallysaved.

Ifalistofoptionshasbeendefinedforafield,youcanselectavaluefromthelist(see
Figure 1.23)orenteranewvalue.

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Figure 1.22:Editingdatainthetransmittersdatatables

Figure 1.23:Choosingdatainthetransmittersdatatables

1.5.5.2 CopyingandPastinginTables
InAtoll,youcancopyandpastedataintablesusingtheCopy(CTRL+C),Cut(CTRL+X),andPaste(CTRL+V)commandsonthe
Editmenu.Youcancopyandpastedatatocreatenewelementsoryoucancopyandpastethesamedataintoseveralcells.
Inthissection,thefollowingisexplained:
"CopyingandPastingaTableElement"onpage 57
"PastingtheSameDataintoSeveralCells"onpage 58.

1.5.5.2.1 CopyingandPastingaTableElement
Youcancreateanewelementintablesbycopyinganexistingelement,pastingitintoanewrowandeditingthedetailsthat
aredifferent.

EachelementinatablemusthaveauniqueName.

Tocreateanewelementbycopyingandpasting:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 51.
2. Clickintheleftmarginofthetablerowcontainingtheelementtoselecttheentirerow.
3. SelectEdit >Copytocopythetablerow.
4. ClickintheleftmarginofthetablerowmarkedwiththeNewRowicon( )toselecttheentirerow.
5. SelectEdit >Pastetopastethecopieddataintothenewrow.Atoll,createsanewelementfromthecopieddata.The
nameofthenewelementisthesameasthatofthecopiedelement,precededby"Copyof."Youcaneditthisname.

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1.5.5.2.2 PastingtheSameDataintoSeveralCells
Youcanpastethesamedataintoseveralcells,usingFillUporFillDown.
Topastethesamedataintoseveralcells:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 51.
2. Clickonthecellwiththedatayouwanttocopyanddragtoselectthecellsintowhichyouwanttocopythedata(see
Figure 1.24).

Figure 1.24:Selectingthecells

3. Copyintotheselectedcells:
Tocopythecontentsofthetopcelloftheselectionintotheothercells,rightclicktheselectionandselectEdit >
FillDownfromthecontextmenuorclicktheFillDownbutton( )intheTabletoolbar(seeFigure 1.25).

Figure 1.25:Copyingthecontentsofthetopcell

Tocopythecontentsofthebottomcelloftheselectionintotheothercells,rightclicktheselectionandselect
Edit >FillUpfromthecontextmenuorclicktheFillUpbutton( )intheTabletoolbar(seeFigure 1.26).

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Figure 1.26:Copyingthecontentsofthebottomcell

1.5.5.3 SearchingforandReplacingTextEntriesinTables
InAtoll,youcansearchforandreplacetextstringsinthetableentries:
"SearchingforTextEntriesinTables"onpage 59
"ReplacingTextEntriesinTables"onpage 59

1.5.5.3.1 SearchingforTextEntriesinTables
InAtoll,youcansearchfortextstringsinthetableentries.
Tosearchfortextstringsinatable:
1. PressCTRL+SHIFT+F.TheFinddialogueappears.

YoucanalsoclicktheFindbutton( )inthetabletoolbar.
2. IntheFindbutton,definewhatyouwanttofind:
a. EnterthetextyouwanttofindintheFindwhatbox.
b. SelectwhetheryouwanttosearchUporDownfromyourcurrentpositioninthetable.
c. Ifdesired,selecttheMatchcasecheckbox.
3. ClickFindNext.

1.5.5.3.2 ReplacingTextEntriesinTables
InAtoll,youcansearchforandreplacetextstringsinthetableentries.
Tosearchforandreplacetextstringsinatable:
1. PressCTRL+SHIFT+R.TheReplacedialogueappears.

YoucanalsoclicktheReplacebutton( )inthetabletoolbar.
2. IntheReplacebutton,definethetextyouwanttofindandreplace:
a. EnterthetextyouwanttofindintheFindwhatbox.
b. EnterthetextyouwanttoreplacethetextintheFindwhatboxintheReplacewithbox.
c. Ifdesired,selecttheMatchcasecheckbox.
3. ClickFindNext.AtollproceedstothenextentryofthetextenteredintheFindwhatbox.
Youcanreplacethetextfound:
Replace:AtollreplacestheselectedtextwiththeentryintheReplacewithbox.
ReplaceAll:AtollreplacesalloccurrencesofthetextintheFindwhatboxwiththeentryintheReplacewithbox.

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1.5.6 ViewingaStatisticalAnalysisofTableContents
Youcanviewastatisticalanalysisofthecontentsofanentirecolumninatableorofthecontentsofaselectionofcells.
Toviewastatisticalanalysisoftablecontents:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 51.
2. Selectthecolumndatayouwanttoanalyse:
Toviewastatisticalanalysisofanentirecolumn:
Clickthecolumntitle.Theentirecolumnisselected.
Toviewastatisticalanalysisofaselectionofcellsinonecolumn:
Selectthecellsyouwanttoanalyse.Youcanselectcontiguouscellsbyclickingthefirstcellanddraggingtothe
lastcelloftheselectionyouwanttoanalyse,orbyclickingthefirstcell,pressingSHIFTandclickingthelastcell.
YoucanselectnoncontiguouscellsbypressingCTRLandclickingeachcellinthecolumnseparately.

InAtollyoucanorganisedatainseveraldifferentways,allowingyoutoselectonly
certaindata.Formoreinformation,see"Grouping,Sorting,andFilteringData"on
page 69.

3. Rightclicktheselectionofcells.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectStatisticsfromthecontextmenu.TheStatisticsdialogueappears(seeFigure 1.27).

Figure 1.27:TheStatisticsdialogue

Thestatisticsdisplayeddependonthetypeofnumericaldataselected.IfyouleavetheStatisticsdialogueopen,you
canviewthestatisticalanalysisofothercellsbyselectingtheminthetable.ThecontentsoftheStatisticsdialogueare
updatedautomatically.

1.5.7 ExportingTablestoTextFilesandSpreadsheets
YoucanexportentireAtolldatatables,orselectedcolumns,toASCIItextfiles(intextandcommaseparatedvalueformats),
MSExcelfiles(XLS),andXMLSpreadsheet2003files(XML).YoucanopenXMLSpreadsheet2003filesinMSExcel2003and
later.UnlikeXLSfiles,XMLSpreadsheetfilesarenotlimitedto65,536rowsand256columns.
Toexportatable:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 51.
2. Rightclickthetable.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectExportfromthecontextmenu.TheExportdialogueappears.Youcanseehowtheexportedtablewillappear
inthePreviewpane(seeFigure 1.28).

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Figure 1.28:Exportingadatatable

4. SelecttheHeadercheckboxifyouwanttoexportthenamesofthecolumnswiththedata.
5. SelectaDecimalSymbolfromthelist.
6. SelectaFieldSeparatorfromthelist.
7. Selectthefields(displayedascolumnsinthetable)youwanttoexport.Youcandisplayallthefieldsbelongingtoa
tablebyclickingtheExpandbutton( )totheleftofthetablename.Youcanselectcontiguousfieldsbyclickingthe
firstfield,pressingSHIFTandclickingthelastfield.YoucanselectnoncontiguousfieldsbypressingCTRLandclicking
eachfieldseparately.

a. Toselectafieldtobeexported,selectthefieldintheAvailableFieldsboxandclick tomoveittotheEx
portedFieldslist.AllfieldsintheExportedFieldslistwillbeexported.

b. ToremoveafieldfromthelistofExportedFields,selectthefieldintheExportedFieldslistandclick tore
moveit.

c. Tochangetheorderofthefields,selectafieldandclick or tomoveitupordowninthelist.Thefieldsatthe
topoftheExportedFieldsappearattheleftoftheexportedtable.

YoucansavethechoicesyouhavemadeintheExportdialogueasaconfigurationfileby
clickingtheSavebuttonatthetopofthedialogueandenteringanameforthefileinthe
SaveAsdialoguethatappears.Thenexttimeyouexportadatatable,youcanclickLoad
intheExportdialoguetoopenyourconfigurationfilewiththesamesettingsyouusedthis
time.

8. ClickExport.TheSaveAsdialogueappears.
9. IntheSaveAsdialogue,entertheFilenameandselecttheformatfromtheSaveastypelist.
10. ClickSavetoexportthetable.
YoucanexporttheSites,Links,MultiHops,andPointtoMultipointtablestotextfilesbyselectingthefolderorviewinthe
NetworkexplorerandpressingCTRL+E.
Forinformationonimportingdataintoadatatable,see"ImportingTablesfromTextFiles"onpage 62.

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1.5.8 ImportingTablesfromTextFiles
YoucanimportdataintheformofASCIItextfiles(inTXTandCSVformats)intoAtolldatatables.
Toimportatable:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 51.
2. Rightclickthetable.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectImportfromthecontextmenu.TheOpendialogueappears.
4. SelecttheASCIItextfileyouwanttoopenandclickOpen.TheImportdialogueappears(seeFigure 1.29).

Figure 1.29:Importinginformationintoadatatable

5. IfthefilewascreatedusingadifferentCoordinatesystem,clicktheBrowsebutton( )toselectthecoordinate
system the file was created with. Atoll will convert the coordinates in the imported file to match the coordinate
systemusedintheAtolldocument.
6. Enterthenumberofthefirstlineofdatainthe1stDataLinebox.
7. SelectaDecimalSymbolfromthelist.
8. SelectaFieldSeparatorfromthelist.
9. SelecttheUpdateRecordscheckboxifyouwanttoreplacethedataofrecordsalreadyexistinginthetable.

Atollcomparesthevaluesintheleftmostcolumnofthedatatobeimportedwiththe
valuesinthesamecolumnofthedatatabletoseeifrecordsalreadyexist.Thevaluesof
theserecordsarereplacedwhentheUpdateRecordscheckboxisselected.IftheUpdate
Recordscheckboxisnotselected,theserecordsarenotimported.

10. UnderFieldMapping,therearetwoheaderrows:
Source:Thecolumnheadersfromthetextfileyouareimporting.
Destination:ThecolumnheadersfromtheAtolldatatable.
AlignthecontentofthesourcefilewiththecontentofthedestinationfilebyclickingthecolumnheaderintheDesti
nationrowand selectingthecorrespondingcolumnfromtheAtolldatafile (seeFigure 1.29).Select <Ignore> for
sourcefilecolumnsthatyoudonotwanttoimport.

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Youcanchangethewidthofthecolumnstomakethecontentseasiertoworkwith.See
"ChangingColumnWidthorRowHeight"onpage 54.

YoucansavethechoicesyouhavemadeintheImportdialogueasaconfigurationfileby
clickingtheSavebuttonatthetopofthedialogueandenteringanameforthefileinthe
SaveAsdialoguethatappears.Thenexttimeyouexportadatatable,youcanclickLoad
intheImportdialoguetoopenyourconfigurationfilewiththesamesettingsyouusedthis
time.

11. ClickImport.ThecontentsareimportedinthecurrentAtolldatatable.
YoucanimportdatafromtextfilesintotheSites,Links,MultiHops,andPointtoMultipointtablesbyselectingthefolderor
viewintheNetworkexplorerandpressingCTRL+I.
Forinformationonexportingtheinformationinadatatableintoatextfile,see"ExportingTablestoTextFilesandSpread
sheets"onpage 60.

1.5.9 ExportingTablestoXMLFiles
YoucanexportthedatatablesinyourAtolldocumenttoXMLfiles.YoucanuseXMLtoexchangeinformationbetweenAtoll
andtheOMC.
AtollcreatesoneXMLfileforeachexporteddatatable,andanindex.xmlfilethatcontainsthemappingbetweenthetables
thatwereexportedandtheXMLfilescorrespondingtoeachdatatable.Theindex.xmlfilealsostorestheinformationonthe
system,thetechnology,andtheversionofAtollwithwhichtheXMLfileswerecreated.Formoreinformationaboutthe
formatsoftheXMLfiles,seetheTechnicalReferenceGuide.
ToexportallthedatatablesinyourdocumenttoXMLfiles:
1. SelectDocument >DataExchange >XMLExport.TheBrowseforFolderdialogueappears.
2. SelectthefolderwheretheXMLfilesaretobestored.ClicktheMakeNewFolderbuttonifyouwanttocreateanew
foldertostoretheXMLfiles.
3. ClickOK.AllthedatatablesinthedocumentareexportedtoXMLfiles.
ForinformationonimportingthedatatablesfromXMLfilesintoyourdocument,see"ImportingTablesfromXMLFiles"on
page 63.

1.5.10 ImportingTablesfromXMLFiles
YoucanimportdatatablesintoyourAtolldocumentfromXMLfiles.YoucanuseXMLtoexchangeinformationbetweenAtoll
andtheOMC.
InorderforAtolltobeabletocorrectlyimportthedatatablesfromXMLfiles,theXMLfilesandthecurrentAtolldocument
mustusethesamesystem,thetechnology,andtheAtollversionusedtocreatetheXMLfilesmustbethesameastheversion
usedtoimportthedata.FormoreinformationabouttheformatsoftheXMLfiles,seetheTechnicalReferenceGuide.
ToimportdatatablesintoyourdocumentfromXMLfiles:
1. SelectDocument >DataExchange >XMLImport.TheBrowseforFolderdialogueappears.
2. Selectthefolderwheretheindex.xmlfileislocated.
3. ClickOK.ThedatatablesfromtheXMLfileslistedintheindex.xmlfileareimportedinthedocument.

Tablesareimportedinthesameordertheyappearintheindex.xmlfile.Donotmodifythe
orderoftablesintheindex.xmlfilebecausetheorderinwhichthedataisimportedisvery
important;somedatamustbeimportedbeforeotherdata.Forexample,antennasusedby
transmittersmustbeimportedbeforethetransmittersthemselves.

Whenthedatatablesareimported:
DatathatexistbothinthetablesandintheXMLfilesareoverwrittenbythedatafromtheXMLfiles.
DatathatexistonlyinthetablesandnotintheXMLfilesarenotdeletedfromthetables.
DatathatonlyexistintheXMLfilesandnotinthetablesareimportedfromtheXMLfilesasnewrecordsinthetables.
Oncetheimportiscomplete,Atollperformsadatabaseintegritycheckandaduplicaterecordschecktoensurethatthe
importdidnotcreatedatabaseproblems.

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ForinformationonexportingthedatatablesinyourdocumenttoXMLfiles,see"ExportingTablestoXMLFiles"onpage 63.

1.6 PrintinginAtoll
InAtoll,youcanprintanypartofyourdocument,includingmaps,datatables,documentreports,andantennapatterns.When
printingamap,Atollenablesyoutodefinetheareatobeprinted.Additionally,youcandefinethelayout,forexample,you
canaddalogoorgraphicelement,oralegend.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"PrintingDataTablesandReports"onpage 64
"PrintingaMap"onpage 64
"PrintingaDockingWindow"onpage 68
"PrintingAntennaPatterns"onpage 68.

1.6.1 PrintingDataTablesandReports
DatatablesandreportsarebothpresentedintabularformatinAtollandcan,therefore,beprintedinthesameway.
Ifyouwanttoseehowthetablewillappearonceprinted,see"PreviewingYourPrinting"onpage 68.
Toprintatable:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 51.
2. Ifyouwanttoprintanareaofthetable,selectitbyclickinginonecorneroftheareaanddraggingdiagonallytothe
oppositecorner.
3. SelectFile >Print.
4. Ifyouwanttoprintonlyaselectedarea,chooseSelectedinthePrintdialogue.
5. ClickOKtoprint.

1.6.2 PrintingaMap
YoucanprintamapinAtollandcreateapapercopyofcoveragepredictions,etc.Atolloffersseveraloptionsallowingyouto
customiseandoptimisetheprintedmap.Atollsupportsprintingtoavarietyofpapersizes,includingA4andA0.
Beforeyouprintamap,youhavethefollowingoptions:
Youcandefineanareaofthemaptobeprintedinoneofthefollowingways:
Byselectingtheprintarea(see"DefiningthePrintingZone"onpage 65).
Bycreatingafocuszone(see"TheFocusZone"onpage 40)andthenoptingtoprintonlythecontentsofthefocus
zone(see"DefiningthePrintLayout"onpage 66).
Youcanacceptthedefaultlayoutoryoucanmodifytheprintlayout(see"DefiningthePrintLayout"onpage 66).
Youcanseehowthemapwillappearonceprinted(see"PreviewingYourPrinting"onpage 68).

Printinggraphicsisamemoryintensiveoperationandcanmakeheavydemandsonyour
printer.Beforeprintingforthefirsttime,youshouldreviewthe"Printing
Recommendations"onpage 64toavoidanymemoryrelatedproblems.

Toprintamap:
1. Selectthedocumentwindowcontainingthemap.
2. Younowhavethefollowingoptionsbeforeprintingthemap:
Youcandefineanareaofthemaptoprintwithaprintingzone(see"DefiningthePrintingZone"onpage 65)or
withafocuszone(see"TheFocusZone"onpage 40).
Youcanmodifytheprintlayout("DefiningthePrintLayout"onpage 66).
Youcanseehowthemapwillappearonceprinted(see"PreviewingYourPrinting"onpage 68).
3. SelectFile >Print.
4. ClickOK.

1.6.2.1 PrintingRecommendations
Theappearanceofthemapisdeterminedbythearrangementandpropertiesoftheobjectsthemapcontains.ObjectsinAtoll
arearrangedinlayers.Thelayersonthetop(asarrangedontheNetworkandGeotabs)arethemostvisibleonthescreen

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andinprint.Thevisibilityofthelowerlayersdependsonwhichlayersareaboveitandonthetransparencyoftheselayers
(forinformationontransparency,see"DefiningtheTransparencyofObjectsandObjectTypes"onpage 30).
Beforeprintingamap,itisrecommendedtoorganisethelayersfromtoptobottomasfollows,whenadocumentcontains
surfacelayers(rastermapsorpolygonalvectormaps),lines(vectorssuchasroads,orairport),andpoints(measurements,
etc.):
Points(vectors)
RoadsandLines(vectors)
Surfacepolygons(vectors)
Multiformatmapsgeoclimatic,trafficmaps(vectororraster),andothers
Clutterclassmaps(transparentrastermaps)
Images,DTM,orclutterheightmaps(nontransparentmaps).
Sitesandtransmittersmustbeabovealltheotherlayers.Forthisreason,visibleobjectsintheNetworkexplorer,forexample,
sites,transmitters,andpredictions,aredisplayedaboveobjectsintheGeoexplorer.Forperformancereasons,however,itis
stronglyrecommendedtoputvectorlayers,suchasroads,overpredictions.Thiswillensurethatthesevectorlayersarevisible
whenyouprintthemap.
ToputvectorlayersintheGeoexploreroverpredictions:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. RightclickthevectorlayeryouwanttomovetotheNetworkexplorer.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectMovetoNetworkfromthecontextmenu.
4. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
5. DragthevectorlayertoapositionabovePredictionsbutbelowSites,Antennas,andTransmitters.

1.6.2.2 DefiningthePrintingZone
Youcandefinetheareaofthemaptobeprintedbycreatingaprintingzone.
Tocreateaprintingzone:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheZonesfolder.
3. RightclickthePrintingZonefolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. Fromthecontextmenu,selectoneofthefollowing:
DrawPolygon
i. Clickonceonthemaptostartdrawingthezone.
ii. Clickonceonthemaptodefineeachpointonthemapwheretheborderofthezonechangesdirection.
iii. Clicktwicetofinishdrawingandclosethezone.
DrawRectangle
i. Clickthepointonthemapthatwillbeonecorneroftherectanglethatwilldefinetheprintingzone.
ii. Dragtotheoppositecorneroftherectanglethatwilldefinetheprintingzone.Whenyoureleasethemouse,
theprintingzonewillbecreatedfromtherectangledefinedbythetwocorners.
Theprintingzoneisdelimitedbyalightgreenline(seeFigure 1.30).Ifyoucleartheprintingzonesvisibilitycheckbox
intheZonesfolderintheGeoexplorer,itwillnolongerbedisplayedbutwillstillbetakenintoaccount.

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Figure 1.30:Printingzone

Youcanalsocreateaprintingzoneasfollows:

VectorEditortoolbar:YoucanusetheNewPolygon( )andNewRectangle( )buttonsavailableintheVector


Editortoolbartodrawtheprintingzone.
Existingpolygon:YoucanuseanyexistingpolygonasaprintingzonebyrightclickingitonthemaporintheGeo
explorerandselectingUseAs >PrintingZonefromthecontextmenu.Youcanalsocombineanexistingprintingzone
withanyexistingpolygonbyrightclickingitonthemaporintheGeoexplorerandselectingAddTo >PrintingZone
fromthecontextmenu.The"effective"resultingprintingzonewillbetherectangleencompassingtheseveralpoly
gonscomposingtheprintingzone.
Importingapolygon:Ifyouhaveafilewithanexistingpolygon,youcanimportitanduseitasaprintingzone.You
canimportitbyrightclickingthePrintingZonefolderintheGeoexplorerandselectingImportfromthecontext
menu.
FitZonetoMapWindow:YoucancreateaprintingzonethesizeofthemapwindowbyrightclickingthePrinting
ZonefolderandselectingFitZonetoMapWindowfromthecontextmenu.

Onceyouhavecreatedaprintingzone,youcanchangeitssizebydraggingtheedgesofthezonedisplayedontherulersof
themapwindow.YoucanalsouseAtollspolygoneditingtoolstoedittheprintingzone.Formoreinformationonthepolygon
editingtools,see"UsingPolygonZoneEditingTools"onpage 41.

Youcansavetheprintingzone,sothatyoucanuseitinadifferentAtolldocument,inthe
followingways:
Savingtheprintingzoneintheuserconfiguration:Forinformationonsavingthe
printingzoneinauserconfiguration,see"SavingaUserConfiguration"onpage 79.
Exportingtheprintingzone:Youcanexportthegeographicexportzonebyright
clickingthePrintingZoneintheGeoexplorerandselectingExportfromthecon
textmenu.

1.6.2.3 DefiningthePrintLayout
YoucanusethePrintSetupdialoguetodefinehowyourmapwillappearwhenyouprintit.OnthePrintSetupdialogue,you
can:
Setthescaleofthemap.
Choosetoprinttherulerswiththemap.
Choosetoprinttheareaoutsidethefocuszone.
Choosetoprintthelegend.
Addatitle,comment,logo,header,orfooter.
Selectpapersizeandsource,aswellasthepageorientationandthemargins.
Thesesettingscanbesavedasaconfiguration,allowingyoutodefineastandardappearancewhichyoucanthenloadand
usethenexttimeyouprintasimilardocument.

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Todefinetheappearanceofthemapwhenitisprinted:
1. SelectFile >PrintSetup.ThePrintSetupdialogueappears.YoudefinetheprintsetuponthePagetab,theCompo
nentstab,andtheHeader/Footertab.Youcanseeanychangesyoumakeintheschematicpreviewontherightside
ofthePrintSetupdialogue.

Ifyouhavepreviouslydefinedaconfigurationfilecontainingallthenecessarysettings,you
canclicktheLoadbuttonunderConfigurationfiletoimportthosesettings.

2. ClickthePagetab.OnthePagetab,youcandefinethepagesize,margins,andorientationandthescaleoftheprinted
map:
a. UnderOrientation,selectwhetherthepageshouldbeprintedinPortraitorLandscape.
b. UnderPaper,selecttheSizeofthepaperand,optionally,theSourceofthepaper.
c. UnderScaling,definethescaleoftheprintedimageeitherbyselectingFittopage,orbyselectingScaleandde
finingthescale.
d. UnderMargins,setthemarginsofthepageinmillimetres.
3. ClicktheComponentstab.
a. UnderMap,youcandefinetheappearanceoftheprintedmap:
SelecttheRulerscheckboxifyouwanttoprintthemapwithascalearoundit.
SelecttheAreainsidefocuszoneonlycheckboxifyouonlywanttoprintthepartofthemapinsidethefocus
zone.
b. UnderLegend,youcandefinetheplacementofthelegend.
SelecttheLegendcheckboxifyouwanttoprintalegendwiththemap.

Click a button to set the Position of the legend. The buttons


insidethesquarewillplacethelegendontopofthemap.The
buttonsoutsideofthesquarewillplacethelegendoutsideofthe
map.

ClicktheFontbuttontoopentheFontdialoguetodefinethefontofthelegend.
c. SelecttheCommentscheckboxifyouwanttoprintacommentwiththemapandsetitsPosition.Clickingthe
Propertiesbuttonopensadialoguewhereyoucanentertextandsetvariablessuchasthecurrenttimeanddate.
Ifyouwantthecommenttoappearonthemap(andnotoutsideofit),selecttheOnthemapcheckbox.
4. ClicktheHeader/Footertab.OntheHeader/Footertab,youcansetthepositionofgraphicelements.
a. SelecttheMaptitlecheckboxifyouwanttodefineatitleforthemapandsetitsPosition.ClickingtheProperties
buttonopensadialoguewhereyoucanentertextandsetvariablessuchasthecurrenttimeanddate.Ifyouwant
thetitletoappearonthemap(andnotoutsideofit),selecttheOnthemapcheckbox.
b. UnderLogo 1andLogo 2,youcandefinegraphicsthatappearforthemap.Thegraphicscanbeacompanylogo
orotherinformation,suchascopyrightinformation,intheformofaBMPgraphic.
i. Fortheselectedlogocheckbox,clickthePropertiesbutton.TheLogodialogueappears.
Bydefault,AtollsearchesforthelogofilesintheAtollsinstallationfolder.Ifafilenamedlogo.bmpispresent
inthisfolder,itisconsideredasthedefaultheaderlogo.However,youcanselectadifferentfile.
ii. IntheLogodialogue,clickFile.TheOpendialogueappears.
iii. SelecttheyourgraphicinBMPformatandclickOpen.

OnlyBMPgraphicscanbeusedaslogos.Ifyourlogoisinadifferentformat,youmustfirst
convertitusingagraphicsprogrammetotheBMPformat.

iv. SelectthecorrectWidthandHeight(inpixels).
v. ClickOK.

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c. SelecttheHeader/FooterNotecheckboxifyouwanttodefineaheaderorfooterforthemapandsetitsPosition.
ClickingthePropertiesbuttonopensadialoguewhereyoucanentertextandsetvariablessuchasthecurrent
timeanddate.Ifyouwanttheheaderorfootertoappearonthemap(andnotoutsideofit),selecttheOnthe
mapcheckbox.
5. Onceyouhavemadeyoursettings,clickOKtoclosethePrintSetupdialogue,orclickPrinttoprintthedocument.

YoucansavethecurrentsettingsasaconfigurationfilebyclickingtheSavebuttonunder
Configurationfile.Thisenablesyoutoreusethesamesettingsthenexttimebyloading
them.

1.6.3 PreviewingYourPrinting
Whenyouwanttoprintmaps,datatables,orreports,youcanpreviewyourprinting.
Topreviewyourprinting:
1. Selectthemaportableyouwanttoprint.
2. SelectFile >PrintPreview.ThePrintPreviewwindowappears.
AtthetopofthePrintPreviewwindow,youcanclickoneofthefollowingbuttons:

ClickthePrintbutton( )toopenthePrintdialogue.
ClicktheNextPagebutton( )todisplaythefollowingpage
ClickthePreviousPagebutton( )todisplaythepreviouspage.
ClicktheZoomInbutton( )tozoominontheprintpreview.
ClicktheZoomOutbutton( )tozoomoutontheprintpreview.
ClicktheToggleOne/TwoPagesDisplaybutton( )toswitchdisplayfromonetotwopagessidebyside
ClickClosetoclosetheprintpreview.

1.6.4 PrintingaDockingWindow
Youcanprintthecontentofmanydockingwindowsusingthecontextmenu;selectingFile >Printonlyprintsthecontentsof
adocumentwindow,asexplainedin"PrintingaMap"onpage 64.Thedockingwindowswhosecontentsyoucanprintare:
LegendWindow(formoreinformationonthistool,see"AddinganObjectTypetotheLegend"onpage 31)
PointAnalysisTool
CWMeasurementAnalysisTool(formoreinformationonthistool,seetheMeasurementsandModelCalibration
Guide.
DriveTestDataAnalysisTool
MicrowaveLinkAnalysis(formoreinformationonthistool,see"StudyingReflection"onpage 264)
Toprintthecontentofadockingwindow:
1. Openthedockingwindowyouwanttoprint.
IfyouwanttoprintaPointAnalysiswindow,clickthetabyouwanttoprint.
2. Rightclickthewindowyouwanttoprint.
3. SelectPrintfromthecontextmenu.ThePrintdialogueappears.
4. ClickOKtoprint.

1.6.5 PrintingAntennaPatterns
Youcanprintthehorizontalorverticalpatternofanantenna.
Toprintanantennapattern:
1. ClicktheParametersexplorer.
2. OpentheAntennastable:
ToopenthemicrowaveAntennastable:
a. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheMicrowaveEquipmentfolder.
b. RightclicktheAntennasfolder.
c. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.

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3. Rightclicktheantennawhosepatternyouwanttoprint.
4. SelectRecordPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogueappears.
5. SelecttheHorizontalPatterntabortheVerticalPatterntab.
6. RightclicktheantennapatternandselectLinearorLogarithmicfromthecontextmenu.
7. RightclicktheantennapatternandselectPrintfromthecontextmenu.

1.7 Grouping,Sorting,andFilteringData
InAtollyoucanorganisedatainseveraldifferentways,allowingyoutoselectonlycertaindataandthen,forexample,modify
onlyselecteddataorruncalculationsontheselecteddata.Atollallowsyoutogroup,sort,orfilterdataquicklybyonecrite
rion,orbyseveral.
Afteryouhavedefinedhowyouwillgroup,sort,orfilterdata,youcansavethisinformationasafolderconfiguration.
Inthissectionthefollowingwillbeexplained:
"GroupingDataObjects"onpage 69
"SortingData"onpage 72
"FilteringData"onpage 74
"FolderConfigurations"onpage 83
"CreatingandComparingViews"onpage 85

1.7.1 GroupingDataObjects
YoucangroupobjectsaccordingtoaselectedpropertyintheNetworkexplorer.Theobjectstobegroupedcanbeinadata
folderorinaview(see"CreatingandComparingViews"onpage 85).Youcanalsodefinethepropertiesbywhichyoucan
groupobjects.GroupingobjectsintheNetworkexplorerissimilartosortingdatainthedatatablebecauseitputsallrecords
withtheselectedpropertytogether.
Onceyouhavegroupeddataobjects,youcanaccesstheirPropertiesdialoguefromthecontextmenutoeditpropertieson
allgroupedobjects.Youcansavethegroupingparametersasafolderconfiguration.Forinformation,see"FolderConfigura
tions"onpage 83.
Thissectionexplains:
"GroupingDataObjectsbyaSelectedProperty"onpage 69
"ConfiguringtheGroupBySubmenu"onpage 70
"AdvancedGrouping"onpage 71.
Forexamplesofgroupingdataobjects,see"ExamplesofGrouping"onpage 72.

1.7.1.1 GroupingDataObjectsbyaSelectedProperty
YoucangroupdataobjectsbyaselectedpropertyusingtheGroupBycommandonthecontextmenu.
Togroupdataobjectsbyaselectedproperty:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefolderorviewwhoseobjectsyouwanttogroup.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. FromtheGroupBysubmenu,selectthepropertybywhichyouwanttogrouptheobjects.Theobjectsinthefolder
aregroupedbythatproperty.

If the range of properties available in the Group By submenu has been configured as
explainedin"ConfiguringtheGroupBySubmenu"onpage 70,youcanselectadditional
propertiesbyselectingMoreFieldsfromtheGroupBysubmenu.Forinformationonusing
thedialoguethatappears,see"ConfiguringtheGroupBySubmenu"onpage 70.

Toundothegrouping:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefolderorviewwhoseobjectsyouhavegrouped.
3. Fromthecontextmenu,selectfromtheGroupBy >None.
See"ExamplesofGrouping"onpage 72.

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1.7.1.2 ConfiguringtheGroupBySubmenu
Some data objects, such as transmitters, have a large number of properties that will appear by default in the Group By
submenu.YoucanmakeiteasiertogroupdataobjectsbyconfiguringtheGroupBysubmenutodisplayonlytheproperties
thatarerelevantforgrouping.
ToconfiguretheGroupBysubmenu:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. RightclickthefolderwhoseGroupBysubmenuyouwanttoconfigure.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.
4. SelecttheGeneraltabofthePropertiesdialogue.
5. ClicktheConfigureMenubuttonnexttotheGroupByfieldthatshowshowthedataobjectsarepresentlygrouped.
TheMenuConfigurationdialogueappears(seeFigure 1.31).

Figure 1.31:TheMenuConfigurationdialogue

6. SelectthefieldsyouwanttoappearintheGroupBysubmenu.Youcandisplayallthefieldsbelongingtoatableby
clickingtheExpandbutton( )totheleftofthetablename.Youcanselectcontiguousfieldsbyclickingthefirstfield,
pressingSHIFTandclickingthelastfield.YoucanselectnoncontiguousfieldsbypressingCTRLandclickingeachfield
separately.

ToselectafieldtoappearintheGroupBysubmenu,selectthefieldintheAvailablefieldslistandclick to
moveittotheGroupingFieldslist.
ToremoveafieldfromthelistofGroupingFields,selectthefieldintheGroupingfieldslistandclick to
removeit.

Tochangetheorderofthefields,selectafieldandclick or tomoveitupordowninthelist.Theobjectswill
begroupedintheorderofthefieldsintheGroupingfieldslist,fromtoptobottom.
7. ClickOKtoclosetheMenuConfigurationdialogueandclickOKtoclosethePropertiesdialogue.TheGroupBysub
menuwillnowcontainonlythefieldsyouselected.

1.7.1.3 GroupingMicrowaveLinksbySite
Youcanfindallthemicrowavelinksthatareconnectedtoaspecificsitebygroupingalllinksbysite.
Togroupmicrowavelinksbysite:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftofMicrowaveRadioLinksfoldertoexpandthefolder.
3. RightclicktheLinksfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectClassifybySitefromthecontextmenu.Atollcreatesviewsforeachsitewithamicrowavelinkandsortsthe
linksbysite(seeFigure 1.32).

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Figure 1.32:Groupingmicrowavelinksbysite

Torestorenormaldisplayofmicrowavelinks:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftofMicrowaveRadioLinksfoldertoexpandthefolder.
3. RightclicktheLinksfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectClassifybySitefromthecontextmenu.ThedefaultdisplayofthecontentsoftheLinksfolderisrestored.

1.7.1.4 AdvancedGrouping
Youcangroupdataobjectsbyoneormoreproperties,usingtheGroupBybuttononthePropertiesdialogue.
Togroupdataobjectsbyoneormoreproperties:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefolderorviewwhoseobjectsyouhavegrouped.
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.
4. SelecttheGeneraltabofthePropertiesdialogue.
5. ClicktheGroupBybutton.TheGroupdialogueappears(seeFigure 1.33).

Figure 1.33:TheGroupdialogue

6. Selectthefieldsbywhichyouwanttogrouptheobjects.Youcanselectcontiguousfieldsbyclickingthefirstfield,
pressingSHIFTandclickingthelastfield.YoucanselectnoncontiguousfieldsbypressingCTRLandclickingeachfield
separately.

Toselectafieldtobeusedtogrouptheobjects,selectthefieldintheAvailableFieldslistandclick tomove
ittotheGroupingFieldslist.
ToremoveafieldfromthelistofGroupingFields,selectthefieldintheGroupingFieldslistandclick to
removeit.

Tochangetheorderofthefields,selectafieldandclick or tomoveitupordowninthelist.Theobjectswill
begroupedintheorderofthefieldsintheGroupingFieldslist,fromtoptobottom.
7. ClickOKtoclosetheGroupdialogueandclickOKtoclosethePropertiesdialogueandgrouptheobjects.
Toundothegrouping:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefolderorviewwhoseobjectsyouhavegrouped.
3. Fromthecontextmenu,selectfromtheGroupBy >None.

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1.7.1.5 ExamplesofGrouping
Inthisexample,thereisanAtolldocumentwithalargenumberofsitesand,therefore,transmitters.Whileitiseasytosee
onthemapwhichtransmittersarepartofwhichsite,intheNetworkexplorer,youcanonlyseeaverylonglistoftransmitters
undertheTransmitterfolder.
ByrightclickingtheTransmitterfolderandselectingGroupBy >Site,youcangroupthetransmittersbythesitetheyare
locatedon.TheresultofgroupingcanbeseeninFigure 1.34.

Figure 1.34:Transmittersgroupedbysite

Youcanalsogroupobjectsbythecomputationorfocuszone.Younormallycreateacomputationorfocuszonewhenyou
wanttoconcentrateonagivensubsetoftransmitters,forexample,whenyouareworkingonacertainareaofthenetwork.
Bygroupingthembycomputationorfocuszone,thetransmittersyouareworkingonareimmediatelyvisibleundertheTrans
mitterfolder.
ByrightclickingtheTransmitterfolderandselectingGroupBy >Polygon >FocusZone,youcangroupthetransmittersinthe
focuszonetogether.TheresultofgroupingcanbeseeninFigure 1.34.Thetransmittersarenowintwogroups:thoseinside
thefocuszoneandthoseoutsidethefocuszone.

Figure 1.35:Transmittersgroupedbysite

1.7.2 SortingData
InAtoll,youcansortthedocumentdataeitherinthedatatablesorusingtheSortfunctionofPropertiesdialogue.Youcan
sortthedatainascending(AtoZ,1to10)ordescending(ZtoA,10to1)order.
Youcansortthedatabyeitheroneorbyseveralcolumns.Whenyousortdatabyseveralcolumns,Atollsortstherecordsby
thefirstcolumnandthen,withineachgroupofidenticalvaluesinthefirstcolumn,Atollthensortstherecordsbythesecond
column,andsoon.
Onceyouhavesorteddataobjects,youcansavethesettingsasafolderconfiguration.Forinformation,see"FolderConfigu
rations"onpage 83.
Thissectionexplainsthefollowing:
"SortingDatainTables"onpage 72
"AdvancedSorting"onpage 73

1.7.2.1 SortingDatainTables
Whensortingdataintables,youcansortbyonecolumnorbyseveralcolumns:
"SortingbyOneColumn"onpage 73
"SortingbySeveralColumns"onpage 73.

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SortingbyOneColumn

Tosortdatainatablebyonecolumn:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 51.
2. Selecttheheaderofthecolumnthatyouwanttosorton.Theentirecolumnisselected.
3. Rightclickthecolumnheader.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. Fromthecontextmenu,selecthowyouwanttosort:
SortAscending:sortthedatatablerecordsfromthelowestvalueinthereferencecolumntothehighestvalue.
SortDescending:sortthedatatablerecordsfromthehighestvalueinthereferencecolumntothelowestvalue.

Youcanalsosortdatainatablebyselectingthecolumnasdescribedandthenclicking
eithertheSortAscending( )orSortDescending( )buttonsintheTabletoolbar.

SortingbySeveralColumns

Youcanonlysortinatablebyadjacentcolumns.Ifyouwanttosortbycolumnsthatarenotadjacent,youcanmovethe
columnsfirstasexplainedin"MovingColumns"onpage 56.

Ifyouwanttosortdatabyseveralcolumnswithoutmovingthecolumns,youcanusethe
SortfunctiononthePropertiesdialogue.Forinformation,see"AdvancedSorting"on
page 73.

Tosortdatainatablebyseveralcolumns:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 51.
2. Clicktheheaderofthefirstcolumnanddragovertheadjacentcolumnsthatwillbeyoursortreferences.Theentire
columnisselected.
3. Rightclickthecolumnheaders.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. Fromthecontextmenu,selecthowyouwanttosort:
SortAscending:sortthedatatablerecordsfromthelowestvalueinthefirstreferencecolumntothehighest
value.
SortDescending:sortthedatatablerecordsfromthehighestvalueinthefirstreferencecolumntothelowest
value.

Youcanalsosortdatainatablebyselectingthecolumnasdescribedandthenclicking
eithertheSortAscending( )orSortDescending( )buttonsintheTabletoolbar.

1.7.2.2 AdvancedSorting
YoucansortdatabyseveralcriteriausingtheSortfunctionofthePropertiesdialogue.
TosortdatausingtheSortfunctionofthePropertiesdialogue:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefolderwhosedatayouwanttosort.Thecontextmenuappears
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.
4. SelecttheGeneraltabinthePropertiesdialogue.
5. ClicktheSortbutton.TheSortdialogueappears(seeFigure 1.36).
6. Forthefirstcolumnyouwanttosorton:
a. SelectthecolumnnamefromtheSortbylist.
b. Choosewhetheryouwanttosortinascendingordescendingorder.
7. Foreachothercolumnyouwanttosorton:
a. SelectthecolumnnamefromtheAndbylist.
b. Choosewhetheryouwanttosortinascendingordescendingorder.

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8. ClickOK.

Figure 1.36:TheSortdialogue

1.7.3 FilteringData
InAtoll,youcanfilterdataaccordingtooneorseveralcriteria.Youcanfilterdatatobeabletoworkwithasubsetofdata,or
tofacilitateworkingwithlargedocumentsbyreducingtheamountofrecordsdisplayed.
Thefiltereddataobjectsarethedataobjectsthatremainafteryouhaveappliedyourfiltercriteria.
Youcansavethefilteringparametersasafolderconfiguration.Forinformation,see"FolderConfigurations"onpage 83.
Thissectionexplainsthefollowing:
"FilteringinDataTablesbySelection"onpage 74
"AdvancedDataFiltering"onpage 75
"RestoringAllRecords"onpage 76
"AdvancedFiltering:Examples"onpage 77.

1.7.3.1 FilteringinDataTablesbySelection
Youcanfilteradatatablebyselectingoneormorevalues.Onceyouhaveselectedoneormorevalues,youcanchooseto
viewonlyrecordsthathavethesamevalueoronlyrecordsthatdonothavethatvalue.
Tofilteradatatableononeormorefields:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 51.
2. Selectthevaluetofilteron.YoucanselectmultiplevaluesbypressingCTRLasyouclicktheothervalues.
3. Rightclicktheselectedvalueorvaluesandselectoneofthefollowingfromthetablescontextmenu:
FilterbySelection:Allrecordswiththeselectedvalueorvaluesaredisplayed.Youcannowmodifytheserecords
ormakecalculationsonthemasyouwouldnormallydowiththeentiredatatable(seeFigure 1.37onpage 75).
FilterExcludingSelection:Allrecordswithouttheselectedvalueorvaluesaredisplayed.Youcannowmodify
theserecordsormakecalculationsonthemasyouwouldnormallydowiththeentiredatatable(seeFigure 1.38
onpage 75).

Whenthedatainatablearefiltered,afiltericon( )appearsatthetopoftheleftmost
columnandinthecorrespondingcolumnheader(s),asshowninFigure 1.37and
Figure 1.38.Theiconintheleftmostcolumncanproveusefulwhenthecolumn
containingthefiltereddataisnotdisplayedduetoalargetablewidth.

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Figure 1.37:Filteringbyselection

Figure 1.38:Filteringexcludingselection

Youcanalsofilterdatainatablebyselectingthevaluesasdescribedandthenclicking
eithertheFilterbySelection( )orFilterExcludingSelection( )buttonsintheTable
toolbar.

1.7.3.2 AdvancedDataFiltering
Youcanuseadvanceddatafilteringtocombineseveralcriteriaindifferentfieldstocreatecomplexfilters.
Tocreateanadvancedfilter:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 51.

2. ClicktheAdvancedFilterbutton( )intheTabletoolbar.TheFilterdialogueappears.

YoucanalsoaccesstheFilterdialoguebyclickingtheFilterbuttonofthetables
Propertiesdialogue.

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3. ClicktheFiltertab:
a. SelectaFieldfromthelist.
b. UnderValuestoInclude,youwillfindallthevaluesrepresentedintheselectedfield.Selectthecheckboxesnext
tothevaluesyouwanttoincludeinthefilter.ClickClearAlltoclearallcheckboxes.

MakingselectionsontheFiltertaboftheFilterdialogueistheequivalentoffilteringby
selectionasexplainedin"FilteringinDataTablesbySelection"onpage 74.

4. ClicktheAdvancedtab:
a. IntheColumnrow,selectthenameofthecolumntobefilteredonfromthelist.Selectasmanycolumnsasyou
want(seeFigure 1.39).

Figure 1.39:TheFilterdialogueAdvancedtab

b. Underneatheachcolumnname,enterthecriteriaonwhichthecolumnwillbefilteredasexplainedinthefollow
ingtable:

Formula Dataarekeptinthetableonlyif
=X valueequaltoX(Xcanbeanumberorcharacters)

<>X valuenotequaltoX(Xcanbeanumberorcharacters)

<X numericalvalueislessthanX

>X numericalvalueisgreaterthanX

<=X numericalvalueislessthanorequaltoX

>=X numericalvalueisgreaterthanorequaltoX

*X* textobjectswhichcontainX

X* textobjectswhichstartwithX

5. ClickOKtofilterthedataaccordingtothecriteriayouhavedefined.
Filtersarecombinedfirsthorizontally,thenvertically.
See"AdvancedFiltering:Examples"onpage 77.

1.7.3.3 RestoringAllRecords
Afteryouhaveappliedfiltercriteriatorecords,youmaywanttocancelthefiltercriteriaanddisplayalltherecordsagain.
Torestoreallrecords:

ClicktheRemoveFilterbutton( )intheTabletoolbar.

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1.7.3.4 AdvancedFiltering:Examples
Inthissection,youwillfindafewexamplesofadvancedfiltering:
"AdvancedFiltering:Example 1"onpage 77
"AdvancedFiltering:Example 2"onpage 77
"AdvancedFiltering:Example 3"onpage 78.

1.7.3.4.1 AdvancedFiltering:Example 1
Inthisexample,thereisanAtolldocumentwithantennasfromtwomanufacturersandwithdifferentcharacteristics.

Figure 1.40:Initialtable

TheobjectiveofthisexampleistousefiltercriteriatofindantennasmanufacturedbyKathreinwithabeamwidthbetween
50and100.Todothis,thefollowingfiltersyntaxisenteredontheAdvancedtaboftheFilterdialogue(forinformationon
theAdvancedtab,see"AdvancedDataFiltering"onpage 75):
Thefirstcriterion,asshowninFigure 1.41,isallantennasmadebyamanufacturerwithanamebeginningwitha"K"
("=K*").Whileyoucouldwriteintheentirename("=Kathrein"),itisnotnecessarybecausethereisonlyonemanu
facturerwitha"K."
Thesecondcriterionisallantennaswithabeamwidthunder100.
Thethirdcriterionisallantennaswithabeamwidthover50.
Thecombinationofthesecriteriaisallantennasfrommanufacturerswithanamebeginningwith"K"andwithabeamwidth
under100butover50.
TheresultofthisadvancedfiltercanbeseeninthesecondpaneofFigure 1.41.

Figure 1.41:Advancedfiltering

1.7.3.4.2 AdvancedFiltering:Example 2
Inthisexample,thedocumentisthesameasin"AdvancedFiltering:Example 1"onpage 77.Theobjectiveofthisexampleis
thesameaswell:tousefiltercriteriatofindantennasmanufacturedbyKathreinwithabeamwidthbetween50and100.The

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filtersyntaxisenteredontheAdvancedtaboftheFilterdialogue(forinformationontheAdvancedtab,see"AdvancedData
Filtering"onpage 75),inthiscase,however,theenteredfiltersyntaxcontainserrors:
AsshowninFigure 1.42,thefirstcriterionisallantennasmadebyamanufacturerwithanamebeginningwitha"K"
("=K*").
Thesecondcriterionisallantennaswithabeamwidthunder100andover50.
TheresultofthisadvancedfiltercanbeseeninthesecondpaneofFigure 1.41.

Figure 1.42:Errorsinfiltering

Aspreviouslystated,theobjectiveofthisexamplewastousefiltercriteriatofindantennasmanufacturedbyKathreinwitha
beamwidthbetween50and100.However,becausethesecondcriterion(beamwidthunder100andover50)ismalformed,
with"> 50"placedunder"< 100",itfunctionedasanORconditionandnotasanANDcondition.Theresultingfiltersearched
forallantennasmanufacturedbyKathreinwithabeamwidthunder100,orallantennasover50;allantennasaredisplayed.

1.7.3.4.3 AdvancedFiltering:Example 3
Inthisexample,thedocumentisthesameasin"AdvancedFiltering:Example 1"onpage 77.Theobjectiveofthisexampleis
thesameaswell:tousefiltercriteriatofindantennasmanufacturedbyKathreinwithabeamwidthbetween50and100.The
filtersyntaxisenteredontheAdvancedtaboftheFilterdialogue(forinformationontheAdvancedtab,see"AdvancedData
Filtering"onpage 75),inthiscase,however,theenteredfiltersyntaxcontainserrors:
AsshowninFigure 1.43,thefirstcriterionisallantennasmadebyamanufacturerwithanamebeginningwitha"K"
("=K*").
Thesecondcriterionisallantennaswithabeamwidthunder100andover50.
TheresultofthisadvancedfiltercanbeseeninthesecondpaneofFigure 1.41.

Figure 1.43:Errorsinfiltering

Aspreviouslystated,theobjectiveofthisexamplewastousefiltercriteriatofindantennasmanufacturedbyKathreinwitha
beamwidthbetween50and100.However,becausethesecondcriterionismalformed,thefilteronlygeneratesanerror
messageandnoantennasarefilteredout.

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1.7.4 UserConfigurations
InAtoll,youcansavemanyparametersandsettingsinuserconfigurationsandthenloadtheminotherdocuments.User
configurationsareusedtostoreparametersandsettingsthatarenotstoredindatabases.Userconfigurationfilesenableyou
toensurethatallusersinamultiuserenvironmentusethesamesettings.
ThefileextensionofuserconfigurationfilesisCFG.ThefileextensionGEOis,however,usedifonlythegeographicdataset
orzonesarebeingsavedinauserconfigurationfile.UserconfigurationfilesareXMLfilesandcanbeopenedintextandXML
editors.
Youcansavethefollowinginformationinuserconfigurationfiles:
Geographicdataset:Fullpathsofimportedgeographicmaps,mapdisplaysettings(suchas,thevisibilityscale,trans
parency,tiptext,etc.),clutterdescription(code,name,height,standarddeviations,etc.),andrasteroruserprofile
trafficmapdescription.

Whenyousavethegeographicdatasetinauserconfigurationfile,thecoordinate
systemofallvectorgeographicdatamustbethesameasthatoftherastergeographic
data.

Mapcentreandzoomlevel:XandYcoordinatesofthecentreofthemapwindowandthezoomlevel.
Zones:Filtering,focus,computation,printing,andgeographicexportzonesinthecurrentdocument.
Folderconfigurations:Sort,group,andfiltersettings(thecurrentfolderconfiguration,evenifnotsaved,andother
definedconfigurationsforthefolders),thefilteringzone,thedisplaysettingsofnetworkdatafolders(includingmeas
urementdisplaysettings),andLTEandWiMAXAFPparameters(includingconstraintweightsforfrequencyplanning,
physicalcellIDplanning,andpreambleindexplanning).
MicrowaveLinkParameters:Thesettingsofmicrowavelinks.
Macros:Fullpathsofanymacros.MacrosareloadedforentireAtollsessionsandnotforaspecificAtolldocument.
YoucanexportthemacrostoauserconfigurationevenifyoudonothaveanAtolldocumentopen.
Foradetaileddescriptionoftheuserconfigurationfile,seetheAdministratorManual.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"SavingaUserConfiguration"onpage 79
"LoadingaUserConfiguration"onpage 80.

1.7.4.1 SavingaUserConfiguration
Youcreateauserconfigurationbysavingtheselectedsettingstoanexternalfile.
Tosaveauserconfiguration:
1. SelectTools >UserConfiguration >Save.TheUserConfigurationdialogueappears(seeFigure 1.44).

Figure 1.44:Savingauserconfiguration

2. Selectthecheckboxesoftheinformationyouwanttoexportaspartoftheuserconfiguration.
3. ClickOK.TheSaveAsdialogueappears.
4. EnteraFilenamefortheuserconfigurationfileandclickSave.Thefolderconfigurationhasbeensaved.

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1.7.4.2 LoadingaUserConfiguration
Youcanloadauserconfigurationthatyouoranotheruserhascreated,asexplainedin"SavingaUserConfiguration"on
page 79, into your current Atoll document. If the user configuration you load contains macro information, it will only be
loadedifnodocumentiscurrentlyopen.WhenthereisnoAtolldocumentopen,onlymacroinformationisloadedfromthe
userconfiguration.
Toloadauserconfiguration:
1. SelectTools >UserConfiguration >Load.TheOpendialogueappears.
2. Selecttheuserconfigurationfilewiththedatayouwanttouseinyourcurrentdocument.
3. ClickOpen.TheUserConfigurationdialogueappears(seeFigure 1.45).

Figure 1.45:Loadingauserconfiguration

4. Selectthecheckboxesoftheinformationyouwanttoload.
5. ClickOK.Theuserconfigurationisloadedintoyourcurrentdocument.

1.7.5 SiteLists
InAtoll,youcancreatelistsofsites.Onceyouhavecreatedasitelist,youcanmodifythelistanduseittofilterdatatobe
abletoworkwithasubsetofdata,ortofacilitateworkingwithlargedocumentsbyreducingthenumberofrecordsdisplayed.
Inamultiuserenvironment,sitelistscanbestoredinthedatabase.Whenyouopenadocumentfromadatabase,youcan
selectthesitestoloadaccordingtoanydefinedsitelists.Inalargeradioplanningproject,thisallowsyoutomoreeffectively
manageyourresourcesbyreducingtheunnecessarydatayouretrievefromthedatabase.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"CreatingaSiteList"onpage 80
"AddingaSitetoaListintheNetworkExplorer"onpage 81
"AddingaSitetoaListfromtheMapWindow"onpage 81
"AddingSitestoaListUsingaZone"onpage 81
"EditingaSiteList"onpage 82
"ImportingaSiteList"onpage 82
"ExportingaSiteList"onpage 82
"FilteringonaSiteList"onpage 83.

1.7.5.1 CreatingaSiteList
Youcancreatelistsofsitesthatyoucanthenusetofilterthedatadisplayed.
Tocreateasitelist:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefolderwhereyouwanttocreatethelist:
Sitelist:ifyouwanttocreateasitelist:
a. RightclicktheSitesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
b. SelectSiteLists >OpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheSiteListstableappears.
3. EnterthenameofthenewlistintherowmarkedwiththeNewRowicon( ).

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Youcancreateaseriesofblanksitelistsbyimportingatextfilewiththenamesofthe
newlists.YoucanimportthetextfilebyclickingtheActionsbuttonontheSiteLists
dialogueandthenselectingImportfromthemenuthatappears.Youcanalsoexportthe
namesofallexistingsitelistsbyselectingExportfromthesamemenu.

1.7.5.2 AddingaSitetoaListintheNetworkExplorer
YoucanaddasitetoalistbyselectingitfromtheNetworkexplorer.
Toaddasitetoalist:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftofSitesfoldertoexpandthefolder.
3. Rightclickthesiteyouwanttoaddtothelist.Thecontextmenuappears.
Sitelist:ifyouwanttoaddasitetoalist:
SelectAddSitetoaListfromthecontextmenu.Adialogueappears.
4. Selectthenameofthelistfromthedialogue.

Youcancreateanewlistbyenteringanameinthelistinsteadofselectingthename
fromthelist.Theselectedsitewillbeaddedtothenewlist.

5. ClickOK.Thesiteisaddedtotheselectedlist.

YoucanquicklycreateacompletelistbyfirstfilteringthecontentsoftheSitesfolderas
explainedin"FilteringData"onpage 74.Then,byrightclickingtheSitesfolderand
selectingSiteLists >AddSitestoaListfromthecontextmenu,youcanaddthefiltered
contentsoffoldertothelistyouselect.

1.7.5.3 AddingaSitetoaListfromtheMapWindow
Youcanaddasitetoalistbyselectingitfromthemapwindow.
Toaddasitetoalist:
1. Inthemapwindow,rightclickthesiteyouwanttoaddtoalist.
Sitelist:ifyouwanttoaddasitetoalist:
SelectAddSitetoaListfromthecontextmenu.Adialogueappears.
2. Selectthenameofthelistfromthedialogue.

Youcancreateanewlistbyenteringanameinthelistinsteadofselectingthename
fromthelist.Theselectedsitewillbeaddedtothenewlist.

3. ClickOK.Thesiteisaddedtotheselectedlist.

1.7.5.4 AddingSitestoaListUsingaZone
Youcanaddthesitescontainedinazonetoasiteortransmitterlist.
Toaddthesitescontainedinazonetoalist:
1. Createazoneasexplainedin"UsingZonesintheMapWindow"onpage 38thatcontainsthesitesyouwanttoadd
toalist.Youcanuseafiltering,computation,focus,printing,orgeographicexportzone.
2. IntheGeoexplorer,rightclickthezoneandselectthefollowingfromthecontextmenu:
AddSitestoaList:SelectAddSitestoaListtoaddthesitesinthezonetoasitelist.Adialogueappears.
3. Selectthenameofthelistfromthedialogue.

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Youcancreateanewlistbyenteringanameinthelistinsteadofselectingthename
fromthelist.Theselectedsitewillbeaddedtothenewlist.

4. ClickOK.Thesitescontainedinthezoneareaddedtotheselectedlist.

1.7.5.5 EditingaSiteList
YoucaneditasitelistusingtheSiteListtable.
Toeditasitelist:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefolderwhereyouwanttoeditthelist:
Sitelist:ifyouwanttoeditasitelist:
a. RightclicktheSitesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
b. SelectSiteLists >OpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheSiteListstableappears.
3. SelectthenameofthelistyouwanttoeditandclickProperties.ThePropertiesdialogueappears.
4. Youcannoweditthelist:
Toaddasitetothelist:

SelectthenameofthesiteintherowmarkedwiththeNewRowicon( ).
Todeleteasitefromthelist:
a. Clickintheleftmarginoftherowcontainingthesitetoselectit.
b. PressDELtodeletethesitefromthelist.
5. ClickOKwhenyouhavefinishededitingthesitelist.

1.7.5.6 ImportingaSiteList
YoucanimportasitelistfromatextfileusingtheSiteListtable.
Toimportasitelist:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefolderwhereyouwanttoimportthelist:
Sitelist:ifyouwanttoimportasitelist:
a. RightclicktheSitesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
b. SelectSiteLists >OpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheSiteListstableappears.
3. Select the name of the list into which you want to import entries and click Properties. The Properties dialogue
appears.
4. InthePropertiesdialogue,clicktheImportbutton.TheOpendialogueappears.
5. SelectthetextfilewiththesitenamesyouwanttoimportandclickOpen.Thecontentsofthetextfileareaddedto
thelist.
6. ClickOKinthePropertiesdialoguewhenyouhavefinishedimportingthefile.

1.7.5.7 ExportingaSiteList
YoucanexportasitelisttoatextfileusingtheSiteListtable.
Toexportasitelist:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefolderwhereyouwanttoexportthelist:
Sitelist:ifyouwanttoexportasitelist:
a. RightclicktheSitesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
b. SelectSiteLists >OpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheSiteListstableappears.
3. SelectthenameofthelistyouwanttoexportandclickProperties.ThePropertiesdialogueappears.

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4. InthePropertiesdialogue,clicktheExportbutton.TheSaveAsdialogueappears.
5. EnterafilenameandclickSave.Thesitelistissavedasatextfile.

1.7.5.8 FilteringonaSiteList
YoucanusesiteortransmitterliststofilterthecontentsoftheSitesfolder.
Tofilterfoldercontentsusingasitelist:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefolderwhosecontentsyouwanttofilter.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogueappears.
4. OntheGeneraltabofthePropertiesdialogue,clicktheFilterbutton.TheFilterdialogueappears.
5. Ifyouhavecreatedalist,therewillbeanadditionaltab:
Sites:ClicktheSiteListstab.
6. Selectthecheckboxofthelistorliststhatyouwanttodisplay.
7. ClickOKtoclosetheFilterdialogue.
8. ClickOKtoclosethePropertiesdialogue.OnlysitesthatbelongtotheselectedlistarenowdisplayedintheNetwork
explorerandinthemapwindow.

1.7.6 FolderConfigurations
InAtoll,theparametersdefininghowdatacontainedinafolderaregrouped,sorted,orfilteredarereferredtoasafolder
configuration.Youcandefinefolderconfigurationsandsavethem,allowingyoutoconsistentlyapplythesamegrouping,
filtering,orsortingcriteria.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"CreatingaFolderConfiguration"onpage 83
"ApplyingaSavedFolderConfiguration"onpage 83
"ReapplyingtheCurrentFolderConfiguration"onpage 84
"SavingaFolderConfigurationinanExternalFile"onpage 84
"LoadingaFolderConfigurationfromanExternalFile"onpage 84
"DeletingaFolderConfiguration"onpage 84.

1.7.6.1 CreatingaFolderConfiguration
InAtoll,youcansavetheparametersdefininghowdatacontainedinafolderaregrouped,filtered,orsortedasafolderconfig
uration.
Tocreateaconfiguration:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefolderwhosesettingsyouwanttosave.
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.
4. SelecttheGeneraltabinthePropertiesdialogue.
5. Ifyouhavenotyetdoneso,setthefollowingparametersasdesired:
GroupBy(see"GroupingDataObjects"onpage 69)
Sort(see"SortingData"onpage 72)
Filter(see"FilteringData"onpage 74).
6. UnderFolderconfiguration,clickSave.
7. EnterthenameoftheconfigurationintheSaveConfigurationdialogue.
8. ClickOKtosavetheconfigurationandclickOKtoclosethePropertiesdialogue.
Thesavedfolderconfigurationisonlyavailableforthecurrentfolderandcanbereappliedtothefolderbyselectingitfrom
theFolderConfigurationsubmenuonthefolderscontextmenu.

1.7.6.2 ApplyingaSavedFolderConfiguration
Youcanapplyafolderconfigurationthathasbeencreatedandsavedforthepresentfolder.

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Toapplyasavedfolderconfiguration:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefoldertowhichyouwanttoapplyafolderconfiguration.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. OntheFolderConfigurationsubmenu,selectthenameofthefolderconfigurationyouwanttoapply.Thefoldercon
figurationisappliedtothecurrentfolder.

1.7.6.3 ReapplyingtheCurrentFolderConfiguration
Ifyouhavegrouped,filtered,orsortedadatafolder,youhavecreatedandappliedafolderconfiguration.Ifyouthenaddor
modifydata,thepropertiesofthesemaynotmatchthefolderconfigurationyoupreviouslymadeonthedatafolder.Inthis
case,youcanreapplythesamefilterorsortsettingstothenewormodifieddata.
Toreapplythefolderconfiguration:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefolderwhosefolderconfigurationyouwanttoreapply.
3. SelectUpdateFolderConfigurationfromthecontextmenu.Thepreviouslyconfiguredfolderconfigurationisreap
pliedtothedata.

1.7.6.4 SavingaFolderConfigurationinanExternalFile
Whenyoucreateafolderconfiguration,yousaveitinthecurrentATLdocument.However,youcansaveitaspartofauser
configurationinanexternalfile,sothatitcanbeusedinotherdocuments.
Tosaveafolderconfigurationinanexternalfile:
1. SelectTools >UserConfiguration >Save.TheUserConfigurationdialogueappears(seeFigure 1.44onpage 79).
2. SelecttheFolderConfigurationcheckbox.
Ifyouwanttoexportotherconfigurationsatthesametime,selectthosecheckboxesaswell.
3. ClickOK.TheSaveAsdialogueappears.
4. EnteraFilenamefortheCFGfileandclickSave.Thefolderconfigurationhasbeensaved.

1.7.6.5 LoadingaFolderConfigurationfromanExternalFile
Onceyouhavesavedafolderconfigurationasexplainedin"SavingaFolderConfigurationinanExternalFile"onpage 84,you
canloaditintoyourcurrentdocument.
Toloadafolderconfiguration:
1. SelectTools >UserConfiguration >Load.TheOpendialogueappears.
2. SelecttheCFGfilewiththefolderconfigurationyouwanttoimport.
3. ClickOpen.TheUserConfigurationdialogueappears(seeFigure 1.45onpage 80).
4. SelecttheFolderConfigurationcheckbox.
Ifyouwanttoimportotherconfigurationsatthesametime,selectthosecheckboxesaswell.
5. ClickOK.Thefolderconfigurationisimported.

1.7.6.6 DeletingaFolderConfiguration
YoucandeleteafolderconfigurationfromtheAtolldocumentwhenyounolongerneedit.
Todeleteafolderconfiguration:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefolderwiththefolderconfigurationyouwanttodelete.
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.
4. SelecttheGeneraltabinthePropertiesdialogue.
5. UnderFolderconfiguration,selectthenameoftheconfigurationfromthelist.
6. ClickDelete.Thefolderconfigurationisdeleted.

Whenyoudeleteafolderconfiguration,Atollwillnotaskforconfirmation;itisdeleted
immediately.

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1.7.7 CreatingandComparingViews
You can compare the effects of different grouping, sorting, or filtering settings by creating views of object folders in the
Networkexplorerandapplyingdifferentsettingstoeachview.Eachviewcontainsacopyofthedataintheobjectfolderin
whichitwascreated.
Tocreateaviewofafolder:
1. IntheNetworkexplorer,rightclickthefolderyouwanttocreateaviewof.
2. SelectCreateViewfromthecontextmenu.Aviewiscreatedcontainingacopyoftheoriginalfoldercontent.
Youcannowperformthefollowingactionsontheview:
Grouping(see"GroupingDataObjects"onpage 69)
Sorting(see"SortingData"onpage 72)
Filtering(see"FilteringData"onpage 74).

Ifyouhavecreatedseveralviews,youcanrenameeachonetogiveitamoredescriptive
name.Forinformationonrenaminganobject,see"RenaminganObject"onpage 24.

Onceyouhaveperformedtheactionsoneachview,youcancomparethedifferences,bydisplayinginturneachview,with
itsgrouping,sorting,orfilteringsettings,onthemap.Formoreinformationondisplayproperties,see"DisplayPropertiesof
Objects"onpage 27.
Tocompareviews:
1. IntheNetworkexplorer,clearthecheckboxestotheleftofeachview.Thedataobjectsarenotdisplayedonthemap.
2. Selectthecheckboxofoneoftheviews,leavingthecheckboxesoftheotherviewscleared.Thedataobjectsofthe
selectedview,withitsassociatedgrouping,sorting,orfilteringsettings,aredisplayedonthemap.
3. Clear this check box and select the check box of a different view. How the objects are displayed on the map will
change,dependingonthedifferentgrouping,sorting,orfilteringsettingsoftheselectedview.
Youcanremoveviewsbydeletingthem.Whenyoudeleteaview,thedatacontainedarenotdeleted.Whenyoudeletethe
lastview,thedatareappearundertheinitialfolder.
Todeleteaview:
SelecttheviewtobedeletedandpressDEL.

If,afterdeletingthelastview,thedatadonotreappearundertheinitialfolder,youcan
refreshthedisplaybyrightclickingthefolderandselectingGroupBy >Nonefromthe
contextmenu.

1.7.8 FilteringDataUsingaFilteringZone
InAtoll,youcansimplifyyourcalculationsbyusingapolygononthemaptolimittheamountofdataconsideredincalcula
tions.Bylimitingthenumberofsites,youcanreducethetimeandcostofcalculationsandmakethedisplayofdataobjects
onthemapclearer.Youcanselectapreexistingcomputationorfocuszoneasafilterzoneoryoucandrawanewfiltering
zone.
Thedataobjectsfilteredbythepolygonarereflectedonthemapandinthedatatables.IntheNetworkexplorer,anyfolder
whosecontentisaffectedbythefilteringzoneappearswithaspecialicon( ),toindicatethatthefoldercontentshave
beenfiltered.
Whenyouhaveappliedapolygonfilter,youcanperformthefollowingactionsonthefiltereddata:
Grouping(see"GroupingDataObjects"onpage 69)
Sorting(see"SortingData"onpage 72)
Filtering(see"FilteringData"onpage 74).
Formoreinformationoncreatingandeditingafilteringzone,see"FilteringZones"onpage 38.

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1.8 TipsandTricks
Inthissection,youwilllearnafewshortcutsandtrickstohelpyouworkmoreefficientlywithAtoll:
"UndoingandRedoing"onpage 86
"RefreshingMapsandFolders"onpage 86
"SearchingforObjectsontheMap"onpage 86
"UsingtheStatusBartoGetInformation"onpage 88
"SavingInformationDisplayedintheEventViewer"onpage 88
"UsingIconsfromtheToolbar"onpage 88
"UsingShortcutsinAtoll"onpage 91.

1.8.1 UndoingandRedoing
YoucanundoorredomostactionsinAtoll,uptoamaximumof10 actions.Ifyouperformanactionthatcannotbeundone,
forexample,asimulation,theUndoandRedohistoriesareerased.
Forexample,youcanundoorredo:
Mostmodificationsintheworkspace:suchascreating,deleting,andmovingasite,astationoragroupofstations,
modifyingtheantennaazimuth,movingatransmitter,ordeletingatransmitter,
TasksperformedintheExplorer:suchascreatinganddeletingobjects(sites,transmitters,antennas,repeatersor
remoteantennas,links,groupsofhexagons,measurementpaths,coveragepredictions,maps,propagationmodels,
etc.).
Tasksperformedintables:suchasaddingordeletingrecords,pastingintables.
Toundoanaction:
SelectEdit >Undo.
Toredoanactionthatyouhaveundone:
SelectEdit >Redo.

1.8.2 RefreshingMapsandFolders
Undercertaincircumstances,forexample,whenyouadddatathatisinconsistentwithanappliedfilter,thedatadisplayedon
themaporintheNetworkexplorermaynotbeactual.YoucanrefreshthedisplaytogetAtolltoreloadthedataandreapply
thecurrentfolderconfigurations.
TorefreshthedisplayoftheNetworkexplorerandthemap:

ClicktheRefreshbutton( )onthetoolbarorpressF5.

1.8.3 SearchingforObjectsontheMap
AtollprovidestheFindonMaptoolforfindingdataobjectsonthemap.Youcansearchforsomeobjects(sites,vectors,micro
wavelinks)bytheirnameorbyanytextfield,usingFindonMap.YoucanalsouseFindonMaptosearchforapointonthe
mapbyitsXandYcoordinates,orbyitspostaladdress.Additionally,FindonMapenablesyoutofindtechnologyspecific
attributessuchasachannelinamicrowaveproject.UsingFindonMaptofindtechnologyspecificattributesiscoveredinthe
chapterforthattechnology.
Thissectionexplains:
"SearchingforaMapObjectbyItsName"onpage 86
"SearchingforaMapObjectusingAnyTextProperty"onpage 87
"SearchingforaPointontheMap"onpage 87.

1.8.3.1 SearchingforaMapObjectbyItsName
YoucanuseFindonMaptosearchforthefollowingmapobjectsbyname:
sites
vectors
microwavelinks.
TosearchforamapobjectbynameusingtheFindonMaptool:
1. SelectTools >FindonMap.TheFindonMapwindowappears.
2. FromtheFindlist,choosethemapobjectyouaresearchingfor:
Vector

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Site
MWLink
ThemapobjectyouselectappearsintheFieldbox.
3. Enterthenameoftheobjectinthetextboxmarkedwithanequalsign("=").Youcanuseanasterisk("*")asawild
cardbyenteringitasthefirstcharacter.Forexample,entering"*X*"willfindallnameswhichcontain"X".
AtollautomaticallybeginssearchinganddisplaystheresultsintheFindonMapwindow.
4. Selecttheobjectfromthelist.Atollcentresitinthemapwindow.

1.8.3.2 SearchingforaMapObjectusingAnyTextProperty
YoucanuseFindonMaptosearchforthefollowingmapobjectusinganytext(i.e.,nonnumeric)property:
Sites
Microwavelinks
Vectors
TosearchforamapobjectbyatextpropertyusingtheFindonMaptool:
1. SelectTools >FindonMap.TheFindonMapwindowappears.
2. FromtheFindlist,choosethemapobjectyouaresearchingfor:
Site
MWLink
Vector
3. FromtheFieldlist,selectthetextpropertyonwhichyouwanttosearch,forexample"SupportType"whenyouare
lookingfora"Site".
4. Enterthenameoftheobjectinthetextboxmarkedwithanequalsign("=").Youcanuseanasterisk("*")asawild
cardbyenteringitasthefirstcharacter.Forexample,entering"*X*"willfindallnameswhichcontain"X".
AtollautomaticallybeginssearchinganddisplaystheresultsintheFindonMapwindow.
5. Selecttheobjectfromthelist.Atollcentresitinthemapwindow.

1.8.3.3 SearchingforaPointontheMap
YoucanuseFindonMaptosearchforapointbyitsXandYcoordinatesorbyitspostaladdress.

Make sure that the coordinate system used in your document is the same projection
systemsupportedbythetileserver.Failingtodosowillleadtoinappropriatebehaviour
whenanonlinemapisspecified(disproportionateandbadlyrenderedmaptiles)asyou
dragthemapawayfromtheareatargetedbythespecifiedprojectioncoordinatesystem.

1.8.3.3.1 SearchingforaPointontheMapbyitsXandYCoordinates
TosearchforapointonthemapbyitsXandYcoordinates:
1. SelectTools >FindonMap.TheFindonMapwindowappears.
2. FromtheFindlist,choosePosition.
3. EntertheXandYcoordinatesofthepoint,usingthesameunitsasdefinedunderDisplayontheCoordinatestabof
thePreferencesdialogue(see"ProjectionandDisplayCoordinateSystems"onpage 97).
4. ClickSearch.Atollcentresthepointinthemapwindow.

1.8.3.3.2 SearchingforaPointontheMapbyitsPostalAddress
Tosearchforapointonthemapbyitspostaladdress:
1. SelectTools >FindonMap.TheFindonMapwindowappears.
2. FromtheFindlist,chooseOnline.
3. EnterapostalAddress.Youcanspecifyafullorpartialaddress,e.g.streetname,precinct,city,county,country,etc.
4. ClickSearch.AtollautomaticallybeginssearchinganddisplaystheresultsintheFindonMapwindow.
5. Selectaresultfromthelist.Atollcentresitinthemapwindow.

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1.8.4 UsingtheStatusBartoGetInformation
Atolldisplaysthefollowinginformation,ifavailable,aboutthecurrentpositionofthemousepointerinrightsideofthestatus
bar(seeFigure 1.46):
thecurrentXYcoordinates(accordingtothedefineddisplaycoordinatesystem)
thealtitude(asdefinedintheDTM)
theclutterclass(asdefinedintheclutterclassesproperties)
theclutterheight(asdefinedintheclutterheightfile,orintheclutterclasses).

XYcoordinates Altitude Clutterclass

Figure 1.46:Informationdisplayedinthestatusbar

1.8.5 SavingInformationDisplayedintheEventViewer
AtolldisplaysinformationaboutthecurrentdocumentintheEventViewer.TheEventViewerdisplaysinformation( ),
warning( ),anderror( )messages,aswellastheprogressofcalculations.Youcansavetheinformationdisplayedinthe
EventViewerinalogfile.
TosaveeventsintheEventViewerinalogfile:
1. IftheEventViewerisnotdisplayed,selectView >EventViewertodisplayit.
2. ClicktheeventintheEventViewertoselectit.Clickanddragtoselectseveralevents.
3. Rightclicktheselectevent(s).Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectSaveAs.TheSaveAsdialogueappears.
5. IntheSaveAsdialogue,selectadestinationfolder,enteraFilename,andselectafiletypefromtheSaveastypelist.
6. ClickOK.Theselectedeventsaresavedinthetextfile.
YoucanalsoautomaticallygeneratelogfilesforeachAtollsessionandselectthelevelofinformationdisplayedintheEvent
viewer.Formoreinformationaboutthesesettings,seetheAdministratorManual.

1.8.6 UsingIconsfromtheToolbar
YoucanaccessmanycommandsinAtollbyclickingitsicononthetoolbar.Someofthemarealsolinkedtoshortcutkeys(see
"UsingShortcutsinAtoll"onpage 91).
Thedifferenticonslocatedinthetoolbararelistedbelow:
IntheStandardtoolbar

OpentheProjectTemplatesdialogue(CTRL+N)

OpentheOpendialogue(CTRL+O)

Savethecurrentdocument(CTRL+S)

Newfromanexistingdatabase

Refreshfromdatabase

Savependingchangesindatabase

Importafile

Loadauserconfiguration

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Saveauserconfiguration

Cuttheselecteddata(CTRL+X)

Copytheselecteddata(CTRL+C)

Pastethecontentoftheclipboard(CTRL+V)

Undothelastmodification(CTRL+Z)

Redothepreviousundonemodification(CTRL+Y)

Printthecurrentwindow(tableormap)(CTRL+P)

Previewthecurrentwindowbeforeprinting(tableormap)

OpentheAtollHelp
IntheMaptoolbar

Refreshdisplayofmapandfolders(F5)

Selectanobjectanddisablezoomingandpanningtools.

Movethemap(CTRL+D)

Mapscalecurrentlyused

Previousview(zoomandlocation)(Alt+leftarrow)

Nextview(zoomandlocation)(Alt+rightarrow)

Zoominoroutonthemapandcentreonthecursorlocation(CTRL+Q)

Defineazoomareaonthemap(CTRL+W)

Displayaterrainsection

Measuredistancesonthemap

Turnontiptext

Findonthemap
IntheMicrowaveLinkPlanningtoolbar

Currentlyselectedmicrowavelinkmodel

Createanewmicrowavelink.

Createanewrepeater.

Createanewmultihopmicrowavelink.

Createanewmultipointmicrowavelink.

Openthemicrowavelinkprofileanalysiswindow

Showorhidechannelarrangement

Stopthecalculationsinprogress
IntheVectorEditortoolbar

Createanewvectorlayer(ineithertheGeoortheNetworkexplorer)

Selectthevectorlayertoedit

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Drawanewpolygon

Drawanewrectangle

Drawanewline

Drawpoints

Combineseveralvectorpolygons

Cutoutareasinpolygons

Createnewpolygonfromoverlappingareas

Splitonepolygonalongthedrawnlines.
IntheWindowstoolbar

DisplaytheNetworkexplorer

DisplaytheGeoexplorer

DisplaytheParametersexplorer

DisplaytheEventViewer

DisplaytheLegendWindow

DisplaythePanoramicWindow
IntheTabletoolbar

Importdatafromafileintothetable

Exportdatafromthetabletoafile

Displaythepropertiesofthecurrentrecord

Centrethecurrentrecordonthemap

Definewhichcolumnsshouldbedisplayed

Hidetheselectedcolumns

Freezetheselectedcolumns

Unfreezeallfrozencolumns

Filterbytheselectedfields

Filterexcludingallrecordswiththeselectedvalues

Defineanadvancedfilter

Removethefilter

Sorttheselectedcolumnsinascendingorder

Sorttheselectedcolumnsindescendingorder

Displaystatistics

Copythecontentsofthetopselectedrowintotherowsbelow

Copythecontentsofthebottomselectedrowintotherowsabove

Selecttheentiretable

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Alignthecontentsoftheselectedcolumnstotheleft

Centrethecontentsoftheselectedcolumns

Alignthecontentsoftheselectedcolumnstotheright

Displaytheselectedcolumnsinbold

Displaytheselectedcolumnsinitalics

Findspecifiedtextinthetable

Replacespecifiedtextinthetable

Whenyouplacethecursoroveranicon,tiptextappears,givingashortdescription.

1.8.7 UsingShortcutsinAtoll
Atollprovidesmanyshortcutsthatenableyoutoaccesscommonlyusedtoolsandcommandsmorequickly.
Theshortcutsavailablearelistedbelow(someofthesamecommandscanbeaccessedusingatoolbaricon;see"UsingIcons
fromtheToolbar"onpage 88):
UsingtheCTRLkey:

CTRL++:Zoominonthemap(inthetoolbar,click andclickthemap)

CTRL+:Zoomoutonthemap(inthetoolbar,click andrightclickthemap)
CTRL+A:Selectallrecordsinatable

CTRL+C:Copytheselecteddata(inthetoolbar,click )
CTRL+D:
Intables:Copythefirstcellofaselectiondownintoallselectedcells
Inthemapwindow:Movethemapinthemapwindow(inthetoolbar,click )
CTRL+E:ExportthetableoftheselectedSites,Links,MultiHops,orPointtoMultipointfolderorviewtoatextfile.
Formoreinformation,see"ExportingTablestoTextFilesandSpreadsheets"onpage 60.
CTRL+F:
OpentheFindonMapwindowwhenthemapisactive(inthetoolbar,click )
OpentheFinddialoguewhenatableisactive(inthetoolbar,click )

CTRL+H:OpentheReplacedialoguewhenatableisactive(inthetoolbar,click )
CTRL+I:ImportthetableoftheselectedSites,Links,MultiHops,orPointtoMultipointfolderorviewfromatext
file.Formoreinformation,see"ImportingTablesfromTextFiles"onpage 62.

CTRL+N:OpentheProjectTemplatesdialogue(inthetoolbar,click )
CTRL+SHIFT+N:Createanewdocumentfromanexistingdatabase

CTRL+O:OpentheOpendialogue(inthetoolbar,click )

CTRL+P:Printthecurrentwindow(inthetoolbar,click )

CTRL+Q:SelectZoomIn/Outtool(inthetoolbar,click )

CTRL+S:Savethecurrentactivedocument(inthetoolbar,click )
CTRL+U:Copythelastcellofaselectionupintoallselectedcells

CTRL+V:Pastethecontentoftheclipboard(inthetoolbar,click )

CTRL+W:Defineazoomareaonthemap(inthetoolbar,click )

CTRL+X:Cuttheselecteddata(inthetoolbar,click )

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CTRL+Y:Redothepreviousundonemodification(inthetoolbar,click )

CTRL+Z:Undothelastmodification(inthetoolbar,click )
UsingtheALTkey:

ALT+:Previouszoomandlocationonthemap(inthetoolbar,click )

ALT+:Nextzoomandlocationonthemap(inthetoolbar,click )
ALT+F8:OpentheAddinsandMacrosdialogue
UsingtheFunctionKeys

F5:Refreshdisplayofmapandfolders(toolbar:select )

YoucanalsoaccessmenusandcommandsbypressingtheALTkeyandtypingthe
underlinedletterinthemenuorcommandname.

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ThischapterexplainshowtostartanewAtollproject. Inthischapter,thefollowingareexplained:
"BeforeStartingaMicrowavePlanningProject"on
page 95
"CreatinganAtollDocument"onpage 95
"MakingaBackupofYourDocument"onpage 107
"MakingandSharingPortableAtollProjects"on
page 109
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2 StartinganAtollProject
Whenyouwanttostartanewproject,youbaseitonatemplatethathasthedataandfolderstructurenecessaryforthetech
nologyyouareusing.OnceyouhavestartedyournewAtollproject,youcanmodifythenetworkparameterstomeetyour
particularneeds.SeveraltemplatesaresuppliedwithAtoll:GSMGPRSEDGE,CDMA2001xRTT1xEVDO,microwaveradio
links,UMTSHSPA,WiMAX,WiFi,andLTE.TheactualtemplatessupplieddependonthemodulesincludedwithyourAtoll
installation.Youcanalsocreateyourowntemplatesbyopeninganexistingtemplate,makingthechangesnecessarytomeet
yourownneedsandthensavingitasanewtemplate.
Whenyouopenanexistingproject,youcanselectitfromtheFilemenuifitisoneofthelastprojectsyouhaveworkedon,
oryoucanopenitfromtheOpendialogue.BecauseAtollcanworkwithlinkedgeographicdatafiles,itmayhappenthatone
ofthelinkedfileswasmovedorrenamedsincethelasttimeyouworkedonthatproject.Atollenablesyoutofindthefileand
repairthelink.
Inthischapter,thefollowingareexplained:
"BeforeStartingaMicrowavePlanningProject"onpage 95
"CreatinganAtollDocument"onpage 95.

2.1 BeforeStartingaMicrowavePlanningProject
Foreverymicrowaveplanningprojectyoumustassembletheinformationnecessary:
Microwaveequipment:sites,antennas,andotherequipment.Formoreinformationonequipment,seethetech
nologyspecificchapters.
Microwavedata:frequencybands,technologyspecificparameters,coordinatesystems,etc.Formoreinformation
onmicrowavedata,seethetechnologyspecificchapters.
Geographicdata:clutterclasses,clutterheights,DTM,etc.Formoreinformationongeographicdata,seeChapter3:
GeographicData.
Oncethenecessarydatahavebeenassembled,youcancreatetheAtolldocument.

2.2 CreatinganAtollDocument
Whatevertheradiotechnologyyouwillbemodelling,youcreateanAtolldocumentinoneoftwoways:
Fromadocumenttemplate:YoucancreateanewAtolldocument,includingamultiRATdocument,fromatemplate.
Atollisdeliveredwithatemplateforeachtechnologyyouwillbeplanningfor.Forinformationoncreatingadocument
fromatemplate,see"CreatingaNewAtollDocumentfromaTemplate"onpage 95.
Youcanalsocreateyourowntemplatebybasingitonanexistingdocumentthatyouhavealreadycustomisedwith,
forexample,certaingeodataorantennas.
Fromanexistingdatabase:WhenyoucreateanewAtolldocumentfromadatabase,thedatabaseyouconnectto
has been created with the technology or technologies, in the case of a multiRAT document, and data you need.
Workingwithadatabaseallowsseveraluserstosharethesamedatawhileatthesametimemanagingdataconsist
ency.TheexactprocedureforcreatinganewAtolldocumentfromadatabasediffers,dependingonthedatabasecon
taining the data. Atoll canwork with several common databases. For information on starting a document from a
database,see"CreatingaNewAtollDocumentfromaDatabase"onpage 101.

2.2.1 CreatingaNewAtollDocumentfromaTemplate
YoucancreateanewAtolldocumentfromatemplate.Atollhasatemplateforeachtechnologyyouwillbeplanningfor.Each
templateprovidesdataandadatastructuresuitableforthetechnology.Forexample,thetablesandfieldsfortransmitters
aswellastheradioparametersavailabledifferaccordingtotheproject.Aswell,theobjectsthatareavailableareappropriate
forthetechnology.Forexample,UMTScellsareonlyavailableinUMTSdocumentsandTRXareonlyavailableinGSMTDMA
documents.
IfyoucreateamultiRATdocument,Atollenablesyoutoselectthemultipleradiotechnologiesyouwillbeplanningfor.Ina
multiRATdocument,thedataanddatastructuresforeachradiotechnologyplannedforaremadeavailableinthenewAtoll
document.
Onceyouhaveselectedtheappropriatetemplateforyourmicrowaveplanningproject,youconfigurethebasicparameters
oftheAtolldocument(see"DefiningaNewAtollDocument"onpage 97).
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"TemplatesAvailable"onpage 96
"CreatingaNewAtollDocumentfromaTemplate"onpage 96

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"DefiningaNewAtollDocument"onpage 97

2.2.1.1 TemplatesAvailable
DependingonyourconfigurationofAtoll,thefollowingtemplatesareavailable:
MicrowaveRadioLinks:Atollallowsyoutomodelmicrowaveradiolinks,aspartofacompletemobiletelecommuni
cationsnetwork,fromanytechnologytemplate.However,thistemplateisprovidedtoenableyoutocreateaproject
ofonlymicrowaveradiolinks.

2.2.1.2 CreatingaNewAtollDocumentfromaTemplate
Tocreateanewdocumentfromatemplate:
1. SelectFile >New >FromaDocumentTemplate.TheProjectTemplatesdialogueappears.
2. SelectthetemplateonwhichyouwanttobaseyourdocumentandclickOK.Atollcreatesanewdocumentbasedon
thetemplateselected.
Ifthetemplateyouselectedwas"MultiRAT,"Atolldisplaysadialogueenablingyoutoselecttheradiotechnolo
giesyouwanttomodelinthenewdocument:GSM,UMTS,orLTE.
Figure 2.1showsanewAtolldocumentbasedontheUMTSHSPAtemplate.TheNetworkexplorernowhasafolderstructure
suitableforaUMTSHSPAradioplanningproject,with,amongotherUMTSspecificelements,UMTSHSPAHSPAsimulations.
Figure 2.2showsthecontentsoftheGeoexplorerofthenewdocument.Figure 2.3showsthecontentsoftheParameters
explorer, with other UMTS HSPA parameters. The Antennas folder is expanded to show the UMTScompatible antennas
suggestedbyAtoll.Thesecanbemodifiedorreplaced.

Figure 2.1:NewAtolldocumentbasedonatemplate

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Figure 2.2:NewAtolldocumentGeoexplorer Figure 2.3:NewAtolldocumentParametersexplorer

WhenyoucreateanAtolldocumentfromatemplate,thedocumentisnotconnectedtoadatabase.
Toverifywhetherthedocumentisconnectedtoadatabase:
SelectDocument >Database >ConnectionProperties.ThedialogueinFigure 2.4appears.

Figure 2.4:AnAtolldocumentbasedonatemplateisnotconnectedtoadatabase

2.2.1.3 DefiningaNewAtollDocument
OnceyouhavecreatedanewAtolldocumentasexplainedin"CreatingaNewAtollDocumentfromaTemplate"onpage 96,
youconfigurethebasicparametersoftheAtolldocument.Youcanacceptthedefaultvaluesforsomeparameters,suchas
basicmeasurementunits,butyoumustsetprojectionanddisplaycoordinatesystems.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"ProjectionandDisplayCoordinateSystems"onpage 97
"SettingaCoordinateSystem"onpage 98
"SelectingtheDegreeDisplayFormat"onpage 99
"SettingMeasurementUnits"onpage 99
"DefiningaProjectDescription"onpage 99

2.2.1.3.1 ProjectionandDisplayCoordinateSystems
InAtoll,youdefinethetwocoordinatesystemsforeachAtolldocument:theprojectioncoordinatesystemandthedisplay
coordinatesystem.Bydefault,thesamecoordinatesystemisusedforboth.
Aprojectionisamethodforproducingallorpartofaroundbodyonaflatsheet.Thisprojectioncannotbedonewithout
distortion, thus the cartographer must choose the characteristic (distance, direction, scale, area or shape) which is to be
shown appropriately at theexpense of theother characteristics, or he must compromise on several characteristics1. The
projectedzonesarereferencedusingcartographiccoordinates(meter,yard,etc.).
Twoprojectionsystemsarewidelyused:
TheLambertConformalConicprojection:aportionoftheearthismathematicallyprojectedonaconeconceptually
secantatoneortwostandardparallels.Thisprojectiontypeisusefulforrepresentingcountriesorregionsthatlay
primarilyeasttowest.
TheUniversalTransverseMercatorprojection(UTM):aportionoftheearthismathematicallyprojectedonacylinder
tangenttoameridian(whichistransverseorcrosswisetotheequator).Thisprojectiontypeisusefulformappinglarge
areasthatareorientednorthsouth.

1. Snyder,John.P.,MapProjectionsUsedbytheUSGeologicalSurvey,2ndEdition,UnitedStatesGovernmentPrinting
Office,Washington,D.C.,313pages,1982.

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Ageographicsystemisnotaprojection,butarepresentationofalocationontheearth'ssurfacefromgeographiccoordinates
(degreeminutesecondorgrade)givingthelatitudeandlongitudeinrelationtotheoriginmeridian(ParisfortheNTFsystem
andGreenwichfortheED50system).Thelocationsinthegeographicsystemcanbeconvertedintootherprojections.
Atollhasdatabasesincludingmorethan980internationalcoordinatesystemreferences,adatabasebasedontheEuropean
PetroleumSurveyGroupandanotheroneregroupingonlyFrance'scoordinatesystems.Atollusesthecartographiccoordi
natesystemsforprojectionandeithercartographicorgeographiccoordinatesystemsfordisplay.
Themapsdisplayedintheworkspacearereferencedwiththesameprojectionsystemastheimportedgeographicdatafiles;
thus,theprojectionsystemdependsontheimportedgeographicfile.Bychoosingaspecificdisplaysystem,youcansee(using
therulersorstatusbars)thelocationofsitesonthemapinacoordinatesystemdifferentfromtheprojectioncoordinate
system.Youcanalsopositiononthemapsitesreferencedinthedisplaysystem:thecoordinatesareautomaticallyconverted
fromtheprojectionsystemtothedisplaysystemandthesiteisdisplayedonthemap.
InFigure 2.5,theBrusselsgeographicdatafilehasbeenimported.ThemapshowsBrusselsprojectedusingthecartographic
UTMsystem(coordinatesinmetres).Ontheotherhand,sitecoordinatesarestatedinthegeographicWGS84system(coor
dinatesindegreesminutesseconds).

Figure 2.5:UTMsystemusedwithWGS84system

Allimportedrastergeographicfilesmustbeusethesamecartographicsystem.Ifnot,you
mustconvertthemtoasinglecartographicsystem.

2.2.1.3.2 SettingaCoordinateSystem
Becauseyouareworkingwithmaps,youmustsetacoordinatesystemforyourAtolldocument.Bydefault,projectionand
displaycoordinatesystemsarethesame,butyoucanchooseadifferentdisplaycoordinatesystemifyouwant.
Todefinethecoordinatesystem:
1. SelectDocument >Properties.ThePropertiesdialogueappears.

2. OntheCoordinatestab,clicktheBrowsebutton( )totherightoftheProjectionfield.TheCoordinateSystems
dialogueappears.
3. IntheCoordinateSystemsdialogue,selectacataloguefromtheFindinlist.Fortheprojectionsystem,onlycarto
graphicsystems( )areavailable.
4. Selectacoordinatesystemfromthelist.

Ifyoufrequentlyuseaparticularcoordinatesystemyoucanaddittoacatalogueof
favouritesbyclickingAddtoFavourites.

5. ClickOK.TheselectedcoordinatesystemappearsintheProjectionfieldand,bydefault,intheDisplayfieldaswell.

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6. Ifyouwishtosetadifferentcoordinatesystemforthedisplay,clicktheBrowsebutton( )totherightofthe
Displayfieldandrepeatstep 3.tostep 5.Forthedisplaysystem,bothcartographicsystems(identifiedbythe
symbol)andgeographicsystems( )areavailable.

2.2.1.3.3 SelectingtheDegreeDisplayFormat
Atollcandisplaylongitudeandlatitudeinfourdifferentformats.Forexample:
265629.9N
26d56m29.9sN
26.93914N
+26.93914
Tochangethedegreedisplayformat:
1. SelectDocument >Properties.ThePropertiesdialogueappears.
2. OntheCoordinatestab,selecttheformatfromtheDegreeFormatlist.
3. ClickOK.

Thedegreeformatoptionsapplyonlytothegeographiccoordinatesystems.

2.2.1.3.4 SettingMeasurementUnits
WhenyoucreateanewAtolldocument,Atollsetscertainmeasurementunitsforreception,transmission,antennagain,
distance,heightandoffset,andtemperaturetointernaldefaults.Youcanacceptthesedefaultmeasurementunits,oryou
canchangethemusingthePropertiesdialogue.
Tosetthemeasurementunits:
1. SelectDocument >Properties.ThePropertiesdialogueappears.
2. OntheUnitstab,selectthedesiredunitforthefollowingmeasurements:
Radio:
Radiatedpower:Selecteither"EIRP"(EffectiveIsotropicallyRadiatedPower)or"ERP"()
Antennagain:Selecteither"dBi"(decibel(isotropic))or"dBd"(decibel(dipole))
Transmission:Selecteither"dBm"(decibel(milliWatt)),"W"(Watt),or"kW"(kiloWatt)
Reception:Selecteither"dBm"(decibel(milliWatt)),"dBV"(decibel(microvolt)),"dBV/M"(decibel(micro
voltpermetre)),or"V/M"(voltspermetre)
Geo:
Distance:Selecteither"m"(metres),"Km"(kilometres),or"mi"(miles)
Heightandoffset:Selecteither"m"(metres)or"ft"(feet)
Climate:
Temperature:Selecteither"C"(Celsius)or"F"(Fahrenheit)
3. ClickOK.

2.2.1.3.5 DefiningaProjectDescription
Atollallowsyoutodefineafewparameters,suchasauthororprojectstatus,thatwillcanbeusedtodescribetheAtollproject
youareworkingon.Thedescriptionyouentercanbeconsultedbyanyoneworkingonthisproject.
Todefineaprojectdescription:
1. SelectDocument >Properties.ThePropertiesdialogueappears.
2. ClicktheProjecttab.OntheProjecttab,youcandefinethefollowingparameters:
Title:YoucansetadescriptivenamefortheprojectthatisdifferentfromthefilenameoftheAtollprojectfile.
Timestamp:YoucanenteratimestampfortheprojectandthenclicktheLockbuttontopreventitfrombeing
changed.BydefaultAtollentersthecurrenttimeasthetimestamp.EachtimeyouaccesstheProjecttab,Atoll
willupdatethetimestamp.
Owner:Youcanenterthenameofthepersonresponsiblefortheproject,andthenclicktheLockbuttontopre
ventitfrombeingchanged.BydefaultAtollentersthenameyouusedtologontothecomputer.
Status:Youcanenteradescriptionoftheprojectstatus.
Logo:YoudefinealogofortheprojectbyclickingtheBrowsebutton( )andbrowsingtoagraphicfilethatcan
beusedasalogofortheproject.ThelogowillbeusedinreportsexportedinRTFformat

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Comments:YoucanenteranycommentsintheCommentsfield.
3. ClickOK.

2.2.2 WorkinginaMultiUserEnvironment
Amultiuserenvironmentisonewhereanumberofusers,orgroupsofusers,worksimultaneouslyongivenpartsofasingle,
large(perhapsnationwide)network.Differentusergroupsmightbeworkingonregionalorsmallersectionsofthenetwork.
Thissectiondescribesthedifferentcomponentsofmultiuserenvironmentsandoutlinestheirpurpose.
WhenyoucreateanewAtolldocumentfromadatabase,Atollloadsthedatatowhichyouhaverightsfromdatabaseinto
yournewdocumentandthendisconnectsitfromthedatabase.Theconnectiontothereferencedatabaseisreactivatedonly
whennecessary,thusensuringaccesstothedatabasebyotherusers.
Whenyouworkonadocumentcreatedfromadatabase,youareworkingondatathatyouaresharingwithotherusers.
Consequently,thereareissuesrelatedtosharingdatathatdonotarisewhenyouareworkingonastandalonedocument.
Forexample,whenyouarchiveyourchangestothedatabase,thechangesyouhavemademayoccasionallyinterferewith
changesotherusershavemadeandyouwillneedtoresolvethisconflict.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"TheAtollMultiUserEnvironment"onpage 100
"CreatingaNewAtollDocumentfromaDatabase"onpage 101
"WorkingWithaDocumentonaDatabase"onpage 102
"RefreshinganAtollDocumentfromtheDatabase"onpage 104
"ArchivingtheModificationsofanAtollDocumentintheDatabase"onpage 104.

2.2.2.1 TheAtollMultiUserEnvironment
AnAtollmultiuserenvironmentconsistsofthefollowingelements,connectedoveranetwork:
AcentralAtollproject:ThecentralAtollprojectcanonlybeaccessed,modified,andupdatedbytheAtolladminis
trator.ThroughthiscentralAtollproject,theAtolladministratorcanmanageallthedatasharedbyalltheindividual
Atollusersorgroupsofusers.
Shareddata:ShareddataareinitiallysetupbytheadministratorusingthecentralAtollprojectandarethenaccessed,
modified,workedon,andupdatedbytheAtollusersandtheadministrator.Theshareddataaremainlyofthefol
lowingthreetypes:
Thecentraldatabase:ThecentraldatabasestoresalltheradiodataofalltheAtolluserdocuments.Itisinitiated
throughthecentralAtollprojectbytheadministrator,andisthensubdividedintosectionsonwhichusersor
groupsofuserscanworksimultaneously.Oncethedatabaseisinplace,userscanmodifytheirprojects,refresh
theirprojectsfromthedatastoredinthedatabase,andarchivetheirmodificationsinthedatabase.Theuseofa
databasemeansthatpotentialdataconflictsduetomodificationsfromotherusers,modifiedordeletedrecords,
forexample,canbedetectedandresolved.
Sharedgeographicdata:Sharedgeographicdatafilesareusuallystoredonacommonfileserverwithafastaccess
connection.Sincegeographicdatafilesareusuallylarge,theyareusuallylinkedtoanAtollfile,i.e.,theyarestored
externally,soastominimisethesizeoftheAtollfile.Userswhomodifygeographicdatalocally,forexample,
editingeditclutterortrafficintheirrespectiveprojects,usuallystorethesemodificationslocally,sincethesemod
ificationsrarelyhaveanimpactonotherusers.
UserDocuments:Individualuserdocumentsareinitialisedbytheadministratorbutarelaterworkeduponandman
agedbyeachuser.UserdocumentsareAtollfileswhichareconnectedtothecentraldatabase,loadonlytherequired
partofthegeographicdata(asdefinedbytheCFGfile,forexample),andhaveaccesstothesharedpathlossmatrices
folder.

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Figure 2.6:ComponentsofMultiuserEnvironments

Forinformationoncreatingandmaintainingthedatabase,seetheAdministratorManual.

2.2.2.2 CreatingaNewAtollDocumentfromaDatabase
Whenyoucreateanewdocumentfromadatabase,youmustconnecttothedatabase.Onceconnected,Atollloadsthedata
baseintoanewAtolldocument.Thentheconnectedisinterrupted.Anewconnectionwiththedatabasewillbecreatedonly
whennecessary,inordertoallowotherusersaccesstothedatabase.
Theexactprocedureofconnectingwiththedatabasediffersfromonedatabasetoanother.Atollcanworkwiththefollowing
databases:
MicrosoftAccess
MicrosoftSQLServer
Oracle
Sybase
MicrosoftDataLinkfiles
Thefollowingsectionsgiveexamplesofconnectingtotwodifferentdatabasesandloadingdata:
"ConnectingtoaDatabase"onpage 101.
"SelectingtheDatatoLoadFromtheDatabase"onpage 102.
AnexampleofanewAtolldocumentcreatedfromadatabaseisshownin:
"WorkingWithaDocumentonaDatabase"onpage 102

2.2.2.2.1 ConnectingtoaDatabase
Tocreateanewdocumentfromadatabase:
1. SelectFile >New >FromanExistingDatabase.TheOpenfromaDatabasedialogueappears.
2. IntheFilesoftypelist,selecttheoptioncorrespondingtothetypeofyourdatabase.Dependingonthetypeofthe
database,adialoguemayappearwhereyoucanenteryourUserName,Password,andServer.

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By setting an option in the atoll.ini file, you can instruct Atoll to always use a
defineddatabasetype(MSAccess,SQLServer,orOracle).TheOpenfromaData
base dialogue will not appear. Instead the databasespecific authentication dia
logue will appear immediately. For more information, see the Administrator
Manual.
Additionaldialoguesmightopenaskingyoutochoosewhichprojectinthedata
basetoloadorwhichsitelisttoload.

3. ClickOK.TheDatatoLoaddialogueappears,allowingyoutoselectthedatatoloadintoAtollasanewdocument(see
"SelectingtheDatatoLoadFromtheDatabase"onpage 102).

2.2.2.2.2 SelectingtheDatatoLoadFromtheDatabase
Whenyoucreateanewdocumentfromadatabase,youcanselectthedatatobeloadedfromthedatabasetocreatethe
documentintheDatatoloaddialogue.YoucanselectwhichProject,SiteList,CustomFieldsGroups,andNeighbourstoload.
Ifyouloadtheintratechnologyortheintertechnologyneighbourlist,Atollwillalsoloadtheassociatedexceptionalpairs
table.

Figure 2.7:Selectingthedatatoload

2.2.2.3 WorkingWithaDocumentonaDatabase
Figure 2.8showsanewAtolldocumentbasedcreatedfromadatabase.TheNetworkexplorernowhasafolderstructuresuit
ableforaUMTSradioplanningproject.TheSitesfolderisexpandedtoshowthatadocumentcreatedfromadatabasecan
haveadditionaldata,suchassites,unlikeadocumentcreatedfromatemplate.Thesecanbemodifiedorreplaced.Figure 2.9
andFigure 2.10showthecontentsoftheGeoandParameterstabsofthenewdocument,respectively.

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Figure 2.8:NewAtolldocumentopenedfromadatabase

Thenewdocumentmightopenwithnositedisplayedinthemapwindow.Thisisbecause
thenorthwestpointoftheprojectisbydefaulttheaxisorigin.Youcanrecentrethedocu
mentonthedatadisplayedintheNetworkexplorerbyexpandingtheSitesfolder,right
clickinganysite,andselectingCentreinMapWindowfromthecontextmenu.

Figure 2.9:NewAtolldocumentGeoexplorer Figure 2.10:NewAtolldocumentParametersexplorer

WhenyoucreateanAtolldocumentfromadatabase,youcanviewthecharacteristicsofthedatabaseconnection.
Toviewthecharacteristicsofthedatabaseconnection:
1. SelectDocument >Database >ConnectionProperties.TheDatabaseConnectiondialogueappears(seeFigure 2.11).
2. Youcannow:
Disconnectyourdocumentfromthedatabase.

Ifyoudisconnectyourdocumentfromthedatabase,itwillbebecomeastandalone
documentandyouwillnotbeabletoreconnectittothedatabase.

Modifyyourconnectiontothedatabase.

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Figure 2.11:TheDatabaseConnectiondialogue

2.2.2.4 RefreshinganAtollDocumentfromtheDatabase
Asyouareworkingonyourdocument,otheruserswhohaveaccesstothedatabasemayhavemodifiedsomeofthedata.You
canensurethatyouhavethemostrecentdatainyourdocumentbyrefreshingtheinformationfromthedatabase.How
frequently you refresh the document depends on how frequently the database is updated. If the database is updated
frequently,youshouldrefreshyourdocumentfrequentlyaswell,inordertocontinueworkingwiththemostuptodatedata.
TorefreshanAtolldocumentfromthedatabase:
1. SelectDocument >Database >RefreshFromtheDatabase.TheRefreshdialogueappears.
2. Inthedialogue,youcandooneofthefollowingifyouhavemodifiedyourdocumentbuthavenotyetsavedthose
changesinthedatabase:
Archiveyourchangesinthedatabase:Thisoptionallowsyoutoarchiveyourchangestotheserverinsteadof
refreshingyourdocumentfromtheserver.
Refreshunmodifieddataonly:Thisoptionallowsyoutorefreshfromthedatabaseonlythoseitemsthatyouhave
notmodifiedinyourdocument.
Cancelyourchangesandreloaddatabase:Thisoptionallowsyoutocancelanychangesyouhavemadeandstart
overfromthepointofthelastarchivetothedatabase.

If you chose Refresh unmodified data only or Cancel your changes and reload
database,Atollproceedswithoutaskingforconfirmation.
IfyouchoseArchiveyourchangesinthedatabase,theArchivedialogueappears.
ForinformationonusingtheArchivedialogue,see"ArchivingtheModificationsof
anAtollDocumentintheDatabase"onpage 104.

3. Under Take into account, you can select the neighbour lists, Intratechnology Neighbours and Intertechnology
Neighbours,torefresh.
4. UnderModificationsSincetheLastRefresh,youcanselecttheGenerateReportcheckboxtocreateareportforthe
refreshprocess.
5. ClickOK.Thedocumentisrefreshedaccordingtotheselectedoptions.
Ifyouselectedtogenerateareport,AtollcreatesatextfileinCSV(CommaSeparatedValues)formatinthetemporaryfiles
systemfolder,andopensit.Youcanthenrenamethefileandsaveitwhereyouwant.Thereportlistsallthemodifications
(deletions,additions,andupdates)thatwerestoredinthedatabasesincethelasttimeyourefreshedoropenedyourdocu
ment.

2.2.2.5 ArchivingtheModificationsofanAtollDocumentintheDatabase
WhenyouareworkingonanAtolldocumentthatisattachedtoadatabase,youshouldfromtimetotimearchivethemodi
ficationsyouhavemadetothedataonthedatabase.Howfrequentlyyoushouldarchiveyourdocumentdependsonseveral
factors:theamountandsizeofchangesyoumake,thenumberofotherusersusingthedatabasewhomightbenefitfromyour
modifications,etc.Whatyoucanarchivedependsontheuserrightsthedatabaseadministratorhasgiventoyou.Forexample,
you can have read access to the antennas table, allowing you to create a new Atoll document with the given antennas.
However, because only the administrator canmodifythe properties of theantennas,you will not be able to archiveany
changesyoumaketotheantennaswithoutwriteaccesstothetable.
TheAtollarchivingprocessisflexible.Youcanarchiveallyourmodificationsoronlythesiterelatedmodifications.Aswell,
whenyouarearchiving,Atollshowsyouallmodificationsthatwillbearchivedand,ifyouwant,youcanarchiveonlysomeof
themorevenundomodificationsyouhavemadelocally.Occasionally,otherusersmighthavemodifiedsomeofthesame
dataand,whenyouarchiveyourchanges,Atollwillinformyouofthepossibleconflictsandhelpyouresolvethem.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"ArchivingAllModificationsintheDatabase"onpage 105
"ArchivingOnlySiteRelatedDataintheDatabase"onpage 105
"ResolvingDataConflicts"onpage 105.

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2.2.2.5.1 ArchivingAllModificationsintheDatabase
Toarchiveallyourmodificationsinthedatabase:
1. SelectDocument >Database >Archive.TheArchivedialogueappears(seeFigure 2.12).
2. IntheArchivedialogue,youcandothefollowing:
ClickRunAlltoarchiveallyourchangestothedatabase.
SelectoneitemunderPendingchangesandclickRuntoarchivetheselectedmodificationtothedatabase
SelectoneitemunderPendingchangesandclickDifferencestoviewthedifferencesbetweenthelocalitemand
theitemonthedatabase.
SelectoneitemunderPendingchangesandclickUndotorefreshthemodificationwiththeoriginaldatafromthe
database.

Figure 2.12:TheArchivedialogue

3. Ifsomeofthedatahasbeenmodifiedonthedatabasesinceyoulastrefreshed,Atollstopsthearchivingprocessand
asksyoutoresolvetheconflict.Forinformationonmanagingconflicts,see"ResolvingDataConflicts"onpage 105.
4. Whenyouarefinishedarchiving,clickClose.

2.2.2.5.2 ArchivingOnlySiteRelatedDataintheDatabase
Atollallowsyoutoarchiveonlysiterelateddataifyouwant.Whichdataisarchiveddependsontheradiotechnologyyouare
workingwith.Forexample,inaUMTSHSPAradioplanningproject,thesiterelateddataare:sites,transmitters,cells,and
neighbours.
Toarchiveonlythesiterelateddatainthedatabase:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. RightclicktheSitesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectArchive.TheArchivedialogueappearswithonlysiterelateddatadisplayed.
4. IntheArchivedialogue,youcandothefollowing:
ClickRunAlltoarchiveallyourchangestothedatabase.
SelectoneitemunderPendingChangesandclickRuntoarchivetheselectedmodificationtothedatabase
SelectoneitemunderPendingChangesandclickDifferencestoviewthedifferencesbetweenthelocalitemand
theitemonthedatabase.
SelectoneitemunderPendingChangesandclickUndotorefreshthemodificationwiththeoriginaldatafromthe
database.
5. Ifsomeofthedatahasbeenmodifiedonthedatabasesinceyoulastrefreshed,Atollstopsthearchivingprocessand
asksyoutoresolvetheconflict.Forinformationonmanagingconflicts,see"ResolvingDataConflicts"onpage 105.
6. Whenyouarefinishedarchiving,clickClose.

2.2.2.5.3 ResolvingDataConflicts
Atollenablesseveraluserstousethesamedatabasebyallowingusertoloadthedataandthenfreeingthedatabaseforother
users.However,thisalsocreatesthepossibilityoftwousersmodifyingthesamedata.Whentheseconduserattemptsto
archivehischanges,Atollwarnshimthatthedatahavebeenchangedsincehelastrefreshedthedataandthatthereisa
conflict.
Atollallowsyoutoresolvedataconflicts.WhenAtollfindsaconflict,itdisplaysthewarningshowninFigure 2.13.

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Figure 2.13:Conflictwarning

Youhavethreeoptions:
Ignore:IfyouclickIgnore,Atollignoresitemscausingconflictsinthetablebeingarchived,archivesallothermodifi
cationsinthetable,andcontinueswiththenexttable.Youcanresolvetheconflictsafterthearchivingprocesshas
ended.However,ifconflictsarefoundinothertables,AtollwillwarnyouwiththeDatabaseTransferErrordialogue
again.
IgnoreAll:IfyouclickIgnoreAll,Atollignoresallitemscausingconflictsinalltablesbeingarchived,andarchivesall
othermodifications.Youcanresolvetheconflictsafterthearchivingprocesshasended.
Abort: If you click Abort, the archiving process stops. You can attempt to resolve conflicts before restarting the
archivingprocess.
Whetheryouabortthearchiveprocesstoresolvetheconflictimmediately,orwaituntiltheendofthearchiveprocess,the
proceduretoresolvetheconflictisthesame.
Toresolvedataconflictsonebyone:
1. InthePendingChangespaneoftheArchivedialogue,selecttheconflictyouwanttoresolveandclickResolve.There
aretwodifferenttypesofdataconflicts:
Onamodifiedrecord:Youareintheprocessofarchivingyourmodificationsonthedatabaseandanotheruser
hasmodifiedthesamedatasinceyoulastarchivedorrefreshedyourdata.Aconflictiscausedonlybydifferences
inthesamefieldofthesamerecordbetweenthedatabaseandthecurrentAtolldocument.
TheConflictinChangesdialogueappears,withthefieldsinconflicthighlighted(seeFigure 2.14).IntheConflict
inChangesdialogue,youcanseethevalueofthefieldinthedatabaseintheDatabasevaluescolumn,aswellas
thevalueofthesamefieldinyourdocumentintheCurrentvaluescolumn.

Figure 2.14:TheConflictinChangesdialogue

Ifyouwanttooverwritethedatabasevaluewiththevalueofthesamefieldinyourdocument,selectthecheck
boxnexttothehighlightedchangeandclickOkay.Yourmodificationwillbewrittentothedatabase,overwrit
ingthevaluethere.
Ifyouwanttoacceptthevalueofthefieldinthedatabase,clearthecheckboxnexttothehighlightedchange
andclickOkay.Yourmodificationwillbelostandthevalueinthedatabasewillremainunchanged.
Onadeletedrecord:Youareintheprocessofarchivingyourmodificationsonthedatabaseandanotheruserhas
deletedarecordsinceyoulastarchivedorrefreshedyourdata.Forinformation,see"ResolvingDataConflicts"on
page 105.
Atolldisplaysamessageexplainingthattherecordyouaretryingtoupdatehasbeendeletedfromthedatabase
(seeFigure 2.15).Selectoneofthefollowing:

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Figure 2.15:Conflictonadeletedrecord

Yes:SelectYestostoreyourmodificationsinthedatabase,therebyrecreatingthedeletedrecord.
No:SelectNotoabandonyourmodificationstothisrecordanddeletethisrecordfromyourdocument.
Cancel:SelectCanceltocancel.
2. ClickClosetoclosetheArchivedialogue.
Toresolveallthedataconflicts:
1. InthePendingChangespaneoftheArchivedialogue,selectanyconflictandclickResolveAll.Atolldisplaysamessage
explaininghowResolveAllworks(seeFigure 2.16).Selectoneofthefollowing:

Figure 2.16:Resolvingallthedataconflictssimultaneously

Yes:SelectYestoacceptallthemodificationsmadebyotherusersinthedatabaseandupdateyourdocument
withvaluesfromthedatabase.
No:SelectNotooverwritethemodificationsmadebyotherusersinthedatabasewiththevaluesfromyourdoc
ument.
Cancel:SelectCanceltocancel.
2. ClickClosetoclosetheArchivedialogue.

Youshouldonlyresolveallthedataconflictswhenyouarecertainaboutthe
modifications.

2.3 MakingaBackupofYourDocument
Atollcancreateandautomaticallyupdatebackupsofdocumentsyouareworkingon.Onceyouhavesavedthedocument,
Atollcreatesabackupoftheoriginaldocumentandupdatesitatadefinedinterval.Forexample,foradocumentnamed"file
name.atl,"Atollwillcreateabackupfilecalled"filename.atl.bak"inthesamefolderastheoriginaldocument.Youcandefine
theupdateintervaleachtimeyoustartAtoll.
YoucanalsoconfigureAtolltocreateautomaticbackupsofexternalpathlossmatrices(LOSfiles)bysettinganoptioninthe
atoll.inifile.Formoreinformation,seetheAdministratorManual.
Whenyouhaveactivatedautomaticbackup,Atollautomaticallycreatesabackupforeverydocumentopen.Consequently,if
youhavealotofdocumentsopen,thisoperationcantakealongtime.However,youcanoptimisetheprocessbyopening
largedocumentsinseparateAtollsessions,insteadofinthesameAtollsession.Thisalsoimprovesmemorymanagement
because each instance of Atoll has its own 2 GB (under 32bit operating systems; 4 GB under 64bit operating systems)
memoryallocation.IfyouopentwolargedocumentsinthesameAtollsession,thesedocumentswillusethesame2 GB
memorypool.IfyouopenthemintwodifferentAtollsessions,eachdocumentwillhaveitsown2 GBallocatedmemory.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"ConfiguringAutomaticBackup"onpage 108
"RecoveringaBackup"onpage 108.

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2.3.1 ConfiguringAutomaticBackup
YoucansetupautomaticbackupforeachAtollsession.
Toconfigureautomaticbackup:
1. SelectTools>ConfigureAutoBackup.TheAutoBackupConfigurationdialogueappears(seeFigure 2.17).

Figure 2.17:AutoBackupConfigurationdialogue

2. SelecttheActivateAutoBackupcheckbox.
3. SelectthePromptbeforestartingAutoBackupcheckboxifyouwantAtolltoaskyoubeforesavingthebackupof
yourfileeverytime(seeFigure 2.18).
4. Enteratimeinterval,inminutes,betweenconsecutivebackupsintheAutomaticallysavebackupseverytextbox.

Itcantakealongtime toback uplargedocuments. Therefore,youshould setacorre


spondinglylongerintervalbetweenbackupswhenworkingwithlargedocumentsinorder
tooptimisetheprocess.

5. ClickOK.
IfyouselectedthePromptbeforestartingautomaticbackupcheckbox,Atollpromptsyoueachtimebeforebackingupthe
document.IfyouclickOK,Atollproceedstobackupallopendocuments.IfyouclickCancel,Atollskipsthebackuponce.

Figure 2.18:Automaticbackupprompt

Theautomaticbackuptimerisstoppedwhilethepromptisdisplayed.AtolldisplaysamessageintheEventViewereverytime
abackupfileisupdated.Ifyouareperformingcalculations,i.e.,coveragepredictionsorsimulations,theautomaticbackupis
delayeduntilthecalculationshaveended.Thetimerstartsagainoncethecalculationsareover.Ifyousavetheoriginaldocu
mentmanually,thetimerisresetto0.

2.3.2 RecoveringaBackup
YoucaneasilyrecoveryourbackupdocumentandopenitinAtolljustlikeanyotherAtolldocument.
Torecoveryourbackupdocument:
1. UsingWindowsExplorer,navigatetothefoldercontainingyouroriginalAtolldocumentanditsbackup.
2. Iftheoriginaldocumentwasnamed"filename.atl,"thebackupdocumentwillbeinthesamefolderandwillbecalled
"filename.atl.bak".RenamethedocumentandremovetheBAKextension.Forexample,youcouldchangethename
to"filenamebackup.atl."

IfyoujustremovetheBAKextension,yourbackupfilewillhavethesamefilenameas
theoriginalfileandWindowswillnotallowyoutorenamethefile.Therefore,itissafer
togiveanewnametothebackupfileandkeeptheoriginalfileuntilyouaresurewhich
versionismostrecent.

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3. OpentherenamedbackupdocumentinAtoll.Youwillbeabletorecoveralltheworkuptothelasttimethebackup
wassaved.

2.4 MakingandSharingPortableAtollProjects
YoucancreateportableAtolldocumentsintwoways:
byembeddingallthegeographicdataintheATLfile,or
bycreatingacompressedarchive(ZIPfile)containingtheATLfileandallgeographicdatalinkedtotheAtolldocument.
Inmostworkingenvironments,geographicdatafilesarestoredonacommonfileserverandarelinkedtotheATLdocuments
ofdifferentusersoveranetwork.Oftenthesegeographicdatafilesarequitelarge,anditisnotfeasibletoembedthesefiles
inanATLfileforreasonsrelatedtofilesize,memoryconsumption,andperformance.Itis,therefore,moreusefultomakea
projectportablebycreatinganarchivethatcontainstheATLandallgeographicdatafiles.
AtollletsyoumakeanarchivecontainingtheATLfileandallgeographicdatadirectlyfromtheFilemenu.
TomakeanarchivecontainingtheATLfileandalllinkedgeographicdatafiles:
1. SelectFile >SavetoZip.TheSaveAsdialogueappears.
2. Selectthefolderwherethecreatedarchiveistobestored,enteraFilenameforthearchivetobecreated,andselect
"ZipFiles(*.zip)"fromtheSaveastypelist.
AtollcreatesaZIPfilecontaining:
AcopyoftheATLfilewiththesamenameasthenameofthearchive(ZIPfile).
TheATLfileaddedtothearchivecontainsallthedatathatmightbeembeddedinit(pathlossmatrices,geographic
data,coveragepredictions,simulationresults,measurementdata,etc.).
A".losses"foldercontainingapathloss.dbffileandaLowRessubfolderwhichcontainsthepathloss.dbffilecorre
spondingtotheextendedpathlossmatrices.
Externallystoredpathlossmatricesarenotaddedtothearchivebecausetheyarenotnecessaryformakinga
portabledocument;theycanberecalculatedbasedonthenetworkandgeographicdataintheATLfile.Thepath
loss.dbffilesarestoredinthearchivebecausetheyareneededwhenreopeningthearchiveinAtoll.
A"Geo"folderwithallthelinkedgeographicdataavailableintheGeoexplorerfortheAtolldocument.
ThisfoldercontainssubfolderswiththesamenamesasthefoldersintheGeoexplorer.Geographicdatathatare
foundoutsidefoldersintheGeoexplorerarestoredinfilesundertheGeofolder,anddatapresentwithinfolders
intheGeoexplorerarestoredinsidetheirrespectivefolders.Ifthegeographicdatafileslinkedtothedocument
arelocatedonaremotecomputer,suchasafileserveroveranetwork,theyarefirstcopiedtothelocalcomputer
intheWindowstemporaryfilesfolderandthenaddedtothearchive.
Oncetheportablearchiveiscreated,youcanopenitdirectlyfromAtollwithoutfirsthavingtoextractitusinganothertool.
ToopenanarchivecontaininganATLfileandalllinkedgeographicdatafiles:
1. SelectFile >OpenfromZip.TheOpendialogueappears.
2. SelecttheZIPfilethatcontainstheATLfileandlinkedgeographicdatafiles.
3. ClickOpen.TheBrowseForFolderdialogueappears.
4. SelectthefolderwhereyouwanttoextractthecontentsoftheZIPfile.
5. Click OK. Atoll extracts all the files from the archive to the selected folder. If necessary, it createsthe subfolders
requiredforextractingthecontentsoftheGeofolder.OnceAtollhasfinishedextractingfilesfromthearchive,it
openstheextractedATLfile.GeographicdataextractedfromthearchivearelinkedtotheATLfile.

Youdonotneedtohaveacompressionutility,suchasWinZiporWinRAR,installed
onthecomputerwhenworkingwitharchivedATLfiles.
Thehighestcompressionlevelisusedwhencreatingthearchive.

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Thischapterprovidesinformationonworkingwith Inthischapter,thefollowingareexplained:
geographicdatainanAtollproject.
"GeographicDataTypes"onpage 113
"SupportedGeographicDataFormats"onpage 114
"ImportingGeoDataFiles"onpage 115
"DigitalTerrainModels"onpage 121
"ClutterClasses"onpage 122
"ClutterHeights"onpage 124
"Contours,Lines,andPoints"onpage 124
"ScannedImages"onpage 126
"GeoclimaticMaps"onpage 127
"SettingthePriorityofGeoData"onpage 129
"DisplayingInformationAboutGeoData"onpage 132
"GeographicDataSets"onpage 132
"EditingGeographicData"onpage 134
"SavingGeographicData"onpage 136
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3 GeographicData
SeveraldifferentgeographicdatatypesareusedinanAtolldocument.Forexample:thedigitalterrainmodel(DTM),clutter
classes,clutterheights,scannedimages,onlinemaps,andgeoclimaticmaps,aretypesofthegeographicdatathatyoucan
importorcreate.Somedatatypes,suchasclutterclasses,canbeusedtogivemorerealisticcalculations.Othertypessuchas
scannedimages,areusedtocreateamorerealisticdisplayoftheregionunderstudy.
Youcanimportawidevarietyofbothvectorandrasterformatgeodatafiles.WhenyouimportageodatafileintoAtoll,you
candecideinwhichfolderitgoes.TheGeoexploreroftheAtollExplorerwindowhasfoldersforthecommonlyuseddata
types.Therefore,choosingafolderischoosingwhatthefilewillbeusedfor.Youcanalsocreateyourowndatatypebyimport
ingafileanddefiningwhatdataistobeused.
OnceyouhaveimportedafileintotheAtolldocument,youcaneditthedata,definehowthegeodatawillbedisplayed.Atoll
alsoallowsyoutomanagemultiplefilesforasingledatatype,decidingthepriorityofdatafileswithdifferentinformationor
differentresolutions.YoucanalsodisplaygeodataoveritemsintheNetworkexplorer,eitherbytransferringthemtothe
Networkexplorer,orbyimportingthemdirectlytotheNetworkexplorer.
Youcanalsocreateandeditgeographicdata.Youcanaddavectorlayertocertaindatatypestowhichyoucanaddcontours,
lines,orpoints,createnewgeographicdata,ormodifyexistingdata.Youcanalsocreaterasterbasedgeographicdatasuch
astrafficmapsorclutterclasses.
Youcanexportmostgeodataobjects(forexample,DTM,clutterclasses,clutterheights,rasterpolygons,orvectorlayers)for
useinotherAtolldocumentsorinotherapplications.Atollalsoallowsyoutosavechangesyoumaketogeodataobjectsback
totheoriginalfiles.Thisenablesyoutoupdatetheoriginalfilesand,throughtheprocessofsavingthem,recompactthefile.
Thischapterexplainsthefollowingtopics:
"GeographicDataTypes"onpage 113
"SupportedGeographicDataFormats"onpage 114
"ImportingGeoDataFiles"onpage 115
"ClutterClasses"onpage 122
"ClutterHeights"onpage 124
"DigitalTerrainModels"onpage 121
"Contours,Lines,andPoints"onpage 124
"ScannedImages"onpage 126
"GeoclimaticMaps"onpage 127
"SettingthePriorityofGeoData"onpage 129
"EditingGeographicData"onpage 134
"SavingGeographicData"onpage 136.

3.1 GeographicDataTypes
An Atoll document can contain several different geographic data types. Atoll supports a wide range of file formats for
geographicdatafiles.ThedifferentgeographicdatatypesplaydifferentrolesintheAtolldocument:
Geographicdatausedinpropagationcalculation:
Digitalterrainmodel
Clutterclasses
Clutterheights
Geographicdatausedfordisplaypurposes:
Scannedmaps
Onlinemaps
Imagesfromwebmapservices(WMS)
Contours,lines,andpointsrepresenting,forexample,roads,railways,orregions.
Inthissection,thefollowingdatatypesaredescribed:
"DigitalTerrainModel"onpage 113
"ClutterClasses"onpage 114
"ClutterHeights"onpage 114
"Contours,Lines,andPoints"onpage 114
"ScannedImages"onpage 114
"GeoclimaticMaps"onpage 114

DigitalTerrainModel

TheDTMdescribestheelevationofthegroundoversealevel.YoucandisplaytheDTMindifferentways:bysinglevalue,
discretevalues,orbyvalueintervals(see"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 27).

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TheDTMisautomaticallytakenintoaccountbythepropagationmodelduringcomputations.

ClutterClasses

Theclutterclassgeodatafiledescribeslandcoverorlanduse.Clutterclassesaretakenintoaccountbythepropagationmodel
duringcomputations.
Eachpixelinaclutterclassfilecontainsacode(fromamaximumof256possibleclasses)whichcorrespondstoaclutterclass,
orinotherwordstoacertaintypeofgrounduseorcover.Theheightperclasscanbedefinedaspartoftheclutterclass,
however,theheightwillbedefinedasanaverageheightforeachclutterclass.Forinformationondefiningtheheightperclut
terclass,see"DefiningClutterClassProperties"onpage 122.Clutterheightscanalsobedefinedbyaseparateclutterheights
file(see"ClutterHeights"onpage 114).Aclutterheightmapcanrepresentheightmuchmoreaccuratelybecauseitallowsa
differentheighttobeassignedforeachpixelofthemap.

ClutterHeights

ClutterheightmapsdescribethealtitudeofclutterovertheDTMwithonealtitudedefinedperpixel.Clutterheightmapscan
offermorepreciseinformationthandefininganaltitudeperclutterclassbecause,inaclutterheightfile,itispossibletohave
differentheightswithinasingleclutterclass.
Whenclutteraltitudeisdefinedbothinclutterclassesandinaclutterheightmap,clutteraltitudeistakenfromtheclutter
heightmap.
Youcandisplaytheclutterheightmapindifferentways:bysinglevalue,discretevalues,orbyvalueintervals(see"Display
PropertiesofObjects"onpage 27).

Theonlypropagationmodelsthatcantakeclutterheightsintoaccountincalculationsare
theStandardPropagationModelandWLLmodel.

Contours,Lines,andPoints

Atollsupportscontours,lines,andpointstorepresentpolygonssuchasregions,orlinessuchasroadsorcoastlines,orpoints.
Theyareusedfordisplayonlyandhavenoeffectoncomputations.Contourscanalsobeusedtocreatefilteringpolygonsor
computationorfocuszones.

ScannedImages

Scannedimagesaregeographicdatafileswhichrepresenttheactualphysicalsurroundings,forexample,roadmapsorsatel
liteimages.Theyareusedtoprovideaprecisebackgroundforotherobjectsorforlessprecisemapsandareusedonlyfor
display;theyhavenoeffectoncalculations.

GeoclimaticMaps

Geoclimaticmapsarevectorfilescontaininginformationonclimaticconditionssuchasraindensity,vapourdensity,temper
ature,andrefractivity.Geoclimaticmapsareusedinmicrowavelinkdocumentstocalculateradiowaveattenuation.

TrafficDataMaps

Trafficdatamapscontaininformationoncapacityandserviceusepergeographicarea.Trafficdatamapsareusedfornetwork
capacityanalyses.

OnlineMaps

Youcandisplayvarioustypesofonlinemapsinthemapwindow.FromtheGeoexplorer,youcanaccessthesemapsdirectly
orbyspecifyingtheirserverURLs.

3.2 SupportedGeographicDataFormats
Atollsupportsthefollowinggeographicdataformats:
DTMfilesinthefollowingformats:TIF(8or16bitinteger),BIL(8,16or32bitinteger,32bitfloat),Planet(16bit
integer),BMP(8bitinteger),GRDVerticalMapper(16bitinteger),andErdasImagine(8,16or32bitinteger,32bit
float)
Clutterheightfilesinthefollowingformats:TIF(8or16bitinteger),BIL(8,16or32bitinteger,32bitfloat),Planet
(16bitinteger),BMP(8bitinteger),GRDVerticalMapper(16bitinteger),andErdasImagine(8,16or32bitinteger,
32bitfloat)
Clutterclassandtrafficfilesinthefollowingformats:TIF(8bit),BIL(8bit),IST(8bit),BMP(8bit),Planet,GRCVertical
Mapper(8bit),andErdasImagine(8bit)

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Vectordatafilesinthefollowingformats:AGD,DXF,Planet,SHP,MIF,andTAB.
Vectortrafficfilesinthefollowingformats:AGD,DXF,Planet,SHP,MIF,andTAB.
Scannedimagefilesinthefollowingformats:TIF(1to24bit),JPEG(1to24bit),JPEG2000(1to24bit),BIL(1to
24bit),IST(1to24bit),BMP(1to24bit),Planet,ErdasImagine(1to24bit),GRCVerticalMapper(1to24bit),and
ECW(8or24bit)
Geoclimaticfilesinthefollowingformats:AGD,DXF,SHP,MIF,andTAB.
Otherdatainthefollowingformats:TIF(16bit),BIL(16bit),IST(16bit),Planet,BMP(16bit),ErdasImagine(16bit),
GRD/GRCVerticalMapper(16bit),AGD,DXF,SHP,MIF,andTAB.

Allimportedrastermapsmusthavethesameprojectioncoordinatesystem.

3.3 ImportingGeoDataFiles
YoucanimportthegeographicdatayouneedintothecurrentAtolldocument.Asexplainedin"SupportedGeographicData
Formats"onpage 114,Atollsupportsavarietyofbothrasterandvectorfileformats.Whenyouimportanewgeodatafile,
AtollrecognisesthefileformatandsuggeststheappropriatefolderintheGeoexplorer.Youcanembedgeodatafilesinthe
Atolldocumentwhileyouareimportingthemorafterwards(see"EmbeddingGeographicData"onpage 121).
YoucansharethepathsofimportedmapsanddisplaysettingswithotherusersbyusingAtollsuserconfigurationfiles.For
informationonexportingthepathsofyourdocumentsfilesortoimportthepathfromanotherdocumentusinguserconfig
urationfiles,see"GeographicDataSets"onpage 132.
Thissectionexplainsthefollowing:
"ImportingaRasterformatGeoDataFile"onpage 115
"ImportingaVectorformatGeoDataFile"onpage 116
"ImportingMSIPlanetData"onpage 117
"ImportingaWMSRasterformatGeoDataFile"onpage 119
"GroupingGeoDataFilesinFolders"onpage 120
"EmbeddingGeographicData"onpage 121.

Youcanusedraganddroptoimportgeodatafilesintoadocument.Theformatis
automaticallyrecognisedandAtollpresentsyouwiththeappropriatedialogue.

3.3.1 ImportingaRasterformatGeoDataFile
AllrastergeodatafilesmustberepresentedinthesameprojectioncoordinatesystemastheAtolldocumentitself.
Toimportageographicdatafileinarasterformat:
1. SelectFile >Import.TheOpendialogueappears.
2. Selectthegeodatafileyouwanttoimport.
Youcanimportmorethanonegeodatafileatthesametime,providingthatthegeodatafilesareofthesametype.
Youcanselectcontiguousfilesbyclickingthefirstfile,pressingSHIFTandclickingthelastfileyouwanttoimport.You
canselectnoncontiguousfilesbypressingCTRLandclickingeachfile.
3. ClickOpen.TheFileImportdialogueappears(seeFigure 3.1).

IftheVectorImportdialogueappears,goto"ImportingaVectorformatGeoDataFile"on
page 116.

Dependingonthetypeofgeodatafileyouareimporting,chooseoneofthefollowingoptions:
DTM:SelectAltitudes(DTM)fromtheDataTypelist.
ClutterClasses:SelectClutterClassesfromtheDataTypelist.
ClutterHeights:SelectClutterHeightsfromtheDataTypelist.
ScannedImages:SelectImageorScanfromtheDataTypelist.
4. Bydefault,theimportedfileislinkedtotheAtolldocument.ToembedthedatafileintheAtolldocument,selectthe
EmbedinDocumentcheckbox.Forinformationonembeddingfiles,see"EmbeddingGeographicData"onpage 121.

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5. ClickImport.ThegeodatafileisimportedandlistedintheGeoexplorer.
Whenyouimportatrafficdatamap,thetrafficmapsPropertiesdialogueappears:
a. UnderTerminals(%),enterthepercentageofeachtypeofterminalusedinthemap.Thetotalpercentagesmust
equal100.
b. UnderMobilities(%),enterthepercentageofeachmobilitytypeusedinthemap.Thetotalpercentagesmust
equal100.
c. UnderServices(%),enterthepercentageofeachservicetypeusedinthemap.Thetotalpercentagesmustequal
100.
d. UnderClutterDistribution,enterforeachclutterclassthepercentageofindoorusers.
e. ForUMTSandCDMA,selectwhethertheusersareactiveintheUplink/Downlink,onlyintheDownlink,oronly
intheUplink.
f. ClickOK.

Figure 3.1:Importingaclutterclassfile

3.3.2 ImportingaVectorformatGeoDataFile
Whenyouimportgeodatafilesinvectorformat,theirgeographicsystemcanbeconvertedtothesystemusedbytheAtoll
document.Whenyouimportextremelylargevectorgeodatafiles,forexample,vectorfilesthatcoveranentirecountry,you
mustensurethatatleastthecentreoftheboundingboxdefiningthevectorfileiswithintheprojectioncoordinatesystem
definedfortheAtolldocument.
Toimportavectorformatgeographicdatafile:
1. SelectFile >Import.TheOpendialogueappears.
2. Selectthegeodatafileyouwanttoimport.
Youcanimportmorethanonegeodatafileatthesametime,providingthatthegeodatafilesareofthesametype.
Youcanselectcontiguousfilesbyclickingthefirstfile,pressingSHIFTandclickingthelastfileyouwanttoimport.You
canselectnoncontiguousfilesbypressingCTRLandclickingeachfile.
3. ClickOpen.TheVectorImportdialogueappears(seeFigure 3.2).

IftheFileImportdialogueappears,goto"ImportingaRasterformatGeoDataFile"on
page 115.

Dependingonthetypeofgeodatafileyouareimporting,chooseoneofthefollowingoptions:
VectorData:
SelectGeofromtheImporttolist.
When you importvectordata,youcansimultaneouslyimportthecorrespondingdisplay configuration file
(CFG)bysettinganoptionintheatoll.inifile.Thedisplayconfigurationfilewillonlybeimportedifithasthe
samefilenameandifitislocatedinthesamedirectoryastheimportedvectorformatfile.Formoreinforma
tionaboutsettingoptionsintheatoll.inifile,seetheAdministratorManual.

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GeoclimaticFile:
i. SelectGeoclimaticParametersfromtheImporttolist.

ThetemperaturesinthegeoclimaticfilemustbeexpressedinCelsiuswhetherthemeas
urementunitdefinedfortemperaturesintheAtolldocumentisFarhenheitorCelsius.

4. Bydefault,theimportedfileislinkedtotheAtolldocument.ToembedthedatafileintheAtolldocument,selectthe
EmbedinDocumentcheckbox.Forinformationonembeddingfiles,see"EmbeddingGeographicData"onpage 121.
5. ClickImport.ThegeodatafileisimportedandlistedintheGeoexplorer.

Figure 3.2:VectorImportdialogue

YoucanimportellipsesandarcsfromMapInfofiles(MIFandTAB).Rectanglesare
interpretedaspolygons.
YoucandefinemappingsbetweenthecoordinatesystemusedfortheMapInfo/
ESRIvectorfiles,definedinthecorrespondingMIF/PRJfiles,andAtoll.Thisway,
whenyouimportavectorfile,Atollcandetectthecorrectcoordinatesystemauto
matically.Formoreinformationaboutdefiningthemappingbetweencoordinate
systems,pleaserefertotheAdministratorManual.

3.3.3 ImportingMSIPlanetData
MSIPlanetdataarecontainedinaseriesoffilesdescribedinindexfiles.TheindexfileisinASCIItextformatandcontains
theinformationnecessarytoidentifyandproperlyinterpreteachdatafile.WhenyouimportMSIPlanetdata,youcanimport
eachtypeofdataseparately,byimportingthecorrespondingindexfile,oryoucanimportseveralMSIPlanetdatafilesat
thesametime,byimportingseveralindexfiles.
Thissectionexplainsthefollowing:
"ImportingOneMSIPlanetDataType"onpage 117
"ImportingaMSIPlanetDatabase"onpage 118.

3.3.3.1 ImportingOneMSIPlanetDataType
WhenyouwanttoimportacertaintypeofMSIPlanetdata,suchasaDTMorclutterheights,youimporttheindexfile
containingtheinformationnecessarytoimportthesetoffilescontainingthedata.
ToimportonetypeofMSIPlanetdata:
1. SelectFile >Import.TheOpendialogueappears.
2. SelecttheindexfileyouwanttoimportandclickOpen.TheDataTypedialogueappears(seeFigure 3.3).

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Figure 3.3:ImportinganMSIPlanetindexfile

3. SelectthetypeofdatayouareimportingandselecttheEmbedcheckboxifyouwanttoembedthedatainthecurrent
Atolldocument.
4. ClickOKtoimportthedataintothecurrentAtolldocument.

3.3.3.2 ImportingaMSIPlanetDatabase
YoucanimportallavailableMSIPlanetdataatthesametimebyimportingallindexfiles.
ToimporttheMSIPlanetdatabase:
1. SelectFile >Import.TheOpendialogueappears.
2. Select"Planetdatabase"fromtheFilesofTypelist.ThePlanetDataImportdialogueappears(seeFigure 3.4).

Figure 3.4:ImportinganMSIPlanetdatabase

3. Foreachtypeofdatathatyouwanttoimport:
a. Selectthecorrespondingcheckbox.
b. Ifyouwanttoembedthedata,selecttheEmbedcheckbox.

c. TolocatetheMSIPlanetindexfile,click .TheOpendialogueappears.
d. SelecttheMSIPlanetindexfileandclickOpen.Thepathandnameofthefileappearsinthecorrespondingfield
ofthePlanetDatatoBeImporteddialogue.
4. Ifyouarealsoimportingnetworkdata,selectthenetworkTechnology.
5. Whenyouhaveselectedallthetypesofdatayouwanttoimport,clickOK.ThedataisimportedintothecurrentAtoll
document.

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3.3.4 ImportingaWMSRasterformatGeoDataFile
YoucanimportrasterimagesfromaWebMapService(WMS)serverintoyourAtolldocument.TheimagescanbeinTIF,BMP,
PNG,orJPEGformats.Allimagesimportedatthesametimeareimportedasasingleimage.Beforeyouimportthem,youcan
arrangethembyplacingontoptheimagethatisthemostimportant,suchasroads.Or,youcanplacetheleasttransparent
imagetowardsthebottomsothattheotherimagesimportedatthesametimeremainvisible.
Theimagewillbereferencedinthedocument;itcannotbeembedded.OnlyWMSdatamappedwithaprojectionsystem(for
example,theLambertConformalConicortheUniversalTransverseMercatorprojection)canbeimported.Beforeimporting
animagefromaWMSserver,youmustensurethatthecoordinatesystemusedinyourdocumentisthesameprojection
systemsupportedbytheserver.Allrastergeodatafilesmustberepresentedinthesameprojectioncoordinatesystemas
thatusedbytheAtolldocumentitself.
Toimportageographicdatafilefromawebmapservice:
1. SelectFile >Import.TheOpendialogueappears.
2. FromtheFilesofTypelist,selectConnectiontoaWebMapServicesserver.TheWebMapServicesDataImportdia
logueappears.
3. SelecttheURLoftheWMSserverfromtheServerURLlistorenteritdirectly.

ThelistofWMSserversthatappearsintheServerURLlistaredefinedbyentriesinthe
atoll.inifile.Forinformationondefiningtheseentries,seetheAdministratorManual.

4. ClicktheConnectbutton.AtollconnectstotheURLoftheWMSserveranddisplaystheinformationavailablealong
withadescriptionoftheservice(Figure 3.5onpage 119).

Figure 3.5:WebMapServicesDataImportdialogue

5. IntheleftpaneoftheWebMapServicesDataImportdialogue,navigatetotheitemthatyouwanttoshortlistinthe
rightpane,byclickingtheExpandbutton( )toopeneachlevel.

6. Selectthecheckboxprecedingtheimageortheimagegroup,i.e.agroupprecededbyanExpandbutton( ).The
selectedimagesareautomaticallyaddedtothelistintherightpane.
7. Intherightpane,clickonanimagetoselectit.Youcanalsoselectseveralimagesasfollows:
Toselectcontiguousimages:clickthefirstimage,pressSHIFT,andclickthelastimage.
Toselectnoncontiguousimages:pressCTRLandclickeachimageseparately.

8. Additionally,youcanmoveanimageinthelistbyclickingtheimagethen or tomoveitupwardordownward.

9. Ifyouwant,youcanalsoreversetheorderofthelistbyclicking .
10. ClickImportintheWebMapServicesDataImportdialogue.TheWMSMapImportdialogueappears.

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Figure 3.6:WMSMapImportdialogue

ThefollowinginformationisgivenabouttheimportedWMSdata:
DataTypes:"ImageorScan"isselected.
GeographicCoordinates:ThegeographiccoordinatesaretheWMSdataaregiven.
11. TheNamesuggestedisthenameofthelowestlayertobeimported.Ifdesired,youcanmodifythisname.
12. ClickImportintheWMSMapImportdialogue.TheimageisimportedbyreferenceintotheAtolldocument.Youcan
notembedaWMSimageinyourdocument.
Ifyouhadselectedmorethanoneimageoranimagegroup,Atollimportsthegroupasasingleobject.Youcannot
modifythisobject.Ifyouwanttoremoveoneoftheimagesoraddanotheroneyouwillhavetogothroughtheimport
processagain.
13. ClickCloseintheWebMapServicesDataImportdialoguethenCancelintheOpendialoguetoreturntoexit.

3.3.5 GroupingGeoDataFilesinFolders
Bydefault,whenyouimportscannedimagesandcontours,lines,andpoints,theyappeardirectlyintheGeoexplorer.Other
datafiles,suchasclutterclasses,arelistedtogetherinasingleClutterClassesfolder.Youcan,however,groupscannedimages
andcontours,lines,andpointsintofoldersaswell.
Oncegrouped,thesegeodatafilescanbedisplayedorhiddenandmovedmoreeasily.Theyretain,however,theirownindi
vidualdisplaysettings;thedisplaysettingscannotbemanagedatthefolderlevel.
Youcreatethefolderwhenyouimportthefirstgeodatafilethatwillbeimportedintoit.Whenyouimportthenextgeodata
file,eitherrasterorvector,youcanimportitdirectlyintothenewfolder.
Tocreateanewgeodatafolderwhenimporting:
1. SelectFile >Import.TheOpendialogueappears.
2. SelectthegeodatafileandclickOpen.Ifthefiletobeimportedisarasterfile,theFileImportdialogueappears(see
Figure 3.1).Ifthefiletobeimportedisavectorfile,theVectorImportdialogueappears(seeFigure 3.2).
3. FromtheDataTypelist(ontheFileImportdialogue)ortheImportTolist(ontheVectorImportdialogue),selectNew
folderinGeo.TheNewFolderdialogueappears.

If you want to import your file to the Network explorer, you can select New folder in
Network.

4. EnteranameforthefolderinFolderNameboxandclickOK.
5. ClickImport.Yourfileisimportedintothenewlycreatedfolder.
YoucannowimportothergeodatafilesintothisfolderbyselectingitfromtheDataTypelist(ontheFileImportdialogue)or
theImportTolist(ontheVectorImportdialogue)whenyouimport.

YoucantransfergeodatathathasbeenimportedfromtheGeoexplorertotheNetwork
explorer,orviceversa.RightclickthedataintheExplorerwindowandselectMoveto
NetworkorMovetoGeo.

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3.3.6 EmbeddingGeographicData
Bydefault,whenyouimportageodatafile,Atollcreatesalinktothefile.Youcan,however,choosetoembedthegeodata
fileinyourAtolldocument,eitherwhenyouimportitorlater.WhenAtollislinkedtoageodatafile,thegeodatafileremains
separateandmodifyingorsavingtheAtolldocumenthasnoeffectonthegeodatafile.Whenthegeodatafileisembedded
intheAtolldocument,itissavedaspartofthedocument.
Bothlinkingandembeddingpresentadvantagesanddisadvantages.Formoreinformation,seetheAdministratorManual.

Ifyouareusingdistributedcalculations,youmustlinkyourgeodatafiles.Distributed
calculationswillnotworkwithembeddedgeodatafiles.Forinformation,seethe
AdministratorManual.

ToembedageodatafileinthecurrentAtolldocumentwhileyouareimporting:
SelecttheEmbedinDocumentcheckboxontheFileImportorVectorImportdialoguebox.
ToembedageodatafilethatisalreadylinkedtothecurrentAtolldocument:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefileyouwanttoembedinthecurrentdocument.
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.
4. ClicktheGeneraltabofthePropertiesdialogue.
5. ClickEmbed.
6. ClickOK.ThegeodatafileisnowembeddedinthecurrentAtolldocument.

3.3.7 RepairingaBrokenLinktoaGeoDataFile
Bydefault,whenyouimportageodatafile,Atollcreatesalinktothefile;thegeodatafileremainsseparateandmodifying
orsavingtheAtolldocumenthasnoeffectonthegeodatafile.If,however,thegeodatafileismoved,thelinkwillbebroken.
TorepairabrokenlinkfromwithintheAtolldocument:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
Ifthegeodatafileisinafolder,suchastheClutterClasses,TrafficMaps,orDTMfolder,click toexpandthe
folder.
2. Rightclickonthegeodatafilewhoselinkyouwanttorepair.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.
4. OntheGeneraltabofthePropertiesdialogue,clicktheFindbutton.
5. Browsetothegeodatafile,selectitandclickOK.

3.4 DigitalTerrainModels
TheDigitalTerrainModel(DTM)isageographicdatafilerepresentingtheelevationofthegroundoversealevel.
TomanagethepropertiesoftheDTM:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. RightclicktheDigitalTerrainModelfolder.
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogueappears.
4. ClicktheDisplaytabtodefinethedisplaypropertiesfortheDTM.
ForinformationonDisplaytabsettings,see"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 27.
5. MovetheReliefslidertowardsFlat,ifyouwanttodisplayveryfewlittlereliefortowardsx6ifyouwanttoemphasise
thedifferencesinaltitude.
6. ClickOKtoclosethePropertiesdialogue.

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3.5 ClutterClasses
Theclutterclassgeodatafiledescribeslandcoverorlanduse.
Eachpixelofaclutterclassfilecontainsacode(fromamaximumof256possibleclasses)whichcorrespondstoaclutterclass,
orinotherwordstoacertaintypeofgrounduseorcover.Theheightperclasscanbedefinedaspartoftheclutterclass,
howeverthisheightisonlyanaverageperclass.Aclutterheightmapcanrepresentheightmuchmoreaccuratelybecauseit
allowsadifferentheighttobeassignedforeachbinofthemap.Forinformationonclutterheightmaps,see"ClutterHeights"
onpage 124.
Thissectionexplainsthefollowing:
"AssigningNamestoClutterClasses"onpage 122
"DefiningClutterClassProperties"onpage 122
"AddingaClutterClass"onpage 123
"RefreshingtheListofClutterClasses"onpage 123
"DisplayingTotalSurfaceAreaperClutterClass"onpage 124.

3.5.1 AssigningNamestoClutterClasses
Theclutterclassfileidentifieseachclutterclasswithacode.Tomakeiteasiertoworkwithclutterclasses,youcanassigna
descriptivenametoeachclutterclassname.Whenaclutterclasshasadescriptivename,itisthenamethatappearsintip
textandreports.
WhenyouimportaclutterclassfileinBIL,TIF,JPEG2000,orIMPformat,Atollcanautomaticallyassignnamestoclutter
classesiftheclutterclassfilehasacorrespondingMNUfile.TheMNUfilecontainsalistwiththeclutterclasscodesandtheir
correspondingnames.FormoreinformationontheMNUfileformatandoncreatinganMNUfile,seetheTechnicalReference
Guide.
Toassignnamestoclutterclasses:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. RightclicktheClutterClassesfolder.
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.
4. ClicktheDescriptiontabofthePropertiesdialogue.
5. IntheNamecolumn,enterdescriptivetextforeachclassidentifiedintheCodecolumn.

3.5.2 DefiningClutterClassProperties
Theparametersareappliedinrelationtothelocationofthereceiverbeingstudiedandtheclutterclassofthereceiverloca
tion.TheseparameterscanbesetonthePropertiesdialogue:
Todefineclutterclassproperties:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. RightclicktheClutterClassesfolder.
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.
4. ClicktheDescriptiontabofthePropertiesdialogue.
5. EnteraNameandaverageHeight(m)foreachcode.

IfHeightisleftblank,thepropagationmodelsthatusethisinformationinterpretit
as"0."
Ifyoumodifyclutterclassheights,pathlossmatricesmustberecalculatedusing
theForceCalculationbutton( )inordertotakethischangeintoaccountinpre
dictionsandsimulations.

6. Enterdefault values inthe first row of the table on the Description tab.orinformation about each field, seethe
descriptionsinthefollowingstep.
Thedefaultvaluesareusedifnocluttermapisavailable.Evenifthereisaclutterclassesmap,youcanselecttheUse
defaultvaluesonlycheckboxontheatthebottomoftheDescriptiontabtomakeAtollusethevaluesspecifiedin
thisrowinsteadofthevaluesdefinedperclutterclass.
7. Ifdesired,youcanenteravalueforeachofthefollowingfieldsapplicabletothecurrentdocument:

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ForallAtolldocuments:
ModelStandardDeviation(dB):tocalculateshadowinglossesonthepathloss,asrelatedtoauserdefined
celledgecoverageprobability.
IndoorLoss(dB):tobeappliedtothepathlossandusedincoveragepredictions,pointanalysis,andMonte
Carlosimulations.Here,youcandefineavalueofindoorlossperfrequency.Ifanetworkelementoperateson
afrequencyforwhichtheindoorlossisnotdefinedintheindoorlossgraph,anindoorlossvalueisinterpo
latedfromthevaluesavailableinthegraph.

8. Ifyouwanttousedefaultvaluesforallclutterclasses,selecttheUseonlydefaultvaluescheckboxatthebottomof
theDescriptiontab.
9. ClicktheDisplaytabtodefinethedisplaypropertiesforclutterclasses.InadditiontotheDisplaytaboptionsdescribed
in"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 27,eachclutterclassdisplaytypehasavisibilitycheckbox.Byselectingor
clearingthevisibilitycheckbox,youcandisplayorhideclutterclassdisplaytypesindividually.

Selectingwhiteasthecolourforaclutterclassvalueorvalueintervalwillcausethatclutter
classvalueorvalueintervaltobedisplayedastransparent.

10. ClickOK.

YoucancopythedescriptiontableintoanewAtolldocumentafterimportingtheclutter
classesfile.Tocopythedescriptiontable,selecttheentiretablebyclickingthecellinthe
upperleftcornerofthetableandpressCTRL+C.OntheDescriptiontaboftheclutter
classesPropertiesdialogueinthenewAtolldocument,pressCTRL+Vtopastethevalues
inthetable.

3.5.3 AddingaClutterClass
Youcanaddanewclutterclasstoyourdocument.
Toaddanewclutterclasstotheyourdocument:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. RightclicktheClutterClassesfolder.
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.
4. SelecttheDescriptiontabfromthePropertiesdialogue.
5. Intheblankrowmarkedwith atthebottomofthetable,enteranunusednumberfrom1to255intheCode
column.
6. Fillintheremainderofthefieldsasdescribedinstep 5.andstep 7.of"DefiningClutterClassProperties"onpage 122.
7. ClickOK.
Youcannowusethenewclutterclasswhenmodifyingtheclutterclassmap.Forinformationonmodifyingtheclutterclass
map,see"CreatingaClutterPolygon"onpage 134.

3.5.4 RefreshingtheListofClutterClasses
Undercertaincircumstances,itcanhappenthatthelistofclutterclassesontheDescriptiontaboftheclutterclassesProper
tiesdialoguecontainsunusedclutterclasses.Forexample,ifyouhaveimportedtwoclutterclassfilesandthendeletedone
ofthem,thelistofclutterclasseswillstillcontaintheclutterclassesofthedeletedfile,eveniftheyarenotusedintheremain
ingfile.Wheneveryouwanttoensurethatthelistofclutterclassesisaccurateandcurrent,youcanrefreshthelist.
Torefreshthelistoftheclutterclasses:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. RightclicktheClutterClassesfolder.
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.
4. SelecttheDescriptiontabfromthePropertiesdialogue.
5. ClickRefresh.Atollremovestheunusedclutterclassesfromthelist.
6. ClickOK.

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3.5.5 DisplayingTotalSurfaceAreaperClutterClass
Youcandisplaythetotalsurfaceareacoveredbyeachclutterclassinthedocument.Atolldisplaysthesurfaceareacovered
byeachclutterclassinthefocuszoneifthereisone,inthecomputationzoneifthereisnofocuszoneand,ifthereisnofocus
orcomputationzone,Atolldisplaysthetotalsurfaceareacoveredbyeachclutterclassintheentiredocument.Thisinforma
tionisalsoavailableinpredictionreports.
Todisplaythesurfaceareacoveredbyeachclutterclass:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. RightclicktheClutterClassesfolder.
3. SelectStatisticsfromthecontextmenu.
TheStatisticsdialogueappears,displayingthesurfacearea(Siinkm)ofeachclutterclass(i)anditspercentage(%of
i)inthecomputationzoneorfocuszone,ifoneexists.
Si
% of I = -------------- 100
Sk
k

3.6 ClutterHeights
ClutterheightmapsdescribethealtitudeofclutterovertheDTM.Clutterheightfilesallowforahigherdegreeofaccuracy
becausetheyallowmorethanoneheightperclutterclass.Inaclutterheightfile,aheightisgivenforeachpointonthemap.
Ifyoudefineclutterheightasapropertyofclutterclasses,theheightisgivenasanaverageperclutterclass.
When a clutter height file is available, Atoll uses its clutter height information for calculations using certain propagation
models(theStandardPropagationModelandWLLmodel),fordisplay(intiptextandinthestatusline),andforCWmeasure
mentsandtestmobiledatapaths.Ifnoclutterheightfileexists,Atollusestheaverageclutterheightperclutterclassas
definedintheclutterclassesproperties(see"DefiningClutterClassProperties"onpage 122).
Tomanagethepropertiesofclutterheights:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. RightclicktheClutterHeightsfolder.
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogueappears.
4. ClicktheDisplaytabtodefinethedisplaypropertiesforclutterheights.
ForinformationonDisplaytabsettings,see"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 27.
5. ClickOKtoclosethePropertiesdialogue.

Theclutterheightofthecurrentpointerpositionasgivenintheclutterheightfileorintheclutterclassesisdisplayedinthe
statusbar.

3.7 Contours,Lines,andPoints
InAtoll,youcanimportorcreatevectorobjectssuchascontours,lines,andpoints.Theimportedorcreatedvectorsareused
primarilyfordisplaypurposes,butpolygonscanbeusedasfilters,orcomputationorfocuszones.
InanAtolldocument,vectorobjectssuchascontours,lines,andpointsarearrangedinvectorlayers.Whenyouimporta
vectorfile,with,forexample,roads,Atolladdsthefileasanewvectorlayercontainingallthevectorobjectsinthefile.The
vectorobjectdatacanbemanagedinthevectorlayertable.Forinformationonworkingwithdatatables,see"Workingwith
DataTables"onpage 50.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"ManagingtheDisplayofaVectorLayer"onpage 124
"ManagingthePropertiesoftheVectorLayer"onpage 125
"MovingaVectorLayertotheNetworkExplorer"onpage 125.

3.7.1 ManagingtheDisplayofaVectorLayer
Importedgeographicvectorfilescanhavedifferentattributesdependingontheirfileformats.Atollcanuseadditionalinfor
mationrelatedtovectorsasdisplayparameters.Inaddition,Atollcanreadthreedimensionalvectordata.

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Tomanagethedisplayofavectorlayer:
1. ClicktheNetworkorGeoexploreronwhichthevectorlayerislocated.
2. Rightclickthevectorlayer.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogueappears.
4. SelecttheDisplaytabofthePropertiesdialogue.Forinformationonusingthedisplaytab,see"DisplayPropertiesof
Objects"onpage 27.

You can manage the display of an individual vector object by rightclicking the vector
objectinthevectorlayerfolderandselectingPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.

3.7.2 ManagingthePropertiesoftheVectorLayer
Thepropertiesoftheobjectsonthevectorlayercanbemanagedintwoways:eitherfromatablecontainingallvectorsand
theirattributesorfromthePropertiesdialogue.

VectorLayerTable

Allthevectorobjectsofavectorlayerandtheirattributesarelistedinthevectortable.
Toopenthevectorlayertable:
1. OntheExplorerwindowtabcontainingthevectorlayer,rightclickthevectorlayerfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.Thevectortableappears.
YoucaneditthecontentsofthistableusingthecommandsfromthecontextmenuorfromtheEdit,Format,andRecords
menus.FormoreinformationoneditingtablesinAtoll,see"WorkingwithDataTables"onpage 50.

VectorLayerPropertiesDialogue

ThevectorlayerPropertiesdialoguehasthreetabs:aGeneraltab,aTabletab,andaDisplaytab.
ToopenthePropertiesdialogueofavectorlayer:
1. OntheExplorerwindowtabcontainingthevectorlayer,rightclickthevectorlayerfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.
3. ClicktheGeneraltab.Thefollowingoptionsareavailable:
Name:Thenameofthevectorlayer.Youcanrenamethevectorlayerusingthisfield.
SourceFile:ThecompletepathofthevectorlayerfileifthefileislinkedtotheAtolldocument;otherwisethefile
isdescribedasembedded.
Find:ClicktheFindbuttontoredefinethepathwhenthefileslocationhaschanged.
Embed:ClicktheEmbedbuttontoembedalinkedvectorlayerfileintheAtolldocument.
CoordinateSystem:Whenavectorlayerislinked,thecoordinatesystemusedisthefiles,asspecifiedwhenthe
filewasimported.Whentheavectorlayerisembedded,thecoordinatesystemusedisdocuments,asspecified
whenthefilewasembedded.
Change:ClicktheChangebuttontochangethecoordinatesystemofthevectorlayer.
Sort:ClicktheSortbuttontosortthedatacontainedinthevectorlayer.Forinformationonsorting,see"Advanced
Sorting"onpage 73.
Filter: Click the Filter button to filter the data contained in the vector layer. For information on filtering, see
"AdvancedDataFiltering"onpage 75.
4. ClicktheTabletab.YoucanusetheTabletabtomanagethevectorlayertablecontent.ForinformationontheTable
tab,see"Adding,Deleting,andEditingDataTableFields"onpage 51.
5. ClicktheDisplaytab.YoucanusetheDisplaytabtomanagethevectorlayerdisplay.ForinformationontheTabletab,
see"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 27.

3.7.3 MovingaVectorLayertotheNetworkExplorer
InAtoll,allobjectsintheNetworkexplorer,suchastransmitters,antennas,andpredictions,aredisplayedoverallobjectsin
theGeoexplorer.Youmaywish,however,toensurethatcertaingeodata,forexample,majorgeographicalfeatures,roads,
etc.,remainvisibleinthemapwindow.YoucandothisbytransferringthegeodatafromtheGeoexplorertotheNetwork
explorerandplacingitabovedatasuchaspredictions.

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TotransferavectorlayertotheNetworkexplorer:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. Rightclickthevectorlayeryouwanttotransfer.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectMovetoNetworkfromthecontextmenu.ThevectorlayeristransferredtotheNetworkexplorer.

YoucantransferthevectorlayerbacktotheGeoexplorerbyrightclickingitintheNetworkexplorerandselectingMoveto
Geofromthecontextmenu.FormoreinformationaboutdisplaypriorityinAtoll,see"SettingthePriorityofGeoData"on
page 129.

3.8 ScannedImages
Scannedimagesaregeographicdatafileswhichrepresenttheactualphysicalsurroundings,forexample,roadmapsorsatel
liteimages.Theyareusedtoprovideaprecisebackgroundforotherobjectsorforlessprecisemaps.Theyhavenoeffecton
calculations.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"ImportingSeveralScannedImages"onpage 126
"DefiningtheDisplayPropertiesofScannedImages"onpage 126.

3.8.1 ImportingSeveralScannedImages
YoucanimportscannedimagesintothecurrentAtolldocumentoneatatime,asexplainedin"ImportingGeoDataFiles"on
page 115,oryoucanimportagroupofimagesbyimportinganindexfilelistingtheindividualimagefiles.Theindexfileisa
textfilewiththeinformationforeachimagefileonaseparateline.
Eachlinecontainsthefollowinginformation,withtheinformationseparatedbyaspace:
Filename:Thenameofthefile,withitspathrelativetothecurrentlocationoftheindexfile.
XMIN:ThebeginningXcoordinateofthefile.
XMAX:TheendXcoordinate,calculatedasXMIN+(numberofhorizontalbinsxbinwidth).
YMIN:ThebeginningYcoordinateofthefile.
YMAX:TheendYcoordinate,calculatedasYMIN+(numberofhorizontalbinsxbinwidth).
0:Thezerocharacterendsthesequence.

nice1.tif 984660 995380 1860900 1872280 0


nice2.tif 996240 1004900 1860980 1870700 0

Filename XMIN XMAX YMIN YMAX 0

Toimportanindex
1. SelectFile >Import.
2. SelecttheindexfileandclickOpen.TheFileImportdialogueappears(seeFigure 3.1).
3. SelectImageorScanfromtheDataTypelist.
4. ClickImport.TheimagefilesimportedandlistedintheGeoexplorer.

3.8.2 DefiningtheDisplayPropertiesofScannedImages
Becauseimportedimagescannotbemodified,theyhavefewerdisplayparametersthanotherobjecttypes.
Todefinethedisplaypropertiesofascannedimage:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. Rightclickthescannedimage.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogueappears(seeFigure 3.7).
4. SelecttheDisplaytabandsetthefollowingoptions:
Colour:SelecteitherAutomatic,Shadesofgray,orWatermarkfromthelist.
TransparentColour:SelectWhitefromthelistifyouwishpartsofthescannedimagethatarecolouredwhiteto
betransparent,allowingobjectsinlowerlayerstobevisible.
Lightness:Movetheslidertolightenordarkenthescannedimage.
Contrast:Movetheslidertoadjustthecontrast.

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VisibilityScale:Enteravisibilityscaleminimuminthebetween 1:textboxandmaximumintheand 1:textbox.


Whenthedisplayedorprintedscaleisoutsidethisrange,thescannedimageisnotdisplayed.
5. ClickOK.

Figure 3.7:ScannedimagePropertiesdialogue

3.9 GeoclimaticMaps
Geoclimaticmapsarevectorfilescontaininginformationonclimaticconditionssuchasraindensity,vapourdensity,temper
ature,andrefractivity.Geoclimaticmapsareusedinmicrowavelinkdocumentstocalculateradiowaveattenuation.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"ManagingGeoclimaticMapProperties"onpage 127
"DisplayingGeoclimaticStatistics"onpage 127.

3.9.1 ManagingGeoclimaticMapProperties
Tomanagethepropertiesofageoclimaticmap:
1. RightclicktheGeoclimaticParametersfolderintheGeoexplorer.
2. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.
3. Thefollowingtabsareavailable:
DataMapping:TheDataMappingtabenablesyoutoselectwhichvaluefromeachimportedvectorfileispartof
thegeoclimaticmap.TheimportedvectorfilesarelistedintheNamecolumn,withtherelevantdataselectedin
theFieldcolumn.YoucanselecttheparameteritcorrespondstofromtheParameterscolumn.
Display: The Display tab enables you to define how the geoclimatic map appears in the map window. Value
intervalistheonlyavailabledisplaytype.
Forinformationonusingthedisplaytab,see"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 27.
4. Click toexpandtheGeoclimaticParametersfolder.
5. RightclickanygeoclimaticfileintheGeoclimaticParametersfolder.
6. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.
7. ClicktheTabletab.TheTabletabenablesyoutomanagethecontentsoftheclasstable.Forinformationonworking
withtheTabletab,see"Adding,Deleting,andEditingDataTableFields"onpage 51.

3.9.2 DisplayingGeoclimaticStatistics
Youcandisplaytherelativeandabsolutedistributionofeachvalueintervalaccordingtothedefinedvalueintervalsinthe
displayproperties(forinformationondefiningvalueintervals,see"DefiningtheDisplayType"onpage 28)ofageoclimatic
map.Atolldisplaysthestatisticsforthefocuszoneifthereisone,forthecomputationzoneifthereisnofocuszoneand,if
thereisnofocusorcomputationzone,Atolldisplaysthestatisticsfortheentiredocument.

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Todisplaythestatisticsofthegeoclimaticdata:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. RightclicktheGeoclimaticParametersfolder.
3. SelectStatisticsfromthecontextmenu.TheStatisticswindowappearswiththedistributionsofeachvalueinterval.

Statisticsaredisplayedonlyforvisibledata.See"DisplayingorHidingObjectsontheMap
UsingtheExplorerWindows"onpage 22.

3.10 DisplayingOnlineMaps
Severaltypesofonlinemapscanbedisplayedinthemapwindow.Theseonlinemapshavenoeffectonpredictionandsimu
lationresults.

Aprojectioncoordinatesystemmustbespecifiedbeforeanyonlinemapcanbedisplayed.
Youmustalsoensurethatthecoordinatesystemyouspecifyinyourdocumentisthesame
projectionsystemsupportedbythetileserver.Failingtodosowillleadtoinappropriate
behaviour(disproportionateandbadlyrenderedmaptiles)whenyoudragthemapaway
fromtheareatargetedbythespecifiedprojectioncoordinatesystem.

ThemaptilesthatyouloadintoAtollarestoredinaspecificcachedirectorynamedafter
thecorrespondingtileserver.Bydefault,thelocationofthiscacheis"%TEMP%\Forsk".
You can change this location by editing the atoll.ini file. For more information, see the
AdministratorManual.

Todisplayanonlinemap:
1. Specifyaprojectioncoordinatesystem(see"SettingaCoordinateSystem"onpage 98).
2. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
3. RightclicktheOnlineMapsfolder( ).Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectNewfromthecontextmenu.TheAddaTileServerdialogueappears.

Figure 3.8:AddaTileServerdialogue

5. IntheAddaTileServerdialogue,setthefollowingoptions:
Name:Enteranameofyourchoicetoidentifythethirdpartytileserveryouarespecifying.
ServerURL:EntertheURLofthethirdpartytileserver.
Youcanalsospecifyanonlinemapfromalistofpredefinedtileservers(seeFigure 3.9).Clickinganyiteminthelist
fillstheNameandServerURLfieldsautomatically.

Figure 3.9:PredefinedTileServersforOnlineMaps

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AserverURLincludesatilesetwhere:
"%z"representsthedetaillevel,and"%x"and"%y"thetilecoordinates,or
"%q"representsaquadkeyidentifyingasingletileataparticulardetaillevel.

6. ClickOKtoclosetheAddaTileServerdialogue.Anewitem( )appearsintheOnlineMapsfolderwiththeName
youspecifiedintheAddaTileServerdialogue.
7. IntheGeoexplorer,selectthecheckboxprecedingtheonlinemapyouspecified.Theselectedonlinemapappearsin
thebackgroundofthemapwindowinaccordancewiththescalecurrentlydefinedinthetoolbar.

3.11 SettingthePriorityofGeoData
AtollliststheimportedDTM,clutterclassortrafficobjectsintheirrespectivefoldersandcreatesaseparatefolderforeach
importedvectordatafileandscannedimage.Eachobjectisplacedonaseparatelayer.Thus,thereareasmanylayersas
importedobjects.ThelayersarearrangedfromtoptobottominthemapwindowastheyappearintheGeoexplorer.
ItisimportanttorememberthatallobjectsintheNetworkexplorer,suchastransmitters,antennas,andpredictions,are
displayedoverallobjectsintheGeoexplorer.

3.11.1 SettingtheDisplayPriorityofGeoData
Thereareseveralfactorsthatinfluencethevisibilityofgeodata:
Thedisplaycheckbox:ThecheckboximmediatelytotheleftoftheobjectnameintheGeoexplorercontrolswhether
ornottheobjectisdisplayedonthemap.Ifthecheckboxisselected( ),theobjectisdisplayed;ifthecheckboxis
cleared( ),theobjectisnotdisplayed.Ifthecheckbox,isselectedbutshaded( ),notallobjectsinthefolderare
displayed. For more information, see "Displaying or Hiding Objects on the Map Using the Explorer Windows" on
page 22.
Theorderofthelayers:ThelayeratthetopoftheGeoexplorerisontopofallotherlayersinthemapwindow.Data
onlayersbelowisonlyvisiblewherethereisnodataonthetoplayerorifyouadjustthetransparencyoftheobjects
onthetoplayer.YoucanusedraganddroptochangetheorderoflayersbydraggingalayerintheGeoexplorer
towardsthetoporthebottomofthetab.

AllobjectsintheNetworkexplorer,suchastransmitters,antennas,andpredictions,are
displayedoverallobjectsintheGeoexplorer.Vectorgeodata,however,canbetrans
ferredtotheNetworkexplorer,wheretheycanbeplacedoverdatasuchaspredictions.
Inthisway,youcanensurethatcertainvectorgeodata,forexample,majorgeographical
features,roads,etc.,remainvisibleinthemapwindowFormoreinformation,see"Moving
aVectorLayertotheNetworkExplorer"onpage 125.

Thetransparencyofobjects:Youcanchangethetransparencyofsomeobjects,suchaspredictions,andsomeobject
types,suchasclutterclasses,toallowobjectsonlowerlayerstobevisibleonthemap.Formoreinformation,see
"DefiningtheTransparencyofObjectsandObjectTypes"onpage 30.
Thevisibilityrangeofobjects:Youcandefineavisibilityrangeforobjecttypes.Anobjectisvisibleonlyinthemap
windowifthescale,asdisplayedonthezoomtoolbar,iswithinthisrange.Formoreinformation,see"Definingthe
VisibilityScale"onpage 30.
InFigure 3.10,vectordata(includingthelinearvectorsHIGHWAYS,COASTLINE,RIVERLAKE,MAJORROADS,MAJORSTREETS,
RAILWAYSandAIRPORT),clutterclasses,DTMandscannedimagehavebeenimportedandaUMTSenvironmenttrafficmap
hasbeeneditedinsidethecomputationzone.Inthemapwindow,thelinearobjects(ROADS,RIVERLAKE,etc.)arevisibleboth
insideandoutsidethecomputationzone.Theclutterclasslayerisvisibleintheareawherethereisnotrafficdata(outside
thecomputationzone).Ontheotherhand,theDTMlayerwhichisbeneaththeclutterclasslayerandthescannedmapwhich
isbeneaththeDTMlayer,arenotvisible.

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Figure 3.10:DisplayingGeodatalayers

3.11.2 SettingthePriorityofGeoDatainCalculations
Thepriorityofgeodataincalculationsisdeterminedinmuchthesamewayasitisfordisplay.
WhenyoumakecalculationsinAtoll,thedatatakenintoaccountineachfolder(ClutterClasses,DTM,etc.)isthedatafrom
thetopdown.Inotherwords,Atolltakestheobjectontopandobjectsbelowonlywherethereisnodatainhigherlevels;
whatisusediswhatisseen.

Thevisibilityinthecontextofcalculationsmustnotbeconfusedwiththedisplaycheckbox
( ).Evenifthedisplaycheckboxofanobjectiscleared( ),sothattheobjectisnot
displayedonthemap,itwillstillbetakenintoconsiderationforcalculations.

Objectfolders,forexample,theDTM,clutterclasses,clutterheights,andtrafficdensityfolders,cancontainmorethanone
dataobject.Theseobjectscanrepresentdifferentareasofthemaporthesamepartsofthemapwiththesameordifferent
resolutions.Thereforeforeachfolder,youshouldplacetheobjectswiththebestdataatthetop.Thesearenormallythe
objectswhichcovertheleastareabuthavethehighestresolution.Forexample,whencalculatingcoverageinanurbanarea,
youmighthavetwoclutterclassfiles:onewithahigherresolutionforthedowntowncore,wherethedensityofusersis
higher,andonewithalowerresolutionbutcoveringtheentirearea.Inthiscase,byplacingtheclutterclassfileforthedown
towncoreoverthefilewiththelowerresolution,Atollcanbaseitscalculationsforthedowntowncoreontheclutterclass
filewiththehigherresolution,usingthesecondfileforallothercalculations.
ThefollowingsectionsgiveseveralexamplestobetterillustratehowdataareusedinAtoll:
"Example1:TwoDTMMapsRepresentingDifferentAreas"onpage 130
"Example2:ClutterClassesandDTMMapsRepresentingtheSameArea"onpage 131
"Example3:TwoClutterClassMapsRepresentingaCommonArea"onpage 131.

3.11.2.1 Example1:TwoDTMMapsRepresentingDifferentAreas
Inthisexample,therearetwoimportedDTMfiles:
"DTM1representsagivenareaandhasaresolutionof50 m.
DTM2representsadifferentareaandhasaresolutionof20 m.
Inthisexample,thefileorderoftheDTMfilesintheExplorerwindowdoesnotmatterbecausetheydonotoverlap;inboth
Case 1andCase 2,Atollwilltakeallthedatafromboth"DTM 1and"DTM 2intoaccount.

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Explorerwindow Workspace

Case1

DTM
DTM2(20m)
DTM1(50m)

Case2

DTM
DTM1(50m)
DTM2(20m)

Figure 3.11:MultilayermanagementincalculationstwoDTMmapsrepresentingdifferentareas

3.11.2.2 Example2:ClutterClassesandDTMMapsRepresentingtheSameArea
Inthisexample,therearetwoimportedmaps:
AclutterclassmapcalledClutter.
ADTMmapcalledDTM.
IndependentlyoftheorderofthetwomapsintheExplorerwindow,AtollusesboththeclutterandDTMdataincalculations.
InCase 1,theclutterclassmapisontopoftheDTMmap.InCase 2,theDTMmapisontopoftheclutterclassmap.Inboth
Case 1andCase 2,AtollwilluseboththeclutterandDTMdataincalculations.

Explorerwindow Workspace
Case1

Clutterclasses
Clutter
DTM
DTM
Case2

DTM
DTM
Clutterclasses
Clutter

Figure 3.12:MultilayermanagementincalculationsClutterandDTMmapsrepresentingthesamearea

3.11.2.3 Example3:TwoClutterClassMapsRepresentingaCommonArea
Inthisexample,therearetwoimportedclutterclassesmaps:
"Clutter 1"representsalargeareawitharesolutionof50 m.
"Clutter 2"representsasmallerareawitharesolutionof20 m.Thisareaisalsocoveredby"Clutter 1"
Inthecaseoftwoclutterclassmaps,AtollusestheorderofthemapsintheClutterClassesfolderintheGeoexplorerto
decidewhichdatatouse.InCase 1,"Clutter 2"isontopof"Clutter 1".Atollwillthereforeusethedatain"Clutter 2"where
it is available, and the data from "Clutter 1" everywhere that is covered by "Clutter 1" but not by "Clutter 2." In Case 2,
"Clutter 1"isontopandcompletelycovers"Clutter 2."Therefore,Atollwillonlyusethedatafrom"Clutter 1."

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Explorerwindow Workspace

Case1

Clutterclasses
Clutter2(20m)
Clutter1(50m)

Case2

Clutterclasses
Clutter2(50m)
Clutter1(20m)

Figure 3.13:Multilayermanagementincalculationstwocluttermapsrepresentingthesamearea

3.12 DisplayingInformationAboutGeoData
Youcandisplayinformationaboutageodatamapbyusingtiptext.Forinformationonhowtodisplayinformationintiptext,
see"DefiningtheObjectTypeTipText"onpage 31.
Todisplayinformationaboutthegeodataintiptext:
Holdthepointeroverthegeodatauntilthetiptextappears.Thesurfaceareaisonlygivenforclosedpolygons.

TiptextonlyappearswhentheTipTextbutton( )onthetoolbarhasbeenselected.

3.13 GeographicDataSets
InAtoll,onceyouhaveimportedgeographicdataanddefinedtheirparameters,youcansavemuchofthisinformationina
user configuration file. Then, another user, working on a similar Atoll document, can import the user configuration file
containingthepathstotheimportedgeographicdataandmanyofthedefinedparameters.
Whenyousavethegeographicdatasetinauserconfiguration,yousave:
thepathsofimportedgeographicmaps
mapdisplaysettings(visibilityscale,transparency,tipstext,etc.)
clutterdescription(code,name,height,standarddeviations,etc.)
rasteroruserprofiletrafficmapdescription.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"ExportingaGeoDataSet"onpage 133
"LoadingaGeoDataSet"onpage 133.

Youcansaveandloadothertypesofinformationwithuserconfigurationfilesaswell.For
information,seetheAdministratorManual.

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3.13.1 ExportingaGeoDataSet
Whenyousaveageodatasetinauserconfigurationfile,theinformationlistedin"GeographicDataSets"onpage 132issaved
intoafile.

Vectorsmustbeinthesamecoordinatesystemastherastermaps.

Tosaveageodatasetinauserconfigurationfile:
1. SelectTools >UserConfiguration >Save.TheUserConfigurationdialogueappears(seeFigure 3.14).
2. IntheUserConfigurationdialogue,selecttheGeographicDataSetcheckbox.

Figure 3.14:TheUserConfigurationdialogue

3. ClickOK,TheSaveAsdialogueappears.
4. IntheSaveAsdialogue,browsetothefolderwhereyouwanttosavethefileandenteraFilename.
5. ClickOK.

3.13.2 LoadingaGeoDataSet
When you load a user configuration file containing a geo data set, the information listed in "Geographic Data Sets" on
page 132isloadedintoyourcurrentAtolldocument.
ToloadauserconfigurationfilecontainingageodatasetintoyourcurrentAtolldocument:
1. SelectTools >UserConfiguration >Load.TheOpendialogueappears.
2. Browsetotheuserconfigurationfile,selectitandclickOpen.
3. TheUserConfigurationdialogueappears.
Whenyouloadauserconfigurationfileincludingageographicdataset,Atollchecksiftherearealreadygeographic
datainthecurrentAtolldocument.Ifso,theoptionDeleteexistinggeodataappearswithotheroptionsintheUser
Configurationdialogue.
4. IntheUserConfigurationdialogue,selectthecheckboxesoftheitemsyouwanttoloadintoyourcurrentAtolldoc
ument.
5. IfyoualreadyhavegeographicdatainyourcurrentAtolldocumentandwouldliketoreplaceitwithanydatainthe
userconfigurationfileyouareloading,selecttheDeleteexistinggeodatacheckbox.
Ifyoudonotwanttoreplaceexistinggeodatawithimporteddata,cleartheDeleteexistinggeodatacheckbox.
6. ClickOK.

YoucanautomaticallystartAtollwithauserconfigurationfilebynamingthefile"atoll.cfg"
andplacingitinthesamefolderastheAtollexecutable.YoucanalsoedittheWindows
shortcuttoAtollandadd"cfg<.cfg_file>"where"<.cfg_file>"isthefullpathtotheuser
configurationfile.

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3.14 EditingGeographicData
InAtoll,youcaneditgeodatathatyouhaveimportedoryoucancreategeodata.
Thefollowingtypesofgeographicdatacanbeedited:
Clutterclasses(formoreinformation,"EditingClutterClassMaps"onpage 134)
Contours,lines,andpoints(formoreinformation,"EditingPolygons,Lines,andPoints"onpage 45)
Geoclimaticmaps(formoreinformation,"EditingGeoclimaticMaps"onpage 135)
Trafficdatamaps

3.14.1 EditingClutterClassMaps
Clutterclassmapsandcertaintrafficmapsarerastermaps.Youcaneditthesemapsbycreatingormodifyingpolygons.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"CreatingaClutterPolygon"onpage 134
"EditingClutterPolygons"onpage 134
"DisplayingtheCoordinatesofClutterPolygons"onpage 135.
"DeletingClutterPolygons"onpage 135

3.14.1.1 CreatingaClutterPolygon
InAtoll,youcanmodifyimportedclutterclassmapsorcreateyourownmapsbyaddingdataintheformofpolygons.Youcan
latereditandexportthepolygonsyouhavecreated.Allmodificationsyoumaketoclutterclassmapsaretakenintoaccount
bypropagationmodelcalculations.
Tocreateapolygon:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. RightclicktheClutterClassesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.

3. SelectEditfromthecontextmenu.TheEditortoolbarappearswithaclutterortrafficlist,apolygondrawingtool ,
apolygondeletiontool ,andaClosebutton(seeFigure 3.15).

Figure 3.15:Editortoolbar

4. Fromthelist,selecttheclutterclassforthepolygonyouwanttocreate.

Clutter classes are defined on the Descriptions tab of the clutter classes Properties
dialogue.

5. Clickthepolygondrawingbutton( ).Thepointerchangestoapencil( ).
6. Clickonceonthemapwhereyouwanttobegindrawingthepolygon.
7. Clickeachtimeyouchangeanglesontheborderdefiningtheoutsideofthepolygon.
8. Doubleclicktoclosethepolygon.

Youcancopytheexactcoordinatesofaclosedpolygonbyrightclickingitonthemapand
selectingPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.

3.14.1.2 EditingClutterPolygons
Youcaneditclutterpolygonsbymovingexistingpointsofthepolygonorbyaddingordeletingpoints.
Toeditclutterpolygons:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. RightclicktheClutterClassesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.

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3. SelectEditfromthecontextmenu.TheEditortoolbarappears(seeFigure 3.15).
4. Selectthepolygon.Youcannowedittheclutterpolygonby:
Movingapoint:

i. Positionthepointeroverthepointyouwanttomove.Thepointerchanges( ).
ii. Dragthepointtoitsnewposition.
Addingapoint:

i. Positionthepointeroverthepolygonborderwhereyouwanttoaddapoint.Thepointerchanges( ).
ii. RightclickandselectInsertPointfromthecontextmenu.Apointisaddedtotheborderatthepositionofthe
pointer.
Deletingapoint:

i. Positionthepointeroverthepointyouwanttodelete.Thepointerchanges( ).
ii. RightclickandselectDeletePointfromthecontextmenu.Thepointisdeleted.

3.14.1.3 DisplayingtheCoordinatesofClutterPolygons
Todisplaythecoordinatesofthepointsdefiningthepolygonarea:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. RightclicktheClutterClassesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectEditfromthecontextmenu.TheEditortoolbarappears(seeFigure 3.15).
4. RightclickthepolygonandselectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogueappearswiththecoor
dinatesofthepointsdefiningthepolygonandthetotalarea.

You can select and copy the coordinates displayed in the Properties dialogue of the
polygon.

3.14.1.4 DeletingClutterPolygons
Youcandeleteclutterpolygons.
Todeleteaclutterpolygon:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. RightclicktheClutterClassesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectEditfromthecontextmenu.TheEditortoolbarappears(seeFigure 3.15).

4. Clickthepolygondeletiontool( ).Thepointerchanges( ).
5. Clickthepolygonyouwanttodelete.Thepolygonisdeleted.

3.14.2 EditingGeoclimaticMaps
Somegeographicdatamaps,forexamplegeoclimaticmaps,aremadeupofindividualvectorobjects.Youcanmodifyand
createthesegeodatamapsbyaddingavectorlayerandthenaddingvectorobjects(contours,lines,andpoints)tothislayer.
Tocreateavectorlayerandvectorobjectsonageodatamap:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. Rightclickthegeodataobject,theGeoclimaticParameters,folder,towhichyouwanttoaddavectorlayer.
3. SelectAddVectorLayerfromthecontextmenu.Anewdataobjectcalled"Vectors"iscreatedintheselectedgeodata
objectfolder.
4. Rightclickthenewvectorlayer.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectEditfromthecontextmenu.ThevectortoolsontheVectorEditortoolbarareactivated.

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Youcanalsoactivatethevectortoolsbyselectingthevectorlayertoeditfromthe
VectorEditortoolbarlist.BecauseAtollnamesallnewvectorlayers"Vectors"by
default,itmightbedifficulttoknowwhichVectorsfolderyouareselecting.Byrenaming
eachvectorsfolder,youcanensurethatyouselectthecorrectfolder.Forinformationon
renamingobjects,see"RenaminganObject"onpage 24.

6. Todrawapolygon,clicktheNewPolygonbutton( )ontheVectorEditortoolbar:
a. Clickonceonthemapwhereyouwanttobegindrawingthecontour.
b. Clickeachtimeyouchangeanglesontheborderdefiningtheoutsideofthecontour.
c. Doubleclicktoclosethecontour.

7. Todrawarectangle,clicktheNewRectanglebutton( )ontheVectorEditortoolbar:
a. Clickthepointonthemapthatwillbeonecorneroftherectangle.
b. Dragtotheoppositecorneroftherectangle.
c. Releasethemousetocreatetherectangledefinedbythetwocorners.
8. RightclickthenewpolygonorrectangleandselectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.
9. Enteravalue:
GeoclimaticParameters:EnteravalueintheRainIntensityfieldtoindicatetheintensityofrainfallforthepol
ygon.

10. PressESCtodeselecttheNewPolygon( )ortheNewRectangle( )buttonontheVectorEditortoolbar.


11. ForAtolltoconsiderthenewvectorlayeraspartofthedatamap,youmustmapthevectorlayer.RightclicktheGeo
climaticParameters,folder.Thecontextmenuappears.
12. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogueappears.
13. ClicktheDataMappingtab.Forthefollowinggeodata:
GeoclimaticParameters:
IntheFieldcolumn,"Rain"isselectedbydefault.
Youcaneditthevectorobjectsasexplainedin"EditingPolygons,Lines,andPoints"onpage 45.

3.15 SavingGeographicData
AtollallowsyoutosaveyourgeographicdatafilesseparatelyfromsavingtheAtolldocument.Atollsupportsavarietyofboth
raster and vector file formats (for more information, see "Supported Geographic Data Formats" on page 114). Saving a
geographicfileseparatelyfromsavingtheAtolldocumentenablesyouto:
Savemodificationsyouhavemadetoanexternalfile:Ifyouhavemademodificationstogeodata,youcanexport
themtoanewexternalfile.
Updatethesourcefilewithmodificationsyouhavemade:IfyouhavemademodificationstoageodatatypeinAtoll,
youcansavethesechangestothesourcefile.
Combineseveralrasterfilesintoonefile:IfyouhaveseveralsmallrasterfilesinonefolderoftheGeoexplorer,you
cansavethemasonefile.
ExportanembeddedfiletobeusedinanotherAtolldocumentorinanotherapplication:Youcansaveafiletoan
externalfile,inthesameformatorinanotherone.
Createanewfilefrompartofalargerone:Youcanselectpartofcertaingeodatatypesandthensavetheselected
partasanewfile.
Thissectionexplainsthefollowing:
"SavingModificationstoanExternalFile"onpage 137
"UpdatingtheSourceFile"onpage 138
"CombiningSeveralRasterFilesintoOneFile"onpage 139
"ExportinganEmbeddedFile"onpage 139
"CreatingaNewFilefromaLargerFile"onpage 140

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3.15.1 SavingModificationstoanExternalFile
InAtoll,youcansaveyourmodificationstoanexternalfile.
Thissectionexplainsthefollowing:
"ExportinganEditedClutterClassMapinaRasterFormatFile"onpage 137
"ExportinganEditedVectorLayerinVectorFormatFile"onpage 138.

3.15.1.1 ExportinganEditedClutterClassMapinaRasterFormatFile
Youcanexportclutterclassmodificationsinarasterformatfile,eitherinthesameformatasusedinthecurrentAtolldocu
ment,orinadifferentrasterformat.Youcanalsochoosetoexporttheentireclutterclassgeodata,thepartcontainingthe
computationzone,orjustyourmodificationstothegeodata.
Whenyouhavemademodificationstoarasterformatgeodatafile,exportingeithertheentiregeodataorjustyourmodifi
cationsallowsyoutosavethosemodificationstoanexternalfile.
Toexportclutterclassmodificationsinarasterformatfile:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. RightclicktheClutterClassesfolder.
3. SelectSaveAsfromthecontextmenu.TheSaveAsdialogueappears.
4. IntheSaveAsdialogue,browsetothefolderwhereyouwanttosavethefile,enteranameforthefile,andselectthe
fileformatfromtheSaveastypelist.Youcanselectfromoneofthefollowingfileformats:
BMPFiles(*.bmp):WhenyouselectBMPformat,AtollautomaticallycreatesthecorrespondingBPWfilecon
tainingthegeoreferenceinformation.
PNG Files (*.png): When you select PNG format,Atoll automatically creates the corresponding PGW file con
tainingthegeoreferenceinformation.
ArcViewGridFiles(*.txt,*.asc):TheArcViewtextformatisintendedonlyforexport;nocorrespondinggeoref
erencefileiscreated.
TIFFFiles(*.tif):Whenyouselecttaggedimagefileformat,AtollautomaticallycreatesthecorrespondingTFWfile
containingthegeoreferenceinformation.
BILFiles(*.bil):WhenyouselecttheBILformat,AtollautomaticallycreatesthecorrespondingHDRfilecontaining
thegeoreferenceinformation.WhenexportinginBILformat,Atollallowsyoutoexportfileslargerthan2 Gb.
VerticalMapperFiles(*.grc,*.grd):FileswiththeextensionGRCorGRDareVerticalMapperfiles.Whenexporting
inGRDorGRCformats,Atollallowsyoutoexportfileslargerthan2 Gb.
5. ClickSave.TheExportdialogueappears(seeFigure 3.16).

Figure 3.16:Exportdialogue

6. UnderRegion,selectoneofthefollowing:
TheEntireProjectArea:Thisoptionallowsyoutoexporttheentireclutterclassgeodatafile,includinganymod
ificationsyouhavemadetothegeodata.Theexportedgeodatafilewillreplacethegeodatafileinthecurrent
Atolldocument.
OnlyPendingChanges:Thisoptionallowsyoutoexportarectanglecontaininganymodificationsyouhavemade
totheclutterclasses.TheexportedgeodatafilewillbeaddedasanewobjecttotheClutterClassesgeodata
folder.
The Computation Zone: This option allows you to export the clutter class geo data contained by a rectangle
encompassingthecomputationzone,whetherornotthecomputationzoneisvisible.Theexportedgeodatafile
willbeaddedasanewobjecttotheselectedgeodatafolder.

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7. DefineaResolutioninMetres.Theresolutionmustbeanintegerandtheminimumresolutionallowedis1.Thesug
gestedresolutionvalueisdefinedbythefollowingcriteria:
Ifoneobjecthasbeenmodified,thesuggestedresolutionistheresolutionofthemodifiedobject.
Ifseveralobjectshavebeenmodified,thesuggestedresolutionisthehighestresolutionofthemodifiedobjects.
Ifthereisnoinitialclutterclassobject,theresolutionwillequalthehighestresolutionoftheDTMmaps.
IftheAtolldocumentinwhichyoucreatedtheclutterclassfilehasnoDTM,nootherclutterclassgeodatafile,
ortrafficobjects,thesuggestedresolutionis100 m.
8. ClickOK.Theselecteddataissavedinanexternalfile.

3.15.1.2 ExportinganEditedVectorLayerinVectorFormatFile
Youcanexportaneditedvectorlayerasavectorformatfile.Avectorlayercancontaincontours,lines,andpoints.Alongwith
vectorlayersyouhaveaddedtotheGeoexplorer,thefollowingmapscanbeexportedasvectorformatfiles:
Vectorformatgeoclimaticmaps
Onceyousaveavectorlayer,theexportedfilereplacesthevectorlayerasalinkedfile.Youcanembedthefileafterwards
(see"EmbeddingGeographicData"onpage 121).

Youcansimultaneouslyexportthedisplayconfigurationfile(CFG)oftheeditedvector
layerbysettinganoptionintheatoll.inifile.Theexporteddisplayconfigurationfilewill
havethesamefilenameandwillbesavedinthesamedirectoryastheexportedvector
formatfile.Formoreinformationaboutsettingoptionsintheatoll.inifile,seethe
AdministratorManual.

Toexportavectorlayer:
1. OntheExplorerwindowtabcontainingthevectorlayer,rightclickthevectorlayerfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectSaveAsfromthecontextmenu.TheSaveAsdialogueappears.
3. IntheSaveAsdialogue,browsetothefolderwhereyouwanttosavethefile,enteranameforthefile,andselectthe
fileformatfromtheSaveastypelist.Youcanselectfromoneofthefollowingfileformats:
AGD:TheAtollGeographicDataformatisanAtollspecificformat.AsaformatcreatedforAtoll,Atollcanread
AGDfilesfasterthantheothersupportedvectorformats.
SHP:TheArcViewvectorformatcanbeusedforvectorlayerscontainingonlypolygons,onlylines,oronlypoints.
Ifavectorfilehasacombinationofpolygons,lines,andpoints,youshouldusetheAGD,MIF,orTABformats
instead.
MIFandTAB:MapInfoformats.
4. ClickSaveintheSaveAsdialogue.TheVectorExportdialogueappears,displayingthecurrentcoordinatesystemand
allowingyoutochangethecoordinatesystembyclickingChange.
5. ClickExport.Thevectorlayerissavedintheformatandwiththenameyouspecifiedandtheexportedfilereplaces
thevectorlayerinthecurrentdocumentasalinkedfile.

3.15.2 UpdatingtheSourceFile
WhileworkingonanAtolldocument,youmaymakechangestogeodata.IfthegeodatafileisembeddedintheAtolldocu
ment,Atollsavesthechangesautomaticallywhenyousavethedocument.Ifthegeodatafileislinked,Atollpromptsyouto
savethechangeswhenyouclosethedocument.
Toupdatethesourcefileofalinkedgeodatafile:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefoldercontaininggeodatafilewhosesourcefileyouwanttoupdate.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectSavefromthecontextmenu.Thelinkedfileisupdated.

Youwillnotbewarnedthatyouarereplacingthecurrentfile.Therefore,ensurethatyou
wanttoreplacethecurrentfilebeforeproceedingtothefollowingstep.Ifyoudonot
wanttoreplacethecurrentfile,youcansaveyourchangestoanexternalfile("Exporting
anEditedVectorLayerinVectorFormatFile"onpage 138).

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3.15.3 CombiningSeveralRasterFilesintoOneFile
Incertaincircumstances,forexample,afterimportinganMSIPlanetindexfile,youmayhaveseveralgeodatafilesofthe
sametype.Youcancombinetheseseparatefilestocreateonesinglefile.Thefileswillbecombinedaccordingtotheirorder
fromthetopdowninthefolderintheGeoexplorer.Ifthefilesoverlaponthemap,thecombinedfilewillshowthefileonthe
top.
Youcancreateaonefilefromasectionofthefollowinggeodatatypes:
Digitalterrainmodel
Clutterclasses
Clutterheights
Scannedmaps
Tocombineindividualfilesintoanewfile:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefolderofthegeodatafilesyouwanttocombineintoonefile.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectSaveAsfromthecontextmenu.TheSaveAsdialogueappears.
4. EnteraFilenameandselectafiletypefromtheSaveastypelist.
5. ClickOK.TheExportdialogueappears(seeFigure 3.17).
6. UnderRegion,selectTheEntireProjectArea.Thisoptionallowsyoutosavetheentireareacoveredbythegeodata
files,includinganymodificationsyouhavemadetothegeodata.
7. DefineaResolutioninMetres.Theresolutionmustbeanintegerandtheminimumresolutionallowedis1.Thesug
gestedresolutionvalueisthehighestresolutionofallobjects.
8. ClickOK.Theselecteddataissavedasanewfile.

3.15.4 ExportinganEmbeddedFile
YoucanexportanembeddedgeodatafiletobeusedinadifferentAtolldocument,orinadifferentapplication.Whenyou
exportanembeddedfile,AtollreplacestheembeddedfileinthecurrentAtolldocumentwiththenewlyexportedfile.
Toexportanembeddedgeodatafile:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefolderoftheembeddedgeodatafileyouwanttoexport.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectSaveAsfromthecontextmenu.TheSaveAsdialogueappears.
4. EnteraFilenameandselectafiletypefromtheSaveastypelist.
5. ClickOK.
Ifthegeodatafileisavectorfile,theVectorExportdialogueappears(seeFigure 3.17).

Figure 3.17:TheVectorExportdialogue

a. TheVectorExportdialoguedisplaysthecoordinatesystemofthefile.Tochangethecoordinatesystemusedfor
theexportedfile,clickChange.TheCoordinateSystemsdialogueappears.ForinformationontheCoordinateSys
temsdialogue,see"SettingaCoordinateSystem"onpage 98.
b. ClickExport.Thegeodatafileisexportedwiththeselectedcoordinatesystem.
Ifthegeodatafileisarasterfile,theExportdialogueappears(seeFigure 3.18).

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Figure 3.18:Exportdialogue

a. UnderRegion,selectoneofthefollowing:
TheEntireProjectArea:Thisoptionallowsyoutoexporttheentirerasterformatgeodatafile,includingany
modificationsyouhavemadetothegeodata.TheexportedfilewillreplacetheembeddedfileintheGeoex
plorer.
OnlyPendingChanges:Thisoptionallowsyoutoexportarectanglecontaininganymodificationsyouhave
madetothegeodata.Theexportedfilewillbeaddedasanobjectinthegeodatafolder.
TheComputationZone:Thisoptionallowsyoutoexportthegeodatacontainedbyarectangleencompassing
thecomputationzone,whetherornotthecomputationzoneisvisible.Theexportedfilewillbeaddedasan
objectinthegeodatafolder.
b. DefineaResolutioninMetres.Theresolutionmustbeanintegerandtheminimumresolutionallowedis1.
c. ClickOK.Theselecteddataissavedinanexternalfile.

3.15.5 CreatingaNewFilefromaLargerFile
Youcancreateanewfilefromasectionofalargerfile.YoucanusethisnewfileinthesameAtolldocument,orinanewAtoll
document.Tocreateanewfile,youmustfirstdefinetheareabycreatingacomputationzone.
Youcancreateanewfilefromasectionofthefollowinggeodatatypes:
Digitalterrainmodel
Clutterclasses
Clutterheights
Scannedmaps
Geoclimaticmaps
Tocreateanewfilefromasectionofalargerfile:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefolderoftheembeddedgeodatafileyouwanttoexport.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectSaveAsfromthecontextmenu.TheSaveAsdialogueappears.
4. EnteraFilenameandselectafiletypefromtheSaveastypelist.
5. ClickOK.TheExportdialogueappears(seeFigure 3.17).
6. UnderRegion,selectTheComputationZone.Thisoptionallowsyoutoexportthegeodatacontainedbyarectangle
encompassingthecomputationzone,whetherornotthecomputationzoneisvisible.Theexportedgeodatafilewill
beaddedasanewobjecttotheselectedgeodatafolder.
7. DefineaResolutioninMetres.Theresolutionmustbeanintegerandtheminimumresolutionallowedis1.
8. ClickOK.Theselecteddataissavedasanewfile.

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Equipment
Thischapterprovidestheinformationtoworkwith Inthischapter,thefollowingareexplained:
antennasandequipmentinAtoll.
"DefiningtheListofManufacturers"onpage 144
"DefiningAntennas"onpage 144
"MicrowaveRadios"onpage 149
"MicrowaveFeeders"onpage 165
"MicrowaveAntenna/Radio/FeederCompatibility"on
page 166
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4 AntennasandEquipment
InAtoll,theequipmentusedtocreateanetworkismodelled,alongwiththecharacteristicswhichhaveabearingonnetwork
performance.
Microwaveradioequipmentaretheelementsusedtoconverttheinitialdatatomicrowavefrequencysignalsthatcanthen
betransmittedoveragivenmicrowavelinkandtheelementsusedtoconvertmicrowavefrequencysignalsreceivedtodata.
Themicrowaveradiosystem,aswellastheequipmentthatconstituteit,iscomposedofthreemainsubsystems:
Indoorunit(IDU)
Outdoorunit(ODU)
Antenna

Figure 4.1:Radiosystemcomponents

IndoorUnit(IDU)

TheIDUistheterminationpointoftheenduserequipmentthatgeneratesthedatatobecarriedbythemicrowavelink.It
consistsofthefollowingcomponents:
Theradiomodemthatconvertsthedigitalsignalintoaformsuitableformodulationontheradiocarriersignal
ThepowersupplyfortheOutdoorUnit(ODU)

OutdoorUnit(ODU)

TheODUconvertsthemodulatedsignalfromitslowfrequencyformtoahighfrequencyradiosignalintheappropriateradio
bandandchannelforradiotransmission.

Antenna

Theantennaisthepartofthemicrowavelinkthattransmitselectromagneticenergyfromtransmissionlinesintotheairand
receivestransmittedelectromagneticenergyfromtheairtobethensentontransmissionlines.Theantennacanbeinoneof
manydifferentshapes(forexample,horn,parabolic,flatorplanar,lens,yagi,orarray)toachieveitsspecificobjectives.
Themaincharacteristicsofthemicrowaveantennaarethefollowing:
Directivity:Inpracticalterms,directivityisdefinedas:
Theabilitytosendthetransmittedpowerinonlythedesireddirection
Theabilitytorejectundesiredsignalscomingfromotherdirections.
Gain:ThegainistheamountofpowerradiatedinagivendirectionusingonlytheRFpowerattheinputterminalsof
theantenna.
FronttoBackRatio(FBR):TheFBRistheratioofthepowerradiatedinthedesireddirectiontothepowerradiated
intheoppositedirection,typicallybetween35and50 dB.Ingeneral,thehigherthegainoftheantenna,thehigher
theFBR.
Radiationpattern:Theradiationpatternisadiagramshowingthedirectionoftheradiatedpower.Theportionofthe
patternwherethemaximumgainoccursisoftenreferredtoasthemainlobeofthepattern
Polarisation:Polarisationistheabilitytotransmitonlyoneofthetwoelectromagneticvectorcomponentsofthe
wave(eitherthehorizontalcomponentortheverticalcomponent).Usingpolarisationenablesthesameradiofre
quencytobeusedbydifferentradiosystemsinphysicalproximitytooneanother.

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Verticalpolarisation Horizontalpolarisation
Figure 4.2:Polarisation

CrossPolarisation Discrimination (XPD): The XPD istheratio of power received inthedesired polarisationtothepower
receivedinundesiredpolarisation.XPDisadesignparameterthatismaximisedinthemainlobeoftheantennapattern.
Thischapterexplainsworkingwithantennasaswellasequipmentsuchasradios,feeders:
"DefiningtheListofManufacturers"onpage 144
"DefiningAntennas"onpage 144
"MicrowaveRadios"onpage 149
"MicrowaveFeeders"onpage 165
"MicrowaveAntenna/Radio/FeederCompatibility"onpage 166.

4.1 DefiningtheListofManufacturers
InAtoll,themanufacturersofmicrowaveradios,feeders,andantennasarelistedintheManufacturersfolder.You can create
a new manufacturer or you can modify an existing one,throughthemanufacturersPropertiesdialogue.

Tocreateormodifyamanufacturer:
1. Ifyouarecreatinganewmanufacturer:
a. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
b. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheMicrowaveEquipmentfoldertoexpandthefolder.
c. RightclicktheManufacturersfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
d. SelectNewfromthecontextmenu.TheManufacturers:NewElementPropertiesdialogueappears.
2. Ifyouaremodifyingthepropertiesofanexistingmanufacturer:
a. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
b. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheMicrowaveEquipmentfoldertoexpandthefolder.
c. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheManufacturersfoldertoexpandthefolder.
d. Rightclickthemanufactureryouwanttomodify.Thecontextmenuappears.
e. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogueappears.
3. Definethefollowingparameters:
Name:Thenameofthemanufacturer.
Comments:Anycomments.
4. ClickOK.

4.2 DefiningAntennas
InAtoll,eachmicrowaveantennaisidentifiedbyaname,anddefinedbytheoperatingfrequencyband,manufacturername,
horizontalandverticalantennapatterns,gain,andantennadiameter.
Theoperatingfrequencybandandmanufacturerrelatedinformationareusedasfilteringcriteriawhendefiningcompatible
antenna/equipmentsets.
Fourdifferentantennapatterndiagramsareusedinmicrowaveantennas,i.e.,horizontalandverticalplanediagramsforhori
zontalandverticalpolarization.Eachofthesepatternscanhavebothcopolarandcrosspolarpatternsdefined.

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Because an antenna can be horizontally and vertically polarised, Atoll uses the relevant antenna pattern diagrams when
determiningpropagation.
Inthissectionthefollowingaredescribed:
"CreatinganAntenna"onpage 145
"ImportingMicrowaveAntennas"onpage 146
"EditingMicrowaveAntennaPatterns"onpage 147
"DisplayingAntennaPatternsWithaFixedScale"onpage 148
"PrintingMicrowaveAntennaPatterns"onpage 148.

4.2.1 CreatinganAntenna
Themicrowaveantennaisusedtoradiateorreceiveelectromagneticenergyintheformofhighfrequencyradiowaves.Atoll
modelsmicrowaveantennasandprovidesdefaultmicrowaveantennas.Aswell,Atollenablesyoutocreatenewantennas
andsettheparametersofeach(i.e.,name,manufacturer,gain,horizontalpattern,verticalpattern,anddiameter).

Whenyoucreateanewantenna,youcancopythehorizontalandverticalantenna
patternsfromaspreadsheetorwordprocessor.

Tocreateanantenna:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheMicrowaveEquipmentfoldertoexpandthefolder.
3. RightclicktheAntennasfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectNewfromthecontextmenu.TheAntennasNewElementPropertiesdialogueappears.
5. ClicktheGeneraltab.Youcanenterinformationinthefollowingfields:
Name:Atollautomaticallyentersadefaultnameforeachnewantenna.Youcanmodifythedefaultnameifyou
want.
Manufacturer:Thenameoftheantennamanufacturer.
FrequencyBand:Thefrequencybandthatthisantennawillbeusedwith.
Gain:Theantennasisotropicgain.
Diameter:Thediameteroftheantenna.
RadomeLosses:Foranantennaequippedwitharadome,thelossescausedbytheradome.
UnderCrossPolarDiscrimination(XPD),Atolldisplaysthecrosspolardiscriminationsforhorizontalandvertical
polarisations.
Horizontal:Theratioofpowerreceivedinthecrosspolarsectiontothepowerreceivedinthecopolarsec
tion,forthehorizontalpolarisation.
Vertical:Theratioofpowerreceivedinthecrosspolarsectiontothepowerreceivedinthecopolarsection,
fortheverticalpolarisation.
Comments:Anyadditionalinformationontheantenna.
6. Definethecopolarandcrosspolarsectionsforeachplaneoftheantenna.
Amicrowaveantennaisdefinedby8radiationpatterns.Oneachofthefourtabsoftheantennapropertiesdialogue,
youcandefinethecopolarandcrosspolarsectionsforeachplaneoftheantenna:
HorizontalpolarisationHorizontalplane:
Copolarsection:Horizontalpolarisedportresponsetoahorizontallypolarisedsignalinthehorizontalplane.
Crosspolarsection:Verticalpolarisedportresponsetoahorizontallypolarisedsignalinthehorizontalplane.
HorizontalpolarisationVerticalplane:
Copolarsection:Horizontalpolarisedportresponsetoahorizontallypolarisedsignalintheverticalplane.
Crosspolarsection:Verticalpolarisedportresponsetoahorizontallypolarisedsignalintheverticalplane.
VerticalpolarisationHorizontalplane:
Copolarsection:Verticalpolarisedportresponsetoaverticallypolarisedsignalinthehorizontalplane.
Crosspolarsection:Horizontalpolarisedportresponsetoaverticallypolarisedsignalinthehorizontalplane.
VerticalpolarisationVerticalplane:
Copolarsection:Verticalpolarisedportresponsetoaverticallypolarisedsignalintheverticalplane.
Crosspolarsection:Horizontalpolarisedportresponsetoaverticallypolarisedsignalintheverticalplane.

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Tocopythecopolarandcrosspolarsectionsforeachplanefromawordprocessororspreadsheetdocument:
a. Switchtothedocumentcontainingthehorizontalpattern.
b. Selectthecolumnscontainingtheanglesandattenuationvaluesofthehorizontalpattern.
c. Copytheselecteddata.

Figure 4.3:Copyinghorizontalpatternvalues

d. SwitchtoAtoll.
e. Clicktheupperleftcellofthehorizontalpattern.
f. Pastethedatainthetable.
Ifsomevaluesaremissinginthedatasheet,Atollinterpolatesthevaluesinordertoobtainacompleteandreal
isticpatternaroundtheantenna.WhenyoupastethedataintotheAntennasNewElementPropertiesdialogue,
AtollremovesblankrowsinthepatterntablewhenyoupresstheApplybutton.Whenyoucalculatealonganan
gleforwhichnodataisavailable,Atollcalculatesalinearinterpolationfromexistingpatternvalues.
g. ClickApplytodisplaythepattern.
7. ClickOK.

4.2.2 ImportingMicrowaveAntennas
AtollenablesyoutoimportantennafilesinthePlanetmicrowaveantennaformatorinstandardNSMA(NationalSpectrum
ManagersAssociation)formatsdefinedbyrecommendationsWG16.89.003andWG16.99.0501.
Toimportantennafiles:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheMicrowaveEquipmentfoldertoexpandthefolder.
3. RightclicktheAntennasfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectImportfromthecontextmenu.TheDataImportdialogueappears.
5. IntheDataImportdialogue,chooseoneofthefollowingoptions:
Onefileonly:Choosethisoptionifyouonlywanttoimportonefile.
Entirefolder:Choosethisoptionifyouwanttoimportallthefilesinafolder.

6. ClicktheBrowsebutton( )tonavigatetothefileorthefoldertobeimported.
7. SelectthefileorfoldertobeimportedandclickOpen.
8. ClickImport.Thefileorfoldersareimported.
Atolldoesnotstoptheimportprocessifanerroroccurs.Atollcontinuesuntilallfilesareimportedandthendisplaysinthe
Eventsviewerhowmanyfileshavebeensuccessfullyandunsuccessfullyimported.
Atollautomaticallycalculatestheantennadiameterfromtheantennagainandaverageoperatingfrequency.Theaverage
operatingfrequencyiscalculatedas(MaximumFrequencyMinimumFrequency)/2.Theantennadiameteriscalculatedusing
thefollowingequationforaradiationefficiencyof55 %:

1. ForfurtherinformationaboutthestandardNSMAformat(recommendationWG16.99.050),seethefollowingwebsite:
http://www.fcc.gov/oet/info/software/nsma/nsmaintrp.html.

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Gain dBi = 20 Log Diametre m + 20 Frequency MHz 42.2 ,whichgives:

Gain dBi + 2.11 Log Max Frequency Min Frequency-


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------
20 2
Diametre m = 10

Formoreinformationonantennafileformats,seetheTechnicalReferenceGuide.

4.2.3 EditingMicrowaveAntennaPatterns
InAtoll,youcanmodifyantennapatternsbyeditingthemindividuallyoryoucancopytheantennapatternsofoneantenna
andreplacetheantennapatternsofanotherantenna:
"EditingaSingleRadiationPattern"onpage 147
"CopyinganAntennaPatterntoOneorMoreAntennas"onpage 147.

EditingaSingleRadiationPattern

Youcaneditthehorizontalorverticalpatternsofanantenna.
Toeditthehorizontalorverticalpatternsofanantenna:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheMicrowaveEquipmentfoldertoexpandthefolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheAntennasfoldertoexpandthefolder.
4. Rightclicktheantennayouwanttomodify.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.TheantennasPropertiesdialogueappears.
6. Selectthetabofthepatternyouwanttoedit(forinformationonthetabsoftheantennasPropertiesdialogue,see
"CreatinganAntenna"onpage 145).
7. Edittheantennapatternbyenteringnewvaluesinthetable.

Youcandisplayantennapatternswitheitherlinearorlogarithmicaxes.Youcandefinethe
display by rightclicking the pattern window and choosing the either Linear display or
Logarithmicdisplayfromthecontextmenu.

CopyinganAntennaPatterntoOneorMoreAntennas

AtollenablesyoutocopyantennapatternsintheAntennastable.BycopyingandpastingpatternsintheAntennastableyou
canassigntheantennapatternsofoneantennatoanother.
Tocopyanantennapattern:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheMicrowaveEquipmentfoldertoexpandthefolder.
3. RightclicktheAntennasfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheAntennastableappears.
Byresizingrowheightandcolumnwidth,youcanviewallantennapatternsinordertobeabletocomparethem(see
Figure 4.4).

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Figure 4.4:MWAntennastable

5. Intherowoftheantennawiththepatternyouwanttocopy,selectthecellwiththepattern.
6. SelectEdit >Copytocopythecell.
7. Intherowoftheantennayouwanttocopythepatternto,selectthecellwiththepattern.
8. SelectEdit >Pastetopastetheantennapattern.
AtollreplacestheoldpatternwiththenewoneintheAntennastable.

Youcanalsocopyanantennapatternbyrightclickingthepatternonthetabofthe
antennasPropertiesdialogueandselectingCopyfromthecontextmenu.
PatternsaredisplayedintheAntennastablewitheitherlinearorlogarithmicaxes
asdefinedinthePropertiesdialogueofanindividualantenna.Youcandefinethe
displaybyrightclickingthepatternofanantennaandchoosingeitherLineardis
playorLogarithmicdisplayfromthecontextmenu.

4.2.4 DisplayingAntennaPatternsWithaFixedScale
Atolldisplaystheverticalandhorizontalantennapatternsusingascalethatisautomaticallyadjustedtothehighestandthe
lowestattenuationvaluesoftheantennabeingdisplayed.Youcan,however,displayallantennasusingafixedscaleinorder
tovisuallycompareorprintantennapatterns.
Tofixtheantennapatterndisplayscale:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveEquipmentfolder.
3. RightclicktheAntennasfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectDisplayPatternsUsingaFixedScalefromthecontextmenu.
AtolldeterminesthelowestandthehighestantennaattenuationvaluesofalltheantennasintheAntennasfolder,
andusesthesevaluestosetthepatternscale.Antennapatternsofalltheantennasarenowdisplayedusingthisscale.

4.2.5 PrintingMicrowaveAntennaPatterns
Toprintthepatternofamicrowaveantenna:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheMicrowaveEquipmentfoldertoexpandthefolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheAntennasfoldertoexpandthefolder.
4. Rightclicktheantennawhosepatternyouwanttoprint.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.TheantennasPropertiesdialogueappears.
6. Selectthetabwiththeantennapatternyouwanttoprint:

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HPolar.HPlane:Horizontalpolarizationhorizontalplane
HPolar.VPlane:Horizontalpolarizationverticalplane
VPolar.HPlane:Verticalpolarizationhorizontalplane
VPolar.VPlane:Verticalpolarizationverticalplane
7. RightclicktheantennapatternandselectLineardisplayorLogarithmicdisplayfromthecontextmenu.
8. RightclicktheantennapatternandselectPrintfromthecontextmenu.

4.3 MicrowaveRadios
Theconceptofmicrowavetransceiverradiosisusedtomanageoutputpower,powercontrol,modulationanddemodulation
ofthesignaltobetransmittedandthesignalreceivedattheantenna,todescribethebranchingconfigurationandtodefine
supportedbitrates.
InAtoll,theseparametersaredefinedusingradioseriesandradios.Globalparameterssuchasthefrequencybandsinwhich
theradiosoperate,themodulationstheysupport,thetransmissionparameters,etc.,aregroupedanddefinedintheradio
serieswhileotherparameterssuchasthecapacity,sensitivity,etc.,aresetintheradioproperties.Thismodellingenablesyou
toregroupradiosbyradioseriesaccordingtotheparametersgivenbyradiomanufacturersandtoquicklycheckthefrequency
band,modulation,branchingtypecharacteristicssupportedbytheradiosofaradioseries.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"CharacteristicsofaRadioSeries"onpage 149
"CreatingaRadioSeries"onpage 150
"ModifyingtheCharacteristicsofaRadioSeries"onpage 151
"DescriptionofaRadio"onpage 155
"CreatingorModifyingaRadio"onpage 160
"ImportingMicrowaveRadios"onpage 161
"AdvancedConfiguration"onpage 161
"AdvancedConfiguration"onpage 161.

4.3.1 CharacteristicsofaRadioSeries
Aradioseriesisdefinedbytheglobalcharacteristicssupportedbytheradiosthatbelongtoit,i.e.,thefrequencybandsin
whichradiosoftheseriescanoperate,thesupportedmodulations,thechannelbandwidthsused,andprotectiontypes.Trans
missionrelatedparametersandtransmissionandreceptionlossesforbranchingcanbedefinedaswell.
Aradioseriesisdefinedbythefollowingparameters:
Name:TheNameoftheseries.
Manufacturer:Thenameofthemanufacturer.
Comments:Anyadditionalinformationontheradioseries.
Frequencybands:Thefrequencybandsonwhichradiosoftheseriescanoperate.
Operationmodes:Theoperationmodessupportedbytheradiosoftheseriesforagivenfrequencyband.
Modulations:Themodulationschemessupportedbytheradiosoftheseries,foragivenfrequencyband.
Transmission powers: The transmissionrelated parameters of radios for the selected frequency bandoperation
modemodulationconfiguration.Youcandefinethefollowingparameters:
Minimumpower:Thelowestoutputpowersupportedbytheradiosafterapplyingtuning.
Standardpower:Themaximumoutputpowerforthestandardpower(SP)ODUconfiguration.
Highpower:Themaximumoutputpowerforthehighpower(HP)ODUconfiguration.
Lowpower:Themaximumoutputpowerforthelowpower(LP)ODUconfiguration.
Authorisedvalues:Theoutputpowerssupportedbytheradiosafterapplyingtuning.Thevaluesmustbesepa
ratedbyaspace(" ").
MaximumATPC:Youcanenterthemaximumoutputpowersupportedbytheradioafterapplyingapowerrange
reservedforAdaptiveTransmissionPowerControl(ATPC).
Step:YoucanenterthevalueintervalbetweentheallowedoutputpowerswhenATPCisused.
AdaptiveTransmissionPowerControl(ATPC)isusedbythetransmittertoadjustpowerbyincreasingorreducing
itinordertomaintainsignalqualityincaseofmultipathorrainfadingthattemporarilyattenuatesthereceived
signal.TheATPCalsoenablesthetransmittertorespondtoincreasedinterferencelevelsresultingfromATPCon
otherlinks.TheATPCcanbetakenintoconsiderationduringcalculations.
Channelbandwidths:Thechannelbandwidthssupportedbytheradiosoftheseriesintheselectedfrequencyband.
Branchingtypes:Thebranchingtypes(i.e.,protectionconfigurations)supportedbytheradiosoftheseriesinthe
selectedfrequencyband.
ACU(AntennaCouplingUnit)losses:Thelossesrelatedtothebranchingtypeforagivenfrequencyband.Youcan
definethefollowingparameters:
Transmission:Thetransmissionlossesduetotheconnectionwiththemainequipment.

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Reception:Thereceptionlossesduetotheconnectionwiththemainequipment.
Protectedreception:Thetransmissionandreceptionlossesduetotheconnectionwiththestandbyequipment.

4.3.2 CreatingaRadioSeries
Atoll provides a wizard to create radio series. For a description of each field, see "Characteristics of a Radio Series" on
page 149.
Tocreatearadioseries:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheMicrowaveEquipmentfoldertoexpandthefolder.
3. RightclicktheRadioSeriesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectNewfromthecontextmenu.Theradioseriescreationwizardappears.
5. OntheGeneralscreenofthewizard,definethefollowing:
Name
Manufacturer
Comments
Frequencybands
6. ClickNexttodisplaythefollowingscreen.
7. OntheOperationModescreen,definethefollowing:
a. SelectaFrequencybandor<All>.
b. Fortheselectedfrequencyband(s),selectthecheckboxesthatdefinetheOperationmode.
8. ClickNexttodisplaythefollowingscreen.
9. OntheModulationsscreen,definethefollowing:
a. SelectaFrequencybandor<All>.
b. SelectanOperationmodeor<All>.
c. Fortheselectedfrequencyband(s)andoperationmode(s),selectthecheckboxesthatdefinethesupportedMod
ulations.
d. Foreachmodulationforwhichyouhaveselectedthecheckbox,clickthenameintheModulationslistanddefine
theTransmissionpowerrelatedparameters:
Minimumpower
Standardpower

Highpower
Lowpower
Authorisedvalues
MaximumATPC
Step
10. ClickNexttodisplaythefollowingscreen.
11. OntheChannelBandwidthsscreen,definethefollowing:
a. SelectaFrequencybandor<All>.
b. Fortheselectedfrequencyband(s),selectthecheckboxesthatdefinethesupportedChannelbandwidths.
12. ClickNexttodisplaythefollowingscreen.
13. OntheBranchingscreen,definethefollowing:
a. SelectaFrequencybandor<All>.
b. Fortheselectedfrequencyband(s),selectthecheckboxesthatdefinethesupportedBranchingtypes.
c. Foreachbranchingtypeforwhichyouhaveselectedthecheckbox,clickthenameintheBranchingtypeslistand
definetheACU(antennacouplingunit)losses:
Transmission
Reception
Protectedreception
YoucanchangethepropertiesoftheselectedbranchingtypebyclickingthePropertiesbutton.Youcancreateanew
branchingtypebyclickingtheNewbutton.Forinformationonbranchingtypeproperties,see"CreatingorModifying
BranchingTypes"onpage 184.

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14. ClickNexttodisplaythefollowingscreen.
15. OntheRadioCapacitiesscreen,definethefollowing:
a. SelectaFrequencyband.
b. SelectanOperationmodeor<All>.
Atolllistsallchannelbandwidthmodulationcombinationsfortheselectedfrequencybandandoperationmode,
anddisplaysthecorrespondingcapacity.Thedisplayedcapacityiseitheranexistingcapacityoronecalculatedby
Atoll(indicatedbyanasteriskappendedtothenamedisplayedinthebox).Youcanmodifythecapacityofeach
bandwidthmodulationcombination:
i. Clicktheboxcolouredinbluecorrespondingtothebandwidthmodulationcombinationwhosecapacityyou
wanttomodify.Anarrowappearsintherightofthebox.
ii. Clickthearrowandselectthecapacityfromthelistthatappears.
YoucanfurtherdefinethedisplayedcapacitybyrightclickingitandselectingRecordPropertiesfromthecon
textmenu.

Ifyoudonotwanttocreateradioequipmentwithabandwidthmodulationcombination,
youcaneitherselecttheblackitemfromthetopofthelist,orrightclicktheentryand
selectDeletefromthecontextmenu.

16. ClickNexttodisplaythefollowingscreen.
OntheRadioEquipmenttoCreatescreen,Atolllistsallcombinationsofparametersthatyouhavedefined(frequency
band,operationmode,modulation,andchannelbandwidth).
17. SelectthecheckboxesintheCreatecolumnforeachcombinationforwhichyouwanttocreatearadio.
18. ClickFinish.Atollcreatestheradioseriesandtheradioscorrespondingtotheselectedcombinations.

4.3.3 ModifyingtheCharacteristicsofaRadioSeries
Youcanmodifyanexistingradioseriesandaddnewradios.Youcanaccessthepropertiesofaradioseriesthroughtheradio
seriessPropertiesdialogue.Foradescriptionofeachfield,see"CharacteristicsofaRadioSeries"onpage 149.
Tomodifytheradioseriescharacteristics:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheMicrowaveEquipmentfoldertoexpandthefolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheRadioSeriesfoldertoexpandthefolder.
4. Rightclicktheradioserieswhosepropertiesyouwanttomodify.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.TheradioseriesPropertiesdialogueappears.
6. ClicktheGeneraltab(seeFigure 4.5).TheGeneraltabdisplaysthefollowingparameters:
Name
Manufacturer
Comments
Frequencybands

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Figure 4.5:RadioseriesPropertiesdialogueGeneraltab

7. ClicktheOperationModetab(seeFigure 4.6).
OntheOperationModetab,modifythefollowingparameters:
a. SelectaFrequencybandor<All>.
b. Fortheselectedfrequencyband(s),selectthecheckboxesthatdefinetheOperationmode.

Figure 4.6:RadioseriesPropertiesdialogueOperationModetab

8. ClicktheModulationstab(seeFigure 4.7).
OntheModulationstab,modifythefollowingparameters:
a. SelectaFrequencybandor<All>.
b. SelectanOperationmodeor<All>.
c. Fortheselectedfrequencyband(s)andoperationmode(s),selectthecheckboxesthatdefinethesupportedMod
ulations.
d. Foreachmodulationforwhichyouhaveselectedthecheckbox,clickthenameintheModulationslistanddefine
theTransmissionpowerrelatedparameters:
Minimumpower
Standardpower
Highpower
Lowpower
Authorisedvalues
MaximumATPC
Step

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Figure 4.7:RadioseriesPropertiesdialogueModulationstab

9. ClicktheChannelBandwidthstab(seeFigure 4.8).
OntheChannelBandwidthstab,modifythefollowingparameters:
a. SelectaFrequencybandor<All>.
b. Fortheselectedfrequencyband(s),selectthecheckboxesthatdefinethesupportedChannelbandwidths.

Figure 4.8:RadioseriesPropertiesdialogueChannelBandwidthstab

10. ClicktheBranchingtab(seeFigure 4.9).

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Figure 4.9:RadioseriesPropertiesdialogueBranchingtab

OntheBranchingtab,modifythefollowingparameters:
a. SelectaFrequencybandor<All>.
b. Fortheselectedfrequencyband(s),selectthecheckboxesthatdefinethesupportedBranchingtypes.
YoucanchangethepropertiesoftheselectedbranchingtypebyclickingthePropertiesbutton.Youcancreatea
newbranchingtypebyclickingtheNewbutton.Forinformationonbranchingtypeproperties,see"Creatingor
ModifyingBranchingTypes"onpage 184.
c. Foreachbranchingtypeforwhichyouhaveselectedthecheckbox,clickthenameintheBranchingtypeslistand
definetheACU(antennacouplingunit)losses:
Transmission
Reception
Protectedreception
11. ClicktheRadioEquipmenttab(seeFigure 4.10).

Figure 4.10:RadioseriesPropertiesdialogueRadioEquipmenttab

OntheRadioEquipmenttab,modifythefollowingparameters:
a. SelectaFrequencybandor<All>.
b. SelectanOperationmodeor<All>.
Atolllistsallchannelbandwidthmodulationcombinationsfortheselectedfrequencybandandoperationmode,
anddisplaysthecorrespondingcapacitieswhentheradioexists.Unlikecellscolouredingrey,theonescoloured
inblueindicatethattheradioscorrespondingtotheseconfigurationsexistintheRadiosfolder.
c. Youcancreatenewradios:

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i. Clickthecellcorrespondingtotheconfigurationyouwanttoaddasanewradio.Anarrowappearstotheright
ofthecell.
ii. Clickthearrowandselectacapacity.
iii. Clickanothercelltovalidate.
iv. Rightclickthecell.Thecontextmenuappears.
v. SelectNewfromthecontextmenu.ThecellismarkedinblueandindicatesthattheradioexistsintheRadios
folder.
d. Youcanremoveexistingradios:
i. Rightclickthecellcorrespondingtotheconfigurationyouwanttoremove.Thecontextmenuappears.
ii. SelectDeletefromthecontextmenu.Thecellismarkedingreyandindicatesthattheradiodonolongerexist
intheRadiosfolder.
e. Youcanmodifythepropertiesofexistingradios:
i. Rightclickthecellcorrespondingtotheradioyouwanttomodify.Thecontextmenuappears.
ii. SelectRecordPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.TheradioPropertiesdialogueappears.
iii. Changetheparametersasdefinedin"DescriptionofaRadio"onpage 155.
12. ClickOK.

4.3.4 DescriptionofaRadio
Atollenablesyoutodefineradios.Aradiobelongstoaradioseries.Itcorrespondstothecombinationoffrequencyband,
operation mode, modulation and channel bandwidth parameters. Each combination has specific characteristics that are
definedintheradioPropertiesdialogue.Bydefault,radiosaregroupedintoradioseries.
ThePropertiesdialoguehaseighttabs:
TheGeneraltab(seeFigure 4.11):
Name:Thenameoftheradio.
Radioseries:Thenameoftheradioserieswhichtheradiobelongsto.
Frequencyband:Thefrequencybandinwhichtheradiooperates.
Operationmode:Theoperationmodethattheradiosupports.
Modulation:Themodulationschemethattheradiosupports.
UnderPower,thefollowingparametersareavailable:
Minimum:Thelowestoutputpowersupportedbytheradioafterapplyingtuning.
Standard:Themaximumoutputpowerforthestandardpower(SP)ODUconfiguration.
High:Themaximumoutputpowerforthehighpower(HP)ODUconfiguration.
Low:Themaximumoutputpowerforthelowpower(LP)ODUconfiguration.
Authorisedvalues:Theoutputpowersallowedbytheradioafterapplyingtuning.
MaxATPC:Themaximumoutputpowersupportedbytheradioafterapplyingapowerrangereservedfor
AdaptiveTransmissionPowerControl(ATPC).
Step:ThevalueintervalbetweentheallowedoutputpowerswhenATPCisused.
Channelbandwidth:Thechannelbandwidth.
Capacity:Thecapacitysupportedbytheradio.
Transmissiondesignator:IDdedicatedtoregulatorybodies.Thisfieldisforinformationonly.

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Figure 4.11:RadioPropertiesdialogueGeneraltab

TheSensitivitytab(seeFigure 4.12):
UnderThermalFadeMargin,youcandefinethefollowingparameters:
Receptionthreshold:Theminimumreceiversignallevel(threshold)ataspecifiedrate(BER)thattheradiocan
successfullydemodulate.Thiswillbeusedtocalculatethethermalfademargin.
YoucandefinereceptionthresholdsfortwovaluesofBER:103and106.InordertochangeaBERvalueorto
addanewreceptionthresholdforanotherBERvalue,clicktheEditbutton( ).
Systemgain:Thedifferencebetweenthemaximumpoweroftheradioandthereceptionthreshold,fortwo
valuesofBER,103and106.ThisfieldisautomaticallycalculatedbyAtoll.Thisisaperformanceindicatorfor
theradio.
Saturation threshold: The maximum receiver sensitivity before saturation. It is used to calculate the signal
enhancementmargin.YoucandefinesaturationthresholdsfortwovaluesofBER:103and106.Inordertochange
aBERvalueoriftoaddanewsaturationthresholdforanotherBERvalue,clicktheEditbutton( ).
UnderCrosspolarisationmargin,thefollowingparametersareavailable:
MinC/I:Thecarriertointerferenceratioinnormalconditions,i.e.,whennointerferenceisexperienced.This
isusedtoevaluatetherequiredmarginagainstdepolarisationwhenusingadualpolarisationtransmission
link.AtollautomaticallycalculatesthisparameterfortwovaluesofBER:103and106.

YoucansetAtolltouseMinC/IvaluesdefinedorcalculatedinoldversionsofAtollby
addinganoptionintheatoll.inifile.Formoreinformationonchangingoptionsinthe
atoll.inifile,seetheAdministratorManual.

XPIF:Themaximumimprovementfactorreservedforcrosspolarisationreduction(XPIF).Thisisusedonly
whenanXPIC(crosspolarisedinterferencecanceller)ispresent.Itisusedtoreducethescatteringofinterfer
encefromtheundesiredpolarisationintothedesiredpolarisationduetorainfadingbyincreasingthecross
polarisationdiscriminationfactor(XPD).XPIFisgenerallywithintherangeof1520 dB.
UnderThermalnoise,thefollowingparametersareavailable:
Noisefigure:Thenoisefigurefortheradio.
MinFKTB(at17C):Thereceiverthermalnoisecalculatedat17Candforthechannelbandwidth.

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Figure 4.12:RadioPropertiesdialogueSensitivitytab

TheLossestab(seeFigure 4.13):
Transmissionfilter:Thelossesduetotheuseoffiltersintransmission.
Receptionfilter:Thelossesduetotheuseoffiltersinreception.
Circulators:Foreachcirculatorpresentonthisradio,youcansetthePortitisattachedto,anddefinethelosses
inTransmissionandReception.

Figure 4.13:RadioPropertiesdialogueLossestab

TheMultipathDispersiontab(seeFigure 4.14):
DFM:Thedispersivefademargin,fortwodifferentvaluesofBER:103and106.Thisparameterisusedtopredict
thecompositefademarginwhenusingtheVigantscalculationmethod.
UnderRadioSignature,youcanchoosethemethodandtheparameterstakenintoaccounttopredictfrequency
selectivefadingwhenusingITURP.530recommendations.

Theradiosignatureparametersarenotusedbyalltypesofreceiverradios.

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Theradiosignaturechosenwillcharacterisetheabilityofareceivingradiotoperformsuccessfully(i.e.,produce
acceptableerrorsrates)inthepresenceoffrequencyselectivefading.
Thisinformationisavailablefromthemanufacturer.
Standardised:Forastandardisedsignature,selectStandardisedandenteravaluefortheKnParameter.The
Knparameterismostlydependantonthemodulationused.

Modulation Kn

64QAM 15.4

16QAM 5.5

8PSK 7

4PSK 1

Knvalues(withoutadaptiveequalization)

RummlerModel:IfyouwanttousetheRummlermodeltopredictoutagetimes,selectRummlermodel,and
define the frequency shift (Signature width and Signature depth) for both minimum and nonminimum
phasesandtwovaluesofBER,103and106.Formoreinformation,seestudiesbyC.W.LundgrenandW.D.
Rummler1andtheITU P.530recommendation.

Figure 4.14:RadioPropertiesdialogueMultipathDispersiontab

TheReliabilitytab(seeFigure 4.15):
Meantimebeforefailure(MTBF):Thisparameterisusedtodefinethereliabilityoftheradioandcorrespondsto
theaveragelengthoftimethattheradiofunctionswithoutfailing.TheMTBFisavailablefromtheradiomanufac
turer.
Hotstandbycommutationdelay:TheHotStandbyCommutationDelayisthemaximumamountoftimeitwould
taketoswitchtobackupequipmentifthemainequipmentfails.TheHotStandbyCommutationDelayisusedonly
ifthesystemconfigurationsupportshotstandby.Furthermore,whenyoudefinethepropertiesforamicrowave
link,youmustindicatewhichchannelwillbeusedasabackupincaseofmainequipmentfailure.Formoreinfor
mationondefiningmicrowavelinkproperties,see"DefinitionofaMicrowaveLink"onpage 227.

1. C.W. Lundgren and W.D. Rummler, "Digital radio outage due to selective fading observation vs. prediction from
laboratorysimulations,"BellSystemTechnicalJournal,pp.10731100,MayJune1979.
W.D.Rummler,"Characterizingtheeffectsofmultipathdispersionondigitalradios,"IEEEGlobecomProceedings,pp.1727
1732,1988.

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Figure 4.15:RadioPropertiesdialogueReliabilitytabs

TheTransmitterMasktab(seeFigure 4.16):
YoucandefinethetransmitterspectralmaskeitherbyclickingtheUsedefaultgraphsbutton,toletAtollcreatethe
maskfromstandardvalues,orbydefininganattenuationindB(Att.)foreachfrequencyshiftinMHz(Delta F).This
informationisprovidedbytheradiomanufacturer.
Theresultingtransmittermaskisdisplayedinthegraphwindowontheright.

Figure 4.16:RadioPropertiesdialogueTransmitterMasktab

TheReceiverMasktab(seeFigure 4.17):
YoucandefineareceivermaskeitherbyclickingtheUsedefaultgraphsbutton,toletAtollcreatethemaskfrom
standardvalues,orbydefininganattenuationindB(Att.)foreachfrequencyshiftinMHz(Delta F).Thisinformation
isprovidedbytheradiomanufacturer.
Theresultingreceivermaskisdisplayedinthegraphwindowontheright.

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Figure 4.17:RadioPropertiesdialogueReceiverMasktab

TheTIGraphtab:
Youcandefineathresholdtointerference(TI)grapheitherbyclickingtheUsedefaultgraphsbutton,toletAtoll
createthegraphfromstandardvalues,orbydefininganattenuationindB(Att.)foreachfrequencyshiftinMHz
(Delta F).Thisinformationisprovidedbytheradiomanufacturer.
Thethresholdtointerference(T/I)ratioisusedtocalculatetheinterferencefademargin(IFM)whichdefinesthe
vulnerabilitytocochannelandadjacentchannelinterference.TheT/Igraphdefinesthecorrespondencebetween
maximuminterferingpowerlevelsanddifferentfrequencyseparationsbetweenthetransmitterandvictimreceivers.
Foreachinterferingtransmitter,thereceivedpowerlevelindBiscomparedtothemaximumpowerleveltodeter
minewhethertheinterferenceisacceptable.ThisisdoneinsteadofcalculatingC/Ivaluesandcomparingthemtothe
objectivesforthatmicrowavelink.
TheresultingTIgraphisdisplayedinthegraphwindowontheright.

4.3.5 CreatingorModifyingaRadio
Youcanmodifyanexistingradiooryoucancreateanewradio.HowyouaccessthePropertiesdialoguedependsonwhether
youarecreatinganewradioormodifyinganexistingradio.
Tocreatearadio:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheMicrowaveEquipmentfoldertoexpandthefolder.
3. RightclicktheRadiosfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectNewfromthecontextmenu.TheCreationofaNewRadioEquipmentdialogueappears.
5. IntheCreationofaNewRadioEquipmentdialogue,selecttheRadioSerieswhichtheradiobelongsto.
Atollliststhecombinationsoffrequencybands,operationmodes,modulationsandchannelbandwidthswhichdonot
existasradioequipment.
6. Foreachcombinationforwhichyouwanttocreatearadio,definethefollowing:
a. SelectthecheckboxesintheCreatecolumn.
b. SelectthecorrespondingcapacityintheCapacitycolumn.Bydefault,Atollcalculatesthethroughputforthegiven
modulationandchannelbandwidthandselectsthecapacityassociatedwiththisthroughput.
c. DefinethereceptionthresholdforeachvalueofBERintheSensitivitycolumn.Youcanenterthevalueswiththe
followingformat:Sensitivity1BER1Sensitivity2BER2.
d. ChangethedefaultnameoftheradioequipmentintheNamecolumn.

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7. ClickOK.Atollcreatestheradioscorrespondingtotheselectedcombinations.ThenewradiosappearintheRadios
folderoftheExplorerwindow.
Tomodifyanexistingradio:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheMicrowaveEquipmentfoldertoexpandthefolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheRadiosfoldertoexpandthefolder.
4. Rightclicktheradiowhosepropertiesyouwanttoedit.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThemicrowaveradiosPropertiesdialogueappears.
6. Modifytheparametersdescribedin"DescriptionofaRadio"onpage 155.
7. ClickOK.

4.3.6 ImportingMicrowaveRadios
AtollenablesyoutoimportradiofilesthatareinstandardNSMA(NationalSpectrumManagersAssociation)formatdefined
bytherecommendationWG21.99.051orinPathlossformat(versions4.0or5.0).
NSMAformatequipmentfilesareASCIIfileswiththeextensionNSM.PathlossformatradiofilesareASCIIfileswiththeexten
sionRAF.EachradiofilecancontainseveralT/Igraphsfordifferentpairsofmodulationsandcapacities.Inthiscase,theT/I
graphdefinedforidenticalmodulationsandcapacitiesisimportedintotheT/IGraphtabwhiletheothersareimportedinto
thetheoreticalgraphstable.Formoreinformationonthetheoreticalgraphs,see"TheoreticalGraphs"onpage 164.
ForfurtherinformationabouttheNSMAandPathlossfileformats,seetheAdministratorManual.
Toimportradiofiles:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheMicrowaveEquipmentfoldertoexpandthefolder.
3. RightclicktheRadiosfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectImportfromthecontextmenu.TheRadioImportdialogueappears.
5. IntheRadioImportdialogue,selecttheCompleteanexistingseriesoptionandthecorrespondingradioseriesfrom
thescrollinglistiftheradioseriesoftheradiosyouareimportingalreadyexists.Ifnot,selecttheCreateanewseries
optionandentertheradioseriesname.Atollwillcreateanewseries.
6. UnderImport,chooseoneofthefollowingoptions:
Onefileonly:ChooseOnefileonlyifyouonlywanttoimportonefile.
Entirefolder:ChooseEntirefolderifyouwanttoimportallthefilesinafolder.

7. ClicktheBrowsebutton( )tonavigatetothefileorthefoldertobeimported.
8. SelectthefileorfoldertobeimportedandclickOpen.
9. ClickImport.Thefileorfoldersareimported.

Atolldoesnotstoptheimportprocesswhenanerroroccurs.Itcontinuesuntilallthefiles
have been imported and then displays in the Events viewer how many files have been
successfullyandunsuccessfullyimported.

4.3.7 AdvancedConfiguration
Atolloffersseveraladvancedconfigurationoptions:
"InterferenceReductionFactor"onpage 161
"TheoreticalGraphs"onpage 164.

4.3.7.1 InterferenceReductionFactor
Theinterferencereductionfactor(IRF)isamethodofreducinginterferenceonthereceivedsignal.TheIRFisafunctionofthe
differencebetweenthecentralfrequenciesoftheinterferedsignalandtheinterferingsignal.Youcandefineaprotectionlevel
foreachvictiminterferermicrowavetransceiverradiopairbydefiningtheprotectionlevels(indB)foreachfrequencydelta
(inMHz).
The IRF graphs defined in the IRF table are used during the calculation of interference. When studying the interference
betweentransmissionandreceptionradios,AtollfirstverifieswhetheranIRFgraphisdefinedforthetransmissionradio

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receptionradiopairintheIRFtable.Ifso,Atollusesit.Otherwise,AtolldeterminestheIRFgraphduringtheprocessofcalcu
latinginterference.Theentireprocessisasfollows:
1. Atollverifiesthatthetransmissionandthereceptionradioshavethesamemanufacturer,capacity,andmodulation.
Ifso,AtollusesTIgraphstodeterminetheIRFgraph.Atolluseseitherthegraphsdefinedfortheradiosifavailable,
or the theoretical TI graphs if not (for more information on the theoretical graphs, see "Theoretical Graphs" on
page 164).
2. If the radio manufacturer, capacity, or modulation are not the same, Atoll merges the transmitter mask and the
receivermaskoftheradiosinordertodeterminetheIRFgraph.Atolluseseitherthegraphsdefinedfortheradiosif
available,orthetheoreticalgraphsifnot.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"DefiningIRFGraphsManually"onpage 162
"DefiningIRFGraphswiththeAssistant"onpage 163.

DefiningIRFGraphsManually

YoucandefineIRFgraphsusingtheIRFtable.TheseIRFgraphswillbeusedtoreducetheinterferencebetweenvictimand
interferermicrowaveradioswhencalculatinginterference.
TocreateormodifyanIRFgraph:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveEquipmentfolder.
3. RightclickontheRadiosfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectIRF >OpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheIRFtableappears(seeFigure 4.18).

Figure 4.18:IRFtable

5. SelectthenameoftheVictimradiofromthelist.
6. SelectthenameoftheInterfererradiofromthelist.

IfyouarecreatinganewIRFgraph,usetherowmarkedwiththeNewRowicon( ).

7. DoubleclickintheleftmarginoftherecordtoopenitsPropertiesdialogue(seeFigure 4.19).

Figure 4.19:IRFrecordPropertiesdialogue

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8. UnderIRFinthePropertiesdialogue,enteraprotectionlevel(indB)foreachfrequencydelta(inMHz).Theresulting
graphisdisplayedontherightofthePropertiesdialogue.
9. ClickOK.

DefiningIRFGraphswiththeAssistant

AtollprovidesanassistanttoenableyoutodefineIRFsbetweentransmissionandreceptiontransceiverradios.Whenyou
selectafrequencybandandtheradiomanufacturerswithradiosthatoperateinthesamefrequencyband,Atolldisplaysthe
entrieswherethetransmissionandreceptionradiospresentthepossibilityofinterference.
TousetheassistanttodefineIRFs:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveEquipmentfolder.
3. RightclickontheRadiosfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectIRF >EditGridfromthecontextmenu.TheIRFEditiondialogueappears(seeFigure 4.20).

Figure 4.20:IRFEditiondialogue

5. SelecttheFrequencybandfromthelist.Onlyradiosoperatingintheselectedfrequencybandaredisplayedinthe
grid.
6. SelecttheTXmanufacturerfromthelist.Onlyradiosmanufacturedbytheselectedmanufactureraredisplayedinthe
grid.
7. SelecttheRXmanufacturerfromthelist.Onlyradiosmanufacturedbytheselectedmanufactureraredisplayedinthe
grid.
8. YoucannowdefineanIRFgraph,deleteanIRFgraph,orcreateanIRFgraphusingradiographsortheoreticalgraphs
(seeFigure 4.20):

Figure 4.21:IRFEditiondialogue

TodefineanIRFgraphbetweenthetransmissionandreceptionradios:
a. Rightclickthecellofthegridthatcoincideswithbothentries.Thecontextmenuappears.
b. SelectAddRecordfromthecontextmenu.Adialogueappears.
c. UnderEnterthegraphvalues,enteraprotectionlevel(indB)foreachfrequencydelta(inMHz).Theresulting
graphisdisplayedontherightofthedialogue.
d. ClickOK.

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TodeleteanIRFgraphbetweenthetransmissionandreceptionradios:
a. Rightclickonthecellofthegridthatcoincideswithbothentries.Thecontextmenuappears.
b. SelectDeletefromthecontextmenu.
TocreateanIRFgraphbetweenthetransmissionandreceptionradiosfromtransmitterandreceivermasks:
a. Rightclickonthecellofthegridthatcoincideswithbothentries.Thecontextmenuappears.
b. SelectCalculateUsing >TransmitterandReceiverMasksfromthecontextmenu.TheIRFCalculationdialogue
appears.
c. FromtheTransmittermasklist,selectatheoreticaltransmissionspectrumgraphcompatiblewiththeoperating
frequencybandofthetransmissionradio.Ifthereisatransmissionspectrumgraphdefinedfortheradio,youcan
select"SameasRadio"touseit.
d. FromtheReceivermasklist,selectatheoreticalreceiverselectivitygraphcompatiblewiththeoperatingfrequen
cybandofthereceptionradio.Ifthereisareceiverselectivitygraphdefinedfortheradio,youcanselect"Same
asRadio"touseit.
e. DefinetheCalculationstepinMHz.
f. ClickCalculatetocalculatetheIRFgraph.
g. ClickOK.
TocreateanIRFgraphbetweenthetransmissionandreceptionradiosfromT/Igraphs:
a. Rightclickonthecellofthegridthatcoincideswithbothentries.Thecontextmenuappears.
b. SelectCalculateUsing >T/IGraphsfromthecontextmenu.TheIRFCalculationdialogueappears.
c. FromtheT/Igraph(Tx)list,selectatheoreticalT/Igraphcompatiblewiththeoperatingfrequencybandofthe
transmissionradio.IfthereisaT/Igraphdefinedfortheradio,youcanselect"SameasRadio"touseit.
d. FromtheT/I(Rx)list,selectatheoreticalT/Igraphcompatiblewiththeoperatingfrequencybandofthereception
radio.IfthereisaT/Igraphdefinedfortheradio,youcanselect"SameasRadio"touseit.
e. ClickCalculatetocalculatetheIRFgraph.
f. ClickOK.
9. ClickOKtoclosetheIRFSettingsdialogue.

4.3.7.2 TheoreticalGraphs
Atollallowsyoutodefinetheoreticalgraphsthatyoucanusewhentheradiodescriptionisnotcomplete(i.e.,wheninforma
tionaboutthetransmittermask,thereceivermask,orT/Igraphismissing).Thesetheoreticalgraphscandescribeeitherthe
transmittermask,orthereceivermask,orT/Igraphforacertainmanufacturer,frequencyband,bandwidth,rate,andmodu
lation.Theycanbeusedtoinitialiseradioproperties(thetransmittermask,thereceivermask,theT/Igraph),andtocalculate
IRFgraphswhennoIRFisdefinedintheIRFtable.Defaulttheoreticalgraphsareavailablefordifferentfrequencybandsand
bandwidths.1

CreatingTheoreticalGraphs

AtheoreticalgraphcontainsinformationonthebehaviourofmicrowavetransceiverradiounderdifferentconditionsofC/I.
Itrepresentsthechangesinthebiterrorrateasafunctionofthelevelofinterference.
Tocreateatheoreticalgraph:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveEquipmentfolder.
3. RightclickontheRadiosfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectTheoreticalGraphsfromthecontextmenu.TheTheoreticalGraphstableappears.
5. Rightclickthetheoreticalgraphyouwanttomodify.Thecontextmenuappears.
6. SelectRecordPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThetheoreticalgraphsPropertiesdialogueappears.

Youcancreateanewtheoreticalgraphbyenteringanameintherowmarkedwiththe
NewRowicon( )andpressingENTER.

1. T/Igraphswerefoundatthewebaddresshttp://www.radio.gov.ukandtransmitterandreceivermaskswerefoundat
http://www.ero.dk.

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7. ClicktheGeneraltabanddefinethefollowingparameters:
Name:Thenameofthetheoreticalgraph.
Typeofgraph:Thetypeoftheoreticalgraphyoudefine.Itcanbeeitheratransmittermask,orareceivermask,
oraT/Igraph.
Manufacturer:Themanufacturerforwhichthegraphisvalid.
Frequencyband:Thefrequencybandforwhichthegraphisvalid.
Channelbandwidth:Thebandwidthforwhichthegraphisvalid.
Rawdatarate:Therawdatarateforwhichthegraphisvalid.
Modulation:Themodulationforwhichthegraphisvalid.
8. ClicktheValuestabanddefinethecorrespondinggraph.
Ifthegraphdescribesthetransmittermask,definetheattenuationofthemaintransmittedsignal(indB)asafunc
tionofthefrequencyspacing(inMHz).
Ifthegraphdescribesthereceivermask,definetheattenuationofthemainreceivedsignal(indB)asafunction
ofthefrequencyspacing(inMHz).
IfthegraphisaT/Igraph,definethevariationoftheT/I(indB)asafunctionofthefrequencyspacing(inMHz).
9. ClickOK.

4.4 MicrowaveFeeders
FeedersareusedtotransfertheRFsignalfromthetransmissionmoduleofthemicrowaveradiotothemicrowaveantenna.
Atollenablesyoutomanagedifferenttypesoffeeders(cables,etc.).
Microwaveenergycanbeguidedinametallictube,calledawaveguide,withverylowattenuation.Thewaveguideisdesigned
foraspecificwavelength.Hence,theoperatingfrequencyisaveryimportantcharacteristicforawaveguide.Theelectricand
magneticfieldsarecontainedwithintheguide,andthereforethereisnoradiationloss.Sincethedielectricisair,thedielectric
lossesarealsonegligible.Awaveguideoperatesbetweentwolimitingfrequencies,calledthecutofffrequencies.
Cables,ontheotherhand,haveametallicinnercorewithadielectricmaterialseparatingtheoutermetallicconductor.The
cableiscoveredwithaplasticjacketforprotection.Thedielectricmaterialisusuallyairorfoam.Thesearequiterobustand
thereforeeasytoinstall.Cablelossisafunctionofcrosssectionalarea;thethickerthecable,thelowertheloss.Cablelossis
measuredintermsofdecibelsper100m.
ThefollowingsectionsdescribethemodellingoffeedersinAtoll:
"DefinitionofFeeders"onpage 165
"CreatingorModifyingFeeders"onpage 166.

4.4.1 DefinitionofFeeders
InAtoll,microwavefeedersarecharacterisedbythelossasignalundergoesper100 moftheirlength.Onceamicrowave
feederhasbeendefined,youcanassignittoamicrowavelinkforbothtransmissionandreception.
TheparametersoffeederscanbefoundinthefeederPropertiesdialogue.ThePropertiesdialoguehasonetab:
TheGeneraltab(seeFigure 4.22)
Name:Thenameofthefeeder.
Frequency:Selectthefrequencybandfromthelist.ClickingtheBrowsebutton( )opensthePropertiesdia
logueoftheselectedfrequencyband.
Manufacturer:Selectthemanufacturerfromthelist.ClickingtheBrowsebutton( )opensthePropertiesdia
logueoftheselectedmanufacturer.
Lossperlength:EnterthesignallossindBper100 m.
Type:Selectthetypeoffeeder.YoucanselectfromCable,Elliptic,Rectangular,Circular,Flex/TwistorOther.

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Figure 4.22:FeedersNewElementPropertiesdialogue

4.4.2 CreatingorModifyingFeeders
Youcanmodifyexistingfeedersoryoucancreatenewfeeders.HowyouaccessthePropertiesdialoguedependsonwhether
yourecreatingnewfeedersormodifyingexistingfeeders.
Tocreatenewfeeders:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheMicrowaveEquipmentfoldertoexpandthefolder.
3. RightclicktheFeedersfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectNewfromthecontextmenu.TheFeedersNewElementPropertiesdialogueappears.
5. Modifytheparametersdescribedin"DefinitionofFeeders"onpage 165.
6. ClickOK.

Ifyouarecreatingalargenumberoffeedersbasedonmanufacturersdata,itcantakea
longtime.However,ifyouhavethedataavailableintabularformat,youcancopyitfrom
thespreadsheetorwordprocessorandpastethedataintotheFeederstable.

Tomodifyexistingfeeders:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheMicrowaveEquipmentfoldertoexpandthefolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheFeedersfoldertoexpandthefolder.
4. Rightclickthefeederwhosepropertiesyouwanttoedit.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThefeederPropertiesdialogueappears.
6. Modifytheparametersdescribedin"DefinitionofFeeders"onpage 165.
7. ClickOK.

4.5 MicrowaveAntenna/Radio/FeederCompatibility
Atoll allows you to define compatibility between antennas, radios, and feeders. The defined compatible antenna/radio/
feedersetscanbethenselectedwhenyoudefinethepropertiesofamicrowavelink.Youcandefinecompatibilitydirectlyin
theAntennaRadioCompatibilityandAntennaFeederCompatibilitytablesoryoucanusetheassistantsavailableinAtollto
definecompatibility.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"DefiningCompatibilityManually"onpage 166
"UsingAssistantstoDefineCompatibility"onpage 167.

4.5.1 DefiningCompatibilityManually
InAtoll,youcanusetheAntennaRadioCompatibilityandAntennaFeederCompatibilitytablestodefinewhichmicrowave
antennasarecompatiblewithwhichfeedersandwhichmicrowaveantennasarecompatiblewithwhichradios.

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Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"UsingtheMicrowaveAntenna/FeederCompatibilityTable"onpage 167
"UsingtheMicrowaveAntennaRadioCompatibilityTable"onpage 167

4.5.1.1 UsingtheMicrowaveAntenna/FeederCompatibilityTable
YoucanusetheAntennaFeederCompatibilitytabletolistcompatiblemicrowaveantennasandfeeders.Whenyoudefine
theproperties(i.e.,antennas,radios,andfeeders)ofamicrowavelink,thesecompatibilitydefinitionscanbeusedtodisplay
onlycompatibleantennas,radios,andfeedersasoptionsinlists.
Todefineantenna/feedercompatibilityusingtheAntennaFeederCompatibilitytable:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveEquipmentfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheCompatibilityfolder.
4. RightclickAntennaFeederCompatibilities.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheAntennaFeederCompatibilitytableappears.
6. Createanewantenna/feedercompatibilitypairbyselectinganAntennaandaFeederfromthelistsintherowmarked
withtheNewRowicon( ).ThevaluesintheAntennaandFeederlistsaretakenfromtheAntennastableandthe
Feederstable,respectively.Youcanalso,ifdesired,enteraCommentbydoubleclickingtheCommentfieldtoopen
therecordsPropertiesdialogue.

Ifyouhavealargenumberofantennaorfeedercompatibilitydefinitionstoenter,youcan
importthembyrightclickingonthetableandselectingImportfromthecontextmenu,or
youcanpastethemintotheAntennaFeederCompatibilitytable.

4.5.1.2 UsingtheMicrowaveAntennaRadioCompatibilityTable
YoucanusetheAntennaRadioCompatibilitytabletolistcompatiblemicrowaveantennasandradios.Ifyouhavepreviously
definedcompatibleantennafeederpairs,thesearetakenintoaccountand,bydefault,aradiocompatiblewithanantenna
willbecompatiblewiththefeederscompatiblewiththisantenna.Whenyoudefinetheproperties(i.e.,antennas,radios,and
feeders)ofamicrowavelink,thesecompatibilitydefinitionscanbeusedinordertodisplayonlycompatibleantennas,radios,
andfeedersasoptionsinlists.
TodefineantennaradiocompatibilityusingtheAntenna/RadioCompatibilitytable:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveEquipmentfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheCompatibilityfolder.
4. RightclickAntennaRadioCompatibility.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheAntennaRadioCompatibilitytableappears.
6. Createanewantenna/radiocompatibilitypairbyselectinganAntennaandRadiofromthelistsintherowmarked
withtheNewRowicon( ).ThevaluesintheAntennaandRadiolistsaretakenfromtheAntennastableandthe
Radiostable,respectively.Youcanalso,ifdesired,enteraCommentbydoubleclickingtheCommentfieldtoopen
therecordsPropertiesdialogue.

Ifyouhavealargenumberofantennaradiocompatibilitypairstoenter,youcanimport
thembyrightclickingonthetableandselectingImportfromthecontextmenu,oryoucan
pastethemintotheAntennaRadioCompatibilitytable.

4.5.2 UsingAssistantstoDefineCompatibility
Atollprovidesassistantstohelpyoudefinewhichmicrowaveantennasarecompatiblewithwhichfeedersandwhichmicro
waveantennasarecompatiblewithwhichradios.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"UsingtheAssistanttoDefineAntenna/FeederCompatibility"onpage 168
"UsingtheAssistanttoDefineAntenna/RadioCompatibility"onpage 168.

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4.5.2.1 UsingtheAssistanttoDefineAntenna/FeederCompatibility
Atollprovidesanassistanttoallowyoutodefinecompatiblepairsofantennasandfeeders.Theassistantgivesyouanover
viewofantennasandfeedersthatoperateinthesamefrequencyband.
Tousetheassistanttodefinecompatiblepairsofantennasandfeeders:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveEquipmentfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheCompatibilityfolder.
4. RightclickAntennaFeederCompatibilities.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectEditGridfromthecontextmenu.Adialogueappears.
6. SelecttheFrequencybandfromthelist.Onlyantennasandfeedersoperatingintheselectedfrequencybandaredis
playedinthetable.ClickingtheBrowsebutton( )opensthePropertiesdialogueoftheselectedfrequencyband.
7. SelecttheAntennamanufacturerfromthelist.Onlyantennasmanufacturedbytheselectedmanufactureraredis
playedinthetable.ClickingtheBrowsebutton( )opensthePropertiesdialogueoftheselectedmanufacturer.
8. SelecttheFeedermanufacturerfromthelist.Onlyfeedersmanufacturedbytheselectedmanufacturerisdisplayed
inthetable.ClickingtheBrowsebutton( )opensthePropertiesdialogueoftheselectedmanufacturer.
9. Youcannowdefinethecompatibilitybetweenanantennaandafeederordeleteadefinedcompatibleantenna
feederpair:

Figure 4.23:CompatibilityBetweenAntennasandFeedersdialogue

Todefinethecompatibilitybetweenanantennaandafeeder:
a. Rightclickonthecellofthegridthatcoincideswithbothentries.Thecontextmenuappears.
b. SelectAddRecordfromthecontextmenu.Thecellismarkedingreentoindicatethattheantennaandfeederare
compatible.
Todeleteadefinedcompatibleantennafeederpair:
a. Rightclickonthecellofthegridthatcoincideswithbothentries.Thecontextmenuappears.
b. SelectDeletefromthecontextmenu.Thecellisnolongermarkedingreen.
10. ClickOK.
YoucanusetheFill(Up,Down,Right,Left)andtheCopyandPastecommandstocreateordeletecompatibleantennafeeder
pairs.

4.5.2.2 UsingtheAssistanttoDefineAntenna/RadioCompatibility
Atollprovidesanassistanttoallowyoutodefinecompatiblepairsofantennasandradios.Theassistantgivesyouanoverview
ofantennasandradiosthatoperateinthesamefrequencyband.

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Tousetheassistanttodefinecompatiblepairsofantennasandradios:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveEquipmentfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheCompatibilityfolder.
4. RightclickAntennaRadioCompatibility.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectEditGridfromthecontextmenu.Adialogueappears.
6. SelecttheFrequencybandfromthelist.Onlyantennasandradiosoperatingintheselectedfrequencybandaredis
playedinthetable.ClickingtheBrowsebutton( )opensthePropertiesdialogueoftheselectedfrequencyband.
7. SelecttheAntennamanufacturerfromthelist.Onlyantennasmanufacturedbytheselectedmanufactureraredis
playedinthetable.ClickingtheBrowsebutton( )opensthePropertiesdialogueoftheselectedmanufacturer.
8. SelecttheRadiomanufacturerfromthelist.Onlyradiosmanufacturedbytheselectedmanufactureraredisplayedin
thetable.ClickingtheBrowsebutton( )opensthePropertiesdialogueoftheselectedmanufacturer.
9. Youcannowdefinethecompatibilitybetweenanantennaandaradio,deleteadefinedcompatibleantennaradio
pair,ordefinecompatibilitywithanantenna,aradio,andfeeders:

Figure 4.24:CompatibilityBetweenAntennasandRadiosdialogue

Todefinethecompatibilitybetweenanantennaandaradio:
a. Rightclickonthecellofthegridthatcoincideswithbothentries.Thecontextmenuappears.
b. SelectAddRecordfromthecontextmenu.Thecellismarkedingreentoindicatethattheantennaandtheradio
arecompatible.
Todeleteadefinedcompatibleantennaradiopair:
a. Rightclickonthecellofthegridthatcoincideswithbothentries.Thecontextmenuappears.
b. SelectDeletefromthecontextmenu.Thecellisnolongermarkedingreen.
Todefinecompatibilitywithanantenna,aradio,andfeeders:
a. Rightclickonthecellofthegridthatcoincideswiththeentriesfortheantennaandtheradio.Thecontextmenu
appears.
b. SelectAddRecordfromthecontextmenu.Thecellismarkedingreentoindicatethattheantennaandtheradio
arecompatible.
c. RightclickonthesquareandselectRecordPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.Thepropertiesdialogueopens.
d. Inthepropertiesdialogue,underListoftheCompatibleFeeders,selectthefeedersthatyouwanttomakecom
patiblewiththisantenna/radiopair.Ifyouhavepreviouslydefinedcompatibleantenna/feederpairs,theseare
takenintoaccountand,bydefault,thefeederscompatiblewiththecorrespondingantennaareselected.
e. ClickOKtoclosethepropertiesdialogue.
10. ClickOK.

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YoucanusetheFill(Up,Down,Right,Left)andtheCopyandPastecommandstocreateordeletecompatibleantennaradio
pairs.

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FrequencyBands
andSubBands
Thischapterprovidestheinformationtodefinefrequency Inthischapter,thefollowingareexplained:
bandsandsubbandsinAtoll.
"MicrowaveFrequencyBands"onpage 173
"DefiningMicrowaveLinkFrequencyBands"on
page 174
"DefiningMicrowaveLinkFrequencySubbands"on
page 174
"DefiningLinkClassesandPerformanceObjectives"on
page 177
"DefiningConfigurations"onpage 180
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5 MicrowaveSettings
Whenplanningamicrowavelinknetwork,Atollenablesyoutodefinethesettingsthatwillmakeupthisnetwork,including
frequencybandsandsubbands,linkclasses,modulationschemes,digitaltrunks,capacities,branchingtypes,transmission
linktypesandoperationmodes.
Bydefiningfrequencybands,youcandeterminetheoperationallimitsofamicrowavelinknetwork.Eachfrequencybandis
inturndividedintoanumberoffrequencysubbands.Frequencysubbandsarestandardised,ITUcompliantdivisionsofa
frequencyband,breakingitintochannels.
Linkclassesareusedtodifferentiateperformanceobjectives.Byassigninglinkclassestomicrowavelinks,youcanassignthe
targetparametersandusagelimitationsofthelinkclasstotheselectedmicrowavelinks.
Atollalsoenablesyoutodefinethedifferentsystemconfigurationssupportedbyradios(modulationschemes,digitaltrunks,
capacities,branchingtypes,andoperationmodes)andtomanageothertransmissionlinkssuchasleasedlinesoroptical
fibres.
Inthischapter,thefollowingmicrowavesettingsareexplained:
"MicrowaveFrequencyBands"onpage 173
"DefiningMicrowaveLinkFrequencyBands"onpage 174
"DefiningMicrowaveLinkFrequencySubbands"onpage 174
"DefiningLinkClassesandPerformanceObjectives"onpage 177
"DefiningConfigurations"onpage 180.
"DefiningTransmissionLinkTypes"onpage 186.

5.1 MicrowaveFrequencyBands
Microwavelinksoperatewithinahighfrequencyrange(290 GHz).Thelengthofamicrowavelinkisdependentuponthe
frequency: as the frequency increases, the length of the microwave link decreases. The characteristics of microwave
frequencybandsaredifferentdependingonthefrequency.
ThedefaultfrequencybandssuppliedwithAtollarebasedontheFseriesITURrecommendations:

Recommendations FrequencyBands
ITURF.382 2and4GHz

ITURF.383andITURF.384 6GHz

ITURF.385 7GHz

ITURF.386 8GHz

ITURF.747 10GHz

ITURF.387 11GHz

ITURF.636 15GHz

ITURF.497 13GHz

ITURF.595 18GHz

ITURF.637 23GHz

ITURF.748 26and28GHz

ITURF.1520 32GHz

ITURF.749 38GHz

ITURF.1496 52GHz

ITURF.1497 57GHz

ITURF.2006 7186GHz

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5.2 DefiningMicrowaveLinkFrequencyBands
MicrowavefrequencybandsareimplementedinAtoll.Theremustbeatleastonefrequencybandthatcanbeassignedto
microwavelinksthatarecreated.Bydefault,Atollincludesseveralpredefined,ITUcompliantfrequencybands.
Tocreateormodifyafrequencyband:
1. ClicktheParameterstabintheExplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveSettingsfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheFrequenciesfolder.
4. IntheFrequenciesfolder,rightclickBands.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheFrequencyBandstableappears(seeFigure 5.1).

Figure 5.1:TheFrequencyBandstable

6. Tocreateafrequencyband,enterthefollowingintherowmarkedwiththeNewRowicon( ):
Name:Thenameofthefrequencyband.
Min.Frequency(MHz):Theminimumfrequencyofthefrequencyband(inMHz).
Max.Frequency(MHz):Themaximumfrequencyofthefrequencyband(inMHz).
Comments:Anycomments.

TheinformationnecessarytodefineafrequencybandcanbefoundintheFseriesITUR
recommendations.

7. Tomodifyafrequencyband,modifyanyoftheentriesinthecorrespondingrow.

5.3 DefiningMicrowaveLinkFrequencySubbands
Afrequencybandcanbedividedintofrequencysubbands.Frequencysubbandsarestandardised,ITUcompliantdivisions
ofafrequencyband,breakingitintochannels.ITUcompliantdivisionscanhavemorethanonefrequencysubbanddefined
forasinglefrequencyband.
Afrequencysubbandhastwohalfbands.Aduplexmicrowavelinkusuallyusesoneofthesehalfbandsinonedirectionand
theotherhalfbandintheotherdirection.Thesehalfbandsarereferredtoasupperandlowerhalfbands.
Youcandefineachannelisationplanforthelowerandupperhalfbandofeachsubband.
Tocreateormodifyafrequencysubband:
1. ClicktheParameterstabintheExplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveSettingsfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheFrequenciesfolder.
4. IntheFrequenciesfolder,rightclickSubBands.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheSubBandstableappears(seeFigure 5.2).

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Figure 5.2:TheFrequencySubBandstable

6. EntertheNameofthefrequencysubbandintherowmarkedwiththeNewRowicon( ).
7. OpenthesubbandPropertiesdialogueasdefinedin"OpeninganObjectsRecordPropertiesDialoguefromaTable"
onpage 53.ThesubbandPropertiesdialogueappears.

Figure 5.3:TheFrequencySubBandPropertiesdialogue

8. InthesubbandPropertiesdialogue,definethefollowingparameters:
Name:Thenameofthefrequencysubband.
FrequencyBand:Thenameofthefrequencybandtowhichthesubbandbelongs.
Channelbandwidth(MHz):Thewidth(inMHz)ofthechannelusedtotransmitthedata.
9. Ifyouwanttodefinethelistofchannelsandthecorrespondingfrequencies,selectCustomChannels.Otherwise,con
tinuewithstep 10.
a. ClicktheChannelsSettingsbutton.TheCustomChannelsdialogueappears.
b. IntherowmarkedwiththeNewRowicon( ),enterthefollowingparameters:

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Channel:Thechannelnumber.
BaseName:Thechannelnamewithoutaffixes.
LowFrequency(MHz):Thefrequency(inMHz)ofthechannelinthelowerhalfband.
HighFrequency(MHz):Thefrequency(inMHz)ofthechannelintheupperhalfband.
c. ClickOKtoclosetheCustomFrequenciesdialogue.
d. Continuewithstep 12.
10. IfyouwantAtolltoautomaticallycreatechannelnumbersandfrequencieswithauniformspacing,selectStandard
isedChannels.Inthiscase,Atolldefineschannelnumbersandfrequenciesbasedonaformulausingthefollowing
information:
ReferenceFrequency (MHz): Thereferencefrequency(inMHz).Notethatthisfrequencycanbedifferent
fromthecentralfrequency.
LowerHalfBandShift(MHz):Thelowerhalfbandshiftofthesubband(inMHz).Thesignoftheshiftcanbe
negativeorpositive;thisdependsonthehalfbandpositionrelativetothereferencefrequency.
UpperHalfBandShift(MHz):Theupperhalfbandshiftofthesubband(inMHz).Thesignoftheshiftcanbe
negativeorpositive;thisdependsonthehalfbandpositionrelativetothereferencefrequency.
FirstChannel:Thefirstchannelofthesubband.
LastChannel:Thelastchannelofthesubband.
Step:Thestepbetweenchannels.
ExcludedChannelsinUpperHalfBand:Enterthechannelsthatyoudonotwanttouseintheupperhalf
bands.Youcanenterorpastealistofchannels;thevaluesmustbeseparatedwithaspace.Youcanalsoenter
arangeofchannelstobeexcludedfromtheupperhalfband,byenteringthefirstandlastchanneloftherange
separatedbyahyphen.Forexample,entering1015correspondstoexclude101112131415.
ExcludedChannelsinLowerHalfBand:Enterthechannelsthatyoudonotwanttouseinthelowerhalf
bands.Youcanenterorpastealistofchannels;thevaluesmustbeseparatedwithaspace.Youcanalsoenter
arangeofchannelstobeexcludedfromthelowerhalfband,byenteringthefirstandlastchanneloftherange
separatedbyahyphen.Forexample,entering1015correspondstoexclude101112131415.
Thefrequenciesassociatedwithchannelsaredeterminedwiththefollowingequations:
Forthelowerhalfband:f=Referencefrequency+Lowerhalfbandshift+Channelnumber*Channelbandwidth
Fortheupperhalfband:f=Referencefrequency+Upperhalfbandshift+Channelnumber*Channelbandwidth

TheinformationnecessarytodefineafrequencysubbandcanbefoundintheFseries
ITURrecommendations.TheexcludedchannelsarenotpartoftheITURrecommenda
tions.

11. UnderChannelNaming,enteraffixes(i.e.,PrefixandSuffix)tobeusedfornamingchannels.Prefixesandsuffixescan
bedefinedforthelowerandupperhalfbands.
12. ClicktheChannels/FrequencyMappingbuttoninordertodisplaythechannelarrangementforthelowerandupper
halfbands.
13. AddsomeCommentsifyouwant.
14. ClickOKtoclosethesubbandPropertiesdialogue.

5.3.1 ExampleofCreatingaFrequencySubband
YoucanfindtheinformationnecessarytocreateafrequencysubbandintheappropriateITURrecommendation.Inthis
example,therecommendationRF.7470(for10 GHz)isused.
OnthefirstpageofITURF.7470(seeFigure 5.4),youseethattherecommendationisforthefrequencyband10 GHz.

Figure 5.4:FirstpageofRecommendationITURF.747

Onpage 2,youseetheinformationinFigure 5.5:

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Figure 5.5:SecondpageofRecommendationITURF.747

Theinformationonpage 2ofRecommendationITURF.747givesyouthefollowingvalues:
ReferenceFrequency(MHz):11 701 MHz
LowerHalfBandShift(MHz):1204 MHz
UpperHalfBandShift(MHz):1113 MHz
ChannelBandwidth(MHz):7 MHz(asindicatedby"+ 7m")
FirstChannel:1(asindicatedby"from1to12")
LastChannel:12(asindicatedby"from1to12")
Step:1(asindicatedby"The12valuesofmfrom1to12)

5.3.2 ImportingCustomChannels
Foreachfrequencysubband,youcanimportthelistofchannelsandthecorrespondingfrequencies.Beforeyoucanimport
customchannels,youhavetocreatethefrequencysubbandanddefineitsmainparameters(i.e.,thename,thefrequency
band,thechannelbandwidth)asexplainedin"DefiningMicrowaveLinkFrequencySubbands"onpage 174.Inaddition,the
CustomchannelsoptionmustbeselectedinthesubbandPropertiesdialogue.
Toimportthecustomchannelsforafrequencysubband:
1. ClicktheParameterstabintheExplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveSettingsfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheFrequenciesfolder.
4. IntheFrequenciesfolder,rightclickCustomChannels.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheCustomChannelstableappears(seeFigure 5.6).

Figure 5.6:TheCustomChannelstable

6. IntherowmarkedwiththeNewRowicon( ),enterthefollowingparameters:
SubBand:Thefrequencysubband.
Channel:Thechannelnumber.
BaseName:Thechannelnamewithoutaffixes.
LowFrequency(MHz):Thefrequency(inMHz)ofthechannelinthelowerhalfband.
HighFrequency(MHz):Thefrequency(inMHz)ofthechannelintheupperhalfband.

5.4 DefiningLinkClassesandPerformanceObjectives
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"LinkClasses"onpage 178
"DefiningPerformanceObjectives"onpage 178.

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5.4.1 LinkClasses
Linkclassesareusedtodifferentiateperformanceobjectives.Byassigninglinkclassestomicrowavelinks,youareassigning
thetargetparametersandusagelimitationsofthelinkclasstotheselectedmicrowavelinks.
Tocreateormodifyalinkclass:
1. ClicktheNetworktabintheExplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveSettingsfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandthePerformancefolder.
4. InthePerformancefolder,rightclickLinkClasses.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheLinkClassestableappears.
6. Enterormodifythevaluesinthetablecolumnstocreateormodifyalinkclass.
Eachlinkclasshasthefollowingparameters:
Name:Thenameofthelinkclass
Portion:Thetypeoflinkclass(I(International)orN(National))
Type:Thesubclass(LH(LongHaul),SH(ShortHaul),A(Access),IC(IntermediateCountry),etc.)
LinkLengthMinandMax(m):Theminimumandmaximumlength(inmetres)forthislinkclass.Thesevaluesare
usedforinformationonly.
Comments:Additionalinformationdescribingthelinkclass.
TheAtollmicrowavemoduleincludessomepredefinedmicrowavelinksclassesthatarecompliantwithITUG.821,G.826,
andG.828recommendations.

5.4.2 DefiningPerformanceObjectives
TheITUG.821,G.826,andG.828recommendationsdefinemicrowaveperformanceparametersasfunctionsofmicrowave
performanceevents.AsoutlinedintheITUrecommendations,erroreventsthatoccuronalinkcanbemeasuredbyperfor
manceobjectives.ThesemicrowaveerrorperformanceparametersarefullymodelledinAtollandinclude:
ESR
SESR
BBER
Theseerrorperformanceparametersarebasedonmeasurementsofmicrowaveerrorevents.Microwaveerroreventsand
errorperformanceparametersarebrieflydescribedinthefollowingsections:
"MicrowaveErrorEvents"onpage 178
"MicrowaveErrorPerformanceParameters"onpage 178
"ThePurposeofMicrowaveErrorPerformanceObjectives"onpage 179.

MicrowaveErrorEvents

Microwaveerrorparametersarebasedonthefollowingevents:
ErroredBlock(EB):TheEBisablockofdatawithoneormoreerroneousbits.
ErroredSecond(ES):TheESisaonesecondperiodwithoneormoreerroredblocksoratleastonedefect.
SeverelyErroredSecond(SES):TheSESisaonesecondperiodwith30%erroredblocksoratleastonedefect.SESis
asubsetofES.

Consecutive Severely Errored Seconds can result in periods of unavailability, especially


whentherearenobackuporstandbyprocedures.PeriodsofconsecutiveSeverelyErrored
SecondspersistingforTseconds,whereT > 10(sometimesreferredtoas"failures"),can
haveasevereimpactonservice,leadingtothedisconnectionofswitchedservices.The
frequencyoftheseeventscanbelimitedbylimitingtheSESR.

BackgroundBlockError(BBE):TheBBEisanerroredblocknotoccurringaspartofanSES.

MicrowaveErrorPerformanceParameters

Thetotalobservationtime(Stotal)issplitintotwoparts,namely,thetimeforwhichtheconnectionisdeemedtobeavailable
(Savail)andthetimewhenitisunavailable(Sunavail).Errorperformanceshouldonlybeevaluatedwhiletheconnectionisinthe
availablestate.Theparametersare:
ErroredSecondRatio(ESR):TheESRistheratioofEStototalsecondsinavailabletimeduringafixedmeasurement
interval.

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SeverelyErroredSecondRatio(SESR):TheSESRistheratioofSEStototalsecondsinavailabletimeduringafixed
measurementinterval.
BackgroundBlockErrorRatio(BBER):TheBBERistheratioofBackgroundBlockErrors(BBE)tototalblocksinavail
abletimeduringafixedmeasurementinterval.ThecountoftotalblocksexcludesallblocksduringSESs.
InAtoll,youcandefinelinkclassesandperformanceobjectivesbasedontheseerrorperformanceparameters.Atollalso
includesdefaultlistsoflinkclassesandperformanceobjectivesbasedontheITUG.821,G.826,andG.828recommendations.

ThePurposeofMicrowaveErrorPerformanceObjectives

Theperformanceobjectivesservetwomaingoals:
Performanceobjectivesgivetheuserofnationalandinternationaldigitalnetworksanindicationoftheexpectederror
performanceunderrealoperatingconditions,therebyfacilitatingserviceplanningandterminalequipmentdesign.
Performanceobjectivesformthebasisuponwhichperformancestandardsaremadefortransmissionequipmentand
systemsinadigitalconnection.
Performanceobjectivesrepresentacompromisebetweenmeetingservicerequirementsanddesigningapractical,feasible
network,takingeconomicandtechnicalconstraintsintoconsideration.Theperformanceobjectives,althoughexpressedto
suittheneedsofdifferentservices,areintendedtorepresentasingleleveloftransmissionquality.

5.4.2.1 DefiningQualityObjectives
Usingdifferentparameters(BBER,ESR,andSESR),youcandefineoneormorequalityobjectivesforeachlinkclassinAtoll.
Eachqualityobjectiveischaracterisedbyaperformanceobjectiveequationthatdefinesthelimitationoftherelevantquality
objectiveparameter(BBER,ESR,SESR).Theperformanceobjectiveequationsdefinethebehaviourofthequalityparameter
asafunctionofthelength(L)ofthelinkandaconstant.Thelengthofamicrowavelinkis,inturn,limitedbytheminimum
andmaximumlengthsdefinedinthelinkclass.Eachqualityobjectiveisalsocharacterisedbyitsminimumandmaximumbit
rates.
AtollincludesbydefaultthequalityobjectivesdefinedintheITUG.821,ITUG.826,andITUG.828recommendations.Youcan
alsodefinecustomisedqualityobjectives.
TomodifythepredefinedtheITUG.821,ITUG.826,andITUG.828qualityobjectivesortocreateanewqualityobjective:
1. ClicktheNetworktabintheExplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveSettingsfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandthePerformancefolder.
4. RightclickQualityObjectivesinthePerformancefolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectEditfromthecontextmenu.TheQualityObjectivesdialogueappears.
YoucaneithereditadefaultITUG.821,ITUG.826,andITUG.828qualityobjectiveorcreateanewqualityobjective.
ToeditaITUG.821,ITUG.826,orITUG.828qualityobjective:Selecttheappropriatetab(ITUG.821,ITUG.826,
orITUG.828)andmodifythepropertiesofthequalityobjective.
Tocreateanewcustomisedqualityobjective:SelecttheCustomisedtabandentertheparametersintherow
markedwiththeNewRowicon( ).
6. Clickelsewhereinthetablewhenyouhavefinishedupdatingthetable.Yourchangesareautomaticallysaved.
7. ClickClosetoclosetheQualityObjectivesdialogue.

5.4.2.2 DefiningAvailabilityObjectives
Usingaperformanceparameter(SESR),youcandefineoneormoreavailabilityobjectivesforeachlinkclassinAtoll.Each
availabilityobjectiveischaracterisedbyaperformanceobjectiveequationthatdefinesthelimitationoftherelevantavaila
bilityobjectiveparameter(SESR).Theavailabilityobjectiveequationsdefinethebehaviouroftheavailabilityparameterasa
functionofthelength(L)ofthemicrowavelinkandaconstant.Thelengthofamicrowavelinkis,inturn,limitedbythemini
mumandmaximumlengthsdefinedinthelinkclass.Eachavailabilityobjectiveisalsocharacterisedbyitsminimumandmaxi
mumbitrates.

Theavailabilityobjectivesareglobalobjectives.Theyconsistofthreepartialobjectivesas
microwave link unavailability can be either due to rain, due to equipment failure, or
random.

AtollincludesbydefaulttheavailabilityobjectivesdefinedintheITUG.821andITUG.826recommendations.Youcanalso
definecustomisedavailabilityobjectives.

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TomodifypredefinedITUG.821andITUG.826availabilityobjectivesortocreateanewavailabilityobjective:
1. ClicktheNetworktabintheExplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveSettingsfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandthePerformancefolder.
4. RightclickAvailabilityObjectivesinthePerformancefolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectEditfromthecontextmenu.TheAvailabilityObjectivesdialogueappears.
YoucaneithereditadefaultITUG.821andITUG.826availabilityobjectiveorcreateanewavailabilityobjective.
ToeditaITUG.821andITUG.826availabilityobjective:Selectthetab(ITUG.821orITUG.826)andmodifythe
propertiesoftheavailabilityobjective.
Tocreateanewcustomisedqualityobjective:SelecttheCustomisedtabandentertheparametersintherow
markedwiththeNewRowicon( ).
6. Clickelsewhereinthetablewhenyouhavefinishedupdatingthetable.Yourchangesareautomaticallysaved.
7. ClickClosetoclosetheAvailabilityObjectivesdialogue.

5.5 DefiningConfigurations
Atollenablesyoutomanagethevariousconfigurationssupportedbyradios.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"CreatingorModifyingModulations"onpage 180
"CreatingorModifyingDigitalTrunks"onpage 181
"CreatingorModifyingCapacities"onpage 182
"CreatingorModifyingBranchingTypes"onpage 184
"CreatingorModifyingOperationModes"onpage 185

5.5.1 CreatingorModifyingModulations
Atollenablesyoutodefinethedifferentmodulationschemesusedbyradiosforthemodulationanddemodulationofthe
signalstobetransmitted.
Atollhasasetofdefaultmodulationdefinitionsavailable,butyoucancreatenewmodulationsandsettheirparameters.
Tocreateormodifyamodulation:
1. ClicktheParameterstabintheExplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveSettingsfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheConfigurationsfolder.
4. RightclicktheModulationsfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheModulationstableappears.
6. Doubleclickintheleftmarginthemodulationyouwanttomodify.ThemodulationsPropertiesdialogueappears(see
Figure 5.7).

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Figure 5.7:ModulationsPropertiesdialogue

7. InthePropertiesdialogue,definethefollowingparameters:
Name:Thenameofthemodulation.
Numberofstates:Enterthenumberofstatesforthismodulation(e.g.,128for128QAMmodulation).
UnderEb/No,youcandefinetheEb/NoasafunctionofBER.ForagivenBER,Eb/Norepresentsthequalitytarget
tobereachedinorderforthemodulationtobeused.YoucaneitherselectUserdefinedanddefinetheEb/No
valuesforBERof103and106,orselectCalculatedandletAtollentercalculatedvalues.

YoucanclicktheEditbutton( )toaddnewEb/NovaluesforotherBERvaluesorchangetheBERvalues.
Comments:Anyadditionalinformationonthemodulation.
8. ClickOK.

5.5.2 CreatingorModifyingDigitalTrunks
Atollenablesyoutomodelthedifferenttechnologiesusedtotransportlargequantitiesofdataoverdigitaltransportequip
mentsuchasfibreopticandmicrowaveradio.PDH,SDH/SONETaswellasIPcanbemodelled.
Theplesiochronousdigitalhierarchy(PDH)isatechnologyusedtotransportlargequantitiesofdataoverdigitaltransport
equipmentsuchasfibreopticandmicrowaveradio.PDHnetworkshavedatastreamswiththesamenominalfrequencybut
arenotsynchronisedwitheachother;inotherwords,therisingandfallingedgesofthepulsesineachdatastreamsdonot
coincide.
TheEuropeanandAmericanversionsofPDHsystemsdifferslightlyintheirdatarates,butthebasicprinciplesofmultiplexing
arethesame.
Thesynchronousdigitalhierarchy(SDH)referstothegrouporlayersoftransmissionratesorstandardsthatcantransport
digitaldataofdifferentcapacitiesthroughhighbandwidthmediumssuchasopticalfibresorradiowaves.Duetothesynchro
nousnatureoftheSDH,theaveragefrequencyofallslaveclocksinthesystemisthesame.
TheEuropean(SDH)andAmerican(SONET)versionsofSDHsystemsdifferslightly.Theframeformatsandthusthedatarates
ofbothsystemsarenotthesamebutarecompatibleduetotheirsynchronousnature.
Atollhasasetofdefaultdigitaltrunkdefinitionsavailable,butyoucancreatenewtrunktypesandsettheirparameters.
Tocreateormodifyamicrowavedigitaltrunk:
1. ClicktheParameterstabintheExplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveSettingsfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheConfigurationsfolder.
4. RightclicktheDigitalTrunksfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheDigitalTrunkstableappears(seeFigure 5.8).

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Figure 5.8:DigitalTrunkstable

6. Foreachdigitaltrunkyoudefine,addthefollowingdata:
Name:Thenameofthetrunktype.
Digitalhierarchy:SelectPDH,SDH/SONET,orIP.
Rawdatarate(Mbit/s):Thenumberofbitspersecond,includingusefuldataaswellascodingandoverheadbits.
Payloaddatarate(Mbit/s):Therateoftheusefulbits(i.e.thedataratewithoutconsideringthecodingandover
headbits).Thisfieldisforinformationonly.
Bits/block:Thenumberofbitsperblockcorrespondstothenumberofbitsperframe(i.e.,theusefulbitsplusthe
overheadandthecodingbits).
BERses:BERsescorrespondstoBitErrorRate(BER)asdocumentedinAnnex 2,Table 2oftheITURP.5308rec
ommendation.
YoucanalsodefinethepropertiesofadigitaltrunkinitsPropertiesdialogue.
ToopenadigitaltrunksPropertiesdialogue:
DoubleclickthedigitaltrunkintheleftmarginoftheDigitalTrunkstable.ThedigitaltrunksPropertiesdialogue
appears(seeFigure 5.9).

Figure 5.9:DigitalTrunkPropertiesdialogue

5.5.3 CreatingorModifyingCapacities
Atollenablesyoutodefinethecapacitiessupportedbythedifferentmicrowaveradios.Eachdefineddigitaltrunksupportsa
certainrawdatarate.Therefore,thecapacityofamicrowaveradiodependsonthetypeandthenumberoftrunktypesused.
Atollhasasetofdefaultcapacitiesavailable,butyoucancreatenewcapacitiesandsettheirparameters.

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Tocreateormodifyacapacity:
1. ClicktheParameterstabintheExplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveSettingsfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheConfigurationsfolder.
4. RightclicktheCapacitiesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheCapacitiestableappears(seeFigure 5.10).

Figure 5.10:Capacitiestable

6. Foreachcapacityyoudefine,enterthefollowing:
Name:Thenameofthecapacity.
Ethernet+TDMcapacity:Thetotalcapacitythattheradiocansupport.
TDMcapacity:ThecapacitythatcanbeusedforTDMtraffic.
Technology:Thetypeoftrafficsupportedbytheradio.YoucanchoosebetweenMWpacket,HybridandTDM
only.IfyouselectTDMonly,theTDMcapacityandtheEthernet+TDMcapacityvaluesmustbethesame.

YoucanalsodefinethepropertiesofacapacityinitsPropertiesdialogue.
ToopenacapacitysPropertiesdialogue:
DoubleclickthecapacityintheleftmarginoftheCapacitiestable.ThecapacitysPropertiesdialogueappears(see
Figure 5.11).Atoll

Figure 5.11:CapacitysPropertiesdialogue

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5.5.4 CreatingorModifyingBranchingTypes
Atollenablesyoutodefinethebranchingtypessupportedbyradios.Thebranchingtypeisdefinedintheformof"n+m"
where"n"isthenumberofactivechannelsand"m"isthenumberofstandbychannels.Inaddition,youcandefineifthe
systemsupportshotstandby,frequencydiversity,spacediversity,andXPIC.
Standbychannelsareinactiveandusedonlywhenactivechannelsfail.Switchingtothestandbychannelincaseoffailurecan
beautomatic;suchasystemiscalleda"hot"standbysystem.Ifthesystemmustbemanuallyswitchedtothestandbychannel,
thesystemiscalleda"cold"standbysystem.

Standbychannelfrequencycanbedifferentfromactivechannels.Frequenciesallocatedto
activeandstandbychannelsaredefinedinthemicrowavelinkpropertiesdialogue.

Tocreateormodifyabranchingtype:
1. ClicktheParameterstabintheExplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveSettingsfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheConfigurationsfolder.
4. RightclicktheBranchingTypesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheBranchingTypestableappears(seeFigure 5.12).

Figure 5.12:BranchingTypestable

6. Foreachbranchingtypeyoudefine,addthefollowingdata.
N:Thenumberofactivechannels.
M:Thenumberofstandbychannels.
HotStandby:SelecttheHotStandbyoptionifahotstandbysystemisavailable.Standbychannelsareinactiveand
usedonlywhenactivechannelsfail.Switchingtothestandbychannelincaseoffailurecanbeautomatic;sucha
systemiscalleda"hot"standbysystem.Ifthesystemmustbemanuallyswitchedtothestandbychannel,the
systemiscalleda"cold"standbysystem.
SpaceDiversity:SelectSpaceDiversityifthesystemsupportsspacediversity.
FrequencyDiversity:SelectFrequencyDiversityifthesystemsupportsfrequencydiversity.
XPIC:SelecttheXPICoptionwhenacrosspolarisedinterferencecanceller(XPIC)ispresent.
ToopenabranchingtypesPropertiesdialogue:
DoubleclickthebranchingtypeintheleftmarginoftheBranchingTypestable.ThebranchingtypesPropertiesdia
logueappears(seeFigure 5.13).

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Figure 5.13:BranchingTypePropertiesdialogue

5.5.5 CreatingorModifyingOperationModes
Atollenablesyoutodefinetheoperationmodessupportedbytheradios.
Atollhasadefaultlistofoperationmodesavailable,butyoucancreatenewones.
Tocreateormodifyanoperationmode:
1. ClicktheParameterstabintheExplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveSettingsfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheConfigurationsfolder.
4. RightclicktheOperationModesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheOperationModestableappears(seeFigure 5.14).

Figure 5.14:OperationModestable

6. Foreachoperationmodeyoudefine,addthefollowingdata:
Name:Thenameoftheoperationmode.
ShortName:Entertheshortnameoftheoperationmodethatyouwanttodisplayinsomeanalysisreports.
WithACM:SelectTrueiftheoperationmodesupportsadaptivemodulation.Otherwise,chooseFalse.
ToopenanoperationmodesPropertiesdialogue:
DoubleclicktheoperationmodeintheleftmarginoftheOperationModestable.TheoperationmodesProperties
dialogueappears(seeFigure 5.15).

Figure 5.15:OperationModesPropertiesdialogue

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5.6 DefiningTransmissionLinkTypes
Inadditiontomicrowavelinks,Atollenablesyoutomanageothertransmissionlinkssuchasleasedlinesoropticalfibres.Atoll
enablesyoutodefinethetypesofothertransmissionlinksyoucanmanage.
Atollhasadefaultlistoftransmissionlinktypesavailable,butyoucancreatenewones.
Tocreateormodifyatransmissionlinktype:
1. ClicktheParameterstabintheExplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveSettingsfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheConfigurationsfolder.
4. RightclicktheTransmissionLinkTypesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheTransmissionLinkTypestableappears(seeFigure 5.16).

Figure 5.16:TransmissionLinkTypestable

6. Foreachtransmissionlinktypeyoudefine,enterthefollowinginformation:
Name:Thenameofthetransmissionlinktype.
Ethernet+TDMcapacity(Mbps):Thetotalcapacitythatthistransmissionlinktypecansupport.
TDMCapacity:Thecapacity(inMbps)usedforTDMtraffic.
Technology:Thetypeoftrafficsupportedbythistransmissionlinktype.YoucanchoosebetweenMWPacket,
Hybrid,andTDMonly.IfyouselectTDMonly,theTDMCapacityandEthernet+TDMCapacityvaluesmustbe
thesame.
ToopenatransmissionlinktypesPropertiesdialogue:
DoubleclickthetransmissionlinktypeintheleftmarginoftheTransmissionLinkTypestable.Thetransmissionlink
typesPropertiesdialogueappears(seeFigure 5.15).

Figure 5.17:TransmissionLinkTypesPropertiesdialogue

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CalculationsinAtoll
Thischapterprovidestheinformationtoworkwith Inthischapter,thefollowingareexplained:
calculationsinAtoll.
"UsingPropagationModelsinMicrowaveProjects"on
page 189
"DefiningParametersthatAffectCalculations"on
page 194
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6 WorkingwithCalculationsinAtoll
Onceyouhavecreatedmicrowavelinks,youneedtodefinetheparametersnecessarytostudythenetwork:
"UsingPropagationModelsinMicrowaveProjects"onpage 189
"DefiningParametersthatAffectCalculations"onpage 194.

6.1 UsingPropagationModelsinMicrowaveProjects
Ifyouwanttoanalyseamicrowavelink,apropagationmodelmustbeassignedtoit,asexplainedin"MicrowaveLinkParam
eters"onpage 198.Atollcalculatesthepathlossbetweentwopointsusingpropagationmodels.
ThefollowingpropagationmodelsareavailableinAtollforuseinmicrowaveprojects:
MicrowavePropagationModelandMicrowaveITURP.452Model:Thesepropagationmodelsaresuitedformicro
wavelinksinthe1.5to55GHzband.WhiletheMicrowavePropagationModelisrecommendedforthecalculationof
theusefulsignal,theMicrowaveITURP.452Modelshouldbeusedtopredictthesignallevelfrominterferingsites.
Formoreinformation,see"WorkingwiththeMicrowavePropagationModel"onpage 189and"Workingwiththe
MicrowaveITURP.452Model"onpage 191.
MicrowaveEBandPropagationModel:TheMicrowaveEBandPropagationModelissuitedformicrowavelinksin
the60to90GHzband,inordertocalculatetheusefulsignalaswellastheinterferingsignal.Formoreinformation,
see"WorkingwiththeMicrowaveITURP.452Model"onpage 191.

6.1.1 WorkingwiththeMicrowavePropagationModel
TheMicrowavePropagationModelisusedtocalculatethefademarginandtodeterminethemicrowavelinkprofile.When
calculatingattenuation,theMicrowavePropagationModeltakesfreespaceloss,atmosphericlosses,diffractionloss,and
troposphericlossesintoaccount.
Theparametersofthepropagationmodel,includingsomeofitscoefficients,canbemodifiedusingtheMicrowavePropaga
tionModelPropertiesdialogue.
TodefinetheparametersoftheMicrowavePropagationModel:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandthePropagationModelsfolder.
3. RightclicktheMicrowavePropagationModel.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogueappears.
5. ClicktheParameterstab(seeFigure 6.7).

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Figure 6.1:MicrowavePropagationModelPropertiesParameterstab

UnderHeights,youcansetthefollowingparameter:
Cluttertakenintoaccountindiffraction:Select"1 Yes"tohaveAtolltakeclutterheightinformationintoaccount
whencalculatingdiffraction.Otherwise,select"0 No".Ifyouchoosetotakeclutterheightintoaccount,Atoll
usestheclutterheightinformationintheclutterheightsfileifavailable.Otherwise,itusesaverageclutterheight
specifiedforeachclutterclassintheclutterclasses.
UnderProfileExtraction,youcansetthefollowingparameter:
Step:Definetheresolutioninmetrestobeusedtoextracttheprofile.Ifyouenter"0"astheresolution,Atollluses
the highest resolution of the geographic maps considered in the profile (i.e., DTM, clutter classes and clutter
heightmaps).
UnderLOSattenuation,youcansetthefollowingparameters:
K1,K2,andK3:EntertheK1,K2,andK3valuesthatwillbeusedtocalculatefreespaceloss.
UnderDiffraction,youcansetthefollowingparameters:
Method:Selectthemethodthatwillbeusedtocalculatediffraction.
Deygout
EpsteinPeterson
Deygoutwithcorrection
Millington
ITU45211
FullDeygout
K4:Enter"1"astheK4valueifyouwantAtolltocalculatediffraction.Entering"0"meansthatnodiffractionwill
becalculated.
UnderTroposphericscatter,youcansetthefollowingparameters:
Method:Selectthemethodthatwillbeusedtocalculatetroposphericscattering:
Noattenuation:Noattenuationwillbecalculated.
ITURP6171:AttenuationwillbecalculatedaccordingtotheITURP6171recommendationsfor50%,90%,
or99.99%ofthetime.
ITURP452:AttenuationwillbecalculatedaccordingtotheITURP452recommendations.
SimplifiedMethod:AttenuationwillbeestimatedusinganAtollspecificequation.
Ktropo:Enterthevaluefortheweightfactor.Atollmultipliesthelossgivenbytheselectedmethodtocalculate
thetroposphericscatterloss.
N0:EnterthevalueforN0,whichisthesurfacerefractivityofthecentreofthepath.

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UnderVegetation,youcansetthefollowingparameters:
Method:Selectthemethodthatwillbeusedtocalculateattenuationduetovegetation:
Noattenuation:Noattenuationwillbecalculated.
ITURP.8334:AttenuationwillbecalculatedaccordingtoITURP.8334recommendations.
A1:EnterthevalueoftheA1coefficient.
Alpha:EnterthevalueoftheAlphacoefficient.A1andAlphacoefficientsareusedtocalculatethemaximum
attenuationexperiencedbyatransmitterorareceiversitelocatedwithinavegetationarea.Themaximumatten
uationistakenintoconsiderationtocalculatetheattenuationduetovegetation.
UnderGaseousattenuation,youcansetthefollowingparameter:
Method:Selectthemethodthatwillbeusedtocalculatetheattenuation(dB)duetoatmosphericgases:
Noattenuation:Noattenuationwillbecalculated.
ITURP.6761&2:AttenuationwillbecalculatedaccordingtoITURP.6761andITURP.6762recommenda
tions.
ITURP.6763:AttenuationwillbecalculatedaccordingtoITURP.6763recommendations.
ITURP.6766&7:AttenuationwillbecalculatedaccordingtoITURP.6766andITURP.6767recommenda
tions.
6. ClicktheCluttertab(seeFigure 6.2).

Figure 6.2:MicrowavePropagationModelPropertiesCluttertab

UnderClutterConsideration,youcansetthefollowingparametersforeachclutterclass:
Clearanceperclutterclass:Defineaclearance(inmetres)aroundeachtransmitterandeachreceiversiteforeach
clutterclass.Theclearanceinformationisusedwhenclutteristakenintoaccountindiffraction.Bothgroundalti
tudeandclutterheightareconsideredalongthewholeprofileexceptoveraspecificdistancearoundthetrans
mitterandthereceiversites(i.e.,theclearance),whereAtollbasesitscalculationsonlyontheDTM.
Cluttercategories:Selectacluttercategoryforeachclutterclass.Cluttercategoriesaretakenintoconsideration
whenstudyingreflectionsandmustbedefinedinordertoanalysereflectionsalongtheprofile.Cluttercategories
areITUstandardisedclutterclasses.Forinformationoncluttercategories,see"GlobalParameters"onpage 194.
7. ClickOK.
FormoreinformationontheparametersoftheMicrowavePropagationModel,seetheTechnicalReferenceGuide.

6.1.2 WorkingwiththeMicrowaveITURP.452Model
TheMicrowaveITURP.452Modelisusedtocalculatesignallevelfrominterferingsites.Itisanempiricalmodel,butittakes
morephysicalcharacteristicsintoconsiderationthantheMicrowavePropagationModel,whichiswhyitisrecommendedfor
calculatinginterference.
AssigningtheMicrowaveITURP.452Modeltoamicrowavelinkisexplainedin"MicrowaveLinkParameters"onpage 198.
Youcanmodifytheparametersofthepropagationmodel,includingsomeofitscoefficients,usingtheMicrowaveITURP.452
ModelPropertiesdialogue.

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TodefinetheparametersoftheMicrowaveITURP.452Model:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandthePropagationModelsfolder.
3. RightclicktheMicrowaveITURP.452Model.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogueappears.
5. ClicktheParameterstab(seeFigure 6.7).

Figure 6.3:MicrowaveITURP.452ModelPropertiesParameterstab

UnderHeights,youcansetthefollowingparameter:
Cluttertakenintoaccountindiffraction:Select"1 Yes"tohaveAtolltakeclutterheightinformationintoaccount
whencalculatingdiffraction.Otherwise,select"0 No".Ifyouchoosetotakeclutterheightintoaccount,Atoll
usestheclutterheightinformationintheclutterheightsfileifavailable.Otherwise,itusesaverageclutterheight
specifiedforeachclutterclassintheclutterclasses.
UnderReferenceattenuationnotexceededduringtheaverageyear,youcansetthefollowingparameter:
Requiredtimepercentage:Enterthepercentageoftimeduringwhichtheglobalattenuationisnotexceeded.
UnderRec.ITURP452version,youcansetthefollowingparameter:
Method:Selectthemethodthatwillbeusedtocalculatetheglobalattenuation(dB)betweenaninterferingtrans
mitterandaninterfered(victim)receiver:
ITURP.45212
SimplifiedITURP.4528
UnderGaseousattenuation,youcansetthefollowingparameter:
Method:Selectthemethodthatwillbeusedtocalculatetheattenuation(dB)duetoatmosphericgases:
Noattenuation:Noattenuationwillbecalculated.
ITURP.6761&2:AttenuationwillbecalculatedaccordingtoITURP.6761andITURP.6762recommenda
tions.
ITURP.6763:AttenuationwillbecalculatedaccordingtoITURP.6763recommendations.
ITURP.6766&7:AttenuationwillbecalculatedaccordingtoITURP.6766andITURP.6767recommenda
tions.
6. ClicktheCluttertab(seeFigure 6.4).

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Figure 6.4:MicrowaveITURP.452ModelPropertiesCluttertab

UnderClutterConsideration,youcansetthefollowingparametersforeachclutterclass:
Clearanceperclutterclass:Defineaclearance(inmetres)aroundeachtransmitterandeachreceiversiteforeach
clutterclass.Theclearanceinformationisusedwhenclutteristakenintoaccountindiffraction.Bothgroundalti
tudeandclutterheightareconsideredalongthewholeprofileexceptoveraspecificdistancearoundthetrans
mitterandthereceiversites(i.e.,theclearance),whereAtollbasesitscalculationsonlyontheDTM.
Cluttercategories:Selectacluttercategoryforeachclutterclass.Cluttercategoriesaretakenintoconsideration
whenstudyingreflectionsandmustbedefinedinordertoanalysereflectionsalongtheprofile.Cluttercategories
areITUstandardisedclutterclasses.Forinformationoncluttercategories,see"GlobalParameters"onpage 194.
7. ClickOK.

FormoreinformationontheparametersoftheMicrowaveITURP.452Model,seetheTechnicalReferenceGuide.

6.1.3 WorkingwiththeMicrowaveEBandPropagationModel
TheMicrowaveEBandPropagationModelissuitedformicrowavelinksinthe60to90GHzband,inordertocalculatethe
usefulsignalaswellastheinterferingsignal.
Theparametersofthepropagationmodel,includingsomeofitscoefficients,canbemodifiedusingtheMicrowaveEBand
PropagationModelPropertiesdialogue.
TodefinetheparametersoftheMicrowavePropagationModel:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandthePropagationModelsfolder.
3. RightclicktheMicrowaveEBandPropagationModel.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogueappears.
5. ClicktheParameterstab(seeFigure 6.7).

Figure 6.5:MicrowaveEBandPropagationModelPropertiesParameterstab

UnderHeights,youcansetthefollowingparameter:
Cluttertakenintoaccountindiffraction:Select"1 Yes"tohaveAtolltakeclutterheightinformationintoaccount
whencalculatingdiffraction.Otherwise,select"0 No".Ifyouchoosetotakeclutterheightintoaccount,Atoll
usestheclutterheightinformationintheclutterheightsfileifavailable.Otherwise,itusesaverageclutterheight
specifiedforeachclutterclassintheclutterclasses.
AtollUnderDiffraction,youcansetthefollowingparameters:
Method:Selectthemethodthatwillbeusedtocalculatediffraction.
Deygout
EpsteinPeterson

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Deygoutwithcorrection
Millington
ITU45211
FullDeygout
UnderVegetation,youcansetthefollowingparameters:
Method:Selectthemethodthatwillbeusedtocalculateattenuationduetovegetation:
Noattenuation:Noattenuationwillbecalculated.
ITURP.8334:AttenuationwillbecalculatedaccordingtoITURP.8334recommendations.
CCIReport2362:AttenuationwillbecalculatedaccordingtoCCIReport2362recommendations.
UnderGaseousattenuation,youcansetthefollowingparameter:
Method:Selectthemethodthatwillbeusedtocalculatetheattenuation(dB)duetoatmosphericgases:
Noattenuation:Noattenuationwillbecalculated.
ITURP.6761&2:AttenuationwillbecalculatedaccordingtoITURP.6761andITURP.6762recommenda
tions.
ITURP.6763:AttenuationwillbecalculatedaccordingtoITURP.6763recommendations.
ITURP.6766&7:AttenuationwillbecalculatedaccordingtoITURP.6766andITURP.6767recommenda
tions.
6. ClicktheCluttertab(seeFigure 6.2).

Figure 6.6:MicrowaveEBandPropagationModelPropertiesCluttertab

UnderClutterConsideration,youcansetthefollowingparametersforeachclutterclass:
Clearanceperclutterclass:Defineaclearance(inmetres)aroundeachtransmitterandeachreceiversiteforeach
clutterclass.Theclearanceinformationisusedwhenclutteristakenintoaccountindiffraction.Bothgroundalti
tudeandclutterheightareconsideredalongthewholeprofileexceptoveraspecificdistancearoundthetrans
mitterandthereceiversites(i.e.,theclearance),whereAtollbasesitscalculationsonlyontheDTM.
7. Clutter categories: Select a clutter category for each clutter class. Clutter categories are taken into consideration
whenstudyingreflectionsandmustbedefinedinordertoanalysereflectionsalongtheprofile.Cluttercategoriesare
ITUstandardisedclutterclasses.Forinformationoncluttercategories,see"GlobalParameters"onpage 194.ClickOK.
FormoreinformationontheparametersoftheMicrowaveEBandPropagationModel,seetheTechnicalReferenceGuide.

6.2 DefiningParametersthatAffectCalculations
Inamicrowaveproject,parametersthataffectcalculationscanbedividedintothefollowingcategories:
Globalparameters:Globalparametersaredefinedforallmicrowavelinksandaffectalllinks.Forinformationonset
tingglobalparameters,see"GlobalParameters"onpage 194.
MicrowaveLinkparameters:Microwavelinkparametersaredefinedpermicrowavelinkandaffectindividualmicro
wavelinks.Forinformationonsettingmicrowavelinkparameters,see"MicrowaveLinkParameters"onpage 198.
Aswell,anyparameterssetforthepropagationmodelaffectcalculations:
MicrowavePropagationModel:ForinformationonsettingMicrowavePropagationModelparameters,see"Working
withtheMicrowavePropagationModel"onpage 189.
MicrowaveITURP.452Model:ForinformationonsettingMicrowaveITURP.452Modelparameters,see"Working
withtheMicrowaveITURP.452Model"onpage 191.
MicrowaveEBandPropagationModel:ForinformationonsettingMicrowaveEBandPropagationModelparame
ters,see"WorkingwiththeMicrowaveEBandPropagationModel"onpage 193.

6.2.1 GlobalParameters
TheglobalpropertiesofamicrowavelinksprojectaredefinedforallmicrowavelinksinthePropertiesoftheLinksfolder.The
globalparametersarethoseusedfor:
Qualityandavailabilityanalysis
Objectiveselection
Interferencecalculation.

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Todefinetheglobalparametersformicrowavelinksforqualityandavailabilityanalysis,objectiveselection,andinterference
calculation:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. RightclicktheLinksfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.TheLinksPropertiesdialogueappears.
4. ClicktheGeneraltab.OntheGeneraltab,theparametersyoudefinearevalidforalltypesofanalyses:qualityand
availabilityanalyses,objectiveselection,andinterferencecalculation.
UnderCalculationparameters,youcandefinethefollowingparameters:
Mediankfactor:Thevalueofthekfactor(theearthcurvaturefactor),observed50%oftime.Selectthevalueto
beusedinlinkanalyses:
Calculatedforeachlink:Atollcalculatesthemedianvalueofthekfactoraccordingtothemicrowavelinkpo
sition.Thenittakesintoaccountthecalculatedvalueforthelinkanalysis.
Samevalueforalllinks:Ifyouselectthisoption,thevalueyouenterwillbeusedasthek factorforalllinksin
linkanalyses.
Effectivekfactor:Thevalueofthekfactor(theearthcurvaturefactor),observed99%oftime.Selectthevalueto
beusedinlinkanalyses:
Calculatedforeachlink:Atollcalculatestheeffectivevalueofthekfactoraccordingtothemicrowavelink
position.Thenittakesintoaccountthecalculatedvalueforthelinkanalysis.
Samevalueforalllinks:Ifyouselectthisoption,thevalueyouenterwillbeusedasthek factorforalllinksin
linkanalyses.
Powercontrolonusefulsignal:Selectwhichoutputpoweryouwanttoconsiderwhenmodellingpowercontrol.
YoucanchoosebetweenUsenominalpowerandUsecoordinatepower.
UnderResultsfiltering,youcandefinethefollowingparameters:
Channelsandports:UnderChannelsandports,selectonwhichchannelshouldbedisplayedtheresultsofalink
analysis.Theseoptionsareconsideredinthelinkbudgetandinterferencereports,andwhenexportingcustom
reports:
All:IfyouselectAll,Atollperformsthelinkanalysisforeachchannel.IntheLinkBudgetandInterferenceta
bles,allresultsaredisplayed.Inthecustomreport,onlyresultscalculatedfortheworstchannelareexported.
Worstchannel:IfyouselectWorstchannelengineering,Atollperformsthelinkanalysisforeachchanneland
displays the results for the worst channel in terms of fade margin (i.e., the channel with the lowest fade
margin).
Specificport:IfyouselectSpecificportengineering,Atollperformsthelinkanalysisanddisplaystheresult
forthechannelspecifiedindividuallyforSite AandSite B.Inthecustomreport,Atollexportstheresultscalcu
latedfortheworstchannelifthedefinedportdoesnotexist.

Usingtheatoll.inifile,youcandefinetheprefixesorsuffixestobeusedfornamingchan
nels.Forinformation,seetheAdministratorManual.

UnderOperationmode,youcandefinewhetheryouwanttheoperationmodetobeConstantmodulation(CCM)or
Adaptivemodulation(ACM).IfyouselectConstantmodulation(CCM),Atollperformsthelinkanalysisforonemodu
lationonly(i.e.,themodulationsupportedbytheequipmentdefinedinthemicrowavelinkproperties).Ifyouselect
Adaptivemodulation(ACM),Atollperformsthelinkanalysisforeachmodulationdefinedinthemicrowavelinkprop
ertiesdialogue.
UnderBitErrorRate(BER),youcandefinethefollowingoptions:
BER1:SelectBER1ifyouwantAtolltoperformlinkanalysisfortheBER1value.
BER2:SelectBER2ifyouwantAtolltoperformlinkanalysisfortheBER2value.
Usedefinedvalueforeachlink:IfyouselectUsedefinedvalueforeachlink,Atollperformsthelinkanalysisusing
thevaluesoftheBER1andBER2definedinthepropertiesofeachmicrowavelink.
Samevalueforalllinks:IfyouselectSamevalueforalllinks,youcandefineavalueforBER 1andBER 2thatAtoll
willuseforallmicrowavelinks.
5. SelecttheInterferencetab.OntheInterferencetab,theparametersyoudefinewillbeusedtocalculateinterference.
UnderInterfererfiltering,youcandefinethefollowingparameters:
Maximumdistance:EnterthemaximumdistanceinmetresthatAtollwillsearcharoundeachsitetofindpoten
tiallyinterferingsites.
Interferedbandwidth:Definewhichsitesaretobeconsideredasinterferers.Youcanchoosefromthefollowing
options:

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Cochannelonly:Onlycochannelsitesareconsideredasinterferersites.Atollconsiderscochannelinterfer
encewhenthedifferencebetweentheinterferingandinterferedfrequenciesdoesnotexceedtheinterfered
bandwidth.WhenyouselectCochannelonly,noIRFgraphistakenintoaccount.
Userdefinedpercentage:Ifyouselectthisoption,youcanenterthepercentageoftheinterferedbandwidth
thatAtollshouldconsiderwhensearchingforinterferers.Therefore,ifyoukeepthedefaultvalueof250%,a
sitewillbeconsideredasaninterfererwhenthedifferencebetweentheinterferingandinterferedfrequen
ciesdoesnotexceed2.5timestheinterferedbandwidth.
Fixedguardband:Ifyouselectthisoption,youcanenterthedifferencebetweentheinterferingandinter
fered frequencies that Atoll should consider when searching for interferers. For example, if you keep the
defaultvalueof250 MHz,asitewillbeconsideredasaninterfererwhenthedifferencebetweentheinterfer
ingandinterferedfrequenciesislowerthan250 MHz.
Nofilter:Thereisnofilterandallsiteswithinthemaximumdistanceareconsideredasinterferers.
Interferenceviarepeaters:Selecthowinterferencecausedbyrepeatersshouldbetakenintoconsideration.
Ignoreinterferencebetweenchannelsofasamelink:SelecttheIgnoreinterferencebetweenchannelsofasame
linkcheckboxifyouwantAtolltoignoreinterferencegeneratedbychannelsofthesamemicrowavelinkoneach
other.Thisoptionisusefulifyouhavemicrowavelinkswith2+0configuration(i.e.,microwavelinkswithtwochan
nels).Italsoappliestoparallelmicrowavelinks.Inthiscontext,parallelmicrowavelinksarereferredtoaslinks
sharingthesamelinkextremities(e.g.,twolinksbetweenthesametwosites).
UnderCalculationparameters,youcandefinethefollowingparameters:
Calculationsteponinterfererprofiles:Entertheresolutiontobeusedtocalculateinterference.Thedefaultvalue
is50 m.Ifyouenter"0",Atollwillusetheminimumresolutionofthegeographicdata.
Powercontrol:Selectwhichoutputpoweryouwanttoconsiderforinterferingsiteswhenmodellingpowercon
trol.YoucanchoosebetweenUsenominalpowerandUsecoordinatepower.
Ignoredecouplingreductionwhencrosspolarisationisnotdefinedatthereceiver:SelecttheIgnoredecoupling
reductionwhencrosspolarisationisnotdefinedatthereceivercheckboxifyouwantAtolltoignoredecoupling
reductionwhencrosspolarisationisnotdefinedatthereceiver.
UnderAdaptivemodulation,youcandefinethefollowingparameters:
Interferedequipment:SelectthemodulationAtollshoulduseforinterferedequipmentduringcalculations:the
defaultmodulation,thelowestmodulation,thehighestmodulation,orallmodulations.Selectingallmodulations
canincreaseconsiderablytheamountofmemorynecessaryforcalculations.
Interferingequipment:SelectthemodulationAtollshoulduseforinterferedequipmentduringcalculations:the
defaultmodulation,thelowestmodulation,orthehighestmodulation.Selectingallmodulationscanincreasecon
siderablytheamountofmemorynecessaryforcalculations.

WhendisplayingtheInterferenceDetailsviewoftheMWAnalysiswindow,youcanselect
themodulation(ormodulations)forthestudiedsite.Themodulationsusedforthesite
interferingwithorinterferedbythestudiedsitearethosedefinedinthissectionofthe
InterferencetaboftheLinksPropertiesdialogue.

UnderResultsfiltering,youcandefinethefollowingparameters:
Min.thresholddegradationperinterferer:Enterthelocalminimumthresholddegradation.Thisthresholdisused
todecidewhetherasiteisinterferedbyanotherone.Amicrowavelinkisconsideredtobeinterferedbyanother
onewhenthethresholddegradationcausedbytheinterfererlinkexceedsthelocalminimumthresholddegrada
tion(i.e.,ifthelevelofinterference(I)receivedfromtheinterfererlinkleadstoadecreaseofthefadingmargin
higherthanthelocalminimumthreshold).
Totalmin.thresholddegradation:Enterthetotalminimumthresholddegradation.Thisthresholdisusedtoindi
catewhenamicrowavelinkisinterfered.Amicrowavelinkisconsideredtobeinterferedwhenthethresholddeg
radationcausedbyallinterferersexceedsthetotalminimumthreshold(i.e.,ifthesumofallinterferenceleadsto
adecreaseofthefadingmarginhigherthanthetotalminimumthreshold).Whenthetotalminimumthreshold
degradationisexceeded,thesymbol(!)isdisplayedbesidethevalueofthethresholddegradationintheInterfer
encereport.
6. ClicktheModelstab.OntheModelstab,theparametersyoudefinewillbeusedforqualityandavailabilityanalysis.
UnderAvailability,youcandefinethefollowingparameters:
Method: Select the method to be used to calculate availability. Six availability analysis methods are available
(CraneandthosebasedonimplementedITUrecommendations:ITURP.5308,ITURP.53010,ITURP.53011,
ITURP.53012andITURP.53013).
Attenuationmodelforrain:Selectthemodeltobeusedtocalculaterainattenuation.Twoattenuationmodels
forrain(ITUrecommendations8381and8383)areavailable.
UnderQuality,youcandefinethefollowingparameters:

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Method: Select the method to be used to calculate quality: VigantsBarnett, KQ factor, ITUR P.5308, ITUR
P.53010,ITURP.53011,ITURP.53012orITURP.53013.
IfyouselectamethodbasedononeoftheITURP.530recommendations,youcansetfurtherparametersunder
ITURP.530.
Multipathoccurrencemethod:IfyouselectrecommendationITURP.53010,ITURP.53011,ITURP.53012or
ITURP.53013,youcanuseeitherasimplifiedmethodoramethodtakingroughnessintoaccounttocalculate
thegeoclimaticfactor(K).IfyouselectVigantsBarnett,youcaneitherenterthegeoclimaticfactor(K)valueoruse
asimplifiedmethodoruseamethodtakingroughnessintoaccounttocalculatethegeoclimaticfactor(K).
Multichannel frequency diversity: Define whether the number of diversitystandby channels should have an
impactonthefrequencyimprovementfactor.Theselectedoptionisonlyconsideredincaseofmultichannelfre
quencydiversitysystemswhenAtollcalculatestheequivalentfrequencyfactor.SelectSharedifyouwantthe
equivalentfrequencyfactortobeinproportiontothenumberofdiversitystandbychannels.Otherwise,select
ContinuousandtheequivalentfrequencyfactorwillbethesameforanyN+Mconfiguration(itwillbeequalto1).
FormoreinformationseetheTechnicalReferenceGuide.
ITUR P.530: If you selected a Method under Quality based on implemented ITU recommendations (ITUR
P.5308,ITURP.53010,ITURP.53011,ITURP.53012andITURP.53013),youcansetthefollowingparame
ters:
Multipathpropagation:UnderMultipathpropagation,selecttheIgnoreSignalEnhancementscheckboxif
youwantAtolltoignoresignalenhancements.
Selectivefading:UnderSelectivefadingyoucandefinereferencedelayvaluesforthesecondarysignalt(tau)
forminimumandnonminimumphaseconditions.
Erroneous blocks: Under Erroneous blocks you can define the network level consideration values for the
ResidualBitErrorRate(RBER),thenumberoferrorsperburstforBitErrorRatebetween103andBERSESand
forBitErrorRatebetweenBERSESandRBER.
K.Q.method:Ifyouselected"KQfactor"astheMethod,underQuality,youcansetthefollowingparameter:
Frequencyexponent:Definetheexponentofthefrequency.
Distance:Definethedistance.
7. ClicktheObjectivestab.OntheObjectivestab,youcandefinethefollowingobjectiverelatedparameters:
UnderPerformanceobjectives,youcandefinehowqualityandavailabilityobjectivesareselected.Bydefault,the
objectivesareselectedaccordingtothemicrowavelinkrateanditslength.Then,theycanbeselectedaccording
tothetypeoftheobjective(fromITUTG.821,ITUTG.826,orITUTG.828recommendationsforthequalityobjec
tivesandITUTG.821orITUTG.826foravailabilityobjectives,oracustomisedobjective).ClickingtheBrowse

button( )besidetheQualityorAvailabilityboxopensadialoguewhereyoucandefineapriorityforeach
selectioncriterion.
UnderApportionmentofavailabilityobjectives,youcandefinetheratiobetweenthedifferentobjectivescon
sideredintheglobalavailabilityobjective.Microwavelinkunavailabilitycanbedueeithertorain(withitsimpact
onpropagation),toequipmentfailure,oritcanberandom.Therefore,theglobalavailabilityobjectiveconsistsof
threepartialobjectivesforwhichyoucandefineaweight.Theseweightsaretakenintoconsiderationwhencal
culatingtheperformanceobjectivestobeconsideredwhenanalysingthemicrowavelinkunavailabilityduetorain
andtheunavailabilityduetoequipmentfailures.
8. ClicktheClutterCategoriestab.OntheClutterCategoriestab,theparametersyoudefinewillbeusedtoanalyse
reflectionandcalculatevegetationlosses.
ThistablistsallcluttercategoriesdefinedinRec.ITURP.10582andtheircharacteristics.Foreachcluttercategory,
youcandefinethefollowingparameters:
Reflective:SelecttheReflectivecheckboxifyouwantAtolltoconsiderallclutterclasseswiththiscluttercategory
asreflectionareas.
Vegetation with leaves: Select the Vegetation with leaves check box if you want Atoll to consider all clutter
classeswiththiscluttercategoryasvegetationzoneswithfoliage.
Vegetation without leaves: Select the Vegetation without leaves check box if you want Atoll to consider all
clutterclasseswiththiscluttercategoryasvegetationzoneswithoutfoliage.
Soiltype:SelectthetypeofgroundasdefinedinRec.ITURP.5273.Thetypeofgroundisusedtodetermineper
mittivityandconductivityvaluestakenintoaccountinreflectionanalysis.Thefollowingaretheavailabletypesof
ground:
A:seawater(averagesalinity),20C
B:wetground
C:freshwater,20C
D:mediumdryground
E:verydryground
F:purewater,20C

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G:ice(freshwater)
9. ClickOK.

6.2.2 MicrowaveLinkParameters
Themicrowavelinkparameterswhichaffectcalculationsarethefollowing:
Geoclimaticparameters:Thegeoclimaticparametersdefinetheenvironmentandtheclimatezonewherethemicro
wavelinkisoperating,includingterrainclimatefactor,rainintensity(exceeding0.01%oftime),PLpercentage,tem
perature,watervapourdensity,earthcurvaturefactor(k),effectiveearthcurvaturefactor(ke),andthegeoclimatic
factorK.
Performance parameters: The performance parameters define the quality and availability of the microwave link.
Underidealcircumstancesamicrowavelinkshouldbecompletelyreliable100%ofthetime.Inpractice,thisperfor
mancelevelisneverachievedduetocontinuouslychangingpropagationconditionsandpossibleproblemswiththe
equipment.
Propagationparameters:Propagationmodelscanbedefinedtocalculateusefulandinterferingsignals.Fromthe
usefulsignal,Atollevaluatesthemarginwhichisthenconsideredforcalculatingthequalityandtheavailabilityofthe
microwavelink.
Linkclass:Eachlinkclasscanhavedifferentperformanceobjectives.Byassigningthelinkclasswiththeappropriate
performanceobjectives,youassigntheperformanceobjectivestothemicrowavelink.Forinformationoncreatinga
linkclass,see"LinkClasses"onpage 178.
Themicrowavelinkparameterswhichaffectcalculationscanbedefinedforasinglemicrowavelinkandthenappliedtoall
microwavelinksortoagroupofmicrowavelinksthatsharethesamecharacteristics.Definingparametersisexplainedinthe
followingsections:
"DefiningParametersforaSingleMicrowaveLink"onpage 198
"DefiningParametersforAllMicrowaveLinks"onpage 202
"DefiningParametersthatAffectCalculationsforaGroupofMicrowaveLinks"onpage 205
"RecalculatingMicrowaveLinkParameters"onpage 209.

6.2.2.1 DefiningParametersforaSingleMicrowaveLink
YousettheparametersthataffectcalculationsforamicrowavelinkonthreetabsofthemicrowavelinksPropertiesdialogue:
theGeoclimatictab,thePerformancetab,andthePropagationtab.
Todefinetheparametersforasinglemicrowavelink:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveLinksfolder.
4. Rightclickthemicrowavelinkforwhichyouwanttosettheparameters.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogueappears.

YoucanalsoaccessamicrowavelinksPropertiesdialoguebyrightclickingthemicrowave
linkonthemapandselectingPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.

ThemicrowavelinkPropertiesdialoguehasseveraltabs:General,Radio,Connections,Geoclimatic,Performance,
Propagation,andDisplay.ThemicrowavelinksettingsthataffectcalculationsareontheGeoclimatic,Performance,
andPropagationtabs andaredescribedhere.Foranexplanationofthe optionsavailableonthe General,Radio,
Connections,andDisplaytabs,seeChapter7:MicrowaveLinkProjects.
6. ClicktheGeoclimatictab(seeFigure 6.7).

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Figure 6.7:MicrowavelinkPropertiesdialogueGeoclimatictab

7. OntheGeoclimatictab,youcandefineclimaterelatedsettingsaffectingthemicrowavelink:
Currentmethods:UnderCurrentmethods,youcanseethecalculationmethodsusedtoanalysethemicrowave
linkqualityandavailability.ThemethodsdisplayedarethosesetontheModelstaboftheLinksPropertiesdia
logue.Formoreinformation,see"GlobalParameters"onpage 194
Thegeoclimaticparametersavailabledependontheselectedqualityandavailabilitymethods.Toaccessallgeo
climaticparametersindependentlyofthemethodsyouhaveselected,clicktheDisplayAllbuttonunderCurrent
methods.
Atmosphericandclimaticconditions:UnderAtmosphericandclimaticconditions,youcandefinetheconditions
underwhichthemicrowaveoperates:
Climatezone(Vigants):Selecttheclimaticzonethatbestdescribestheclimateinwhichthemicrowavelink
operates.ThisinformationisusedonlywhenusingVigantsBarnettasthequalitycalculationmethod.Youcan
choosebetween"WarmandHumid","Temperate","Dry"and"GreatLakesAreas".
Rainzone:Selecttherainzoneinwhichthemicrowavelinkoperates.Youcanselectthefollowingrainzones:
"A:Polar(Dry)","B:Polar(Moderate)","B1:Cold(Dry)","B2:Cold(Moderate)","C:TemperateMaritime",
"D1:TemperateContinental(Dry)","D2:TemperateContinental(Moderate)","D3:TemperateContinental
(Wet)","E:SubtropicalWet","F:SubtropicalArid(Dry)","G:TropicalModerate"and"H:Tropical".
Temperature:Settheaveragetemperatureofthezoneinwhichthemicrowavelinkoperates.Clickingthe
button( )besidetheTemperaturetextboxopensadialoguewhereyoucanselectthetemperaturebased
onRec.ITURP.15100,ITURP.8353(andselectaseason),orthetemperaturesetinthegeoclimaticfile.For
moreinformationonthegeoclimaticfile,see"GeoclimaticMaps"onpage 127.
Rec.ITURP.530:TheparametersfoundunderRec.ITURP.530arethoserecommendedbyITURP.530to
calculatethequalityofthemicrowavelink:

WaterVapourDensity:Setthewatervapourdensityingramspercubicmetre.Clickingthebutton( )be
sidetheWaterVapourDensitytextboxopensadialoguewhereyoucanselectthewatervapourdensity
basedonRec.ITURP.8363(andselectthepercentageoftheaverageyearwherethedefinedwatervapour
densityisexceeded),orbasedonRec.ITURP.8353(andselectaseason),orthewatervapourdensitysetin
thegeoclimaticfile.Formoreinformationonthegeoclimaticfile,see"GeoclimaticMaps"onpage 127.The

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dialoguealsodisplaysthewatervapourpressureinhectopascals(hPa)calculatedusingyourdataandbased
onRec.ITURP.4539.
Rainfallrateexceeded0.01%oftheaverageyear:Settherainfallrateexceeded0.01%oftheaverageyear
(or,inotherwords,anamountofrainfallalmostneverobserved).Clickingthebutton( )besidetheRainfall
rateexceeded0.01%oftheaverageyeartextboxopensadialoguewhereyoucanselecttherainfallrateex
ceeded0.01%oftheaverageyearbasedonRec.ITURP.8374ortherainfallrateexceeded0.01%oftheav
erageyearsetinthegeoclimaticfile.Formoreinformationonthegeoclimaticfile,see"GeoclimaticMaps"on
page 127.

Atmosphericpressure:Settheatmosphericpressureinhectopascal.Clickingthebutton( )besidetheAt
mosphericpressureboxopensadialoguewhereyoucanselecttheatmosphericpressurebasedonRec.ITUR
P.8353(andselectaseason),ortheatmosphericpressuresetinthegeoclimaticfile.Formoreinformationon
thegeoclimaticfile,see"GeoclimaticMaps"onpage 127.
Relativehumidity:TheRelativehumiditydisplayediscalculatedusingthedefinedwatervapourdensity.
Rec.ITURP.53012,13:UnderRec.ITURP.53012,13,youcanentertheRainheight(0C/32FIsotherm)
inmetres.Therainheightistheheightofthetopoftheraincolumnabovemeansealevelfromthe0Ciso
therm.Clickingthebutton( )besidetheRainheightboxopensadialoguewhereyoucanselecttherain
heightbasedonRec.ITURP.8393,ortherainheightsetinthegeoclimaticfile.Formoreinformationonthe
geoclimaticfile,see"GeoclimaticMaps"onpage 127.
Refractivitygradient:UnderRefractivitygradient,youcansetthefollowingparameters:
Innormalconditions:Settherefractivitygradientobserved50%oftimeinNunitsperkm.Clickingthebutton
( )besidetheInnormalconditionstextboxopensadialoguewhereyoucanselectthemethodtoestimate
therefractivitygradientundernormalconditions.TherefractivitygradientcanbecalculatedfromRec.ITUR
P.4539,usingauserdefinedreferencealtitude,ortherefractivitygradientcanbebasedondatagivenbyRec.
ITURP.4539forlessthan65 m.andapercentageoftheyearthatNisnotexceeded(50%issetbydefault),
ortherefractivitygradientcanbesetinthegeoclimaticfile.Formoreinformationonthegeoclimaticfile,see
"GeoclimaticMaps"onpage 127.
Thekfactormedianvalue,calculatedusingthesetparameters,isdisplayed.
Insubrefractionconditions:Settherefractivitygradientobserved99%oftimeinNunitsperkm.Clickingthe
button( )besidetheInsubrefractionconditionstextboxautomaticallycalculatestherefractivitygradient
undersubrefractionconditions.
Thekfactoreffectivevalue,calculatedusingthesetparameters,isdisplayed.
Geoclimaticfactor:TheparametersunderGeoclimaticfactorareusedtocalculatethequalityofthemicrowave
linkandarebrokendownbycalculationmethod.UnderGeoclimaticfactor,youcansetthefollowingparameters:
VigantsBarnett:ParametersavailableunderVigantsBarnettdependontheoptionselectedontheModels
taboftheLinksPropertiesdialogue.
IfyouselectUserdefinedunderMultipathoccurrencemethod,youcanentertheTerrainclimatefactor C
value,thepropagationconditionfactorfortheVigantsBarnettmethod.
IfyouselecttheSimplifiedmethodortheTerrainbased(roughness)method,youcandefinetheTerraintype
("FlatTerrain","AverageTerrain","MountainousTerrain",or"GreatLakes").IfyouareusingtheSimplified
method,AtolldisplaystheTerrainclimatefactor Cvaluecorrespondingtothedefinedclimatezoneandthe
terraintype.FortheTerrainbased(roughness)method,AtolldisplaystheTerrainclimatefactor Cvaluecor
respondingtothedefinedclimatezoneandtheterraintypeandletsyouselectwhetheryouwanttoTaketer
rainroughnessintoaccount.
ITURP.5305,8:UnderITURP.5305,8,youcanselecttheEnvironment.Youcanchoosebetween"Open
areas"forterrestrialmicrowavelinkswheretheheightofthelowestantennainthemicrowavelinkislower
than700 m;"Mountains"forterrestrialmicrowavelinkswheretheheightofthelowestantennainthemicro
wavelinkishigherthan700 m;"Lakes"formicrowavelinksoveranexpanseofwater;or"Overwater"formi
crowavelinksoveranextendedexpanseofwater.Finally,youcandefinethePLfactor.PListhepercentof
timetherelativerefractivitygradientislessthan100 NKm.ThePLfactorcanbefoundontheITURmaps.
K.Q.method:UnderK.Q.method,youcandefineK.Q.fortheK.Qmethod.Kmodelsgeoclimaticandterrain
effectsonclimatewhileQisthefactorforvariablesotherthanthosedependentondistanceandfrequency.
Rec.ITURP.530:UnderITURP.530,youcandefinetheKfactor.Kmodelsgeoclimaticandterraineffectson
climate.Clickingthebutton( )besidetheKboxopensadialoguewhereyoucanselecttheKfactorbased
onRec.ITURP.5305orRec.ITURP.5308(andselectaterraintypeandenteravalueforC0andforthe
percentage of time the refractivity gradient (< 100 m.) is less than 100 Nunitskm for the worst average
month)orbasedonRec.ITURP.53010andabove(andselectthesimplifiedmethodwhereyoualsodefine

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the refractivity gradient (< 65 m.) not exceeded during 1% of the average year or select the method with
terrainroughnesstakenintoaccountwhereyoudefinetherefractivitygradientandtheterrainroughness).
8. ClickthePerformancetab(seeFigure 6.8).

Figure 6.8:MicrowavelinkPropertiesdialoguePerformancetab

9. OnthePerformancetab,youcandefineperformancerelatedparameters:
Linkclass:UnderLinkClass,youcanselectthemicrowavelinkclass.Eachlinkclasscanhavedifferentperfor
manceobjectives.Byassigningmicrowavelinkclassestomicrowavelinks,youareassigningthetargetparameters
andusagelimitationsofthelinkclasstotheselectedmicrowavelinks.Forinformationoncreatingalinkclass,see
"LinkClasses"onpage 178.

ClickingtheBrowsebutton( )opensthePropertiesdialogueoftheselectedlinkclass.
ClickingtheObjectivesbuttonopensadialoguewhereyoucanviewandmodifytheperformanceobjectivesof
theselectedlinkclass.
BER:UnderBER,youcansetthevaluesforBER 1andBER 2.AtolldisplaystheresultingsensitivityforeachBER.
IfthevalueforBERthatyouenterisnotdefinedinthepropertiesoftheequipment,Atollwillinterpolatetode
terminethecorrespondingsensitivity.
Reliability:UnderReliability,youcansettheMeantimetorepair(MTTR)inhour.TheMTTRistakenintoaccount
whencalculatingunavailabilityduetofailuresifthemicrowavelinkisnotequippedwithahotstandbychannel
system.
10. ClickthePropagationtab(seeFigure 6.9).

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Figure 6.9:MicrowavelinkPropertiesdialoguePropagationtab

11. OnthePropagationtab,youcandefinepropagationrelatedparameters:
Usefulsignal:UnderUsefulsignal,youcanselectthepropagationmodelthatwillbeusedtocalculatetheuseful
signal.Fromthisparameter,Atollevaluatesthemarginwhichisthenconsideredforcalculatingthequalityand
theavailabilityofthemicrowavelink.Interferingsignal:UnderInterferingsignal,youcanselectthepropagation
modelthatwillbeusedtocalculatesignallevelreceivedfrominterferingsites.
12. ClickOK.

6.2.2.2 DefiningParametersforAllMicrowaveLinks
Undercertaincircumstances,forexample,inahighlyhomogeneousnetwork,youwillwanttosetthesameparametersfor
allmicrowavelinks.Youcansetthesameparametersforallmicrowavelinksatthesametimebyfirstdefiningtheparameters
forasinglemicrowavelinkandthencopyingthemtoallmicrowavelinks.
Todefinetheparametersforallmicrowavelinks:
1. Definetheparametersforasinglemicrowavelink,asdescribedin"DefiningParametersforaSingleMicrowaveLink"
onpage 198.
2. Copythedefinedparameterstoallmicrowavelinks.
Tocopythedefinedparameterstoallmicrowavelinks:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. RightclicktheMicrowaveLinksfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheMicrowaveLinkstableappears.
5. LocatetherowintheMicrowaveLinkstablewiththemicrowavelinkwhoseparametersyoujustupdated.

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IntheMicrowaveLinkstable,thecolumnnamescorrespondingtotheparametersthataffectcalculationsonthetabs
ofthemicrowavelinksPropertiesdialogueare:
Geoclimatictab:
ClimaticZone
RainArea
Temperature(C)
AtmosphericPressure(hPa)
WaterVapour(g/m3)
R001(mm/h)
RainHeight(m)
Refractivity
Refractivity(Subrefraction)
EnvironmentType(Vigants)
FactorC
EnvironmentType
PL(%)
FactorK.Q
GeoclimaticFactor(K)
Performancetab:
LinkClass
BER
2ndBER
MTTR(h)
Propagationtab:
PropagationModel
InterferenceModel
6. Foreachcellwithacalculationparameterthatyouhavealreadymodified,copythevaluesintoallcellsabovethemod
ifiedcell:

a. Clickthemodifiedcell.

b. Dragupwardstoselectthecellsintowhichyouwanttocopythedata.

c. ClicktheFillUpbutton( )intheTabletoolbar.

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Thecontentsofthemodifiedcellarecopiedintoallcellsselected.

7. Repeattheproceduretocopythemodifiedvaluesintotheremainingcellsabovethemodifiedmicrowavelink.
8. Foreachcellwithacalculationparameterthatyouhavealreadymodified,copythevaluesintothecellsbelowthe
modifiedcell:

a. Clickthemodifiedcell.

b. Dragdownwardstoselectthecellsintowhichyouwanttocopythedata.

c. ClicktheFillDownbutton( )intheTabletoolbar.

Thecontentsofthemodifiedcellarecopiedintoallcellsselected.

9. Repeattheproceduretocopythemodifiedvaluesintotheremainingcellsbelowthemodifiedmicrowavelink.

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6.2.2.3 DefiningParametersthatAffectCalculationsforaGroupofMicrowave
Links
Undercertaincircumstances,forexample,inanetworkthatspansagreatdistance,youwillwanttosetthesameparameters
fordefinedgroupsofmicrowavelinksbutnotforallmicrowavelinks.Youcansetthesameparametersfordefinedgroupsof
microwavelinksbyfirstdefiningtheparametersforasinglemicrowavelink,sortingthemicrowavelinksaccordingtotheir
commonattributes,andthencopyingtheparameterstoallmicrowavelinksinthatgroup.
Todefinetheparametersforagroupofmicrowavelinks:
1. Definetheparametersforasinglemicrowavelink,asdescribedin"DefiningParametersforaSingleMicrowaveLink"
onpage 198.
2. Selectthemicrowavelinkstowhichyouwanttocopytheparametersby:
Groupingthemicrowavelinks(see"GroupingMicrowaveLinks"onpage 205)
Sortingthemicrowavelinks(see"SortingMicrowaveLinks"onpage 205)
Filteringthemicrowavelinks(see"FilteringMicrowaveLinks"onpage 208)
3. Copythedefinedparameterstotheselectedgroupofmicrowavelinks.

GroupingMicrowaveLinks

Toselectthemicrowavelinkstowhichyouwanttocopytheparametersbygrouping:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. RightclicktheMicrowaveLinksfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. FromtheGroupBysubmenu,selectthepropertybywhichyouwanttogroupthemicrowavelinks.Ensurethatyou
choseapropertythatallthemicrowavelinksyouwanttomodifyandthemicrowavelinkwiththemodifiedparame
tershaveincommon.
Themicrowavelinksinthefolderaregroupedinseparatefoldersbythatproperty.

If the range of properties available in the Group By submenu has been configured as
explainedin"ConfiguringtheGroupBySubmenu"onpage 70,youcanselectadditional
propertiesbyselectingMoreFieldsfromtheGroupBysubmenu.Forinformationonusing
thedialoguethatappears,see"ConfiguringtheGroupBySubmenu"onpage 70.

5. Rightclickthefolderwiththegroupedmicrowavelinks.Thecontextmenuappears.
6. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheMicrowaveLinkstableappears.
7. Copytheparametersfromthemodifiedmicrowavelinktotheothermicrowavelinksinthegroupasexplainedin
"DefiningParametersforAllMicrowaveLinks"onpage 202.
Onceyouhavefinishedcopyingtheparameters,youcanungroupthelinksbyrightclickingtheMicrowaveLinksfolderand
selectingGroupBy >Nonefromthecontextmenu.

SortingMicrowaveLinks

Tosortthemicrowavelinkstowhichyouwanttocopytheparameters:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. RightclicktheMicrowaveLinksfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheMicrowaveLinkstableappears.
5. Rightclickthetablecolumnwiththeparameteryouwanttosorton.Thecontextmenuappears.
6. SelecteitherSortAscendingorSortDescendingfromthecontextmenu.
7. LocatetherowintheMicrowaveLinkstablewiththemicrowavelinkwhoseparametersyoujustupdated.
IntheMicrowaveLinkstable,thecolumnnamescorrespondingtotheparametersonthetabsofthemicrowavelinks
Propertiesdialogueare:
Geoclimatictab:
ClimaticZone
RainArea
Temperature(C)

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AtmosphericPressure(hPa)
WaterVapour(g/m3)
R001(mm/h)
RainHeight(m)
Refractivity
Refractivity(Subrefraction)
EnvironmentType(Vigants)
FactorC
EnvironmentType
PL(%)
FactorK.Q
GeoclimaticFactor(K)
Performancetab:
LinkClass
BER
2ndBER
MTTR(h)
Propagationtab:
PropagationModel
InterferenceModel
8. Foreachcellwithacalculationparameterthatyouhavealreadymodified,copythevaluesintoallcellsinthegroup
abovethemodifiedcell:

a. Clickthemodifiedcell.

b. Dragupwardstoselectthecellsintowhichyouwanttocopythedata.

Ensurethatyouonlyselectthecellsofthemicrowavelinksyouwanttomodify.

c. ClicktheFillUpbutton( )intheTabletoolbar.

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Thecontentsofthemodifiedcellarecopiedintoallcellsselected.

9. Repeattheproceduretocopythemodifiedvaluesintotheremainingcellsinthegroupabovethemodifiedmicrowave
link.
10. Foreachcellwithacalculationparameterthatyouhavealreadymodified,copythevaluesintothecellsinthegroup
belowthemodifiedcell:

a. Clickthemodifiedcell.

b. Dragdownwardstoselectthecellsintowhichyouwanttocopythedata.

Ensurethatyouonlyselectthecellsofthemicrowavelinksyouwanttomodify.

c. clicktheFillDownbutton( )intheTabletoolbar.

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Thecontentsofthemodifiedcellarecopiedintoallcellsselected.

FilteringMicrowaveLinks

Tofilterthemicrowavelinkstowhichyouwanttocopytheparameters:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. RightclicktheMicrowaveLinksfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheMicrowaveLinkstableappears.
Youcannowfilteronavalueinthetable.Youcaneitheruseavaluethatallmicrowavelinkstowhichyouwantto
copyparametershaveincommonwiththemicrowavelinkyoupreviouslymodified,oryoucanuseavaluethese
microwavelinksdonothave.
5. Selectthevaluetofilteron.Toselectmorethanonevalue,pressCTRLasyouclicktheothervalues.
6. Rightclickthecellandselectoneofthefollowingfromthecontextmenu:
FilterbySelection:Allmicrowavelinkswiththeselectedvalueorvaluesaredisplayed.Youcannowmodifythese
microwavelinksasyouwouldnormallydowiththeentireMicrowaveLinkstable(seeFigure 6.10onpage 208).
FilterExcludingSelection:Allmicrowavelinkswithouttheselectedvalueorvaluesaredisplayed.Youcannow
modifytheserecordsormakecalculationsonthemasyouwouldnormallydowiththeentireMicrowaveLinks
table(seeFigure 6.11onpage 208).

Figure 6.10:Filteringbyselection(SubBandA>>B:23G_28)

Figure 6.11:Filteringexcludingselection(SubBandA>>B:23G_28)

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Youcanuseadvanceddatafilteringtocombineseveralcriteriaindifferentfieldstocreate
complexfilters.Formoreinformationonadvancedfiltering,see"AdvancedDataFiltering"
onpage 75.

7. Copytheparametersfromthemodifiedmicrowavelinktotheothermicrowavelinksinthegroupasexplainedin
"DefiningParametersforAllMicrowaveLinks"onpage 202.

6.2.2.4 RecalculatingMicrowaveLinkParameters
Someofthemicrowavelinkparameters,forexample,thegeoclimacticfactorK,arecalculatedbasedondefinedparameters.
Youcancalculatetheseparametersforeachmicrowavelink,usingeachmicrowavelinksPropertiesdialogue,oryoucan
calculatethemforallorforadefinedgroupofmicrowavelinksusingtheMicrowaveLinkstable.
Torecalculatemicrowavelinkparametersforallmicrowavelinks:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. RightclicktheMicrowaveLinksfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheMicrowaveLinkstableappears.
5. Selectthecolumnoftheparameteryouwanttorecalculateorselectasubgroupofmicrowavelinksasexplainedin
"DefiningParametersthatAffectCalculationsforaGroupofMicrowaveLinks"onpage 205.
6. RightclicktheselectionandselectCalculatefromthecontextmenu.Adialogueappearsinwhichyoucansetthecal
culationoptions.Forinformationontheparameters,see"MicrowaveLinkParameters"onpage 198.

Because the frequency is recalculated to respect the defined frequency band and sub
band,nodialogueappears.

7. ClickOK.Atollrecalculatesthevaluesoftheselectedentriesaccordingtotheenteredparameters.

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Chapter7
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Projects
ThischapterprovidestheinformationtouseAtollto Inthischapter,thefollowingareexplained:
design,analyse,andoptimiseamicrowavelinknetwork.
"DesigningaMicrowaveLinkNetwork"onpage 213
"PlanningandOptimisingMicrowaveSites"on
page 214
"CreatingLinks"onpage 226
"AnalysingthePathProfile"onpage 244
"AnalysingMicrowaveLinkReliability"onpage 254
"StudyingReflection"onpage 264
"PlanningMicrowaveLinkChannels"onpage 271
"AnalysingInterference"onpage 279
"AdvancedConfiguration"onpage 289
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7 MicrowaveLinkProjects
Themicrowavelinksmoduleenablesyoutoplan,design,andanalysemicrowavelinknetworks.UsingAtoll'smicrowavelinks
module,microwavelinknetworkscanbedesignedandanalysedinseparateAtollprojectsaswellaswithin2G(GMS/GPRS/
EGPRS)and3G(CDMA2000/UMTS/WCDMA)mobilenetworkprojects.
UsingAtoll'smicrowavelinksmodule,youcandefineandmodelfrequencybandsandsubbands,antennas,radioequipment,
feeder equipment, passive repeaters, simple, multihop, and point to multipoint systems. You can define and set target
performanceobjectivesintermsoflinkclassesandperformanceobjectives,definingthequalityandavailabilitytargets.You
candeterminelinkbudgetsoverasinglemicrowavelink,overmultipleconnectedmicrowavelinks(multihoplinks),orover
ahubwithseverallinks(pointtomultipointsystems).Youcanalsocarryoutendtoendreliabilityanalyses,interferenceanal
yses,andfrequencyplanning.Atollalsoenablesyoutodesignyourmicrowavelinknetworkswhiletakingfuturegrowthand
enhancementsintoconsideration.
ComprehensiveanalysisfeaturesintheAtollmicrowavelinkmoduleenablethestudyofsimple,multihop,andpointtomulti
pointsystemsinanynetwork.Anymicrowavelinkisconsideredoperationalwhenitgloballysatisfiestherequiredqualityand
availabilitycriteriasetbytheoperator.Anymicrowavelinkisassessedgenerallyintermsofthelink'srobustness,i.e.,thedata
transmissionshouldundergotheleastpossibleerrors,themicrowavelinkshouldsuffertheleastnumberoffailures(usually
measuredperyear)andthedurationofthesefailuresshouldalsobeasshortaspossible.Allthesecriteriaaredescribedin
detailintheITUstandardsandrecommendations.Atollfollowsthesestandardsandenablestheusertosetindepthquality
andavailabilitytargetsforthenetworkbeingdesigned.
Furthermore,itisfundamentaltothecorrectperformanceofamicrowavelinkthatlineofsightbeavailable,i.e.,thatthere
beacleartransmissionpathbetweenthetwonodesofthemicrowavelink.Theelectromagneticsignaldispersesasitmoves
awayfromsource,andthereforethelineofsightclearancemusttakethisdispersionintoaccountandattentionshouldbe
paidtoobjectsnearthedirectsignalpathtoensuretherequiredsignallevelsreachthereceivingantenna.Thisisreferredto
as"FresnelZone"clearance.Atoll'sprofileanalysisfeaturepermitsallowsyoutoviewthelineofsight,Fresnelzoneclearance,
andreflectivesurfacesalongthelink'sprofile.
Reallife microwave links do not operate in ideal environments. As it is not always possible to have a direct lineofsight
connectionbetweentwoextremities,repeatersareemployedasaworkaroundinordertocreateapseudodirectmicrowave
link.Atollfullymodelsthedesignanduseofmicrowaverepeaters,andallowstworepeaterstobeinsertedwithinamicro
wavelink.Performanceimprovementtechniquessuchasfrequencyandspacediversityatreceptionarealsomodelled.
Sinceseverallinkscansharetheirextremities(startorend),thedescriptionofamicrowavelinksnetworkinAtollisdivided
intotwofoldersontheNetworktaboftheexplorerwindow:
TheSitesfolder,whichcontainsthesetofpointsthatcanbeusedasextremitiesforlinks.Thisfoldercanalsocontain
sitesfor2Gand3Gmobilenetworkprojectsinincorporatedmobile/microwaveprojects.
TheLinksfolder,whichcontainsthedefinitionsofmicrowavelinks,othertransmissionlinks,multihoplinks,andpoint
tomultipointsystems.EachlinkreferstoatleasttwoseparatesitesintheSitesfolder.

7.1 DesigningaMicrowaveLinkNetwork
Figure 7.1depictstheprocessofcreatingandplanningamicrowavelinknetwork.Thestepsinvolvedinplanningamicrowave
linknetworkaredescribedbelow.ThenumbersrefertoFigure 7.1.

1. Openanexistingmicrowavelinkdocumentorcreateanewone( 1 ).
YoucanopenanexistingAtolldocumentbyselectingFile >Open.
YoucancreateanewAtolldocumentasexplainedinChapter2:StartinganAtollProject.

2. Configurethemicrowavelinknetworkbydefiningnetworkparameters( 2 ).
Youcandefinetheequipmentsuchasantennas,radiosandfeedersusedinthenetwork(seeChapter4:Antennas
andEquipment)
Youdefineandmodifymicrowavefrequencybands(seeChapter5:MicrowaveSettings).
3. Addsitesandcarryoutbasicevaluationsofthecandidatesitesandlocatemoresuitablelocationsforcandidatesites
( 3 ).
Youcanaddsitesormodifyexistingones(see"CreatingorModifyingaSite"onpage 215).
Youcanevaluatethelocationofexistingsites(see"SiteSurveyTools"onpage 216)andsearchfornewcandidate
sites(see"ToolsinAtollforFindingNewSites"onpage 225).

4. Createmicrowavelinksbetweensites( 4 ).
Youcancreateamicrowavelink(see"CreatingorModifyingaMicrowaveLink"onpage 233)basedonamicro
wave link template. If necessary, you can modify the template on which new links are based (see "Managing
MicrowaveLinkTemplates"onpage 236).

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Ifnecessary,youcancreaterepeatersalongmicrowavelinksbetweensites.
Youcancreatemultihopmicrowavelinks("CreatingMultihops"onpage 262).
5. Analysethemicrowavenetwork.
Youcananalysethepathprofile(see"AnalysingthePathProfile"onpage 244),addingpassiverepeatersifneces
sary(see"AddingaPassiveRepeatertoaMicrowaveLink"onpage 240)( 5 ).
Youcananalysethequalityandreliabilityofthenetwork(see"AnalysingMicrowaveLinkReliability"onpage 254)
( 6 ).
Youcanstudyreflectionalongthemicrowavelinkprofile(see"StudyingReflection"onpage 264)( 7 ).
Youcaninterferencealongthemicrowavelinkprofile(see"AnalysingInterference"onpage 279)( 8 ).

6. Planmicrowavelinkchannels( 9 )
"PlanningMicrowaveLinkChannels"onpage 271.
Optimisationandanalysisareiterativesteps.Thelastfourstepscanberepeatedinordertoachievetheoptimumsolutionfor
thenetwork.

7. Ifnecessary,modifynetworkparameterstostudythenetworkwithadifferentfrequencyplan( 10 ).Aftermodifying
thenetworksfrequencyplan,youmustperformsteps 7 and 8 again.

Figure 7.1:Planningamicrowavelinknetworkworkflow

7.2 PlanningandOptimisingMicrowaveSites
AsdescribedinChapter2:StartinganAtollProject,youcanstartanAtolldocumentfromatemplate,withnosites,orfroma
databasewithasetofsites.AsyouworkonyourAtolldocument,youwillstillneedtocreatesitesandmodifyexistingones.
InAtoll,asiteisdefinedasageographicalpointsupportingoneormoremicrowavelinks.Atollenablesyoutoverifythechar
acteristicsofeachcandidateinordertochosethebestsite.Additionally,Atollhastoolsthatallowyoutosearchfornewloca
tionsforsites.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"CreatingSites"onpage 215
"SiteSurveyTools"onpage 216
"ToolsinAtollforFindingNewSites"onpage 225.

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7.2.1 CreatingSites
Whenyoucreateamicrowavesite,youcreateonlythegeographicalpoint.Thecreatedsitecanthensupportoneormore
microwavelinks.
Inthissection,thefollowingaredescribed:
"SiteDescription"onpage 215
"CreatingorModifyingaSite"onpage 215.

7.2.1.1 SiteDescription
TheparametersofasitecanbefoundinthesitesPropertiesdialogue.ThePropertiesdialoguehastwotabs:
TheGeneraltab(seeFigure 7.2):

Figure 7.2:NewSitedialogue

Name:Atollentersadefaultnameforeachnewsite.Youcanmodifythedefaultname.Ifyouwanttochange
thedefaultnamethatAtollgivestonewsites,seetheAdministratorManual.

Bydefault,Atollplacesthenameofthesiteonthemapinacertainpositionvisvisthe
site.IfyourightclicktheSitestabintheNetworkexplorerandselectCalculatingLabel
Positionsfromthecontextmenu,Atollwilldetermineapositionforthelabelwhereitis
nothiddenbythemicrowavelink.

Position:Bydefault,Atollplacesthenewsiteatthecentreofthemapwindow.Youcanmodifythelocation
ofthesite.
Altitude:Thealtitude,asdefinedbytheDTMforthelocationspecifiedunderPosition,isgivenhere.Youcan
specifytheactualaltitudeunderReal,ifyouwant.Ifanaltitudeisspecifiedhere,Atollwillusethisvaluefor
calculations.
Comments:Youcanentercommentsinthisfieldifyouwant.
TheSupporttab:
Supportheight:Youcandefinetheheightofthestructureonwhichyoucaninstallantennas.Atollcanuse
thisheightinseveralanalyses(siteanalysis,antennaheightoptimisation,etc.).
Supporttype:Youcandescribethenatureofsite.Thisfieldisforinformationonly.

7.2.1.2 CreatingorModifyingaSite
Youcanmodifyanexistingsiteoryoucancreateanewsite.Youcanaccessthepropertiesofasite,describedin"SiteDescrip
tion"onpage 215,throughthesitesPropertiesdialogue.HowyouaccessthePropertiesdialoguedependsonwhetheryou
arecreatinganewsiteormodifyinganexistingsite.
Tocreateanewsite:
1. ClicktheNetworktabintheexplorerwindow.
2. RightclicktheSitesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectNewfromthecontextmenu.TheSitesNewElementPropertiesdialogueappears(seeFigure 7.2onpage 215).
4. Modifytheparametersdescribedin"SiteDescription"onpage 215.

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5. ClickOK.
Tomodifyanexistingsite:
1. ClicktheNetworktabintheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheSitesfolder.
3. Rightclickthesiteyouwanttomodify.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThesitesPropertiesdialogueappears.
5. Modifytheparametersdescribedin"SiteDescription"onpage 215.
6. ClickOK.

Ifyouarecreatingseveralsitesatthesametime,ormodifyingseveralexistingsites,you
candoitquicklybyeditingorpastingthedatadirectlyintheSitestable.Youcanopen
theSitestablebyrightclickingtheSitesfolderontheNetworktaboftheexplorer
windowandselectingOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.Forinformationoncopying
andpastingdata,see"CopyingandPastinginTables"onpage 57.

7.2.2 SiteSurveyTools
Atollprovidesseveraltoolstoenableyoutoevaluatethelineofsightaroundasiteorbetweencandidatesites.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained.
"DisplayingtheLineofSightAreaAroundOneSite"onpage 216
"AnalysingtheLineofSightBetweenCandidateSites"onpage 217
"FindingtheBestRouteBetweenTwoSites"onpage 220
"DisplayingtheTerrainProfileBetweenCandidateSites"onpage 221
"Displayinga360ViewAroundOneSite"onpage 223

7.2.2.1 DisplayingtheLineofSightAreaAroundOneSite
Atollallowsyoutodisplaythelineofsightareaaroundasiteinthemapwindow.
Todisplaythelineofsightareaaroundasite:
1. Rightclickthesiteeitheronthemap,orintheSitesfolderoftheexplorerwindowsNetworktab.Thecontextmenu
appears.
2. SelectVisibility >LineofSightAreafromthecontextmenu.TheLineofSightParametersdialogueappears.

TodisplaythelineofsightareaaroundallsitesinyourSitesfolder(orinthecomputation
zone,ifany)youshouldrightclicktheSitesfolderandselectVisibility >OverlappingArea
instead.See"DisplayingtheMutuallyVisibleAreasofMultipleSites"onpage 225.

3. UnderHeighttransmitterside,theUsethesupportheightdefinedbysiteoptionissetbydefaultandcannotbe
changed.Itshowshowsupportheightwillbedefinedonthetransmittersideofeachmicrowavelink.
4. UnderHeightreceiverside,youcanselecthowreceiverheightwillbedefinedatthefaredgeoftheLOSarea:
Useheightsdefinedperclutterclass:Ifyouselectthisoption,Atollwillusethereceiverheightdefinedperclutter
classontheCluttertaboftheLineofSightParametersdialogue.
Usethedefaultheightrelativetotheground/Usethedefaultheightrelativetotheclutter:Ifyouselectoneof
theseoptions,AtollwillusethesupportheightyoudefineintheDefaultheightbox.
5. DefinetheMaximumdistancearoundtheselectedsitetobeconsideredinthelineofsightanalysis.
6. DefinetheResolution.
7. UnderEarthcurvaturefactors,definetheFirstkvalueandtheSecondkvalue.
8. UnderPenetrationcondition,definethefollowingparameters:
a. Takeclutterintoaccountindiffraction:SelecttheTakeclutterintoaccountindiffractioncheckboxifyouwant
touseclutterinformationwhencalculatingdiffractioninthelineofsight.
b. Definethetypeofclearancethatwillbecalculatedbyselectingoneofthefollowing:
Lineofsightclearance:SelectLineofsightclearanceifyouwanttostudythelineofsightbetweenthetrans
mitterandreceiversites.

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Ellipsoidclearance:SelectEllipsoidclearanceifyouwanttostudythepercentageofclearanceoftheFresnel
ellipsoid.EnterthepercentageofclearanceofthelowerhalfoftheFresnelellipsoidintheTargetclearance
boxandselecttheFrequencybandtobeusedwhencalculatingthelineofsightfromthelist.Theaverage
frequencyoftheselectedfrequencybandisdisplayedintheFrequencybox.
9. ClicktheCluttertab.OntheCluttertabyoucansetclutterrelatedparametersthatwillbeusedtocalculatetheline
ofsightarea.ThesettingsontheCluttertabareindependentfromanyclutterparametersyoumighthavesetforthe
propagationmodel.Foreachclutterclass,youcansetthefollowing:
Receiverheight(m):Ifyouwant,youcandefineareceiverheightforeachclutterclass.Thisisthevaluethatwill
betakenintoconsiderationifyouselectedUseheightsdefinedperclutterclassunderHeightreceiversideon
theCalculationParameterstab.
Horizontalclearancearoundtransmitterandreceiver(m):Ifyouwant,youcandefineaclearancearoundeach
siteforeachclutterclass.Theclearanceisusedwhencalculatingdiffraction.Bothgroundaltitudeandclutter
heightareconsideredalongthewholeprofileexceptoveraspecificdistancearoundthesites(clearance),where
AtollbasesitscalculationsonlyontheDTM.
10. ClicktheDisplaytab.OntheDisplaytab,youcandefinehowthelineofsightareaswillbedisplayedonthemap.You
canselectoneofthefollowingdisplayoptions:
Oneareapersite:Selectthisoptiontodisplayalineofsightareaforeachsiteandthendefinethecolourtheline
ofsightareaswillbedisplayedin:
Automaticcolour:Ifyouselectthisoption,Atollwillautomaticallyassignadifferentcolourtoeachlineof
sightarea,andyouwillbeabletodistinguishthelineofsightareasforeachsite.
Uniquecolour:Ifyouselectthisoption,Atollwithdisplayalllineofsightareasinthesamecolour,andthe
resultingdisplaywillshowthecumulativelineofsightareas.
Setthetransparencyofthedisplayedlineofsightarea,bymovingtheslider.
11. SelecttheAddtolegendcheckboxtoaddtheoptionsdefinedontheDisplaytabtotheLegend.Forinformationon
theLegendwindow,see"DisplayingtheMapLegend"onpage 38.
12. ClickOK.Atolldisplaysresultsonthemap.

Todeletethelineofsightareaaroundasite:
1. Rightclickthesiteeitheronthemap,orintheSitesfolderoftheexplorerwindowsNetworktab.Thecontextmenu
appears.
2. SelectVisibility >DeleteLineofSightAreafromthecontextmenu.

7.2.2.2 AnalysingtheLineofSightBetweenCandidateSites
InAtoll,youcananalysethelineofsight(LOS)betweencandidatesites.Theanalysiscanbedoneforoneparticularsiteifone
extremityofthemicrowavelinkisalreadylockedorforallsites.Intheanalysis,Atollconsiderstheselectedsite(s)andallsites
locatedwithinthefocuszone;ifnofocuszoneisdefined,Atollwillusethecomputationzone.Forinformationonthefocus
zone, see "The Focus Zone" on page 40 and for information on the computation zone, see "The Computation Zone" on
page 39.
TocalculateaLOSreportforoneparticularsite:
1. RightclickthesiteeitheronthemaporintheSitesfolderoftheexplorerwindowsNetworktab.Thecontextmenu
appears.
2. SelectVisibility >LineofSightReportfromthecontextmenu.TheLineofSightParametersdialogueappears(see
Figure 7.3).

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Figure 7.3:Settingthecalculationparametersforalineofsightreport

3. ClicktheCalculationParameterstab.
4. UnderHeighttransmitterside,theUsethesupportheightdefinedbysiteoptionissetbydefaultandcannotbe
changed.Itshowshowsupportheightwillbedefinedonthetransmittersideofeachmicrowavelink.
5. Under Height receiver side, the Use the support height defined by site option is set by default and cannot be
changed.Itshowshowsupportheightwillbedefinedonthereceiversideofeachmicrowavelink.
6. DefinetheMaximumdistancearoundtheselectedsitetobeconsideredinthelineofsightanalysis.
7. DefinetheResolution.
8. UnderEarthcurvaturefactors,definetheFirstkvalueandSecondkvalue.
9. UnderPenetrationcondition,definethefollowingparameters:
Takeclutterintoaccountindiffraction:Selectthischeckboxifyouwanttouseclutterinformationwhencalcu
latingdiffractioninthelineofsight.
Frequencyband:Selectthefrequencybandtobeusedwhencalculatingthelineofsightfromthelist.Theaverage
frequencyoftheselectedfrequencybandisdisplayedintheFrequencybox.
10. ClicktheCluttertab.OntheCluttertabyoucansetclutterrelatedparametersthatwillbeusedtocalculatetheline
ofsight.ThesettingsontheCluttertabareindependentfromanyclutterparametersyoumighthavesetfortheprop
agationmodel.Foreachclutterclass,youcansetthefollowing:
Receiverheight(m):Youcandefineareceiverheightforeachclutterclass.Itisnotusedwhencalculatingtheline
ofsightbetweenexistingsites.
Horizontalclearancearoundtransmitterandreceiver(m):Ifyouwant,youcandefineaclearancearoundeach
siteforeachclutterclass.Theclearanceisusedwhencalculatingdiffraction.Bothgroundaltitudeandclutter
heightareconsideredalongthewholeprofileexceptoveraspecificdistancearoundthesites(clearance),where
AtollbasesitscalculationsonlyontheDTM.
11. ClicktheTabletab.OntheTabletabyoucandefinethecontentsofthereport.Atolldisplaysadefaultsetoffields
andletsyouselectotherinformationtobeincludedinthereport.
a. ClickAdd.TheFieldSelectiondialogueappears.
b. IntheFieldselectiondialogue,selectthefieldsthatyouwanttodisplayinthereport.Youcanselectcontiguous
fieldsbyclickingthefirstfield,pressingSHIFTandclickingthelastfield.Youcanselectnoncontiguousfieldsby
pressingCTRLandclickingeachfieldseparately.

Toselectafieldtobeincludedinthereport,selectthefieldintheAvailablefieldslistandclick tomove
ittotheSelectedfieldslist.
ToremoveafieldfromthelistofSelectedfields,selectthefieldintheSelectedfieldslistandclick to
removeit.

Tochangetheorderofthefields,selectafieldandclick or tomoveitupordowninthelist.Theobjects
willbedisplayedintheorderofthefieldsintheSelectedFieldslist,fromtoptobottom.
c. ClickOKtoreturntotheTabletab.

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12. ClickOK.AtolldisplaystheselectedresultsintheLineofSightReporttableforeachsiteinthefocuszoneifavailable
andcomputationzoneifthereisnofocuszone.Aswell,Atolldisplaysaterrainsectiononthemapbetweeneachpair
ofsites(see"DisplayingtheTerrainProfileBetweenCandidateSites"onpage 221).
TheLineofSightReporttablecontainsthefollowingdefaultinformationforeachpairofsites.Site1isthestudiedsiteand
Site2acandidatesitewithinthefocuszoneifavailableandcomputationzoneifthereisnofocuszone.
Site1:Site1isthetransmittingsiteofthepairofsites.
Site2:Site2isthereceivingsiteofthepairofsites.
Distance(m):Thedistancebetweenthesites.
LineofSight(k1)(%):TheclearanceorpenetrationoftheFresnelellipsoidinpercentageforthefirstkfactorvalue.
Theresultcanbebetween100and100%.Avaluefrom100to0%correspondstothepercentageofpenetration
oftheupperhalfoftheFresnelellipsoid.Avaluefrom0to100%correspondstothepercentageofclearanceof
thelowerhalfoftheFresnelellipsoid(seeFigure 7.4).
LineofSight(k2)(%):TheclearanceorpenetrationoftheFresnelellipsoidinpercentageforthesecondkfactor
value.
Antenna1Height/Ground(m):Theheightofthetransmittingantenna.
Antenna2Height/Ground(m):Theheightofthereceivingantenna.
Frequency(MHz):Themeanfrequencyusedtocalculatethelineofsightbetweenthetransmittingsiteandthe
receivingsite.
Direction():TheanglefromSite1toSite2inthehorizontalplane.

Figure 7.4:Lineofsightclearance

IfyoudoubleclickaterrainsectionintheLineofSightReporttable,Atollwill
automaticallycentreitinthemapanddisplayitsprofileintheTerrainSectionviewof
theMWAnalysiswindow.

YoucanremovethelineofsightsectionsbyselectingVisibility >DeleteTerrainSectionsfromthesitescontextmenu.
TocalculateaLOSreportforallsites:
1. ClicktheNetworktabintheexplorerwindow.
2. RightclicktheSitesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectVisibility>LineofSightReportfromthecontextmenu.TheLineofSightParametersdialogueappears.
4. ClicktheCalculationParameterstab.
5. UnderHeighttransmitterside,theUsethesupportheightdefinedbysiteoptionissetbydefaultandcannotbe
changed.Itshowshowsupportheightwillbedefinedonthetransmittersideofeachmicrowavelink.
6. Under Height receiver side, the Use the support height defined by site option is set by default and cannot be
changed.Itshowshowsupportheightwillbedefinedonthereceiversideofeachmicrowavelink.
7. DefinetheMaximumdistancearoundtheselectedsitetobeconsideredinthelineofsightanalysis.
8. DefinetheResolution.
9. UnderEarthcurvaturefactors,definetheFirstkvalueandSecondkvalue.
10. UnderPenetrationcondition,definethefollowingparameters:
Takeclutterintoaccountindiffraction:SelecttheTakeclutterintoaccountindiffractioncheckboxifyouwant
touseclutterinformationwhencalculatingdiffractioninthelineofsight.
Frequencyband:Selectfromthelistthefrequencybandtobeusedwhencalculatingthelineofsight.Theaverage
frequencyoftheselectedfrequencybandisdisplayedintheFrequencybox.
11. ClicktheCluttertab.OntheCluttertabyoucansetclutterrelatedparametersthatwillbeusedtocalculatetheline
ofsight.ThesettingsontheCluttertabareindependentfromanyclutterparametersyoumighthavesetfortheprop
agationmodel.Foreachclutterclass,youcansetthefollowing:

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Receiverheight:Youcandefineareceiverheightforeachclutterclass.Itisnotusedwhencalculatingthelineof
sightbetweensites.
Horizontalclearancearoundtransmitterandreceiver(m):Ifyouwant,youcandefineaclearancearoundeach
siteforeachclutterclass.Theclearanceisusedwhencalculatingdiffraction.Bothgroundaltitudeandclutter
heightareconsideredalongthewholeprofileexceptoveraspecificdistancearoundthesites(clearance),where
AtollbasesitscalculationsonlyontheDTM.
12. ClicktheTabletab.OntheTabletabyoucandefinethecontentsofthereport.Atolldisplaysadefaultsetoffields
andletsyouselectotherinformationtobeincludedinthereport.
a. ClickAdd.TheFieldSelectiondialogueappears.
b. IntheFieldSelectiondialogue,selectthefieldsthatyouwanttodisplayinthereport.Youcanselectcontiguous
fieldsbyclickingthefirstfield,pressingSHIFTandclickingthelastfield.Youcanselectnoncontiguousfieldsby
pressingCTRLandclickingeachfieldseparately.

Toselectafieldtobeincludedinthereport,selectthefieldintheAvailablefieldslistandclick tomove
ittotheSelectedfieldslist.
ToremoveafieldfromthelistofSelectedfields,selectthefieldintheSelectedfieldslistandclick to
removeit.

Tochangetheorderofthefields,selectafieldandclick or tomoveitupordowninthelist.Theobjects
willbedisplayedintheorderofthefieldsintheSelectedfieldslist,fromtoptobottom.
c. ClickOKtoreturntotheTabletab.
13. ClickOK.AtolldisplaystheresultsintheLineofSightReporttableforeachsiteinthefocuszoneifavailableandcom
putationzoneifthereisnofocuszone.Aswell,Atolldisplaysaterrainsectiononthemapbetweeneachpairofsites
(see"DisplayingtheTerrainProfileBetweenCandidateSites"onpage 221).
TheLineofSightReporttablecontainsthefollowingdefaultinformationforeachpairofsites.Site1isthestudiedsiteand
Site2acandidatesitewithinthefocuszoneifavailableandcomputationzoneifthereisnofocuszone.
Site1:Site1isthetransmittingsiteofthepairofsites.
Site2:Site2isthereceivingsiteofthepairofsites.
Distance:Thedistancebetweenthesites.
LineofSight(k1)(%):TheclearanceorpenetrationoftheFresnelellipsoidinpercentageforthefirstkfactorvalue.
Theresultcanbebetween100and100%.Avaluefrom100to0%correspondstothepercentageofpenetration
oftheupperhalfoftheFresnelellipsoid.Avaluefrom0to100%correspondstothepercentageofclearanceof
thelowerhalfoftheFresnelellipsoid(seeFigure 7.4).
LineofSight(k2)(%):TheclearanceorpenetrationoftheFresnelellipsoidinpercentageforthesecondkfactor
value.
Antenna1Height:Theheightofthetransmittingantenna.
Antenna2Height:Theheightofthereceivingantenna.
Frequency:Themeanfrequencyusedtocalculatethelineofsightbetweenthetransmittingsiteandthereceiving
site.
YoucanremovethelineofsightlinesbyselectingVisibility >DeleteTerrainSectionsfromthecontextmenuoftheSites
folderoftheexplorerwindowsNetworktab.

7.2.2.3 FindingtheBestRouteBetweenTwoSites
Atollallowsyoutofindallroutesbetweentwositesfulfillinglineofsightcriteria.Theroutescanconsistofseveralhopsand
havedifferentlengths.Ifyouwant,Atollcandisplaytheroutewiththeleastofhopsortheshortestroute.Intheanalysis,
Atollconsiderstheselectedsitesandallsiteslocatedwithinthefocuszone;ifnofocuszoneisdefined,Atollwillusethe
computationzone.Forinformationonthefocuszone,see"TheFocusZone"onpage 40andforinformationonthecomputa
tionzone,see"TheComputationZone"onpage 39.
Tofindthebestroutebetweentwosites:
1. Rightclickthetargetsiteeitheronthemap,orintheSitesfolderoftheexplorerwindowsNetworktab.Thecontext
menuappears.
2. SelectVisibility >DefineRoutingfromthecontextmenu.TheLineofSightParametersdialogueappears.
3. OntheRoutingOptionstab,definethefollowingparameters:
Sourcesite:Thestartingsite.Atolllistsallsitesinthefocuszoneifavailableandcomputationzoneifthereisno
focuszone(forinformationonthefocuszone,see"TheFocusZone"onpage 40andforinformationonthecom
putationzone,see"TheComputationZone"onpage 39).
Maximumnumberofhops:Themaximumnumberofhopsallowedbetweenstartingandtargetsites.
Minimisethenumberofhopstoreachthetarget:SelectthisoptionifyouwantAtolltodisplaythebestsolution
intermsofnumberofhops,i.e.thepathcontainingtheleastofhops.

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Minimisethetotalpathlength:SelectthisoptionifyouwantAtolltodisplaythebestsolutionintermsofdistance,
i.e.theshortestpath.
4. ClicktheCalculationParameterstab.
5. UnderHeighttransmitterside,theUsethesupportheightdefinedbysiteoptionissetbydefaultandcannotbe
changed.Atollwillusethesupportheightdefinedbysiteforeachlineofsight.
6. Under Height receiver side, the Use the support height defined by site option is set by default and cannot be
changed.Atollwillusethesupportheightdefinedbysiteforeachlineofsight.
7. DefinetheMaximumdistancearoundtheselectedsitetobeconsideredinthelineofsightanalysis.
8. DefinetheResolution.
9. UnderEarthcurvaturefactors,definetheFirstkvalueandSecondkvalue.
10. UnderPenetrationcondition,definethefollowingparameters:
Takeclutterintoaccountindiffraction:Selectthischeckboxifyouwanttouseclutterinformationwhencalcu
latingdiffractioninthelineofsight.
Frequencyband:Selectfromthelistthefrequencybandtobeusedwhencalculatingthelineofsight.Theaverage
frequencyoftheselectedfrequencybandisdisplayedintheFrequencybox.
11. ClicktheCluttertab.OntheCluttertabyoucansetclutterrelatedparametersthatwillbeusedtocalculatetheline
ofsight.ThesettingsontheCluttertabareindependentfromanyclutterparametersyoumighthavesetfortheprop
agationmodel.Foreachclutterclass,youcansetthefollowing:
Receiverheight:Youcandefineareceiverheightforeachclutterclass.Itisnotusedwhencalculatingthelineof
sightbetweenexistingsites.
Horizontalclearancearoundtransmitterandreceiver(m):Ifyouwant,youcandefineaclearancearoundeach
siteforeachclutterclass.Theclearanceisusedwhencalculatingdiffraction.Bothgroundaltitudeandclutter
heightareconsideredalongthewholeprofileexceptoveraspecificdistancearoundthesites(clearance),where
AtollbasesitscalculationsonlyontheDTM.
12. ClickOK.AtolldisplaystheresultsintheRoutingtoSitetable.
TheRoutingtoSitetablecontainsthefollowinginformationforeachroute.
Node1:ThenameofthesourcesiteselectedontheRoutingOptionstab.
Node#:Thenamesofthesitesthatarepartoftherouteandthenameofthetargetsite.
Distance(m):Thelengthoftheroute.
Thenumberofcolumnsnamed"Node#"displayedintheRoutingtoSitetabledependsonthemaximumnumberof
hopsdefinedintheRoutingOptionstab.
Inaddition,Atolldisplaysterrainsectionsonthemapbetweeneachsiteofroutes(see"DisplayingtheTerrainProfile
BetweenCandidateSites"onpage 221).YoucanremovethelineofsightlinesbyselectingVisibility >DeleteTerrain
SectionsfromthecontextmenuoftheSitesfolderontheexplorerwindowsNetworktab.

7.2.2.4 DisplayingtheTerrainProfileBetweenCandidateSites
InAtoll,youcanchecktheterrainprofileinthefollowingcases:
fromasitetoanothersite
fromasitetoapointonthemap
fromapointonthemaptoasite
fromapointonthemaptoanotherpointonthemap
Tostudytheterrainprofilebetweentwositesorpointsonthemap:
1. Selecthowthesupportheightwillbedefinedonbothsitesofthemicrowavelinkbyclickingthearrownexttothe
HeightProfilebutton( )onthetoolbarandselectingoneofthefollowing:
TransmitterHeightsDefinedbySite/ReceiverHeightsDefinedbySite:Ifyouselectoneoftheseoptions,Atoll
willusethecorrespondingsupportheightdefinedoneachsite.
TransmitterHeightsRelativetoGround/ReceiverHeightsRelativetoGround:Ifyouselectoneoftheseoptions,
Atollwillusethecorrespondingsupportheightwithrespecttoground.
TransmitterHeightsRelativetoClutter/ReceiverHeightsRelativetoClutter:Ifyouselecttheseoptions,Atoll
willusethecorrespondingsupportheightwithrespecttoclutter.
ReceiverHeightDefinedperClutterClass:Ifyouselectthisoption,Atollwillusethereceiverheightdefinedper
clutterclassontheCluttertaboftheLineofSightParametersdialogue.

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YoucansetmoreoptionsusingtheLineofSightParametersdialogue.Youcanopenthe
LineofSightParametersdialoguebyclickingthearrownexttotheHeightProfiletoolbar
button( )andselectingProperties.Foradescriptionoftheoptionsavailableinthe
LineofSight Parametersdialogue,see"AnalysingtheLineof Sight BetweenCandidate
Sites"onpage 217.

2. ClicktheHeightProfilebutton( )onthetoolbar.
3. Movethepointertothesiteonthemap.Whentheframeappearsaroundthesite,indicatingitisselected,clickto
createthefirstanalysispoint.
4. Movethepointertoanothersiteonthemap.Whentheframeappearsaroundthesite,indicatingitisselected,click
tocreatethesecondanalysispoint.
5. TheprofilebetweenbothsitesappearsontheTerrainSectionwindow.Atolldisplaystheterrainheightalongthepro
fileaswellasclutterclassesandclutterheights.AblueellipsoidindicatestheFresnelzonebetweenbothsites.By
default,Atollconsiderstheantennaheightsdefinedfortheselectedsitestodeterminetheprofile.Youcanmodify
themaswellasthestudiedfrequencyintheTerrainSectionPropertiesdialogue.

6. IntheTerrainSectionwindow,clickthePropertiesbutton( ).TheTerrainSectionPropertiesdialogueappears.
7. IntheTerrainSectionPropertiesdialogue,youhavethefollowingparameters:
Id:Theterrainsectionreferencenumber.
LineofSight(k1)(%)andLineofSight(k2)(%):Thepercentageofclearance/penetrationoftheFresnelzone.The
valuecanvarybetween100%and100%.Avaluefrom100%to0%correspondstothepercentageofpenetration
oftheupperhalfoftheFresnelellipsoid.Avaluefrom0%to100%correspondstothepercentageofclearanceof
thelowerhalfoftheFresnelellipsoid.
Site1:ThenameofSite1.
Site2:ThenameofSite2.
Distance(m):ThedistancebetweenSite1andSite2.
Antenna1Height/Ground(m):TheantennaheightonSite1,relativetoground.
Antenna2Height/Ground(m):TheantennaheightonSite2,relativetoground.
Frequency(MHz):Thefrequencytobeconsidered.
8. ClickOKtoclosethedialogueandapplytheparameters.
Onceyouhavecreatedterrainsections,youcanstudythemorcreatelinkswiththem:
"StudyinganExistingTerrainProfile"onpage 222
"UsingaTerrainProfiletoDisplayProfileData"onpage 222
"CreatingaMicrowaveLinkwithaTerrainProfile"onpage 223.

7.2.2.4.1 StudyinganExistingTerrainProfile
IfyouhavepreviouslycalculatedaLOSreportonasiteoragroupofsites(see"AnalysingtheLineofSightBetweenCandidate
Sites"onpage 217),youwillalreadyhaveterrainsectionsbetweensitesthatyoucanstudy.
Tostudyanexistingterrainprofile:
1. Onthemap,clicktheterrainsectionyouwanttoanalyse.

2. ClicktheHeightProfilebutton( )onthetoolbar.
AtollopenstheTerrainSectionwindow.ItdisplaysaFresnelellipsoidbetweenbothsites,andterrainheightandclut
teralongtheprofile.InordertocalculatetheFresnelellipsoid,Atollusesthesiteheights,thekfactorvalueandthe
frequencyusedfortheLOSreportcalculation.

7.2.2.4.2 UsingaTerrainProfiletoDisplayProfileData
Whenyoucreateterrainsections,Atollcoloursthembydefaultaccordingtothepercentageofclearanceorpenetrationof
theFresnelzone:
Green:Bydefault,aterrainsectionisdisplayedonthemapingreenifitiscompletelyunobstructed(i.e.,ifthevisibility
isover100 m.).
Orange:Iftheterrainsectionispartiallyobstructed(i.e.,ifthevisibilityisbetween0 m.and100 m.),itisdisplayedin
orangeonthemap.
Red:Iftheterrainsectioniscompletelyobstructed,itisdisplayedinred.
Youcanmodifythecoloursandvalueintervalsinordertomaketheirdisplaypropertiesmoremeaningfultoyou.

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TocolourterrainsectionsaccordingtothepercentageofclearanceorpenetrationoftheFresnelzone
1. ClicktheGeotaboftheexplorerwindow.
2. RightclicktheTerrainSectionsfolderandselectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.TheTerrainSectionProperties
dialogueappears.
3. SelecttheDisplaytabanddefinethefollowingparameters:
UnderDisplayType,select"ValueIntervals."
UnderField,select"Visibility".
Youcanchangethevalueintervalsandtheirdisplayedcolour.Forinformationonchangingdisplayproperties,see
"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 27.
4. ClickOK.

7.2.2.4.3 CreatingaMicrowaveLinkwithaTerrainProfile
Youcanuseaterrainsectiontocreateamicrowavelink.
Tocreateamicrowavelinkusingaterrainsection:
1. Onthemap,rightclicktheterrainsectionyouwanttouseforamicrowavelink.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectCreateLinkfromthecontextmenu.AtolladdsthenewmicrowavelinkintheMicrowaveLinksfolder;itsprop
ertiesarebasedonthedefaultmicrowavelinktemplate.

7.2.2.5 Displayinga360ViewAroundOneSite
Youcandisplaya360viewaroundeachsite.Displayinga360viewaroundasitehelpsyoudetermineifthesiteisagood
candidateandifitisvisiblefromtheothersites.
Toperforma360viewofasite:
1. RightclickthesiteeitheronthemaporintheSitesfolderoftheexplorerwindowsNetworktab.Thecontextmenu
appears.
2. SelectVisibility >360Viewfromthecontextmenu.The360Viewwindowopens(seeFigure 7.5):

Figure 7.5:360ViewTool

The360Viewwindowshowsthepointsofhighestelevationsineverydirectionaroundtheselectedsite.Thehori
zontalaxisshowsthedirection(indegrees).Theheightofthestudiedsiteisindicatedbyabluedottedline.Twopurple
markers on both sides of the 360 View window show the support height (i.e., the maximum height not to be
exceededifyouinstallanantennaonthesite)definedforthestudiedsite.Neighboursitesaroundthestudiedone
aredisplayedaccordingtotheirdirections.Eachneighboursiteisindicatedbyaverticalredlineanditssymbol.The
linepositionontheverticalaxisdependsonthesitealtitudewhichincludesthecurvatureoftheearth.Thelinelengths
andthesymbolpositiononthelinedependonthereceiverheightdefinedinthe360ViewPropertiesdialogue.Ifthe

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siteisentirelyvisiblefromthestudiedsite,thelineissolid.Ifitisentirelyhiddenbyanobstacle,thelineisdotted.If
asiteispartlyvisiblefromthestudiedsite,thevisiblepartisrepresentedbyasolidlinewhereasthehiddenpartis
indicatedbyadottedline.Thisrepresentationhelpsyouselectareceiversiteamongneighboursanddetermineat
whichheightyoushouldinstallanantennaonthereceiversite.Atolldisplaystheterrainheightalongtheprofileas
wellasclutterclassesandclutterheights.

The360Viewwindowdoesnotdisplayanydepthoffield.

The360Viewwindowprovidesyouwiththefollowingoptions:
Tocentrethereceiversiteinthemapwindow:Clickthesiteinthe360Viewwindow.Thesiteisautomatically
selectedandenteredinthemapwindow.
Togetinformationaboutareceiversite:Placethepointeronthesiteinthe360Viewwindow.Atolldisplaystip
textwiththefollowinginformation:
Thesitecoordinates(inthedisplaycoordinatesystem)
Itsdistancefromthestudiedsite(inmetres)
Thedirection(indegrees)
Thealtitude(inmetres)
ThecurvatureoftheEarth(inmetres)
Thesupportheight(inmetres).
Todisplaytheterrainprofilebetweenthestudiedsiteandthereceiversite:Rightclickthesiteinthe360View
windowandselectSeeTerrainSectionfromthecontextmenu.TheTerrainSectionwindowopens.
ToreturnfromtheTerrainSectionwindowtothe360Viewwindow:Clickthe360ViewtabintheTerrainSec
tionwindow.
Toviewtheexactlocationofahighelevationpointinthemapwindow:Clickapointonthelineindicatingthe
highestelevationpointsinthe360Viewwindow.Aspecialpointer( )pinpointsthelocationofthecurrent
pointinthemapwindow.
Togetinformationaboutahighelevationpoint:Placethepointeronapointonthelineindicatingthehighest
elevationpointsinthe360Viewwindow.Atolldisplaystiptextwiththefollowinginformation:
Thepointcoordinates(usingthedefineddisplaycoordinatesystem)
Thedistancefromthestudiedsite(inmetres)
Thedirection(indegrees)
Thealtitude(inmetres)
Thecurvatureoftheearth(inmetres)
Theclutterheightatthepoint(inmetres).
Toconfigurethe360viewcalculationparametersanddisplayoptions:Rightclickthe360Viewwindowand
select360ViewPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.Forinformationonparameterswhichcanbechanged,see
"ChangingtheCalculationandDisplayParameters"onpage 224
Tochangetheangleofviewandtheazimuthofthestudiedsite:Clickthefollowingbuttonsavailableonthesides
ofthe360Viewwindow.

:Increasetheangleofviewontheleft

:Decreasetheangleofviewontheleft

:Rotatetheangleofviewontheleft

:Increasetheangleofviewontheright

:Decreasetheangleofviewontheright

:Rotatetheangleofviewontheright.

ChangingtheCalculationandDisplayParameters

Tochangethecalculationanddisplayparameters:
1. Rightclickthe360Viewwindow.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. Select360ViewPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.TheLineofSightParametersdialogueappears.
3. ClicktheCalculationParameterstab.
4. UnderHeighttransmitterside,theUsethesupportheightdefinedbysiteoptionissetbydefaultandcannotbe
changed.Atollwillusethesupportheightdefinedbysiteforeachlineofsight.

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5. DefinetheMaximumdistancearoundtheselectedsite.
6. DefinetheResolution.
7. UnderEarthcurvaturefactors,definetheFirstkvalueandtheSecondkvalue.
8. UnderPenetrationcondition,definethefollowingparameters:
Takeclutterintoaccountindiffraction:Selectthischeckboxifyouwanttouseclutterinformationwhencalcu
latingdiffractioninthelineofsight.
Frequencyband:Selectfromthelistthefrequencybandtobeusedwhencalculatingthelineofsight.Theaverage
frequencyoftheselectedfrequencybandisdisplayedintheFrequencybox.
9. ClicktheCluttertab.OntheCluttertabyoucansetclutterrelatedparametersthatwillbeusedtocalculatetheline
ofsight.ThesettingsontheCluttertabareindependentfromanyclutterparametersyoumighthavesetfortheprop
agationmodel.Foreachclutterclass,youcansetthefollowing:
Receiverheight(m):Youcandefineareceiverheightforeachclutterclass.Itisnotusedwhencalculatingtheline
ofsightbetweenexistingsites.
Horizontalclearancearoundtransmitterandreceiver(m):Ifyouwant,youcandefineaclearancearoundeach
siteforeachclutterclass.Theclearanceisusedwhencalculatingdiffraction.Bothgroundaltitudeandclutter
heightareconsideredalongtheentireprofileexceptoveraspecificdistancearoundthesites(clearance),where
AtollbasesitscalculationsonlyontheDTM.
10. OntheDisplaytab,youcandefinethefollowingparameters:
Supportheight:Whenyouselectthisoption,Atolldisplaystwomarkersonbothsidesofthewindowtorepresent
thesupportheightdefinedforthestudiedsite.Theyaredisplayedinpurplebydefault.
Heightoftheselectedsite:Whenyouselectthisoption,Atolldisplaysahorizontalline(abluedottedlineby
default)toindicatetheheightoftheselectedsite.
Positionoftheothersites:Whenyouselectthisoption,Atolldisplaysthepositionofothersiteswithintheview.
Eachsiteisindicatedbyaverticalline(redbydefault).
Azimuth:Entertheazimuthoftheselectedsite.
Beamwidth:Entertheangleofviewtobeconsidered.Ifyouenteranazimuthof0andabeamwidthof90,Atoll
willdisplaytheviewbetween45and45.
11. ClickOK.

7.2.3 ToolsinAtollforFindingNewSites
Atollprovidesdifferenttoolstofindnewmicrowavesitelocations.Youcanimprovethelocationofasite,intermsofrecep
tionandtransmission,bylettingAtollfindahigherlocationforit,asexplainedin"MovingaSitetoaHigherLocation"on
page 26.YoucanalsoletAtolldisplaythemutuallyvisibleareasofmultiplesitesinordertofindgoodplacestocreatenew
sites:
"DisplayingtheMutuallyVisibleAreasofMultipleSites"onpage 225

DisplayingtheMutuallyVisibleAreasofMultipleSites

AtollallowsyoutocalculatethelineofsightareasaroundallsitesintheSitesfolderanddisplaytheirintersection.Theinter
sectionoflineofsightareaswillbecalculatedforsitesinthecomputationzone(forinformationonthecomputationzone,
see"TheComputationZone"onpage 39).

Todisplaythelineofsightareasaroundmultiplesitesanddisplaytheirintersection:
1. ClicktheNetworktabintheexplorerwindow.
2. RightclicktheSitesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectVisibility >OverlappingAreasfromthecontextmenu.TheLineofSightParametersdialogueappears.
4. ClicktheCalculationParameterstab.
5. UnderHeighttransmitterside,theUsethesupportheightdefinedbysiteoptionissetbydefaultandcannotbe
changed.Atollwillusethesupportheightdefinedbysiteforeachlineofsight.
6. UnderHeightreceiverside,youcanselecthowreceiverheightwillbedefinedatthefaredgeoftheLOSarea:
Useheightsdefinedperclutterclass:Ifyouselectthisoption,Atollwillusethereceiverheightdefinedperclutter
classontheCluttertaboftheLineofSightParametersdialogue.
Usethedefaultheightrelativetotheground/Usethedefaultheightrelativetotheclutter:Ifyouselectoneof
theseoptions,AtollwillusethesupportheightyoudefineintheDefaultheightbox.
7. DefinetheMaximumdistancearoundtheselectedsitetobeconsideredinthelineofsightanalysis.
8. DefinetheResolution.

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9. UnderEarthcurvaturefactors,definetheFirstkvalueandtheSecondkvalue.
10. UnderPenetrationcondition,definethefollowingparameters:
a. Takeclutterintoaccountindiffraction:SelecttheTakeclutterintoaccountindiffractioncheckboxifyouwant
touseclutterinformationwhencalculatingdiffractioninthelineofsight.
b. Definethetypeofclearancethatwillbecalculatedbyselectingoneofthefollowing:
Lineofsightclearance:SelectLineofsightclearanceifyouwanttostudythelineofsightbetweenthetrans
mitterandreceiversites.
Ellipsoidclearance:SelectEllipsoidclearanceifyouwanttostudythepercentageofclearanceoftheFresnel
ellipsoid.EnterthepercentageofclearanceofthelowerhalfoftheFresnelellipsoidintheTargetclearance
boxandselecttheFrequencybandtobeusedwhencalculatingthelineofsightfromthelist.Theaverage
frequencyoftheselectedfrequencybandisdisplayedintheFrequencybox.
11. ClicktheCluttertab.OntheCluttertabyoucansetclutterrelatedparametersthatwillbeusedtocalculatetheline
ofsightarea.ThesettingsontheCluttertabareindependentfromanyclutterparametersyoumighthavesetforthe
propagationmodel.Foreachclutterclass,youcansetthefollowing:
Receiverheight(m):Ifyouwant,youcandefineareceiverheightforeachclutterclass.Thisisthevaluethatwill
betakenintoconsiderationifyouselectedUseheightsdefinedperclutterclassunderHeightreceiversideon
theCalculationParameterstab.
Horizontalclearancearoundtransmitterandreceiver(m):Ifyouwant,youcandefineaclearancearoundeach
siteforeachclutterclass.Theclearanceisusedwhencalculatingdiffraction.Bothgroundaltitudeandclutter
heightareconsideredalongthewholeprofileexceptoveraspecificdistancearoundthesites(clearance),where
AtollbasesitscalculationsonlyontheDTM.
12. ClicktheDisplaytab.OntheDisplaytab,youcandefinehowthelineofsightareaswillbedisplayedonthemap.You
canselectoneofthefollowingdisplayoptions:
Oneareapersite:Selectthisoptiontodisplayalineofsightareaforeachsiteandthendefinethecolourtheline
ofsightareaswillbedisplayedin:
Automaticcolour:Ifyouselectthisoption,Atollwillautomaticallyassignadifferentcolourtoeachlineof
sightarea,andyouwillbeabletodistinguishthelineofsightareasforeachsite.
Uniquecolour:Ifyouselectthisoption,selectingacolourfromthepalette,Atollwithdisplayalllineofsight
areasinthesamecolour,andtheresultingdisplaywillshowthecumulativelineofsightareas.
Setthetransparencyofthedisplayedlineofsightarea,bymovingtheslider.
Overlapping:Selectthisoptiontodisplaythelineofsightareaswithcoveragefromthedefinednumberofsites:
Areascoveredbyatleast2sites:SelectthischeckboxifyouwantAtolltodisplayallareascoveredbyatleast
2 sitesinthecolourselectedfromthepalette.
Areascoveredbyatleast3sites:SelectthischeckboxifyouwantAtolltodisplayallareascoveredbyatleast
3 sitesinthecolourselectedfromthepalette.
Areascoveredbyallsites:SelectthischeckboxifyouwantAtolltodisplayallareascoveredbyallsitesinthe
colourselectedfromthepalette.
13. SelecttheAddtolegendcheckboxtoaddtheoptionsdefinedontheDisplaytabtotheLegend.Forinformationon
theLegendwindow,see"DisplayingtheMapLegend"onpage 38.
14. ClickOK.TheEventViewerappears.
15. ClickClosewhenTaskLineofsightareaEndisshownintheEventViewer.Atolldisplaystheresultsonthemap.
Todeletethelineofsightareas:
1. RightclicktheSitesfolderoftheexplorerwindowsNetworktab.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectVisibility >Deletelineofsightareasfromthecontextmenu.

7.3 CreatingLinks
InAtoll,youcanmanagemicrowavelinksaswellasothertransmissionlinkssuchasleasedlinesoropticalfibres.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"CreatingMicrowaveLinks"onpage 227.
"CreatingOtherTransmissionLinks"onpage 238.
"ModifyingSitesandLinksDirectlyontheMap"onpage 240.
"DisplayingTipsforSitesandLinks"onpage 240.
"AddingaPassiveRepeatertoaMicrowaveLink"onpage 240
"AddingaPassiveRepeatertoaMicrowaveLink"onpage 240.
"SettingtheWorkingAreaofanAtollDocument"onpage 244.

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7.3.1 CreatingMicrowaveLinks
Amicrowavelink,inAtoll,isapointtopointfixedradiofrequencylinkoperatingineithersimplexorinduplexmode.Duplex
operationmeansthateachradiofrequencychannelconsistsofapairoffrequencies,onefortransmissionandoneforrecep
tion.Thebasebandsignal,containingtheuserdata,occupiesalimitedbandwidthdependingonthemodulationschemeused.
Thisbasebandsignalismodulatedontoaradiofrequencycarrieratthetransmissionend,andistransmittedovertheairas
anelectromagneticwavefront.Microwaveradiolinksaredesignedtooperatebetween300 MHzand90 GHz.
Amicrowavelinkcomprisestwotransmission/receptionendswithantennas,transceiverradios,etc.,installedatboth.Atoll
enablesyoutocreatenewmicrowavelinksbybasingthemontemplatesorbysettingalltheparametersforeachnewmicro
wavelink.Inaddition,youcanmanagethemicrowavelinkactivitystatusgloballyorindividually.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"DefinitionofaMicrowaveLink"onpage 227.
"CreatingorModifyingaMicrowaveLink"onpage 233.
"DefiningPortParameters"onpage 233.
"PlacingaNewMicrowaveLinkUsingtheMicrowaveLinkTemplate"onpage 235.
"ManagingMicrowaveLinkTemplates"onpage 236.

7.3.1.1 DefinitionofaMicrowaveLink
TheparametersofamicrowavelinkcanbefoundinthemicrowavelinksPropertiesdialogue.ThePropertiesdialoguehas
seventabs:
TheGeneraltab(seeFigure 7.6):
Name:Thenameofthemicrowavelink.
UnderSiteA:youcansetthenameofthesitedefiningoneextremityofthelink.Iftheextremityofthemicrowave
linkisnotlocatedexactlyonthesite,youcanmodifyitspositionunderAntennaposition:
Relativetosite:Selectthisoptionifyouwanttoentertheantennapositionasoffsetswithrespecttothesite
location,andthenenterthexaxisandyaxisoffsets,DxandDy,respectively.
Coordinates:Selectthisoptionifyouwanttoenterthecoordinatesoftheantenna,andthenenterthexaxis
andyaxiscoordinatesoftheantenna,XandY,respectively.
UnderSiteB:youcansetthenameofthesitedefiningtheotherextremityofthelink.Iftheextremityofthemicro
wavelinkisnotlocatedexactlyonthesite,youcanmodifyitspositionunderAntennaPosition:
RelativetoSite:Selectthisoptionifyouwanttoentertheantennapositionsasoffsetswithrespecttothesite
location,andthenenterthexaxisandyaxisoffsets,DxandDy,respectively.
Coordinates:Selectthisoptionifyouwanttoenterthecoordinatesoftheantenna,andthenenterthexaxis
andyaxiscoordinatesoftheantenna,XandY,respectively.
InAtoll,"A"isthesiteofdepartureand"B"isthesiteofarrival.
Frequencyband:Theworkingfrequencybandofthemicrowavelink.
Length:Thecalculatedlength.
UnderPassiverepeaters:youcanselectanyrepeatersonthemicrowavelink:
RepeaterP:Thenameofapassiverepeateronthemicrowavelink.
RepeaterQ:Thenameofasecondpassiverepeateronthemicrowavelink.
Active:Themicrowavelinkactivitystatus.Onlyactivemicrowavelinksareconsideredinreliabilityandinterfer
enceanalysis.
Comments:Anycommentaboutthemicrowavelink.

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Figure 7.6:MicrowavelinkPropertiesdialogueGeneraltab

TheRadiotab(seeFigure 7.7):

Figure 7.7:MicrowavelinkPropertiesdialogueRadiotab

A>>BandA<<B:Thedirectionofthemicrowavelink(A>>B:transmissionfromSite AtoSite B,A<<B:transmission


fromSite BtoSite A).Selectbothoptionstomakethemicrowavelinkbidirectional(i.e.,toallowcommunication
inbothdirections).

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UnderAntennas,youcandefineantennasandcharacteristicsforthebothsitesofthemicrowavelink
Model:Theantennamodel.Bydefault,Atolllistsantennasthatoperateinthefrequencybanddefinedforthe
microwavelink.Ifyouwant,youcanapplyanadditionalfilterbyclickingthebutton( )besidetheantenna
modelfield.Whenthefilterisactive,theappearanceofthebuttonchanges( ).Inthiscase,Atollproposes
inthelistantennascompatiblewiththeselectedequipmentasdefinedintheAntenna/EquipmentCompati
bilitytable.
Height/ground:Theantennaheightwithrespecttotheground(inmetres).
Polarisation:Thepolarisationoftheantennatobeused.ThisparameterhelpsAtolldeterminewhichantenna
patterndiagramstouseforcalculations.
Azimuth:Thecalculatedazimuthoftheantennaisdisplayed.
Misalignment(az.):Theazimuthwithrespecttothedirectraybetweenthebothextremities.
Tilt:Thecalculatedtiltoftheantennaisdisplayed.
Misalignment(tilt):Thetiltwithrespecttothedirectraybetweenthebothextremities.
Usearadome:SelecttheUsearadomecheckboxifthereisaradomeprotectingtheantenna.
Losses:IftheUsearadomecheckboxisselected,Atolldisplaystheradomelosses.
UnderRadios,youcandefineradiorelatedparametersforthebothsitesofthemicrowavelink:
Series:Selecttheradioseriesyouwanttouse.Bydefault,Atolllistsradioserieswhoseradioscanoperatein
thefrequencybanddefinedforthemicrowavelink.
Model:Youcanselectareferenceradio.Bydefault,Atolllistsradiosthatoperateinthefrequencybandde
finedforthemicrowavelink.Ifyouwant,youcanapplyanadditionalfilterbyclickingthebutton( )beside
theantennamodelbox.Whenthefilterisactive,theappearanceofthebuttonchanges( ).Inthiscase,
AtollproposesinthelistradioscompatiblewiththeselectedantennaasdefinedintheAntenna/RadioCom
patibilitytable.

Youcanalsouseanassistanttoselecttheradio.Clickingthewandbutton( )besidetheModeltextbox
openstheRadioSelectiondialogue(seeFigure 7.8).Onlyradioseriessupportingthedefinedfrequencyband
areavailableintheRadioserieslist.Inthesameway,onlytheoperationmodessupportedbytheselected
radioseriesareavailableintheOperationmodelist.AccordingtotheselectedRadioseriesandOperation
mode,Atollhighlightsinthetabletheinterchannelspacingmodulationconfigurationssupportedbythera
dioseriesforthisfrequencybandandthedefinedoperationmode.Selectingoneoftheseconfigurationsin
thetableandclickingOKselectsthereferenceradioandfillstheModulationsandtheCapacitytextboxes
fromthepropertiesoftheradio.

Figure 7.8:RadioSelectiondialogue

Modulations:YoucanchangethemodulationfromtheModulationslist.Thelistpresentsallmodulations
compatiblewiththechannelbandwidthoftheselectedreferenceradio(i.e.,128QAM,256QAM,and64QAM
intheexample).Dependingontheoperationmode(constantmodulationoradaptivemodulation)selectedin
thePropertiesoftheLinksfolder,youcandefineoneormoremodulations.Ifthemicrowavelinkdoesnot
supportadaptivemodulation,selectamodulationfromthelist.Ifthemicrowavelinkcanswitchfromone
modulationtoanotherone,thenselectthesupportedmodulations.Changingthemodulationautomatically
changestheselectedreferenceradioandthecapacity.

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Capacity: You can select the capacity from the Capacity list. The list presents only capacities that can be
providedforthechannelbandwidthoftheselectedradio(i.e.,100DS1,115DS1and87DS1inthisexample).
Changingthecapacityautomaticallychangestheselectedreferenceradioandthemodulation.
Power:YoucaneitherselecttheODUconfiguration(Lowpower,Standardpower,Highpower)oftheradio,
and Atoll considers the maximum output power defined for the selected configuration in the radio series
properties,oryoucanchooseConstantpower,andentertheoutputpowervalue.Thislastoptionallowsyou
toconsiderthesameoutputpowerforallsupportedmodulationswhenusingadaptivemodulation.
Tuning:ThetuningvalueindBifyoudonotwanttotransmitatmaximumpower.Youcandefinethisparam
eterifyouhavepreviouslyselectedeitherLowpower,orStandardpower,orHighpower.
Nominalpower:Theoutputpoweraftertuning.
ATPC:Thepowerreserveusedtoincreasethetransmittedsignalwhenitrains.Thisparametercanbedefined
forbidirectionallinksonly.ThevaluecannotexceedtheMaxATPCvaluedefinedfortheequipment.ATPC
valueisconsideredinreliabilityandinterferenceanalysisonlyifpowercontrolison.Forinformationontaking
powercontrolintoconsideration,see"GlobalParameters"onpage 194.
CoordinatedPower:TheoutputpowerwhenATPCisconsidered.Thevaluecannotbelowerthanthemini
mumoutputpowersupportedbytheradio.
UnderBranching,youcandefinethefollowingparameters:
Configuration:Selectabranchingtype.Onlythebranchingtypessupportedbytheradioseriesoftheradio
andthedefinedfrequencybandareavailableinthelist.
Diversityantenna:Selectthediversityantennamodelwhentheconfigurationsupportsspacediversity.
Separation:Thedistancebetweenthemainandthediversityantennaswhenspacediversityisusedonthe
site.
Radome:SelecttheRadomecheckboxifthereisaradomeprotectingthediversityantenna.Atolldisplaysthe
radomelossesbesidethecheckbox.
UnderFrequencies,youcandefinethefollowingparameters:
SubBand:Thefrequencysubband.Bydefault,Atolllistsallfrequencysubbands,whosethefrequencyspac
ingexceedsthechannelbandwidthoftheselectedradio.Ifyouwant,youcanremovethisfilterbyclickingthe
button( )besidethefrequencysubbandfield.Theappearanceofthebuttonchanges( )andAtolldis
playsallfrequencysubbandsavailableforthemicrowavelinkfrequencybandinthelist.
Frequency:Thefrequencyonwhichthesignalistransmitted.Thisvalueisusedwhennosubbandisdefined.
Bydefault,itequalsthecentralfrequencyofthefrequencyband.
Halfband:Definewhichhalfband(eithertheupperorthelowerhalfband)isassignedtothesite.
Channels:Thechannel(s)allocatedtothesite.Thecorrespondingfrequencyisindicatedinbrackets.Chan
nel(s)canbeselectedonlyafterchoosingafrequencysubband.
PortSettings:ClickthePortSettingsbuttontoconfigurechannel(s)indetail.ThePortsDefinitiondialogue
appears.Youcanconfigurethechannels,transmissionandreceptionportnumbers,valuesfortransmission
andreceptionattenuation,thepolarisationandthechannelportstatus.Thenumberofportsyoucandefine
depends on the selected configuration and cannot exceed n+m (where "n" is the number of channels in
normaluseand"m"isthenumberofchannelsavailableasstandbychannels).
Forfurtherinformationonportsettings,see"DefiningPortParameters"onpage 233.

Portsettingshavetobedefinedifyouusecrosspolarisationinterferencecanceller,hot
standbyorfrequencydiversityconfigurations.Forotherconfigurations,portsettingsisnot
mandatory;youcandefineeitherthefrequencyorthesubbandandchannels.

TheConnectionstab(seeFigure 7.7):
UnderFeeders,youcanselectuptotwofeeders.Foreachofthem,youcandefineifitisusedeitherfortransmis
sionorreceptiononly,orforbothtransmissionandreceptiondirectionsandselectthefeedermodel.Bydefault,
Atolllistsfeedersthatoperateinthefrequencybanddefinedforthemicrowavelink.Ifyouwant,youcanapply
an additional filter by clicking the button ( ) beside the antenna model field. When the filter is active, the
appearance of the button changes ( ). In this case, Atoll proposes in the list, feeders compatible with the
selectedantennaandradioasdefinedintheAntenna/FeederCompatibilityandAntenna/FeederCompatibility
tables.Youcanalsoenterthelengthofeachfeeder.Atolldisplaystheattenuation.
UnderConnectionLosses,youcandefineadditionallossestobetakenintoaccountontransmission,reception,
oronbothtransmissionandreception.YoucanalsoaddaShieldingFactorthatistakenintoconsiderationwhen
calculatingtheinterferencereceivedbythesitesofthemicrowavelink.Signallevelsreceivedfrominterferersare
attenuatedbytheshieldingfactor.

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YoucanchangethewayAtollconsiderstheshieldingfactorincalculationsbysettingan
optionintheatoll.inifile.Whenthisoptionisactive,bothtransmittedandreceivedsignals
are attenuated by the shielding factor. For more information, see the Administrator
Manual.

Figure 7.9:MicrowavelinkPropertiesdialogueConnectionstab

TheGeoclimatictab:
CurrentMethods:UnderCurrentMethods,youcanseethecalculationmethodsusedtoanalysethemicrowave
linkqualityandavailability.ThemethodsdisplayedarethosesetontheModelstaboftheLinksPropertiesdia
logue.Formoreinformation,see"GlobalParameters"onpage 194.
Thegeoclimaticparametersavailabledependontheselectedqualityandavailabilitymethods.Toaccessallgeo
climaticparameterswhateverthemethodsyouhaveselected,clicktheDisplayAllbuttonavailableunderCurrent
Methods.
Thedifferentgeoclimaticparametersaredescribedbelow:
AtmosphericandClimaticConditions:UnderAtmosphericandClimaticConditions,youcandefinetheconditions
underwhichthemicrowaveoperates:
Climatezone(Vigants):Selecttheclimaticzonethatbestdescribestheclimateinwhichthemicrowavelink
operates.ThisinformationisusedonlywhenusingVigantsBarnettasthequalitycalculationmethod.Youcan
choosebetween"WarmandHumid","Temperate","Dry"and"GreatLakesAreas".
Rainzone:Selecttherainzoneinwhichthemicrowavelinkoperates.Youcanselectthefollowingrainzones:
"A:Polar(Dry)","B:Polar(Moderate)","B1:Cold(Dry)","B2:Cold(Moderate)","C:TemperateMaritime",
"D1:TemperateContinental(Dry)","D2:TemperateContinental(Moderate)","D3:TemperateContinental
(Wet)","E:SubtropicalWet","F:SubtropicalArid(Dry)","G:TropicalModerate"and"H:Tropical".
Temperature:Settheaveragetemperatureofthezoneinwhichthemicrowavelinkoperates.Clickingthe
button( )besidetheTemperaturetextboxopensadialoguewhereyoucanselectthetemperaturebased
onRec.ITURP.15100,ITURP.8353(andselectaseason),orthetemperaturesetinthegeoclimaticfile.For
moreinformationonthegeoclimaticfile,see"GeoclimaticMaps"onpage 127.
Rec.ITURP.530:TheparametersfoundunderRec.ITURP.530arethoserecommendedbyITURP.530to
calculatethequalityofthemicrowavelink:

WaterVapourDensity:Setthewatervapourdensityingramspercubicmetre.Clickingthebutton( )be
sidetheWaterVapourDensitytextboxopensadialoguewhereyoucanselectthewatervapourdensity
basedonRec.ITURP.8363(andselectthepercentageoftheaverageyearwherethedefinedwatervapour
densityisexceeded),orbasedonRec.ITURP.8353(andselectaseason),orthewatervapourdensitysetin

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thegeoclimaticfile.Formoreinformationonthegeoclimaticfile,see"GeoclimaticMaps"onpage 127.The
dialoguealsodisplaysthewatervapourpressureinhectopascals(hPa)calculatedusingyourdataandbased
onRec.ITURP.4539.
Rainfallrateexceeded0.01%oftheaverageyear:Settherainfallrateexceeded0.01%oftheaverageyear
(or,inotherwords,anamountofrainfallalmostneverobserved).Clickingthebutton( )besidetheRainfall
rateexceeded0.01%oftheaverageyeartextboxopensadialoguewhereyoucanselecttherainfallrateex
ceeded0.01%oftheaverageyearbasedonRec.ITURP.8374ortherainfallrateexceeded0.01%oftheav
erageyearsetinthegeoclimaticfile.Formoreinformationonthegeoclimaticfile,see"GeoclimaticMaps"on
page 127.

Atmosphericpressure:Settheatmosphericpressureinhectopascal.Clickingthebutton( )besidetheAt
mosphericpressureboxopensadialoguewhereyoucanselecttheatmosphericpressurebasedonRec.ITUR
P.8353(andselectaseason),ortheatmosphericpressuresetinthegeoclimaticfile.Formoreinformationon
thegeoclimaticfile,see"GeoclimaticMaps"onpage 127.
Relativehumidity:TheRelativehumiditydisplayediscalculatedusingthedefinedwatervapourdensity.
Rec.ITURP.53012,13:UnderRec.ITURP.53012,13,youcanentertheRainheight(0C/32FIsotherm)
inmetres.Therainheightistheheightofthetopoftheraincolumnabovemeansealevelfromthe0Ciso
therm.Clickingthebutton( )besidetheRainheightboxopensadialoguewhereyoucanselecttherain
heightbasedonRec.ITURP.8393,ortherainheightsetinthegeoclimaticfile.Formoreinformationonthe
geoclimaticfile,see"GeoclimaticMaps"onpage 127.
Refractivitygradient:UnderRefractivitygradient,youcansetthefollowingparameters:
Innormalconditions:Settherefractivitygradientobserved50%oftimeinNunitsperkm.Clickingthebutton
( )besidetheInnormalconditionstextboxopensadialoguewhereyoucanselectthemethodtoestimate
therefractivitygradientundernormalconditions.TherefractivitygradientcanbecalculatedfromRec.ITUR
P.4539,usingauserdefinedreferencealtitude,ortherefractivitygradientcanbebasedondatagivenbyRec.
ITURP.4539forlessthan65 m.andapercentageoftheyearthatNisnotexceeded(50%issetbydefault),
ortherefractivitygradientcanbesetinthegeoclimaticfile.Formoreinformationonthegeoclimaticfile,see
"GeoclimaticMaps"onpage 127.
Thekfactormedianvalue,calculatedusingthesetparameters,isdisplayed.
Insubrefractionconditions:Settherefractivitygradientobserved99%oftimeinNunitsperkm.Clickingthe
button( )besidetheInsubrefractionconditionstextboxautomaticallycalculatestherefractivitygradient
undersubrefractionconditions.
Thekfactoreffectivevalue,calculatedusingthesetparameters,isdisplayed.
Geoclimaticfactor:TheparametersunderGeoclimaticfactorareusedtocalculatethequalityofthemicrowave
linkandarebrokendownbycalculationmethod.UnderGeoclimaticfactor,youcansetthefollowingparameters:
VigantsBarnett:ParametersavailableunderVigantsBarnettdependontheoptionselectedontheModels
taboftheLinksPropertiesdialogue.
IfyouselectUserdefinedunderMultipathoccurrencemethod,youcanentertheTerrainclimatefactor C
value,thepropagationconditionfactorfortheVigantsBarnettmethod.
IfyouselecttheSimplifiedmethodortheTerrainbased(roughness)method,youcandefinetheTerraintype
("FlatTerrain","AverageTerrain","MountainousTerrain",or"GreatLakes").IfyouareusingtheSimplified
method,AtolldisplaystheTerrainclimatefactor Cvaluecorrespondingtothedefinedclimatezoneandthe
terraintype.FortheTerrainbased(roughness)method,AtolldisplaystheTerrainclimatefactor Cvaluecor
respondingtothedefinedclimatezoneandtheterraintypeandletsyouselectwhetheryouwanttoTaketer
rainroughnessintoaccount.
ITURP.5305,8:UnderITURP.5305,8,youcanselecttheEnvironment.Youcanchoosebetween"Open
areas"forterrestrialmicrowavelinkswheretheheightofthelowestantennainthemicrowavelinkislower
than700 m;"Mountains"forterrestrialmicrowavelinkswheretheheightofthelowestantennainthemicro
wavelinkishigherthan700 m;"Lakes"formicrowavelinksoveranexpanseofwater;or"Overwater"formi
crowavelinksoveranextendedexpanseofwater.Finally,youcandefinethePLfactor.PListhepercentof
timetherelativerefractivitygradientislessthan100 NKm.ThePLfactorcanbefoundontheITURmaps.
K.Q.method:UnderK.Q.method,youcandefineK.Q.fortheK.Qmethod.Kmodelsgeoclimaticandterrain
effectsonclimatewhileQisthefactorforvariablesotherthanthosedependentondistanceandfrequency.
Rec.ITURP.530:UnderITURP.530,youcandefinetheKfactor.Kmodelsgeoclimaticandterraineffectson
climate.Clickingthebutton( )besidetheKboxopensadialoguewhereyoucanselecttheKfactorbased
onRec.ITURP.5305orRec.ITURP.5308(andselectaterraintypeandenteravalueforC0andforthe
percentage of time the refractivity gradient (< 100 m.) is less than 100 Nunitskm for the worst average
month)orbasedonRec.ITURP.53010andabove(andselectthesimplifiedmethodwhereyoualsodefine

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the refractivity gradient (< 65 m.) not exceeded during 1% of the average year or select the method with
terrainroughnesstakenintoaccountwhereyoudefinetherefractivitygradientandtheterrainroughness).
ThePerformancetab:
Linkclass:UnderLinkclass,youcanselectthelinkclass.Eachlinkclasscanhavedifferentperformanceobjectives.
Byassigninglinkclassestomicrowavelinks,youareassigningthetargetparametersandusagelimitationsofthe
linkclasstotheselectedmicrowavelinks.Forinformationoncreatingalinkclass,see"LinkClasses"onpage 178.

ClickingtheBrowsebutton( )opensthePropertiesdialogueoftheselectedlinkclass.
ClickingtheObjectivesbuttonopensadialoguewhereyoucanviewandmodifytheperformanceobjectivesof
theselectedlinkclass.
Biterrorrate:UnderBiterrorrate,youcansetthevaluesforBER 1andBER 2.Atolldisplaystheresultingsensi
tivityforeachBER.
IfthevalueforBERthatyouenterisnotdefinedinthepropertiesoftheequipment,Atollwillinterpolatetode
terminethecorrespondingsensitivity.
Reliability:UnderReliability,youcansettheMeantimetorepair(MTTR)inhour.TheMTTRistakenintoaccount
whencalculatingunavailabilityduetofailuresifthemicrowavelinkisnotequippedwithahotstandbychannel
system.
ThePropagationtab:OnthePropagationtab,youcandefinepropagationrelatedparameters:
Usefulsignal:UnderUsefulsignal,youcanselectthepropagationmodelthatwillbeusedtocalculatetheuseful
signal.Fromthisparameter,Atollevaluatesthemarginwhichisthenconsideredforcalculatingthequalityand
theavailabilityofthemicrowavelink.
Interferingsignal:UnderModelusedfortheinterferingsignal,youcanselectthepropagationmodelthatwillbe
usedtocalculatesignallevelreceivedfrominterferingsites.
TheDisplaytab:OntheDisplaytab,youcandefinetheappearanceofthemicrowavelinkanditsextremities.

7.3.1.2 CreatingorModifyingaMicrowaveLink
Youcanaccessthepropertiesofamicrowavelink,describedin"DefinitionofaMicrowaveLink"onpage 227,throughthe
microwavelinksPropertiesdialogue.HowyouaccessthePropertiesdialoguedependsonwhetheryouarecreatinganew
microwavelinkormodifyinganexistingmicrowavelink.
Tocreateamicrowavelink:
1. ClicktheNetworktabintheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. RightclicktheMicrowaveLinksfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectNewfromthecontextmenu.TheLinksNewElementPropertiesdialogueappears.
5. Modifytheparametersdescribedin"DefinitionofaMicrowaveLink"onpage 227.
6. ClickOK.
Tomodifyamicrowavelink:
1. ClicktheNetworktabintheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveLinksfolder.
4. Rightclickthemicrowavelinkyouwanttomodify.Ifthemicrowavelinksareorganisedinsubfolders,youmustfirst
clicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandthesubfolderbeforerightclickingthemicrowavelink.
5. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThemicrowavelinksPropertiesdialogueappears.
6. Modifytheparametersdescribedin"DefinitionofaMicrowaveLink"onpage 227.
7. ClickOK.

7.3.1.3 DefiningPortParameters
InAtoll,portsareusedtoconfigurechannel(s)indetail.Theyhavetobedefinedifyouusecrosspolarisationinterference
canceller,hotstandbyorfrequencydiversityconfigurations.Forotherconfigurations,portsettingsisnotmandatory;youcan
defineeitherafrequencyorthechannelsused.Youcanconfigureportparametersforanindividualmicrowavelinkorforall
microwavelinks.

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Todefineportparametersforasinglemicrowavelink:
1. ClicktheNetworktabintheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveLinksfolder.
4. Rightclickthemicrowavelinkwhoseportparametersyouwanttodefine.Ifthemicrowavelinksareorganisedinsub
folders,youmustfirstclicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandthesubfolderbeforerightclickingthemicrowavelink.
5. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogueappears.
6. SelecttheRadiotab.
7. UnderFrequencies,selectaSubBandfortheSite Aofthemicrowavelink.
8. ClickApply.ThePortParameterSettingsbuttonbecomesactive.
9. FromtheHalfbandlist,selectthehalfbandusedonSite A.
10. ClickthePortParameterSettingsbutton.ThePortsDefinitiondialogueappears.
11. Definethefollowingparametersforeachchanneltransmittedinonedirection:
Channel:Thechannelname.Thecorrespondingfrequencyisindicatedinbrackets.
Txport:Theportnumberforthetransmittingequipment.Thenumbermustbe1orgreater.
Rxport:Theportnumberforthereceivingequipment.Thenumbermustbe1orgreater.
TransmissionAttenuation:ThetransmissionattenuationindB.
ReceptionAttenuation:ThereceptionattenuationindB.
Polarisation:Thesignalpolarisation.
Status:Eitherselect"Main"ifthechannelisactive(channel"n"),"Standby"forastandbychannel(channel"m"),
"Diversity"ifitisusedforfrequencydiversity,or"DiversityStandby"ifitusedasstandbydiversity.
InAtoll,frequencydiversitycanbemodelledintwodifferentways:
Onechannelcanbeassociatedwithadiversitychannelthatisalwaysactive.Youhavetocreatetwochannels
with"Diversity"asstatus.
Oneorseveralstandbychannelscanbeusedtoprotect"n"diversitychannels.Inthiscase,youhavetodefine
nchannelswith"Diversity"asstatusandoneorseveralstandbychannelswith"DiversityStandby"asstatus.
Thisisreferredtoasmultichannelfrequencydiversity.
Notethatthenumberofportsyoucandefinedependsonthesystemconfigurationselectedinthemicrowavelink
propertiesandcannotexceedn+m.
After defining the configuration for one direction, you can define the opposite direction by clicking the Initialise
Symmetricallybutton.
Ininterferencecalculations,anychannel,whetheritsstatusismain,standby,diversityordiversitystandby,isconsid
eredasapotentiallyinterferedchannelandapotentiallyinterferingchannel.

YoucanchangethewayAtolltakesstandbyanddiversitystandbychannelsintoconsider
ation when calculating interference by setting an option in the atoll.ini file. When this
option is active, standby and diversitystandby channels are considered as potentially
interferedchannelsbuttheyarenotinterferingotherchannels.Formoreinformation,see
theAdministratorManual.

12. ClickOK.ThePortsDefinitiondialoguecloses.
13. ClickOK.
Todefineportparametersforallmicrowavelinks:
1. SelecttheNetworktaboftheexplorerwindow.
2. RightclicktheMicrowaveLinksfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectPorts >Opentable.Thetableopens.
Definethefollowingparameters:
Link:Thenameofthemicrowavelink.
Way:Thelinkdirection(ABorBA).
Channel:Thechannelname.Thecorrespondingfrequencyisindicatedinbrackets.
Txport:Theportnumberforthetransmittingequipment.Thenumbermustbe1orgreater.
Rxport:Theportnumberforthereceivingequipment.Thenumbermustbe1orgreater.
TransmissionAttenuation:ThetransmissionattenuationindB.
ReceptionAttenuation:ThereceptionlossesattenuationindB.
Polarisation:Thesignalpolarisation.

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Status:Eitherselect"Main"ifthechannelisactive(channel"n"),"Standby"forastandbychannel(channel"m"),
"Diversity"ifitisusedforfrequencydiversityor"DiversityStandby"ifitusedasstandbydiversity.
InAtoll,frequencydiversitycanbemodelledintwodifferentways:
Onechannelcanbeassociatedwithadiversitychannelthatisalwaysactive.Youhavetocreatetwochannels
with"Diversity"asstatus.
Oneorseveralstandbychannelscanbeusedtoprotect"n"diversitychannels.Inthiscase,youhavetodefine
nchannelswith"Diversity"asstatusandoneorseveralstandbychannelswith"DiversityStandby"asstatus.
Thisisreferredtoasmultichannelfrequencydiversity.
Ininterferencecalculations,anychannel,whetheritsstatusismain,standby,diversityordiversitystandby,isconsid
eredasapotentiallyinterferedchannelandapotentiallyinterferingchannel.

YoucanchangethewayAtolltakesstandbyanddiversitystandbychannelsintoconsider
ation when calculating interference by setting an option in the atoll.ini file. When this
option is active, standby and diversitystandby channels are considered as potentially
interferedchannelsbuttheyarenotinterferingotherchannels.Formoreinformation,see
theAdministratorManual.

7.3.1.4 PlacingaNewMicrowaveLinkUsingtheMicrowaveLinkTemplate
WithAtoll,youcancreatemicrowavelinksbasedonmicrowavelinktemplates.Thisallowsyoutobuildyournetworkquickly
withconsistentparameters,insteadofbuildingthenetworkbyfirstcreatingthemicrowavelinkandthendefiningallofthe
relevantparameters.
Youcancreateamicrowavelinkinthefollowingways:
Directlyonthemapbetweenneworexistingsitesusingamicrowavelinktemplate
Betweentwoexistingsitesusingamicrowavelinktemplate.
Tocreateamicrowavelinkdirectlyonthemapbetweenneworexistingsitesusingamicrowavelinktemplate:

1. IntheMicrowaveLinkPlanningtoolbar,selectamicrowavelinktemplatefromthe
list.

2. ClickthearrownexttoNewLinkbutton( )ontheMicrowaveLinkPlanning
toolbar.
3. SelectMWUsingTheMouseOnTheMapfromthemenu.Thepointerchanges

( ).
Thesitesthatdefinetheextremitiesofamicrowavelinkcanbealreadyexisting
sitesorAtollcancreatenewsitesautomaticallyatthelocationyouclickonthe
map.EachsiteinAtoll cansupport several transmission links,transmitters,and
passiverepeaters.
4. Inthemapwindow,movethepointeroverthemaptowhereyouwouldliketo
place one end of the new microwave link and click. The pointer now changes

( ).
Ifyouclickonanexistingsite,Atollwillusethesiteasoneextremity;otherwise,
Atoll will create a site where you click. The exact coordinates of the pointers
currentlocationarevisibleintheStatusbar.
5. Move the pointer over the map to where you would like to place the other
extremityofthemicrowavelinkandclicktoplaceit.

Toplacethemicrowavelinkmoreaccurately,youcanzoominonthemapbefore
you click the New Link button. For information on using the zooming tools, see
"ChangingtheMapScale"onpage 34.
Ifyouletthepointerrestovertheextremityyouhaveplaced,Atolldisplaysitstip
textwithitsexactcoordinates,allowingyoutoverifythatthelocationiscorrect.

Tocreateamicrowavelinkontwoexistingsitesusingamicrowavelinktemplate:
1. IntheMicrowaveLinkPlanningtoolbar,selectamicrowavelinktemplatefromthelist.

2. ClickthearrownexttoNewLinkbutton( )ontheMicrowaveLinkPlanningtoolbar.

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3. SelectMWBetweenSitesfromthemenu.TheLinkCreationdialogueappears.
4. IntheLinkCreationdialogue,definethefollowingparameters:
Model:themicrowavelinktemplateyouwanttouseinordertocreatethemicrowavelink.
SiteA:thenameofthesitedefiningoneextremityofthemicrowavelink.
SiteB:thenameofthesitedefiningtheotherextremityofthemicrowavelink.
5. ClickOK.
Bydefault,Atollnamesthenewlycreatedmicrowavelinksinthefollowingmanner:SiteXSiteY,whereSiteXisthenameof
thestartsite(existingornewlycreated)andSiteYisthenameoftheendsite(existingornewlycreated).

7.3.1.5 ManagingMicrowaveLinkTemplates
Atollcomeswithmicrowavelinktemplates,butyoucanalsocreateandmodifymicrowavelinktemplates.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"CreatingaMicrowaveLinkTemplate"onpage 236
"ModifyingaMicrowaveLinkTemplate"onpage 237
"ModifyingaFieldonaMicrowaveLinkTemplate"onpage 237
"DeletingaMicrowaveLinkTemplate"onpage 238.

7.3.1.5.1 CreatingaMicrowaveLinkTemplate
Youcancreateamicrowavelinktemplatebybasingitonanexistingmicrowavelinkorbybasingitonanexistingmicrowave
linktemplate.Thenewmicrowavelinktemplatehasthesameparametersasthemicrowavelinkormicrowavelinktemplate
onwhichitwasbased.Therefore,byselectingamicrowavelinkormicrowavelinktemplatewithparameterssimilartothe
microwavelinktemplateyouwanttocreate,youonlyneedtomodifytheparametersthataredifferent.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"CreatingaMicrowaveLinkTemplateBasedonaMicrowaveLink"onpage 236
"CreatingaMicrowaveLinkTemplateBasedonAnotherMicrowaveLinkTemplate"onpage 236.

CreatingaMicrowaveLinkTemplateBasedonaMicrowaveLink

Tocreateamicrowavelinktemplatebasedonanexistingmicrowavelink:
1. In the map window, rightclick the microwave link on which you want to base your template. The context menu
appears.
2. SelectSaveasTemplatefromthecontextmenu.
Thenewmicrowavelinktemplate,calledSameaslink<original_link>,hasthesameparametersasthemicrowave
linkitisbasedon.ItisavailableinthelistoftheMicrowaveLinkPlanningtoolbar.

CreatingaMicrowaveLinkTemplateBasedonAnotherMicrowaveLinkTemplate

You can also create a microwave link template based on an existing microwave link template. The new microwave link
templatehasthesameparametersastheoneitisbasedon.
Tocreateamicrowavelinktemplatebasedonanexistingmicrowavelinktemplate:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveSettingsfolder.
3. RightclicktheMWLinkTemplatefolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectManagementfromthecontextmenu.TheLinkPropertiesdialogueappears.
5. InthelistofAvailableTemplates,selectthemicrowavelinktemplatethatmostresemblesthemicrowavelinktem
plateyouwanttocreate.YoucanverifythepropertiesbyselectingthemicrowavelinktemplateandclickingtheProp
ertiesbutton.
6. ClicktheAddbutton.AtollautomaticallycreatesanewmicrowavelinktemplatecalledCopyof<original_link>Prop
erties.TheCopyof<original_link>Propertiesdialogueappears.

Youcannothavetwomicrowavelinktemplateswiththesamename.Ifthereisalready
atemplatecalledCopyof<original_link>,youwillhavetomodifythenameofthat
templateasexplainedin"ModifyingaMicrowaveLinkTemplate"onpage 237.

7. Edittheparametersofthenewmicrowavelinktemplateasexplainedin"ModifyingaMicrowaveLinkTemplateUsing
ItsPropertiesDialogue"onpage 237.Forinformationonthefields,see"DefinitionofaMicrowaveLink"onpage 227.

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8. ClickOKtoclosetheCopyof<original_link>Propertiesdialogue.Thenewmicrowavelinktemplateisdisplayedinthe
listofAvailableTemplates.
9. ClickOKtoclosetheLinkPropertiesdialogue.ThenewmicrowavelinktemplateisavailableinthelistoftheMicro
waveLinkPlanningtoolbar.

7.3.1.5.2 ModifyingaMicrowaveLinkTemplate
YoucanmodifyamicrowavelinktemplatedirectlyintheMWLinkTemplatestable,oryoucanopenthePropertiesdialogue
forthatmicrowavelinktemplateandmodifytheparametersinthedialogue.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"ModifyingaMicrowaveLinkTemplateintheMWLinkTemplatesTable"onpage 237
"ModifyingaMicrowaveLinkTemplateUsingItsPropertiesDialogue"onpage 237.

ModifyingaMicrowaveLinkTemplateintheMWLinkTemplatesTable

TomodifyamicrowavelinktemplatefromtheMWLinkTemplatestable:
1. ClicktheParameterstabintheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveSettingsfolder.
3. RightclicktheMWLinkTemplatefolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheMWLinkTemplatestableappears.
5. Edittheparametersofthemicrowavelinktemplateinthecorrespondingtablerow.

ModifyingaMicrowaveLinkTemplateUsingItsPropertiesDialogue

TomodifyamicrowavelinktemplateusingitsPropertiesdialogue:
1. ClicktheParameterstabintheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveSettingsfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMWLinkTemplatesfolder.
4. Rightclickthemicrowavelinktemplateyouwanttomodify.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.TheMWLinkTemplatePropertiesdialogueappears.
6. EdittheparametersofthelinktemplateandclickOKtoclosethedialogue.

7.3.1.5.3 ModifyingaFieldonaMicrowaveLinkTemplate
Youcanaddafieldtoamicrowavelinktemplate,modifyanexistingfield,ordeleteafieldfromamicrowavelinktemplate.

Youcanonlymodifyordeleteafieldthatyouhaveaddedyourselftoamicrowavelink
template.

Toadd,modifyordeleteafieldonamicrowavelinktemplate:
1. ClicktheParameterstabintheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveSettingsfolder.
3. RightclicktheMWLinkTemplatefolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectManagementfromthecontextmenu.TheLinkPropertiesdialogueappears.
5. UnderAvailableTemplates,selectthemicrowavelinktemplatewiththefieldyouwanttomodify.
Toaddafieldtoamicrowavelinktemplate:
a. ClicktheFieldsbutton.TheTabledialogueappears.
b. IntheTabledialogue,clicktheAddbuttontoaddafield.TheFieldDefinitiondialogueappears.
c. IntheFieldDefinitiondialogue,edittheparametersofthenewfieldandclickOK.

Ifyouaddafieldtothemicrowavelinktemplates,youmustaddanequivalentfieldtothe
Sitestableorthefieldwillnotbetakenintoaccount.

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Tomodifyafieldonamicrowavelinktemplate:
a. ClicktheFieldsbutton.TheTabledialogueappears.
b. IntheTabledialogue,selectthefieldyouwanttomodifyandclickthePropertiesbutton.TheFieldDefinitiondi
alogueappears.
c. IntheFieldDefinitiondialogue,edittheparametersofthefieldandclickOK.
Todeleteafieldonamicrowavelinktemplate:
a. ClicktheFieldsbutton.TheTabledialogueappears.
b. IntheTabledialogue,selectthefieldyouwanttodeleteandclicktheDeletebutton.
6. ClickOKtoclosetheTabledialogue.

7.3.1.5.4 DeletingaMicrowaveLinkTemplate
Todeleteamicrowavelinktemplate:
1. ClicktheParameterstabintheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveSettingsfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMWLinkTemplatefolder.
4. Rightclickthemicrowavelinktemplateyouwanttodelete.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectDeletefromthecontextmenu.Themicrowavelinktemplateisdeleted.

7.3.2 CreatingOtherTransmissionLinks
Atollenablesyoutomanageothertransmissionlinkssuchasleasedlinesoropticalfibres.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"DefinitionofOtherTransmissionLinks"onpage 238.
"CreatingorModifyingOtherTransmissionLinks"onpage 239.
"PlacingOtherTransmissionLinksDirectlyontheMap"onpage 239.

7.3.2.1 DefinitionofOtherTransmissionLinks
TheparametersofanOtherTransmissionLinkcanbefoundinitsPropertiesdialogue.ThePropertiesdialoguehastwotabs:
TheGeneraltab(seeFigure 7.10):
Name:Thenameofthelink.
Supporttype:Thetypeoftransmissionlink(e.g.,aleasedline,anopticalfibre,etc.).Forinformationoncreating
atransmissionlinktype,see"DefiningTransmissionLinkTypes"onpage 186.
SiteA:Thenameofthesitedefiningoneextremityofthelink.
SiteB:Thenameofthesitedefiningtheotherextremityofthelink.
Objectiveclass:Linkscanhavedifferentperformanceobjectives.Byassigninganobjectiveclasstoalink,youare
assigningthetargetparametersandusagelimitationsoftheobjectiveclasstotheselectedlink.Forinformation
oncreatingaobjectiveclass,see"LinkClasses"onpage 178.
Active:Thelinkactivitystatus.Onlyactivelinksareconsideredinreliabilityanalysis.

Figure 7.10:OtherTransmissionLinksPropertiesdialogueGeneraltab

TheDisplaytab:OntheDisplaytab,youcandefinetheappearanceofthelink.

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7.3.2.2 CreatingorModifyingOtherTransmissionLinks
The properties of an Other Transmission Link, described in "Definition of Other Transmission Links" on page 238, can be
accessedthroughitsPropertiesdialogue.HowyouaccessthePropertiesdialoguedependsonwhetheryouarecreatinganew
OtherTransmissionLinkormodifyinganexistingone.
TocreateanewOtherTransmissionLink:
1. ClicktheNetworktabintheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. RightclicktheOtherTransmissionLinksfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectNewfromthecontextmenu.TheOtherTransmissionLink:NewElementPropertiesdialogueappears.
5. Definetheparametersdescribedin"DefinitionofOtherTransmissionLinks"onpage 238.
6. ClickOK.
TomodifyanexistingOtherTransmissionLink:
1. ClicktheNetworktabintheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheOtherTransmissionLinksfolder.
4. RightclicktheOtherTransmissionLinkyouwanttomodify.IftheOtherTransmissionLinksareorganisedinfolders,
clicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandthefolderthenrightclickthedesiredOtherTransmissionLink.
5. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.TheOtherTransmissionLinksPropertiesdialogueappears.
6. Modifytheparametersdescribedin"DefinitionofOtherTransmissionLinks"onpage 238.
7. ClickOK.

7.3.2.3 PlacingOtherTransmissionLinksDirectlyontheMap
WithAtoll,youcancreateothertransmissionlinksdirectlyonthemapbetweenneworexistingsites.
TocreateanOtherTransmissionLinkdirectlyonthemapbetweenneworexistingsites:

1. ClickthearrownexttoNewLinkbutton( )ontheMicrowaveLinkPlanning
toolbar.Themenuappears.

2. SelectOtherLinkWithMouseOnTheMap.Thepointerchangesto( ).
ThesitesthatdefinetheextremitiesofanOtherTransmissionLinkcanbealready
existingsitesorAtollcancreatenewsitesautomaticallyatthelocationyouclickon
themap.EachsiteinAtollcansupportseveraltransmissionlinks,transmitters,and
passiverepeaters.
3. Inthemapwindow,movethepointeroverthemaptowhereyouwouldliketo
place one end of the new Other Transmission Link and click. The pointer now

changes( ).
Ifyouclickonanexistingsite,Atollwillusethesiteasoneextremity;otherwise,
Atoll will create a site where you click. The exact coordinates of the pointers
currentlocationarevisibleintheStatusbar.
4. Move the pointer over the map to where you would like to place the other
extremityoftheOtherTransmissionLinkandclicktoplaceit.

Toplacethelinkmoreaccurately,youcanzoominonthemapbeforeyouclickthe
NewLinkbutton.Forinformationonusingthezoomingtools,see"Changingthe
MapScale"onpage 34.
Ifyouletthepointerrestovertheextremityyouhaveplaced,Atolldisplaysitstip
textwithitsexactcoordinates,allowingyoutoverifythatthelocationiscorrect.

Bydefault,Atollnamesthenewlycreatedlinksinthefollowingmanner:SiteXSiteY,whereSiteXisthenameofthestartsite
(existingornewlycreated)andSiteYisthenameoftheendsite(existingornewlycreated).

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7.3.3 ModifyingSitesandLinksDirectlyontheMap
InAtoll,youcanaccessthePropertiesdialogueofasiteorlinkusingthecontextmenuontheNetworktaboftheexplorer
window.However,inacomplexmicrowaveproject,itcanbedifficulttofindthedataobjectontheNetworktab,althoughit
mightbevisibleinthemapwindow.AtollletsyouaccessthePropertiesdialogueofsitesandlinksdirectlyfromthemap.If
thereismorethanonelinkbetweenthesamesitesoriftherearetwositesincloseproximity,clickingtheminthemap
windowopensacontextmenuallowingyoutoselectonelinkorsite.Youcanalsochangethepositionofthesitebydragging
it,orbylettingAtollfindahigherlocationforit.
ModifyingsitesandlinksdirectlyonthemapisexplainedindetailinChapter1:TheWorkingEnvironment:
"DisplayingthePropertiesofanObject"onpage 24
"SelectingOneofSeveralLinks"onpage 25
"MovingaSiteUsingtheMouse"onpage 25
"MovingaSitetoaHigherLocation"onpage 26
"ChangingtheAzimuthoftheAntennaUsingtheMouse"onpage 26
"ChangingtheAntennaPositionRelativetotheSiteUsingtheMouse"onpage 26
"SelectingAnotherSitefortheLinkExtremityUsingtheMouse"onpage 27.

7.3.4 DisplayingTipsforSitesandLinks
Atollallowsyoutodisplayinformationaboutlinksinanumberofdifferentways.Thisenablesyounotonlytodisplayselected
information,butalsotodistinguishlinksataglance.
Thefollowingtoolscanbeusedtodisplayinformationaboutlinks:
Label:Youcandisplayinformationabouteachobject,suchaseachsiteorlink,intheformofalabelthatisdisplayed
withtheobject.Youcandisplayinformationfromeveryfieldinthatobjecttypesdatatable,includingfromfieldsthat
youadd.Thelabelisalwaysdisplayed,soyoushouldchooseinformationthatyouwouldwanttoalwaysbevisible;
toomuchinformationwillleadtoacluttereddisplay.Whenyoucreatealabelforalink,Atollallowsyoutochange
thepositionofthelabelusingthemouse.Forinformationondefiningthelabel,see"DefiningtheObjectTypeLabel"
onpage 30.
Tiptext:Youcandisplayinformationabouteachobject,suchaseachsiteorlink,intheformoftiptextthatisonly
visiblewhenyoumovethepointerovertheobject.Youcanchoosetodisplaymoreinformationthaninthelabel,
becausetheinformationisonlydisplayedwhenyoumovethepointerovertheobject.Youcandisplayinformation
fromeveryfieldinthatobjecttypesdatatable,includingfromfieldsthatyouadd.Forinformationondefiningthetip
text,see"DefiningtheObjectTypeTipText"onpage 31.
Linkcolour:Youcansetthelinkcolourtodisplayinformationaboutthelink.Forexample,youcanselect"Discrete
Values"todistinguishmicrowavelinksbyfrequencybands,ortodistinguishothertransmissionlinksbylinktype.For
informationondefiningthelinkcolour,see"DefiningtheDisplayType"onpage 28.

7.3.5 AddingaPassiveRepeatertoaMicrowaveLink
Passiverepeatersarenormallyusedtoredirectthemicrowavesignalaroundanobstruction.Passiverepeatersdividethe
radiopathintotwobranches,eachtraversingdifferenttypeterrain,normallyhavingdifferentlengthsanddifferentinclina
tions.Thisimpliesdifferentpropagationconditionsforthesetwobranchesconcerningfading,distortionsandrainetc.Dueto
thispropertyofpassiverepeaterstheyarealsoreferredtoas"beambenders".
Passiverepeatershavethefollowingadvantagesoveractivesites:
Nopowerisrequired
Noregularroadaccessisrequired
Noequipmenthousingisneeded
Theyareenvironmentallyfriendly
Littleornomaintenanceisrequired.
Theseadvantagesmeanthatpassiverepeaterscanbeplacedinrelativelyinaccessibleareas.
Therearetwomaintypesofpassiverepeaters.Thefirsttypeiswheretwoantennasareplacedbacktobackconnectedbya
shortfeedercable;thesearecalledbacktobackantennapassiverepeaters.Thesecondtypeisaplanereflectortypepassive
repeaterwhereaflatmetalreflectorisusedtoredirectthesignal;theseareoftencalledpassivereflectorsorplanereflectors.
Atollcanmodelbothtypesofpassiverepeatersandprovideyouwithaccesstoalltherelevantparameters.Thefollowing
sectionsexplainhowAtollmodelspassiverepeaters.
InAtoll,a"repeater"isalwaysa"passiverepeater."
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"DefinitionofaPassiveRepeater"onpage 241.
"OpeningthePassiveRepeatersTable"onpage 241
"CreatingorModifyingaPassiveRepeater"onpage 242

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"PlacingaPassiveMicrowaveRepeaterontheMapUsingtheMouse"onpage 242
"CreatingSeveralPassiveRepeaters"onpage 243

7.3.5.1 DefinitionofaPassiveRepeater
TheparametersofapassiverepeatercanbefoundintherepeatersPropertiesdialogue.ThePropertiesdialoguehastwo
tabs:
TheGeneraltab:
Name:Thenameofthepassiverepeater.Bydefault,passiverepeatersarenamed"PassiveRepeaterN"where"N"
isanumberassignedasthepassiverepeateriscreated.
YoucanchangetheSitethepassiverepeaterislocatedonbyselectingitfromtheSitelist.ClickingtheBrowse
button( )opensthePropertiesdialogueofthesite.
UnderAntennaPosition,youcandefinethepositionofthepassiverepeater,ifitisnotlocatedonthesiteitself:
RelativetoSite:Selectthisoptionifyouwanttoentertheantennapositionsasoffsetswithrespecttothesite
location,andthenenterthexaxisandyaxisoffsets,DxandDy,respectively.
Coordinates:Selectthisoptionifyouwanttoenterthecoordinatesoftheantenna,andthenenterthexaxis
andyaxiscoordinatesoftheantenna,XandY,respectively.

FrequencyBand:Theoperatingfrequencybandofthepassiverepeater.ClickingtheBrowsebutton( )opens
thePropertiesdialogueofthefrequencyband.
TheSettingstab.
Type:Fromthe Typelist, you can select whetherthepassive repeateris a "PanelReflector"or "BacktoBack
Antennas".
Fora"PanelReflector",definetheseparameters:
Surface:Thesurfaceareaoftherepeater.
and,underAntenna 1:
Height:Thereflectorheight.
Azimuth:Theazimuthtowardsthesiteoftransmission.
Tilt:Thetiltangletowardsthesiteoftransmission.
TheGainat45iscalculatedanddisplayedforpanelreflectors.

YoucanclicktheCalculatebutton( )toautomaticallycalculateazimuthandtiltangles.
For"BacktoBackAntennas",definetheseparametersforAntenna 1andAntenna 2:

Model:Themodeloftheantenna.ClickingtheBrowsebutton( )opensthePropertiesdialogueofthe
model.
Height:Theantennaheight.
Azimuth:Theazimuthtowardsthesiteoftransmission.
Tilt:Thetiltangletowardsthesiteoftransmission.
ForAntenna 2,selecttheCrosspolarisationcheckboxforantennaswithcrossedpolarisation.

YoucanclicktheCalculatebutton( )toautomaticallycalculateazimuthandtiltangles.
UnderFeeder,youcanchoosetheFeederanddefinetheLengthfor"BacktoBackAntennas",.Bydefault,
Atolllistsfeedersthatoperateinthefrequencybanddefinedforthepassiverepeater.Ifyouwant,youcan
applyanadditionalfilterbyclickingthebutton( )besidethemodelfield.Whenthefilterisactive,the
appearanceofthebuttonchanges( ).Atollnowlistsfeederscompatiblewiththeselectedantennasas
definedintheAntennaFeederCompatibilitytable.

ClickingtheBrowsebutton( )besidetheFeederlistopensthePropertiesdialogueofthemodel.
TheAttenuationiscalculatedanddisplayed.

7.3.5.2 OpeningthePassiveRepeatersTable
PassiverepeatersandtheirdefiningparametersarestoredinthePassiveRepeaterstable.
ToopenthePassiveRepeaterstable:
1. ClicktheNetworktabintheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )oftheLinksfoldertoexpandthefolder.
3. RightclicktheMicrowaveLinksfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectPassiveRepeaters >OpenTablefromthecontextmenu.ThePassiveRepeaterstableappears.

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7.3.5.3 CreatingorModifyingaPassiveRepeater
Youcanmodifyanexistingpassiverepeaterorcreateanewpassiverepeater.Youcanaccessthepropertiesofapassive
repeater,describedin"DefinitionofaPassiveRepeater"onpage 241,throughthepassiverepeatersPropertiesdialogue.
HowyouaccessthePropertiesdialoguedependsonwhetheryouarecreatinganewpassiverepeaterormodifyinganexisting
passiverepeater.
Tocreateapassiverepeater:
1. ClicktheNetworktabintheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )oftheLinksfoldertoexpandthefolder.
3. RightclicktheMicrowaveLinksfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectPassiveRepeaters >Newfromthecontextmenu.ThePassiveRepeatersNewElementPropertiesdialogue
appears.
5. Modifytheparametersdescribedin"DefinitionofaPassiveRepeater"onpage 241.
6. ClickOK.
Tomodifyapassiverepeater:
1. ClicktheNetworktabintheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )oftheLinksfoldertoexpandthefolder.
3. RightclicktheMicrowaveLinksfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectPassiveRepeaters >OpenTablefromthecontextmenu.ThePassiveRepeaterstableappears.
5. RightclickthepassiverepeaterinthePassiveRepeaterstable.Thecontextmenuappears.
6. SelectRecordPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThepassiverepeatersPropertiesdialogueappears
7. Modifytheparametersdescribedin"DefinitionofaPassiveRepeater"onpage 241.
8. ClickOK.

Ifyouarecreatingseveralpassiverepeatersatthesametime,ormodifyingseveral
existingpassiverepeaters,youcandoitquicklybyeditingorpastingthedatadirectlyin
thePassiveRepeaterstable.YoucanopenthePassiveRepeaterstableasexplainedin
"OpeningthePassiveRepeatersTable"onpage 241.Forinformationoncopyingand
pastingdata,see"CopyingandPastinginTables"onpage 57.

7.3.5.4 PlacingaPassiveMicrowaveRepeaterontheMapUsingtheMouse
InAtoll,youcancreateapassivemicrowaverepeaterandplaceitusingthemouse.Whenyoucreateapassivemicrowave
repeater,youcanaddittoanexistingsite,orhaveAtollautomaticallycreateanewsite.
Atollpermitsamaximumof2passiverepeatersinasinglemicrowavelink.ThefollowingtermsareusedinAtollforpassive
repeatersandrelatedparameters:
Passiverepeaters(maximum2)alongamicrowavelinkarenamedrepeaterPandrepeaterQ.
Apartofthemicrowavelinkiscalleda"Section".Asectioncanbe:
Oneofthedirectionsofabidirectionallink.
Oneofthetrajectoriestowardsarepeater(ifany).
Forexample:
Unidirectionallinkwithoutrepeater:1 section,Site ASite B
Bidirectionallinkwithoutrepeater:2sections,Site ASite BandSite BSite A
Bidirectionallinkwith2 repeaters:6 sections,Site ASite P,Site PSite Q,Site QSite B, Site BSite Q,Site Q
Site P,Site PSite A.
Tocreateapassivemicrowaverepeaterandplaceitusingthemouse:
1. Selectthemicrowavelink.YoucanselectitfromtheMicrowaveLinksfolderoftheexplorerwindowsNetworktab,
ordirectlyonthemap.

2. ClickthearrownexttoNewRepeaterbutton( )ontheMicrowaveLinkPlanningtoolbar.
3. SelectPanelReflectororBacktoBackAntennasfromthemenuaccordingtothetypeofpassiverepeateryouwant
tocreate.

4. Clickthemaptoplacetherepeater.Therepeaterisplacedonthemap,representedbythesitesymbol( ).

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AtollautomaticallycreatesanewrepeaterinthePassiveRepeaterstableandanewsiteintheSitestablethatis
assignedtothenewlycreatedrepeater.Theoperatingfrequencybandoftherepeateristhefrequencybandassigned
tothemicrowavelinkandazimuth(s)fortherepeaterantenna(s)arecalculatedaccordingtothedirectionsofthetwo
sectionsofthemicrowavelink.
Forinformationonthepropertiesofthenewmicrowavepassiverepeater,see"DefinitionofaPassiveRepeater"on
page 241.

YoucanalsoinsertarepeaterinamicrowavelinkbyselectingInsertRepeaterfromthe
microwavelinkscontextmenuandthenclickingonthemicrowavelinkwhereyouwantto
inserttherepeater.

7.3.5.5 CreatingSeveralPassiveRepeaters
InAtoll,thecharacteristicsofeachrepeaterarestoredinthePassiveRepeaterstable.Ifyouhavedataintableform,either
inanotherAtolldocumentorinaspreadsheet,youcancopythisdataandpasteitintothePassiveRepeaterstableinyour
currentAtolldocument.
TopastetheinformationintothePassiveRepeaterstable:
1. OpenthePassiveRepeaterstableasexplainedin"OpeningthePassiveRepeatersTable"onpage 241.
2. CopythedatafromthesourcedocumentandpasteitintotheRepeaterstable.

Thetableyoucopydatafrommusthavethesamecolumnlayoutasthetableyouare
pastingdatainto.

Forinformationoncopyingandpastingdata,see"CopyingandPastinginTables"onpage 57.

7.3.6 CheckingDataConsistency
Youcanperformanauditofthemicrowavelinknetwork.Theauditallowsyoutoverifytheconsistencyandvalidityofsome
data.
Toperformanauditofthemicrowavelinknetwork:
1. SelectDocument >DataAudit >MicrowaveLinkDataCheckfromthecontextmenu.TheMicrowaveDataCheck
dialogueappears.
2. IntheMicrowaveDataCheckdialogue,definetheparametersoftheaudit:
Frequencyconsistency:Selectthischeckboxifyouwanttheaudittoverify:
Frequencybanddefinition:Theminimumfrequencymustbelowerthanthemaximumfrequency.
Frequencysubbanddefinition:Thefrequencybandmustbedefined,excludedchannelsmustbelongtothe
listofchannelsandatleastonechannelmustbeavailable.
Microwavelinkdefinition:Atleastonedirectionmustbeselected,thefrequencydefinedmustbewithinthe
frequency band limits, the number of channels must not exceed the number of channels allowed by the
selectedconfiguration,thechannelsmustbelongtotheselectedfrequencysubband,thefrequencybandof
antennas,equipment,feedersandfrequencysubbandmustbethesameasthemicrowavelinkfrequency
bandand,theantennaverticalandhorizontalpatternsmustbecorrectlyalignedattheextremities(antenna
patternsarecorrectlyalignedwhenthehorizontalpatternattenuationat0isthesameastheverticalpattern
attenuationatthepatternelectricaltiltangle,andwhenthehorizontalpatternattenuationat180isthesame
astheverticalpatternattenuationatthe180lessthepatternelectricaltiltangle.Patternattenuationsare
consideredthesameiftheydifferlessthan1dB.)
Undefinedrecords:Selectthischeckboxifyouwanttheaudittoverifyifthereareundefinedmultihops(i.e.,
multihopswithnolink),undefinedpointtomultipointsystems(i.e.,pointtomultipointwithnolink),orunused
repeaters.
Other(XPIC,antennaseparation,etc.):Selectthischeckboxifyouwanttheaudittoverifythat:
TheXPIFvalueoftheradioisanonzerovaluewhenXPICsystemisusedonamicrowavelink.
Antennaseparationisanonzerovaluewhenspacediversityisusedonamicrowavelink.
Listallthechecks:Selectthischeckboxifyouwanttodisplayallchecksperformedinadditiontodetectedincon
sistencies.
3. ClickOKtoperformtheaudit.AtolldisplaystheresultsoftheauditintheEventsViewer.

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7.3.7 SettingtheWorkingAreaofanAtollDocument
Whenyouloadprojectdatafromadatabase,youwillprobablyonlymodifythedataintheregionforwhichyouarerespon
sible.Forexample,acomplexmicrowavelinkplanningprojectmaycoveranentireregionorevenanentirecountry.You,
however,mightberesponsiblefortheplanningforonlyonecity.Insuchasituation,doingengineeringandinterference
predictionsthatcalculatetheentirenetworknotonlytakealotoftime,theyarenotnecessary.Consequently,youcanrestrict
engineeringandinterferencepredictionstothesitesandmicrowavelinksthatyouareinterestedinandgenerateonlythe
resultsyouneed.
InAtoll,therearetwowaysofrestrictingthenumberofsitesandmicrowavelinksstudied,eachwithitsownadvantages:
Filteringthedesiredsitesandmicrowavelinks
Youcansimplifytheselectionofsitesandmicrowavelinkstobestudiedbyusingafilter.Youcanfiltersitesandmicro
wavelinksaccordingtooneormorefields,oryoucancreateanadvancedfilterbycombiningseveralcriteriainseveral
fields.Youcancreateagraphicfilterbyeitherusinganexistingvectorpolygonorcreatinganewvectorpolygon.For
informationongraphicfilters,see"FilteringDataUsingaFilteringZone"onpage 85.Thisenablesyoutokeeponlythe
sitesandmicrowavelinkswiththecharacteristicsyouwanttostudy.
Forinformationonfiltering,see"FilteringData"onpage 74.
Settingacomputationzone
Drawingacomputationzonetoencompassthesitesandmicrowavelinkstobestudied,limitsthenumberofsitesand
microwavelinkstobecalculated,whichinturnreducesthetimenecessaryforcalculations.
Forinformationoncomputationzones,see"TheComputationZone"onpage 39.
Youcancombineacomputationzoneandafilter,inordertocreateaverypreciseselectionofthesitesandmicrowavelinks
tobestudied.
Inaddition,youcansetafocuszonetofiltertheresultsdisplayedinreports(linkbudgetsorinterference).Forinformationon
focuszones,see"TheFocusZone"onpage 40.

7.4 AnalysingthePathProfile
Afterthemicrowavelinkhasbeencreated,itcanbeanalysedintermsoftheterrainandclutterprofilebetweenthetwo
extremitiesinAtoll.Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"DisplayingthePathProfile"onpage 244.
"DeterminingMicrowaveLinkAntennaHeights"onpage 252.

7.4.1 DisplayingthePathProfile
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"ViewingaMicrowaveLinkProfile"onpage 244.
"StudyingMicrowaveLinkClearance"onpage 245.
"DefiningtheDisplayoftheMicrowaveLinkProfile"onpage 245.
"ZoomingInontheProfile"onpage 247.
"PrintingaMicrowaveLinkProfile"onpage 247.
"DisplayingMicrowaveLinkClearanceValuesAlongtheProfile"onpage 247.
"ModifyingMicrowaveLinkProfileValues"onpage 249

7.4.1.1 ViewingaMicrowaveLinkProfile
InAtoll,youcanmakeaprofileanalysisofamicrowavelink.Beforestudyingamicrowavelink,youmustconfigureitsanten
nas,radios,itsfrequencyband,andthepropagationmodelyouwanttouse.Youcanmakeamicrowavelinkprofileanalysis
usingtheProfileAnalysisviewoftheMWAnalysiswindow.
ToopentheProfileAnalysisviewoftheMWAnalysiswindow:
1. Rightclickthemicrowavelinkeitherdirectlyonthemap,orfromtheMicrowaveLinksfolderoftheexplorerwindows
Networktab.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectEngineering >ProfileAnalysisfromthecontextmenu.

YoucanalsoopenProfileAnalysisviewoftheMWAnalysiswindowusingtheProfileAnalysisbutton( )inthetoolbar.
TheProfileAnalysisviewprovidesaninteractiverealtimedisplayofthemicrowavelinkprofilefromsite Atosite Borvice
versa.Itincludesanypassiverepeaterscomposingthemicrowavelink.Thealtitude(inmetres)isreportedontheverticalaxis
andthedistanceonthehorizontalaxis.AblueellipsoidindicatestheFresnelzonebetweenthetransmitterandthereceiver
sites,withagreenlineindicatingthelineofsight(LOS).Atolldisplaystheterrainheightalongtheprofileaswellasclutter

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classesandclutterheightswhenthevisibilitycheckboxoftheClutterClassesfolderontheGeotabisselected.Ifyoudonot
wanttodisplaytheclutteralongtheprofile,youcanclearthevisibilitycheckboxoftheClutterClassesfolderontheGeotab.
Alongtheprofile,ifthesignalmeetsanobstacle,thiscausesattenuationwithdiffractiondisplayedbyablackverticalline(if
thepropagationmodelusedtakesdiffractionintoaccount).ThemainpeakistheonethatintersectstheFresnelellipsoidthe
most.Thediffractionattenuationisdisplayedabovethepeak.
Whenarepeaterisinsertedonthemicrowavelink,itisdisplayedintheProfileAnalysisviewbyaverticallineintheprofile.
AtthetopoftheMWAnalysiswindow,youcanselectwhichpartoftheprofileyouwanttodisplay:
Site A==>Site P
Site P==>Site B
Site B==>Site P
Site P==>Site A
Site A==>Site B(profile"broken"atSiteP)
Site B==>Site A(profile"broken"atSiteP)
Whenasecondrepeater(Q)isinsertedonthemicrowavelink,theprofiledisplayoptionsincludeSite Qaswell.

YoucanclickthePropertiesbutton( )ontheProfileAnalysisviewtoopenthemicrowavelinkpropertiesdialogue.

7.4.1.2 StudyingMicrowaveLinkClearance
TheProfileAnalysisviewallowsyoutodisplaytheclearancealongtheentirelinkprofile.Whendisplayingtheclearance,you
canhideordisplaytheFresnelzonesbetweenthetwoextremitiesofthemicrowavelink.
Tostudythemicrowavelinkclearance
1. OpentheMWAnalysiswindowasexplainedin"ViewingaMicrowaveLinkProfile"onpage 244.
2. Selectthemicrowavelinktoanalysefromthelist.

3. ClicktheParametersbutton( )besidethePathlistonthetoolbar.
You can view the microwave link profile with two different values for the earth curvature factor (k factor). Atoll
displaystheclearance(%)andthepenetration(m)oftheFresnelzoneforeachvalueofk.Bydefault,thekfactor
valuesareinitialisedeitherwithglobalvalues,orwiththevaluescalculatedforeachmicrowavelink;thisdependson
theoptionselectedinthePropertiesoftheLinksfolder.Inaddition,itindicatesthetilts/directray,theazimuths,and
theanglesofincidenceforbothantennas.
TohideordisplaytheFresnelzones
1. OpentheMWAnalysiswindowasexplainedin"ViewingaMicrowaveLinkProfile"onpage 244.
2. Selectthemicrowavelinktoanalysefromthelist.

3. ClickthearrownexttoDisplayOptionsbutton( )onthetoolbar.
4. SelectDisplayFresnelEllipsoidsfromthemenu.
ThefirstFresnelellipsoidcorrespondingtothefirstkvalueisshowninblue,whilethesecondrelatedtothesecondkvalueis
showninred.YoucanalsodisplayanotherFresnelellipsoidwhenadiversityantennaisinstalledatthereceiver.Ifthereare
obstructionsinthepathofthemicrowavelinkthatintroducelosses,agreencolouredlineisdrawnfromthetransmitterto
thefirstobstacleshighestpoint.Aperpendicularfromthehorizontalaxisisalsodrawntomarktheobstaclethatintroduces
thehighestlossinthelink,andthelossfromthisobstacleisdisplayedonthetopofthisperpendicular.
YoucandisplaythefirstFresnelzoneat100%andthesecondat60%inordertodepicttheminimumclearancerequirement
directlyontheprofile.YoucandefinehowboththefirstandsecondFresnelellipsoidsaredisplayedusingtheProfileDisplay
Optionsdialogue.YoucanopentheProfileDisplayOptionsdialoguebyrightclickingtheFresnelellipsoidsandthenselecting
DisplayOptionsfromthecontextmenu.
Youcanmodifytheantennaheightsatbothextremitieseithermanuallyorautomatically.Formoreinformation,see"Auto
maticallyOptimisingMicrowaveAntennaHeights"onpage 253.

When100%oftheFresnelellipsoidisdisplayed,theclearanceisreferredtoasF,F1forthe
firstkfactorvalueandF2forthesecondone.WhenthepercentageoftheFresnelellipsoid
islessthan100%,theclearanceisreferredtoasF,F1forthefirstkfactorvalueandF2
forthesecondone.

7.4.1.3 DefiningtheDisplayoftheMicrowaveLinkProfile
TheProfileAnalysisviewoftheMWAnalysiswindowenablesyoutodefinethedisplayoftheprofile.

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ToopentheProfileDisplayOptionsdialogue:
1. OpentheMWAnalysiswindowasexplainedin"ViewingaMicrowaveLinkProfile"onpage 244.
2. Selectthemicrowavelinktoanalysefromthelist.

3. ClickthearrownexttoDisplayOptionsbutton( )onthetoolbar.
4. SelectDisplayOptionsfromthemenu.TheProfileDisplayOptionsdialogueappears.
5. SelecttheDisplaytab.OntheDisplaytab,youcandefinethefollowing:
Verticalaxis:SettheMin.andMax.valueontheverticalaxisaswellastheIntervalbetweentickmarks.
Horizontalaxis:SettheIntervalbetweentickmarksonthehorizontalaxis.
Drawalongthepath:SelecttheDrawalongthepathcheckboxifyouwantAtolltodisplaygridlinestoindicate
thevaluesontheverticalaxis.
Earthcurvaturedisplay:Selectoneofthefollowing:
Real:SelectRealifyouwantAtolltodisplaytheactualcurvatureoftheearth,withtheradiopathdisplayed
curved.
Optical:SelectOpticalifyouwantAtolltodisplaytheradiopathasstraight,withthecurvatureoftheearth
increasedbythevaluedefinedfork.
6. SelecttheEllipsoidsandAntennaBeamwidthstab.OntheEllipsoidsandAntennaBeamwidthstab,youcandefine
thefollowingunderDiffraction:
Display1stFresnelellipsoid:SelecttheDisplay1stFresnelellipsoidcheckboxtodisplaythefirstFresnelellipsoid
anddefinethefollowing:
k1factor:Thek1factor,definedintheparametersofthemicrowavepropagationmodel,isdisplayed.Forin
formationonsettingthek1factor,see"AutomaticallyOptimisingMicrowaveAntennaHeights"onpage 253.
%ofdisplayedellipsoid:Definethepercentageoftheellipsoidtobedisplayed.
Displaythediversityantennaellipsoid:SelecttheDisplaythediversityantennaellipsoidcheckboxifyou
wanttheellipsoidofanydiversityantennatobedisplayed.
DisplaytheevenFresnelzones:SelecttheDisplaytheevenFresnelzonescheckboxifyouwanttheeven
FresnelzonestobedisplayedanddefinetheMaxorder.
Display2ndFresnelellipsoid:SelecttheDisplay2ndFresnelellipsoidcheckboxtodisplaythesecondFresnel
ellipsoidanddefinethefollowing:
k2factor:Thek2factor,definedintheparametersofthemicrowavepropagationmodel,isdisplayed.Forin
formationonsettingthek2factor,see"AutomaticallyOptimisingMicrowaveAntennaHeights"onpage 253.
%ofdisplayedellipsoid:Definethepercentageoftheellipsoidtobedisplayed.
7. OntheEllipsoidsandAntennaBeamwidthstab,youcandefinethefollowing:
Displaytreeorfoliagegrowth:Ifyouhaveoutofdatecluttermaps,youcanselecttheDisplaytreeorfoliage
growthcheckbox.Atollwilladdtheprojectedgrowthtotherelatedclutterclasses.Forinformationonsettingthe
projectedgrowth,see"AutomaticallyOptimisingMicrowaveAntennaHeights"onpage 253.
Displaythelineofsight:SelecttheDisplaythelineofsightcheckboxtodisplaythelineofsightbetweenthesites
ofthemicrowavelink.
8. SelecttheReflectionstab.OntheReflectionstab,youcandefinehowreflectionsaredisplayed:
UnderForallreflectionzones,youcanselectthefollowingoptions:
Displaythespecularreflectionpoint:SelecttheDisplaythespecularreflectionpointcheckboxifyouwant
todisplayreflectionareasalongthelinkprofileandunobstructedreflectedpaths.Theoptionisautomatically
selectedafteryouhavedisplayedreflectionsaspreviouslyexplained.
Displaythecriticalreflectionzonewhenkfactorvaries:SelecttheDisplaythecriticalreflectionzonewhen
kfactorvariescheckboxifyouwanttodisplaythereflectionzoneregardlessofcluttercategories.Thereflec
tionzoneisdeterminedfromantennaheightsandgroundaltitudeatthetransmitterandreceiversites;itis
notbasedonthedefinedcluttercategories.Whenthisoptionisselected,youhavetocheckifthiszoneisa
reflectionareaand,ifso,ifthereisareflectionpointwithinthereflectionarea.
UnderFortheselectedarea,youcanselectthefollowingoptions:
Displaythereflectionsforthekfactorrange:SelecttheDisplaythereflectionsforthekfactorrangecheck
boxifyouwanttodisplayunobstructedandobstructedreflectedpathscalculatedforthedefinedrangeofk
factorvalues.Forinformationondefiningtherangeofkfactorvalues,see"ModifyingReflectionAnalysisPa
rameters"onpage 269.
Displaytheobstructedreflections:SelecttheDisplaytheobstructedreflectionscheckboxifyouwantto
displayobstructedreflectedsignals.Obstructedreflectedsignalsarerepresentedwithorangedashedlines.
Displayallthepaths:SelecttheDisplayallthepathscheckboxifyouwanttodisplayallpossiblereflected
signalswithinthereflectionarea.
Displaythereflectionplan:SelecttheDisplaythereflectionplancheckboxinordertodisplaythereflection
slope.Thisoneisusedtodeterminethereflectionpoint.

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UnderAboveseawater,selecttheDisplaytidelevelscheckboxinordertodisplaytheheightvariationdueto
tides above the sea water clutter category. For information on defining the height variation, see "Modifying
ReflectionAnalysisParameters"onpage 269.

Reflectionpathsandreflectivesurfacescanonlybedisplayedandanalysedoverunbroken
microwavelinkprofiles,i.e.,theprofileshouldnotincluderepeaters.

9. ClickOK.

7.4.1.4 ZoomingInontheProfile
Atollenablesyoutozoominontheprofile.
Tozoominontheprofile:
1. OpentheMWAnalysiswindowasexplainedin"ViewingaMicrowaveLinkProfile"onpage 244.
2. Selectthemicrowavelinktoanalysefromthelist.

3. ClicktheZoomonProfilebutton( )onthetoolbar.Thepointerchanges( ).
4. Clickintheprofileononeofthefourcornersoftheareayouwanttozoominon.
5. Dragtotheoppositecorner.Whenyoureleasethemousebutton,Atollzoomsinontheselectedarea.
Torestoretheinitialprofile:
1. OpentheMWAnalysiswindowasexplainedin"ViewingaMicrowaveLinkProfile"onpage 244.
2. Selectthemicrowavelinktoanalysefromthelist.

3. ClicktheCancelZoombutton( )onthetoolbar.

7.4.1.5 PrintingaMicrowaveLinkProfile
Youcanprintamicrowavelinkprofile.
ToprintthecontentsoftheProfileAnalysisview:
1. OpentheMWAnalysiswindowasexplainedin"ViewingaMicrowaveLinkProfile"onpage 244.
2. Selectthemicrowavelinktoanalysefromthelist.

3. ClickthePrintbutton( )onthetoolbar.
4. ClickOKtoprint.

7.4.1.6 DisplayingMicrowaveLinkClearanceValuesAlongtheProfile
YoucandisplaytheclearancevaluesofamicrowavelinkusingeithertheProfileAnalysisviewortheProfileValuesviewof
theMWAnalysiswindow.
Inthissection,thefollowingaredescribed:
"UsingtheProfileAnalysisViewtoDisplayDataofEachPoint"onpage 247
"UsingtheValuesViewtoDisplayDataofEachPoint"onpage 248

7.4.1.6.1 UsingtheProfileAnalysisViewtoDisplayDataofEachPoint
YoucanusetheProfileAnalysisviewoftheMWAnalysiswindowtodisplaydetailsoneachpointalongthemicrowavelink
profile.Atolldisplaysthedetailsinaseparatewindow.
Todisplaythedetailsonapointofamicrowavelinkprofile:
1. OpentheProfileAnalysisviewoftheMWAnalysiswindowasexplainedin"ViewingaMicrowaveLinkProfile"on
page 244.
2. Selectthemicrowavelinktoanalysefromthelist.

3. ClickthearrownexttoDisplayOptionsbutton( )onthetoolbar.
4. SelectDisplayInformationontheCurrentPointfromthemenu.Aseparatewindowopensdisplayingdetailsofthe
selectedpoint.(seeFigure 7.11).
5. Movethepointeralongtheprofile.
Thewindowdisplaysthefollowinginformationforeachselectedpointalongtheprofile:

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Distance:Thedistancefromthetransmittingsite.
TotalHeight:Thealtitudeofthegroundlevelmoretheclutterheight.
DistanceuptoOpticalPath:TheclearanceoftheFresnelellipsoidforthefirstkfactorvalue.Thisvalueisrelative
tothelineofsightandcorrespondstothedifferenceofheightbetweenthelineofsightandthecurrentpoint.
FresnelEllipsoidRadius:TheradiusoftheFresnelellipsoidforthefirstkfactorvalue.
PointerAltitude(z):Thealtitudeofthepointer.

Figure 7.11:MWAnalysiswindowProfileAnalysisview

AsasyoudragthepointeralongtheprofileintheMWAnalysiswindow,thepointerinthemapwindowchanges( )
toindicatethelocationofthecurrentpointalongtheprofileinthemapwindow.Whenyouplacethepointeronthis
icon,theinformationdisplayedintheCurrentPointInformationwindowisdisplayedintiptext.

7.4.1.6.2 UsingtheValuesViewtoDisplayDataofEachPoint
YoucanusetheProfileValuesviewoftheMWAnalysiswindowtoviewalltheprofileanalysisdataforeachselectedpoint
alongthemicrowavelinkprofile.Atolldisplaysthedetailsinaseparatewindow.
TodisplaytheprofiledatausingtheProfileValuesview:
1. Rightclickthemicrowavelinkeitherdirectlyonthemap,orfromtheMicrowaveLinksfolderoftheexplorerwindows
Networktab.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectEngineering >ProfileValuesfromthecontextmenu.
YoucanalsoaccesstheProfileValuesviewbyopeningtheMWAnalysiswindowandselectingtheProfileValues
view.
TheProfileValuesviewoftheMWAnalysiswindowdisplaysthefollowingvaluesforeachpointalongtheprofile:
Distance(m):Thedistancefromthetransmittingsite.
Altitude(m):Thealtitudeofthegroundlevel(fromDTMfiles).
Clutter:Theclutterclass.
ClutterHeight(m):Theclutterheightfromclutterheightfilesifavailableorfromclutterclassfile.
Category:Thecluttercategoryassignedtoeachclutterclasswhenconfiguringthepropagationmodel.
FresnelRadius(m):TheradiusoftheFresnelellipsoidforthefirstkfactorvalue.
Clearance(m):TheclearanceoftheFresnelellipsoidforthefirstkfactorvalue.Thisvalueisrelativetothelineof
sightandcorrespondstothedifferenceofheightbetweenthelineofsightandthecurrentpoint.
Ellipsoid Penetration (%): The penetrationof the current pointin thelower half of theFresnel ellipsoid (per
centageoftheellipsoidradiuspenetratedbythecurrentpoint).ThisvalueisrelativetothebottomoftheFresnel
ellipsoidandisgivenforthefirstkfactorvalue.

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Figure 7.12:PenetrationandclearancevaluesontheProfileValuesview

7.4.1.7 ModifyingMicrowaveLinkProfileValues
ThegeographicdetailsprovidedontheProfileValuesviewoftheMWAnalysiswindowarestoredinatable.Theresolution
oftheinformationgivendependsontheresolutionofthegeographicdata:informationisgiveneveryXmetres,whereXis
thehighestresolutionofclutterclassandDTMmaps.
Youcanmodifysomeprofilevaluesatanypointalongtheprofileandimmediatelychecktheimpactofthesemodificationsin
theProfileAnalysisview.However,achangemadeonA>>BdirectionisnotreportedtotheB>>Adirection(andviceversa)
untilitissavedinthemicrowavelinkproperties.

ChangesmadeontheA>>BdirectioncanbeautomaticallyreportedontheB>>Adirection
(and vice versa) by adding an option in the atoll.ini file. For more information, see the
AdministratorManual.

Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"EditingProfileValues"onpage 249
"DisplayingReflectionandVegetationZones"onpage 251
"CopyingandPastingProfileValues"onpage 251
"ExportingProfileValues"onpage 252
"ImportingProfileValues"onpage 252
"SavingtheEditedProfileValues"onpage 252
"ResettingtheProfileValues"onpage 252

7.4.1.7.1 EditingProfileValues
Somevalues(e.g.,thealtitude,theclutterclass,theclutterheight,andthecluttercategory)canbeeditedinthetableorusing
themouse.
Toedittheprofilevaluesinthetable:
1. OpentheProfileValuesviewasexplainedin"UsingtheValuesViewtoDisplayDataofEachPoint"onpage 248.
2. Editthecontentsofthetablebyenteringthevaluedirectlyinthefield.Youcaneditthefollowingcolumns:
Altitude:Thealtitude(DTM)
Clutter:Theclutterclass
ClutterHeight:Theclutterheight
Category:Thecluttercategory.
3. Clickelsewhereinthetablewhenyouhavefinishedupdatingthetable.

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Toeditprofilevaluesusingthemouse:
1. OpentheProfileValuesviewasexplainedin"UsingtheValuesViewtoDisplayDataofEachPoint"onpage 248.

Figure 7.13:TheProfileValuesviewwhenediting.

2. Rightclickthepartwheretheprofileisdisplayed.
3. SelectZoomInfromthecontextmenu.
4. Intheprofile,clickoneofthefourcornersoftheareayouwanttoselect.
5. Dragtotheoppositecornerandreleasethemousebutton.Atollzoomsinontheselectedarea.
6. Selectoneofthefollowingcolumnsinthetable:
Altitude:SelectAltitudeifyouwanttoeditgroundaltitudes(seeFigure 7.14).

Figure 7.14:GroundinEditmode.

Youcanchangethealtitudeofonepointorarangeofpoints.

i. Clickthepointyouwanttoedit.Thepointerchanges( ).
ii. Ifyouarechangingthealtitudeforarangeofpoints,movethepointertothesecondpointandclickthesecond
point.
iii. Onthemap,dragthepointtoitsnewaltitude.
ClutterHeight:SelectClutterHeightifyouwanttoeditclutterheights(seeFigure 7.15).

Figure 7.15:ClutterheightsinEditmode.

Youcanchangetheclutterheightofonepointorarangeofpoints.
i. Clickthepointyouwanttoedit.Thepointerchanges( ).
ii. Ifyouarechangingtheclutterheightforarangeofpoints,movethepointertothesecondpointandclickthe
secondpoint.
iii. Dragthepointtoitsnewclutterheight.
Clutter:SelectClutterifyouwanttoeditclutterclasses(seeFigure 7.16).Theclutterclassesaredisplayedwith
linesseparatingtheclutterclassesifclutterheightsaredefinedorwithpointsifclutterheightsarenotdefined.

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Figure 7.16:ClutterclassesinEditmode.

i. Clickthelineorpoint.Thepointerchanges( ).
ii. Dragthelineorpointtochangetheareawiththecorrespondingclutterclass.
Category:SelectCategoryifyouwanttoeditcluttercategories(seeFigure 7.17).Youcanseelinesseparatingthe
cluttercategories.

Figure 7.17:CluttercategoriesinEditmode.

i. Clicktheline.Thepointerchanges( ).
ii. Dragthelinetochangetheareawiththecorrespondingcluttercategory.

7.4.1.7.2 DisplayingReflectionandVegetationZones
Whenyouareeditingtheprofileasexplainedin"EditingProfileValues"onpage 249,youcanviewreflectionareasandvege
tationzones.
Todisplayreflectionareasandvegetationzones:
1. OpentheProfileValuesviewasexplainedin"UsingtheValuesViewtoDisplayDataofEachPoint"onpage 248.
2. Rightclickthepartwheretheprofileisdisplayedandselectoneofthefollowingoptionsfromthecontextmenu:
DisplayReflectionAreas:SelectDisplayReflectionAreastoviewreflectionareastakenintoaccountinthereflec
tionanalysisandreflectingpaths.Reflectionareasaredisplayedwithapattern( ).
DisplaySlopes:SelectDisplaySlopestoviewtheslopeoftheselectedreflectionarea.Youmustalreadyhave
selectedDisplayReflectionAreasifyouwanttoDisplaySlopes.
DisplayVegetationZoneswithFoliage:SelectDisplayVegetationZoneswithFoliagetoviewzoneswithfoliage
thatAtolltakesintoaccountwhencalculatingvegetationlosses.Zoneswithfoliagearedisplayedwithwithapat
tern( ).
DisplayVegetationZoneswithoutFoliage:SelectDisplayVegetationZoneswithoutFoliagetoviewvegetation
zoneswithoutfoliagethatAtolltakesintoaccountwhencalculatingvegetationlosses.Vegetationzoneswithout
foliagearedisplayedwithapattern( ).
HidePeculiarityZones:SelectHidePeculiarityZonestohidereflectionareasandvegetationzones.

7.4.1.7.3 CopyingandPastingProfileValues
Youcancopyandpastesomeprofilevaluessuchasaltitude,clutterclasses,clutterheights,andcluttercategoriesinthetable.
Tocopyandpasteprofilevaluesinthetable:
1. OpentheProfileValuesviewasexplainedin"UsingtheValuesViewtoDisplayDataofEachPoint"onpage 248.
2. ClickthecellwiththedatayouwanttocopyandpressCTRL+Ctocopyitscontents.
3. Clickanddragtoselectthecellsintowhichyouwanttocopythedata.
4. Copyintotheselectedcells:
Tocopythecontentsoftheclipboardintotheselectedcells,pressCTRL+V.
Tocopythecontentsofthetopcelloftheselectionintotheothercells,pressCTRL+D.
Tocopythecontentsofthebottomcelloftheselectionintotheothercells,pressCTRL+U.

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7.4.1.7.4 ImportingProfileValues
YoucanimportdataintheformofASCIItextfiles(inTXTandCSVformats)intothetableoftheProfileValuesview.Only
editablevalues(i.e.,altitude,clutterclasses,clutterheights,andcluttercategories)canbeimported.
Toimportdataintothetable:
1. OpentheProfileValuesviewasexplainedin"UsingtheValuesViewtoDisplayDataofEachPoint"onpage 248.

2. ClicktheImportbutton( )inthetoolbar.TheOpendialogueappears.
3. SelectthetextfileyouwanttoimportandclickOpen.TheImportdialogueappears.
4. Defineimportsettingsasexplainedin"ImportingTablesfromTextFiles"onpage 62.

7.4.1.7.5 ExportingProfileValues
YoucanexporttheentiretableorselectedcolumnstoASCIItextfiles(inTXTorCSVformats)andMSExcelfiles.
Toexportprofilevalues:
1. OpentheProfileValuesviewasexplainedin"UsingtheValuesViewtoDisplayDataofEachPoint"onpage 248.
2. ClicktheExportbutton( )inthetoolbar.TheExportdialogueappears.
3. Defineexportsettingsasexplainedin"ExportingTablestoTextFilesandSpreadsheets"onpage 60.

7.4.1.7.6 SavingtheEditedProfileValues
Thedata(altitudes,clutterheights,clutterclasses,cluttercategories)youhavechangedarenotautomaticallysavedandwill
belostifyouselectanotherlinkorifyouclosetheMWAnalysiswindow.Ifyouwant,youcansavetheminthemicrowave
linkproperties.
Tosavetheeditedprofilevalues:
1. OpentheProfileValuesviewasexplainedin"UsingtheValuesViewtoDisplayDataofEachPoint"onpage 248.

2. ClicktheSavebutton( )inthetoolbar.

7.4.1.7.7 ResettingtheProfileValues
Ifyouhaveeditedtheprofilevalues,youcanresetthemtotheiroriginalvaluesfromthegeographicdatafiles.
Torestoretheoriginallinkprofilevalues:
1. OpentheProfileValuesviewasexplainedin"UsingtheValuesViewtoDisplayDataofEachPoint"onpage 248.

2. ClicktheResetbutton( )inthetoolbaroftheMWAnalysiswindow.

7.4.2 DeterminingMicrowaveLinkAntennaHeights
Whendesigningamicrowavelinknetwork,youshouldsettheantennaheighttoavoidanyobstructionofthelineofsight
signalandreflections.
InAtoll,youcanmodifyoroptimisemicrowavelinksantennaheights.UsingtheProfileAnalysisviewoftheMWAnalysis
window,youcanmodifyantennaheightsusingthemouseorenternewvaluesandseetheclearanceandpenetrationparam
etersdisplayed.
Atollallowsyoutocalculateandadjustthemicrowavelinkantennaheightsattheextremitiestotheiroptimalvalues.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"AdjustingMicrowaveAntennaHeightsUsingtheMouse"onpage 252
"DefiningMicrowaveAntennaHeights"onpage 253
"AutomaticallyOptimisingMicrowaveAntennaHeights"onpage 253.

7.4.2.1 AdjustingMicrowaveAntennaHeightsUsingtheMouse
YoucanusethemousetomodifytheantennaheightoftheextremityofamicrowavelinkontheProfileAnalysisviewofthe
MWAnalysiswindow.
Tomodifyantennaheightsusingthemouse:
1. OpentheProfileAnalysisviewasexplainedin"ViewingaMicrowaveLinkProfile"onpage 244.

2. Clicktheantennaheightpointer( )(thepointerchanges )anddragitupordowntomodifytheantennaheight.


3. Rightclicktheantennaheightpointer( ).Thecontextmenuappears.

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4. SelectSaveHxandTilt,where"x"iseither"a"or"b"dependingonthesite,fromthecontextmenu.Atollsavesthe
currentantennaheightandtiltinthemicrowavelink.

Youcanspecifyamaximumsupportheightforthereceivingandtransmittingsitesnotto
beexceeded.ThisparametercanbedefinedontheOtherPropertiestaboftheProperties
dialogueforeachsite.Whendefined,theseheightlimitsaredisplayedontheProfileAnal
ysisview.

7.4.2.2 DefiningMicrowaveAntennaHeights
YoucanenteranewheightfortheantennaoftheextremityofamicrowavelinkontheProfileAnalysisviewoftheMW
Analysiswindow.
Tomodifytheantennaheight:
1. OpentheProfileAnalysisviewasexplainedin"ViewingaMicrowaveLinkProfile"onpage 244.

2. ClicktheParametersbutton( )besidethePathlistandentertheexactantennaHeight.
3. Rightclicktheantennaheightpointer( ).Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectSaveHxandTilt,where"x"iseither"a"or"b"dependingonthesite,fromthecontextmenu.Atollsavesthe
currentantennaheightandtiltinthemicrowavelink.

Youcanspecifyamaximumsupportheightforthereceivingandtransmittingsitesnotto
beexceeded.ThisparametercanbedefinedontheOtherPropertiestaboftheProperties
dialogueforeachsite.Whendefined,theseheightlimitsaredisplayedontheProfileAnal
ysisview.

7.4.2.3 AutomaticallyOptimisingMicrowaveAntennaHeights
Atollenablesyoutoautomaticallycalculateantennaheightsinordertoavoidreflectionsandprofileobstructions.Automat
icallyoptimisingantennaheightsisonlypossibleforsinglemicrowavelinkprofiles,i.e.,youcannotautomaticallyoptimise
antennaheightsformicrowavelinkprofileswithoneormorerepeaters.Youcan,however,calculateoptimalantennaheights
foreachhopofamicrowavelinkprofile(e.g.,forSiteSite BorRepeater PSite B).
Toperformanautomaticoptimisationforanantenna:
1. OpentheProfileAnalysisviewasexplainedin"ViewingaMicrowaveLinkProfile"onpage 244.
2. Rightclicktheantennaheightpointer( ).Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectOptimisationMethodfromthecontextmenu.TheHeightOptimisationdialogueappears.
4. UnderClearanceconditions,definethek1factor.Ifdesired,youcanselecttheTakesecondconstraintintoaccount
anddefinethek2factor.
5. Selecttheoptimisationmethod:
Clearanceconditionmethods:ClearanceconditionmethodsarebasedontheclearanceoftheFresnelellipsoid.
YoucanenteraTargetclearanceforthek1factorandforthek2factor,ifyouchosetotakeitintoconsideration.
Ifyouhaveoutofdateclutterclassmaps,youcanestimatethegrowthofvegetation(Projectedtreeorfoliage
growth).Atolltakesthisvalueintoaccountforcluttercategoriesfrom6to14andaddsittotheclutterheight.
MinimumDiffractionLossMethod:Atolldeterminesantennaheightstominimisediffractionlossesduetothe
mainobstacle(i.e.,itcalculatesantennaheightstogetaclearanceof60%ofthefirstFresnelzone).
6. UnderReflectionconditions,selecttheTakeintoaccountthereflectionareascheckboxanddefinetherangeofk
factorvalues(kminfactorandkmaxfactor)tobeusedduringtheantennaheightoptimisationifyouwanttotake
reflectionintoconsideration.
7. ClickOK.
8. Rightclicktheantennaheightpointer( )forthesitewhoseantennaheightyouwanttooptimise.Thecontextmenu
appears.
9. ChooseOptimisetocalculatetheoptimumantennaheightsforbothextremities.

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YoucanlocktheantennaheightbyselectingLockfromthecontextmenu.Thiswillprevent
theantennaheightfrombeingmodifiedduringtheoptimisationprocess.Onlytheheight
of the other antenna (if it is not locked as well) will be calculated to optimise the link.
Furthermore,youcanalwaysrestorethelastantennaheightvaluebyselectingRestore
fromthecontextmenu.

10. Rightclicktheantennaheightpointer( ).Thecontextmenuappears.


11. SelectSaveHa,HbandTiltsfromthecontextmenutosavethecurrentantennaheightsandtiltsinthemicrowavelink.

Youcanspecifyamaximumsupportheightforthereceivingandtransmittingsitesnotto
beexceeded.Thisparametercanbedefinedineachsitepropertiesdialogue(OtherProp
ertiestab).Ifdefined,theseheightlimitsarerepresentedontheProfileAnalysisview.

7.5 AnalysingMicrowaveLinkReliability
Reliabilityisthegeneraltermusedtorefertothequalityandavailabilityofamicrowavelinkobtainedthroughassessingits
performanceaccordingtothecriteriadefinedintherelevantperformanceobjectives.Ideally,amicrowavelinkshouldbe
completelyreliable100%ofthetime.Inpractice,thisperformancelevelisneverachievedoveranymicrowavelinkduethe
continuouslychangingpropagationconditionsandpossibleproblemswiththeradio.
Theobjectiveofcarryingoutreliabilityanalysesistoestimatetheunavailabilityoroutageofamicrowavelinkonanannual
basisandtodeterminethequalityoftheconnectionoverworstcaseoraveragemonthlyscenarios.Reliabilityanalysistakes
intoconsiderationthefademargin,diffractionloss,averageannualtemperature,terrainroughnesscalculations,radioparam
eters,antennaparameters,transmissionandreceptionparameters,andothermiscellaneouslosses.
Amicrowavelinkreliabilityanalysisdetermineswhetheradesignedsystemwilloperatesuccessfully.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"AnalysingaSingleMicrowaveLink"onpage 254.
"AnalysingMicrowaveLinks"onpage 259.
"PerformingamEndtoEndReliabilityAnalysis"onpage 262.

7.5.1 AnalysingaSingleMicrowaveLink
Whenyoucreateamicrowavelink,youcanstudyittotesttheeffectivenessofthesetparameters.
Beforeanalysingthemicrowavelinkreliability,youmustassignapropagationmodel,definethemicrowavelinkclassand
relatedperformanceobjectivesandsetthecalculationparameters.
Thepropagationmodeltakestheradioandgeographicdataintoaccountandcomputeslossesalongthemicrowavelinkpath.
Thisallowsyoutopredictthereceivedsignallevelandtocalculatethethermalfademargin.Youcanassignapropagation
modeltoallmicrowavelinksatonce,toagroupofmicrowavelinks,ortoasinglemicrowavelink.Assigningapropagation
modelisexplainedin"UsingPropagationModelsinMicrowaveProjects"onpage 189.
Microwavelinkclassesareusedtodifferentiatemicrowavelinktypesandgivetargetperformanceobjectivestomicrowave
links.Youcanassignalinkclasstoallmicrowavelinksatonce,toagroupofmicrowavelinks,ortoasinglemicrowavelink.
Assigningalinkclassisexplainedin"DefiningLinkClassesandPerformanceObjectives"onpage 177.
Calculationparametersincludeglobalparametersappliedtoallmicrowavelinksandlinkparameterssuchasgeoclimaticand
reliability parameters defined per microwave link. Defining global parameters is explained in "Global Parameters" on
page 194.Settingmicrowavelinkparametersisexplainedin"MicrowaveLinkParameters"onpage 198.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:
"CalculatingMicrowaveLinkRequiredMargins"onpage 254
"CalculatingaMicrowaveAnalysisReport"onpage 255
"ModifyingMicrowaveLinkCalculationParameters"onpage 257
"ConfiguringtheContentsoftheMicrowaveReports"onpage 258
"PrintingaMicrowaveReport"onpage 259
"ExportingaMicrowaveReport"onpage 259

7.5.1.1 CalculatingMicrowaveLinkRequiredMargins
Atollallowsyoutodeterminethemarginsrequiredbythemicrowavelinktoreachtheperformanceobjectivesdefinedinthe
linkclass.TherequiredmarginsareindicatedintheRequiredMarginviewoftheMWAnalysiswindow.

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Tocalculatethemicrowavelinkrequiredmargins:
1. Rightclickthemicrowavelinkeitherdirectlyonthemap,orfromtheMicrowaveLinksfolderoftheexplorerwindows
Networktab.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectEngineering >RequiredMarginfromthecontextmenu.
ThiswillopentheMWAnalysiswindowwiththeRequiredMarginviewdisplayedbydefault.TheRequiredMarginview
containsthereportgeneratedafterthecalculationofrequiredmargins.Thisisacomprehensivereportwhichcanbeconfig
uredasdescribedin"ConfiguringtheContentsoftheMicrowaveReports"onpage 258.
MicrowavelinkrequiredmarginresultsontheRequiredMarginviewincludethefollowinginformation:
Linkspecifications:Informationaboutthesitesatthetwoextremitiesofthemicrowavelink(name,location,altitude,
andcoordinatesystem),theradioinstalledateachsite(theradioserieswhichtheradiobelongsto,digitalhierarchy,
modulationused,capacity,payloadrate,capacity),theoperatingfrequencybandofthemicrowavelink,itslengthand
calculationparameters(propagationmodel,modelsforavailabilityandqualitycalculations,andwhetherdiscrimina
tionreductionandenhancementsaretakenintoaccount).
Performanceobjectivestakenintoaccount:Theperformanceobjectivesconsideredinthemargincalculations,i.e.,
qualityobjectives(SESR,ESR,BBER)andavailabilityobjectives(SESR,ESR,BBER).
Rxlevel:ThereceptionlevelinformationatthereceiverincludingtheBitErrorRateandtherequiredlevelofreceived
power.
Quality(clearair):Thedatarelatedtothemargincalculationsandresults(thecalculateddispersivefademargin,the
calculatedmarginagainstenhancements,thecalculatedcrosspolardiscriminationreduction,calculatedandrequired
thermalfademarginsandcalculatedandrequiredcompositefademargins)andtherequiredtotalmargin.
Availability(rain):Theerrorperformanceparametersandthetotalrequiredmargin.
ClearAirRecommendations:Therequiredoutputpowerwhichyoucancomparetothecurrentoutputpowerdis
playedinbrackets,andhowmuchyouhavetodecreaseorincreasethemaximumpowerandtherequiredantenna
diameter.

7.5.1.2 CalculatingaMicrowaveAnalysisReport
Atollenablesyoutocreateadetailedanalysisreportforamicrowavelink.Ifyouwantalessconcisereportinstead,youcan
createadesignsummary,asdescribedin"CalculatingaMicrowaveLinkDesignSummary"onpage 256.Atollcangeneratean
analysisreportordesignsummaryforeachmicrowavelink.
Theresultsprovidedinthisreportarecalculatedinrealtime.Therefore,youcanmodifythepropertiesofthemicrowavelink,
orthecalculationparameters,andimmediatelydisplaytheimpactofthemodificationsintheMWAnalysiswindow(the
ProfileAnalysis,DesignSummary,andAnalysisReportviews).Anymodificationmadetotheprofileofthemicrowavelink
usingtheProfileValuesandtheProfileAnalysisviewsaretakenintoaccountintheAnalysisReportview.However,achange
madeonA>>BdirectionisnotreportedtotheB>>Adirection(andviceversa)untilitissavedinthemicrowavelinkproperties.

ChangesmadeontheA>>BdirectioncanbeautomaticallyreportedontheB>>Adirection
(and vice versa) by adding an option in the atoll.ini file. For more information, see the
AdministratorManual.

Togenerateananalysisreportforasinglemicrowavelink:
1. Rightclickthemicrowavelinkeitherdirectlyonthemap,orfromtheMicrowaveLinksfolderoftheexplorerwindows
Networktab.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectEngineering >AnalysisReportfromthecontextmenu.
YoucanalsoopentheAnalysisReportviewbyopeningtheMWAnalysiswindowandselectingtheAnalysisReportview.
TheAnalysisReportviewoftheMWAnalysiswindowcontainstheanalysisreportforthemicrowavelinkbeingstudied.You
candefineexactlywhatinformationwillbedisplayedintheanalysisreport,however,bydefault,themicrowavelinkinforma
tionintheAnalysisReportviewincludesthefollowing:
Summary: Under Summary, you can read whether quality and availability objectives have been reached for both
directionsofthemicrowavelinkandthespecifiedBERvalues,andaglobalestimationofthecutoffdurationoveran
averageyeartakingintoaccountbothlinkqualityandavailability.
Budget:UnderBudget,youcanfindabasiclinkbudgetincludingtheoperatingfrequencyband,thelinklength,the
thermal fade margin, the worst month quality (in percentage of time), the average annual availability taking into
accountrain(inpercentageoftime),andtheaverageannualavailabilitytakingintoaccountbothrainandequipment
failures (inpercentage oftime),andtheworstmonthnonqualityobjectiveandtheaverageannualunavailability
objective(duration).TheaverageannualavailabilityiscalculatedusingtheCraneortheITUrecommendations:ITUR
P.5308,ITURP.53010,ITURP.53011,ITURP.53012andITURP.53013.
LinkSpecifications:Informationaboutthemicrowavelinkdesign,sitenames,locations,andthealtitudesforboth
extremities,repeaters(ifany),antennasusedatbothsiteswiththeirrespectivemodels,heights,azimuths,tilts,gains,
diameters,nearfields,beamwidthsandXPDvalues,diversityantennasandrepeaterbacktobackantennadetails
suchasthemodels,heights,azimuths,tilts,gainsanddiameters,microwavetransceiverradiosi