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Report 186 ISSN: 0889-3144

Coatings and Inks for


Food Contact Materials

Martin J. Forrest

Volume 16, Number 6, 2005

Expert overviews covering the


science and technology of rubber
and plastics
RAPRA REVIEW REPORTS
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Item 1
Source of
Macromolecules
original article
33, No.6, 21st March 2000, p.2171-83
Title EFFECT OF THERMAL HISTORY ON THE RHEOLOGICAL
BEHAVIOR OF THERMOPLASTIC POLYURETHANES
Authors and
Pil Joong Yoon; Chang Dae Han affiliation
Akron,University
The effect of thermal history on the rheological behaviour of ester- and ether-
based commercial thermoplastic PUs (Estane 5701, 5707 and 5714 from
B.F.Goodrich) was investigated. It was found that the injection moulding
temp. used for specimen preparation had a marked effect on the variations
of dynamic storage and loss moduli of specimens with time observed
during isothermal annealing. Analysis of FTIR spectra indicated that
variations in hydrogen bonding with time during isothermal annealing very Abstract
much resembled variations of dynamic storage modulus with time during
isothermal annealing. Isochronal dynamic temp. sweep experiments indicated
that the thermoplastic PUs exhibited a hysteresis effect in the heating and
cooling processes. It was concluded that the microphase separation transition
or order-disorder transition in thermoplastic PUs could not be determined
from the isochronal dynamic temp. sweep experiment. The plots of log
dynamic storage modulus versus log loss modulus varied with temp. over
the entire range of temps. (110-190C) investigated. 57 refs. Companies or
GOODRICH B.F. organisations
Location USA mentioned
Accession no.771897

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Volume 1 Report 35 Polymers in Household Electrical Goods, D.Alvey,
Hotpoint Ltd.
Report 1 Conductive Polymers, W.J. Feast
Report 36 Developments in Additives to Meet Health and
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Report 3 Advanced Composites, D.K. Thomas, RAE, Farnborough.
Report 4 Liquid Crystal Polymers, M.K. Cox, ICI, Wilton. Volume 4
Report 5 CAD/CAM in the Polymer Industry, N.W. Sandland and Report 37 Polymers in Aerospace Applications, W.W. Wright,
M.J. Sebborn, Cambridge Applied Technology. University of Surrey.
Report 8 Engineering Thermoplastics, I.T. Barrie, Consultant.
Report 38 Epoxy Resins, K.A. Hodd
Report 10 Reinforced Reaction Injection Moulding,
P.D. Armitage, P.D. Coates and A.F. Johnson Report 39 Polymers in Chemically Resistant Applications,
D. Cattell, Cattell Consultancy Services.
Report 11 Communications Applications of Polymers,
R. Spratling, British Telecom. Report 40 Internal Mixing of Rubber, J.C. Lupton
Report 12 Process Control in the Plastics Industry, Report 41 Failure of Plastics, S. Turner, Queen Mary College.
R.F. Evans, Engelmann & Buckham Ancillaries. Report 42 Polycarbonates, R. Pakull, U. Grigo, D. Freitag, Bayer AG.
Report 43 Polymeric Materials from Renewable Resources,
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Report 13 Injection Moulding of Engineering Thermoplastics, Report 44 Flammability and Flame Retardants in Plastics,
A.F. Whelan, London School of Polymer Technology. J. Green, FMC Corp.
Report 14 Polymers and Their Uses in the Sports and Leisure Report 45 Composites - Tooling and Component Processing, N.G.
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Ltd.
Report 46 Quality Today in Polymer Processing, S.H. Coulson,
Report 15 Polyurethane, Materials, Processing and Applications, J.A. Cousans, Exxon Chemical International Marketing.
G. Woods, Consultant.
Report 47 Chemical Analysis of Polymers, G. Lawson, Leicester
Report 16 Polyetheretherketone, D.J. Kemmish, ICI, Wilton. Polytechnic.
Report 17 Extrusion, G.M. Gale, Rapra Technology Ltd. Report 48 Plastics in Building, C.M.A. Johansson
Report 18 Agricultural and Horticultural Applications of
Polymers, J.C. Garnaud, International Committee for
Plastics in Agriculture. Volume 5
Report 19 Recycling and Disposal of Plastics Packaging, Report 49 Blends and Alloys of Engineering Thermoplastics, H.T.
R.C. Fox, Plas/Tech Ltd. van de Grampel, General Electric Plastics BV.
Report 20 Pultrusion, L. Hollaway, University of Surrey. Report 50 Automotive Applications of Polymers II,
Report 21 Materials Handling in the Polymer Industry, A.N.A. Elliott, Consultant.
H. Hardy, Chronos Richardson Ltd. Report 51 Biomedical Applications of Polymers, C.G. Gebelein,
Report 22 Electronics Applications of Polymers, M.T.Goosey, Youngstown State University / Florida Atlantic University.
Plessey Research (Caswell) Ltd. Report 52 Polymer Supported Chemical Reactions, P. Hodge,
Report 23 Offshore Applications of Polymers, J.W.Brockbank, University of Manchester.
Avon Industrial Polymers Ltd. Report 53 Weathering of Polymers, S.M. Halliwell, Building
Report 24 Recent Developments in Materials for Food Packaging, Research Establishment.
R.A. Roberts, Pira Packaging Division.
Report 54 Health and Safety in the Rubber Industry, A.R. Nutt,
Arnold Nutt & Co. and J. Wade.
Volume 3 Report 55 Computer Modelling of Polymer Processing,
Report 25 Foams and Blowing Agents, J.M. Methven, Cellcom E. Andreassen, . Larsen and E.L. Hinrichsen, Senter for
Technology Associates. Industriforskning, Norway.
Report 26 Polymers and Structural Composites in Civil Report 56 Plastics in High Temperature Applications,
Engineering, L. Hollaway, University of Surrey. J. Maxwell, Consultant.
Report 27 Injection Moulding of Rubber, M.A. Wheelans, Report 57 Joining of Plastics, K.W. Allen, City University.
Consultant.
Report 58 Physical Testing of Rubber, R.P. Brown, Rapra
Report 28 Adhesives for Structural and Engineering Technology Ltd.
Applications, C. OReilly, Loctite (Ireland) Ltd.
Report 59 Polyimides - Materials, Processing and Applications,
Report 29 Polymers in Marine Applications, C.F.Britton, Corrosion A.J. Kirby, Du Pont (U.K.) Ltd.
Monitoring Consultancy.
Report 60 Physical Testing of Thermoplastics, S.W. Hawley, Rapra
Report 30 Non-destructive Testing of Polymers, W.N. Reynolds, Technology Ltd.
National NDT Centre, Harwell.
Report 31 Silicone Rubbers, B.R. Trego and H.W.Winnan,
Dow Corning Ltd.
Volume 6
Report 32 Fluoroelastomers - Properties and Applications, Report 61 Food Contact Polymeric Materials, J.A. Sidwell,
D. Cook and M. Lynn, 3M United Kingdom Plc and Rapra Technology Ltd.
3M Belgium SA. Report 62 Coextrusion, D. Djordjevic, Klckner ER-WE-PA GmbH.
Report 33 Polyamides, R.S. Williams and T. Daniels, Report 63 Conductive Polymers II, R.H. Friend, University of
T & N Technology Ltd. and BIP Chemicals Ltd. Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory.
Report 34 Extrusion of Rubber, J.G.A. Lovegrove, Nova
Report 64 Designing with Plastics, P.R. Lewis, The Open University.
Petrochemicals Inc.
Report 65 Decorating and Coating of Plastics, P.J. Robinson, Report 90 Rubber Mixing, P.R. Wood.
International Automotive Design.
Report 91 Recent Developments in Epoxy Resins, I. Hamerton,
Report 66 Reinforced Thermoplastics - Composition, Processing University of Surrey.
and Applications, P.G. Kelleher, New Jersey Polymer
Extension Center at Stevens Institute of Technology. Report 92 Continuous Vulcanisation of Elastomer Profiles,
A. Hill, Meteor Gummiwerke.
Report 67 Plastics in Thermal and Acoustic Building Insulation,
V.L. Kefford, MRM Engineering Consultancy. Report 93 Advances in Thermoforming, J.L. Throne, Sherwood
Report 68 Cure Assessment by Physical and Chemical Technologies Inc.
Techniques, B.G. Willoughby, Rapra Technology Ltd. Report 94 Compressive Behaviour of Composites, C. Soutis,
Report 69 Toxicity of Plastics and Rubber in Fire, P.J. Fardell, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine.
Building Research Establishment, Fire Research Station.
Report 95 Thermal Analysis of Polymers, M. P. Sepe, Dickten &
Report 70 Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Polymers, Masch Manufacturing Co.
M.E. Adams, D.J. Buckley, R.E. Colborn, W.P. England Report 96 Polymeric Seals and Sealing Technology, J.A. Hickman,
and D.N. Schissel, General Electric Corporate Research
St Clair (Polymers) Ltd.
and Development Center.
Report 71 Rotational Moulding, R.J. Crawford, The Queens
University of Belfast. Volume 9
Report 72 Advances in Injection Moulding, C.A. Maier, Report 97 Rubber Compounding Ingredients - Need, Theory
Econology Ltd. and Innovation, Part II: Processing, Bonding, Fire
Retardants, C. Hepburn, University of Ulster.

Volume 7 Report 98 Advances in Biodegradable Polymers, G.F. Moore &


S.M. Saunders, Rapra Technology Ltd.
Report 73 Reactive Processing of Polymers, M.W.R. Brown,
Report 99 Recycling of Rubber, H.J. Manuel and W. Dierkes,
P.D. Coates and A.F. Johnson, IRC in Polymer Science
Vredestein Rubber Recycling B.V.
and Technology, University of Bradford.
Report 100 Photoinitiated Polymerisation - Theory and
Report 74 Speciality Rubbers, J.A. Brydson. Applications, J.P. Fouassier, Ecole Nationale Suprieure
Report 75 Plastics and the Environment, I. Boustead, Boustead de Chimie, Mulhouse.
Consulting Ltd. Report 101 Solvent-Free Adhesives, T.E. Rolando, H.B. Fuller
Report 76 Polymeric Precursors for Ceramic Materials, Company.
R.C.P. Cubbon. Report 102 Plastics in Pressure Pipes, T. Stafford, Rapra
Technology Ltd.
Report 77 Advances in Tyre Mechanics, R.A. Ridha, M. Theves,
Goodyear Technical Center. Report 103 Gas Assisted Moulding, T.C. Pearson, Gas Injection Ltd.
Report 78 PVC - Compounds, Processing and Applications, Report 104 Plastics Profile Extrusion, R.J. Kent, Tangram
J.Leadbitter, J.A. Day, J.L. Ryan, Hydro Polymers Ltd. Technology Ltd.

Report 79 Rubber Compounding Ingredients - Need, Theory Report 105 Rubber Extrusion Theory and Development,
and Innovation, Part I: Vulcanising Systems, B.G. Crowther.
Antidegradants and Particulate Fillers for General Report 106 Properties and Applications of Elastomeric
Purpose Rubbers, C. Hepburn, University of Ulster. Polysulfides, T.C.P. Lee, Oxford Brookes University.
Report 80 Anti-Corrosion Polymers: PEEK, PEKK and Other Report 107 High Performance Polymer Fibres, P.R. Lewis,
Polyaryls, G. Pritchard, Kingston University. The Open University.
Report 81 Thermoplastic Elastomers - Properties and Report 108 Chemical Characterisation of Polyurethanes,
Applications, J.A. Brydson. M.J. Forrest, Rapra Technology Ltd.
Report 82 Advances in Blow Moulding Process Optimization,
Andres Garcia-Rejon,Industrial Materials Institute,
National Research Council Canada. Volume 10
Report 83 Molecular Weight Characterisation of Synthetic Report 109 Rubber Injection Moulding - A Practical Guide,
Polymers, S.R. Holding and E. Meehan, Rapra J.A. Lindsay.
Technology Ltd. and Polymer Laboratories Ltd. Report 110 Long-Term and Accelerated Ageing Tests on Rubbers,
Report 84 Rheology and its Role in Plastics Processing, R.P. Brown, M.J. Forrest and G. Soulagnet,
P. Prentice, The Nottingham Trent University. Rapra Technology Ltd.
Report 111 Polymer Product Failure, P.R. Lewis,
The Open University.
Volume 8 Report 112 Polystyrene - Synthesis, Production and Applications,
Report 85 Ring Opening Polymerisation, N. Spassky, Universit J.R. Wnsch, BASF AG.
Pierre et Marie Curie. Report 113 Rubber-Modified Thermoplastics, H. Keskkula,
Report 86 High Performance Engineering Plastics, University of Texas at Austin.
D.J. Kemmish, Victrex Ltd. Report 114 Developments in Polyacetylene - Nanopolyacetylene,
Report 87 Rubber to Metal Bonding, B.G. Crowther, Rapra V.M. Kobryanskii, Russian Academy of Sciences.
Technology Ltd. Report 115 Metallocene-Catalysed Polymerisation, W. Kaminsky,
Report 88 Plasticisers - Selection, Applications and Implications, University of Hamburg.
A.S. Wilson. Report 116 Compounding in Co-rotating Twin-Screw Extruders,
Y. Wang, Tunghai University.
Report 89 Polymer Membranes - Materials, Structures and
Separation Performance, T. deV. Naylor, The Smart Report 117 Rapid Prototyping, Tooling and Manufacturing, R.J.M.
Chemical Company. Hague and P.E. Reeves, Edward Mackenzie Consulting.
Report 118 Liquid Crystal Polymers - Synthesis, Properties and Volume 13
Applications, D. Coates, CRL Ltd.
Report 145 Multi-Material Injection Moulding, V. Goodship and
Report 119 Rubbers in Contact with Food, M.J. Forrest and
J.C. Love, The University of Warwick.
J.A. Sidwell, Rapra Technology Ltd.
Report 120 Electronics Applications of Polymers II, M.T. Goosey, Report 146 In-Mould Decoration of Plastics, J.C. Love and
Shipley Ronal. V. Goodship, The University of Warwick.
Report 147 Rubber Product Failure, Roger P. Brown.
Report 148 Plastics Waste Feedstock Recycling, Chemical
Volume 11 Recycling and Incineration, A. Tukker, TNO.

Report 121 Polyamides as Engineering Thermoplastic Materials, Report 149 Analysis of Plastics, Martin J. Forrest, Rapra Technology
I.B. Page, BIP Ltd. Ltd.
Report 150 Mould Sticking, Fouling and Cleaning, D.E. Packham,
Report 122 Flexible Packaging - Adhesives, Coatings and
Materials Research Centre, University of Bath.
Processes, T.E. Rolando, H.B. Fuller Company.
Report 151 Rigid Plastics Packaging - Materials, Processes and
Report 123 Polymer Blends, L.A. Utracki, National Research Council
Applications, F. Hannay, Nampak Group Research &
Canada.
Development.
Report 124 Sorting of Waste Plastics for Recycling, R.D. Pascoe, Report 152 Natural and Wood Fibre Reinforcement in Polymers,
University of Exeter. A.K. Bledzki, V.E. Sperber and O. Faruk, University of
Report 125 Structural Studies of Polymers by Solution NMR, Kassel.
H.N. Cheng, Hercules Incorporated. Report 153 Polymers in Telecommunication Devices, G.H. Cross,
University of Durham.
Report 126 Composites for Automotive Applications, C.D. Rudd,
Report 154 Polymers in Building and Construction, S.M. Halliwell,
University of Nottingham.
BRE.
Report 127 Polymers in Medical Applications, B.J. Lambert and Report 155 Styrenic Copolymers, Andreas Chrisochoou and
F.-W. Tang, Guidant Corp., and W.J. Rogers, Consultant. Daniel Dufour, Bayer AG.

Report 128 Solid State NMR of Polymers, P.A. Mirau, Report 156 Life Cycle Assessment and Environmental Impact
Lucent Technologies. of Polymeric Products, T.J. ONeill, Polymeron
Consultancy Network.
Report 129 Failure of Polymer Products Due to Photo-oxidation,
D.C. Wright.

Report 130 Failure of Polymer Products Due to Chemical Attack,


Volume 14
D.C. Wright. Report 157 Developments in Colorants for Plastics,
Ian N. Christensen.
Report 131 Failure of Polymer Products Due to Thermo-oxidation,
D.C. Wright. Report 158 Geosynthetics, David I. Cook.
Report 159 Biopolymers, R.M. Johnson, L.Y. Mwaikambo and
Report 132 Stabilisers for Polyolefins, C. Krhnke and F. Werner, N. Tucker, Warwick Manufacturing Group.
Clariant Huningue SA.
Report 160 Emulsion Polymerisation and Applications of Latex,
Christopher D. Anderson and Eric S. Daniels, Emulsion
Polymers Institute.
Volume 12 Report 161 Emissions from Plastics, C. Henneuse-Boxus and
T. Pacary, Certech.
Report 133 Advances in Automation for Plastics Injection
Moulding, J. Mallon, Yushin Inc. Report 162 Analysis of Thermoset Materials, Precursors and
Products, Martin J. Forrest, Rapra Technology Ltd.
Report 134 Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy of Polymers, Report 163 Polymer/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites, Masami
J.L. Koenig, Case Western Reserve University. Okamoto, Toyota Technological Institute.
Report 135 Polymers in Sport and Leisure, R.P. Brown. Report 164 Cure Monitoring for Composites and Adhesives, David
R. Mulligan, NPL.
Report 136 Radiation Curing, R.S. Davidson, DavRad Services.
Report 165 Polymer Enhancement of Technical Textiles,
Report 137 Silicone Elastomers, P. Jerschow, Wacker-Chemie GmbH. Roy W. Buckley.

Report 138 Health and Safety in the Rubber Industry, N. Chaiear, Report 166 Developments in Thermoplastic Elastomers,
K.E. Kear
Khon Kaen University.
Report 167 Polyolefin Foams, N.J. Mills, Metallurgy and Materials,
Report 139 Rubber Analysis - Polymers, Compounds and University of Birmingham.
Products, M.J. Forrest, Rapra Technology Ltd.
Report 168 Plastic Flame Retardants: Technology and Current
Report 140 Tyre Compounding for Improved Performance, Developments, J. Innes and A. Innes, Flame Retardants
M.S. Evans, Kumho European Technical Centre. Associates Inc.

Report 141 Particulate Fillers for Polymers, Professor R.N. Rothon,


Rothon Consultants and Manchester Metropolitan Volume 15
University.
Report 169 Engineering and Structural Adhesives, David J. Dunn,
Report 142 Blowing Agents for Polyurethane Foams, S.N. Singh,
FLD Enterprises Inc.
Huntsman Polyurethanes.
Report 170 Polymers in Agriculture and Horticulture,
Report 143 Adhesion and Bonding to Polyolefins, D.M. Brewis and Roger P. Brown.
I. Mathieson, Institute of Surface Science & Technology, Report 171 PVC Compounds and Processing, Stuart Patrick.
Loughborough University.
Report 172 Troubleshooting Injection Moulding, Vanessa Goodship,
Report 144 Rubber Curing Systems, R.N. Datta, Flexsys BV. Warwick Manufacturing Group.
Report 173 Regulation of Food Packaging in Europe and the USA,
Derek J. Knight and Lesley A. Creighton, Safepharm
Laboratories Ltd.
Report 174 Pharmaceutical Applications of Polymers for Drug
Delivery, David Jones, Queen's University, Belfast.
Report 175 Tyre Recycling, Valerie L. Shulman, European Tyre
Recycling Association (ETRA).
Report 176 Polymer Processing with Supercritical Fluids,
V. Goodship and E.O. Ogur.
Report 177 Bonding Elastomers: A Review of Adhesives &
Processes, G. Polaski, J. Means, B. Stull, P. Warren, K.
Allen, D. Mowrey and B. Carney.
Report 178 Mixing of Vulcanisable Rubbers and Thermoplastic
Elastomers, P.R. Wood.
Report 179 Polymers in Asphalt, H.L. Robinson, Tarmac Ltd, UK.
Report 180 Biocides in Plastics, D. Nichols, Thor Overseas Limited.

Volume 16
Report 181 New EU Regulation of Chemicals: REACH,
D.J. Knight, SafePharm Laboratories Ltd.
Report 182 Food Contact Rubbers 2 - Products, Migration and
Regulation, M.J. Forrest.
Report 183 Adhesion to Fluoropolymers, D.M. Brewis and R.H.
Dahm, IPTME, Loughborough University.
Report 184 Fluoroplastics, J.G. Drobny.
Report 185 Epoxy Composites: Impact Resistance and Flame
Retardancy, Debdatta Ratna.
Coatings and Inks for Food
Contact Materials

Martin Forrest

ISBN: 978-1-84735-079-4
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

Contents
1. Introduction ...............................................................................................................................................5

2. Coating and Ink Products for Food Contact Materials ..............................................................................5


2.1 Polymers for Coatings and Inks ......................................................................................................5
2.1.1 Acrylic ................................................................................................................................6
2.1.2 Alkyd resins .......................................................................................................................6
2.1.3 Amino Resins (e.g., urea-formaldehyde resins) .................................................................7
2.1.4 Epoxy Resins ......................................................................................................................8
2.1.5 Cellulosics ..........................................................................................................................9
2.1.6 Polyesters Saturated and Unsaturated ...........................................................................10
2.1.7 Polyurethanes ...................................................................................................................12
2.1.8 Rosin ................................................................................................................................13
2.1.9 Silicone Resins .................................................................................................................13
2.1.10 Vinyl Polymers .................................................................................................................14
2.1.11 Other Polymers (e.g., hydrocarbons) ...............................................................................15
2.2 Constituents of Coatings ...............................................................................................................15
2.2.1 Crosslinking Agents ........................................................................................................15
2.2.2 Other Additives ................................................................................................................15
2.2.3 Solvents ............................................................................................................................15
2.3 Constituents of Inks ......................................................................................................................16
2.3.1 Solvents ............................................................................................................................16
2.3.2 Plasticisers ........................................................................................................................16
2.3.3 Driers ................................................................................................................................16
2.3.4 Photoinitiators ..................................................................................................................16
2.3.5 Colorants ..........................................................................................................................17
2.3.6 Other Additives ...............................................................................................................18

3. Coatings and Inks used in the Food Chain ..............................................................................................18


3.1 Food Packaging .............................................................................................................................18
3.1.1 Packaging Types ...............................................................................................................18
3.1.2 Coatings Used in Metal Packaging (Tables 5 to 9) ..........................................................19
3.1.3 Coatings and Adhesives for Flexible Packaging (Tables 10 and 11) ...............................22
3.1.4 Inks for Metal Packaging (Table 12) ................................................................................24
3.1.5 Inks for Paper and Board Packaging (Table 13) ..............................................................27
3.1.6 Inks for Flexible Packaging (Table 14) ............................................................................28
3.2 Harvesting and Processing of Food ..............................................................................................28
3.3 Storage and Transportation ...........................................................................................................30
3.4 Presentation, Dispensing and Cooking .........................................................................................30

1
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

4. Application Techniques for Inks .............................................................................................................31


4.1 Lithography ...................................................................................................................................31
4.2 Flexography ..................................................................................................................................31
4.3 Gravure .........................................................................................................................................32
4.4 Inkjet .............................................................................................................................................32
4.5 Influence of Substrate Type ...........................................................................................................32
4.5.1 Inks for Metal Packaging ................................................................................................32
4.5.2 Inks for Paper and Board .................................................................................................33
4.5.3 Inks for Flexible Plastic Packaging ..................................................................................34
4.5.4 Set Off ..............................................................................................................................34

5. Regulations Covering the Use of Inks and Coatings with Food .............................................................34
5.1 Regulation in the European Union ................................................................................................34
5.2 Council of Europe (CoE) Regulations ..........................................................................................35
5.2.1 Coatings ...........................................................................................................................35
5.2.2 Inks ...................................................................................................................................36
5.3 National Regulations within the EU .............................................................................................37
5.4 FDA Regulations ...........................................................................................................................38
5.5 Other Considerations for Industrial Use .......................................................................................38

6. Assessing the Safety of Inks and Coatings for Food Applications .........................................................40
6.1 Global Migration Tests ..................................................................................................................40
6.2 Specific Migration Tests ................................................................................................................41
6.3 Fingerprinting of Potential Migrants from Coatings and Inks ......................................................41
6.4 Determination of Specific Target Species in Coatings and Ink Products and in
Food Simulants and Foods ............................................................................................................41
6.4.1 Monomers, Solvents and Low Molecular Weight Additives and Breakdown Products ...42
6.4.2 Oligomers .........................................................................................................................42
6.4.3 Plasticisers and Oil-type Additives ..................................................................................42
6.4.4 Polar Additives and Metal Containing Compounds .........................................................42
6.4.5 Cure System Species, Initiators, Catalysts and Their Reaction Products ........................42
6.4.6 Antidegradants, Stabilisers and Their Reaction Products ................................................43
6.5 Sensory Testing .............................................................................................................................43
6.6 Toxicological assessment of migrants ..........................................................................................43

7. Potential Migrants and Published Migration Data ..................................................................................44


7.1 Acrylates .......................................................................................................................................44
7.2 Amines ..........................................................................................................................................44
7.3 Aromatics from Unsaturated Polyesters .......................................................................................45

2
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

7.4 Aromatics from Photoinitiation Reactions and Photoinitiator additives ......................................45


7.5 BPA and BADGE and Derivatives ................................................................................................46
7.6 Epichlorohydrin ............................................................................................................................47
7.7 Bisphenol A ...................................................................................................................................47
7.8 Solvents .........................................................................................................................................47
7.9 Plasticisers ....................................................................................................................................47
7.10 Extractables from UV-Cured Coating for Cardboard ...................................................................47
7.11 Potential Migrants .........................................................................................................................48

8. Improving the Safety of Inks and Coatings for Food Use ......................................................................52
8.1 New Food Approved Pigments .....................................................................................................52
8.2 Water-Based Systems ....................................................................................................................52
8.3 UV/EB Curable Systems ..............................................................................................................53
8.4 New Initiators for UV Curable Inks ..............................................................................................53

9. Future Trends ..........................................................................................................................................53


9.1 Improvements in Recycling Systems ............................................................................................53
9.2 Biodegradability ............................................................................................................................53
9.3 Use of Coatings to Improve Barrier Properties of Food Packaging .............................................54
9.4 Antimicrobial Systems ..................................................................................................................54
9.5 Laser Marking to replace Conventional Inks ................................................................................54
9.6 Intelligent and Active Packaging ..................................................................................................54
9.7 Applications of Nanotechnology ..................................................................................................55
9.8 Developments in Analytical Techniques .......................................................................................55

10. Conclusion ...............................................................................................................................................55

Additional References .....................................................................................................................................56

Sources of Further Information and Advice ....................................................................................................57


Reference Books .....................................................................................................................................57
Reports ....................................................................................................................................................58
Professional, Research, Trade and Governmental Organisations ...........................................................58
Commercial Abstract Databases .............................................................................................................58

Acknowledgements .........................................................................................................................................59

Abbreviations ..................................................................................................................................................59

References from the Polymer Library Database .............................................................................................61

Subject Index ................................................................................................................................................109

Company Index .............................................................................................................................................125

3
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

The views and opinions expressed by authors in Rapra Review Reports do not necessarily reflect those
of Smithers Rapra Technology or the editor. The series is published on the basis that no responsibility
or liability of any nature shall attach to Smithers Rapra Technology arising out of or in connection with
any utilisation in any form of any material contained therein.

4
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

1 Introduction practice, this encompasses an extremely wide range of


polymer systems and formulations, and an emphasis
For many years, Rapra Technology has carried out has been placed on coatings and inks used in food
research projects for the UK Food Standards Agency packaging, as this is usually regarded as representing
(FSA). These have covered a wide range of polymer the most important application category with respect
products (e.g., rubbers, silicone-based materials, ion- to the potential for migration to occur. With respect to
exchange resins, laminate materials) and have provided food packaging, all three of the major material classes
the FSA with important information on the materials are covered, i.e., metal, paper and board, and plastic.
and manufacturing practices that are used in industry, In addition to a thorough introduction of the polymers
as well as making an important contribution to the and additives that are used to produce coatings and inks,
data, via extensive experiments, that is available with there are also chapters covering the regulation of these
respect to the migratory behaviour of these products materials, the migration and analytical tests that are
when they are in contact with food simulants and performed on them to assess their suitability for food
foodstuffs. This Review Report has, as its origin, an contact applications, the migration data that have been
FSA project on Coatings and Inks that was carried out published, and the areas in the field that are receiving
at Rapra from 2005 until 2007. The objective of this the most attention for research and development.
project was to assess the potential for the migration of
substances from coatings and inks that were used in This report is one of a series of three. A report
food packaging applications. As a significant amount summarising the current situation of the use of rubber
of work had already been carried out on coatings that products for food contact applications was published in
were in direct contact with food (e.g., can coatings), a
2006 (84), and a report reviewing the use of silicone-
boundary was set that only coatings and inks in non-
based materials (including rubbers, resins and liquids)
direct food contact situations would be considered. As
with food be published by Rapra shortly.
the scope of this review report is greater than the Rapra
project (see below) and, due to the limitations of this
particular format, it has only been possible to include
some of the information that was acquired during the
course of the FSA project. If the reader has a particular 2 Coating and Ink Products for
interest in coatings and inks used in these types of
applications, they are therefore recommended to apply
Food Contact Materials
to the FSA for a full version of the final project report,
which was published in March 2007. 2.1 Polymers for Coatings and Inks

Coatings and inks for use with food have been a very Coatings and inks are polymer-based products, with the
topical subject over the last couple of years, mainly due polymer being the primary component in the former,
to the culmination of the work that has been carried and the binder for the pigment system in the latter. In
out by the Council of Europe (CoE). As a result of its both cases, the two main types of systems are:
efforts, we have seen the adoption of both a Resolution
for Coatings, and a Resolution for Inks used on non-
1) Those where high molecular weight (mw) polymer
food contact surfaces. The Inks Resolution has been
is present from the outset the solvation of the
controversial with industry bodies throughout Europe,
polymer by a solvent, or water, is critical in these
who have claimed that its inventory list is incomplete
cases.
and not representative of current industry practice
(see Section 5.2). In addition to these regulatory
developments, this is an active area for research, with 2) Those where the polymer is formed in situ from
a number of innovative and sophisticated products the monomer(s), i.e., the curing types a number
finding commercial applications, e.g., in active of mechanisms can be responsible for the curing
and intelligent packaging, and antimicrobials see reaction.
(Section 9).
Some of the principal types of polymers that are
This report has attempted to cover all of the coatings used in coatings and inks products are discussed
and inks products used in food contact scenarios. next. In addition, because there are occasions where
Hence, direct and non-direct contact situations are conventional rubbers and thermoplastic polymers can
included throughout the food chain, e.g., harvesting, be used as protective coatings (e.g., food storage),
processing, transportation, packaging and cooking. In these are mentioned in Section 2.1.11.

5
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

2.1.1 Acrylic Other curing mechanisms exploit the polyfunctionality


in hydroxyl groups that may be obtained by
Polyacrylate coatings and binders are based on acrylic copolymerisation with hydroxyalkyl acrylates and
or methacrylic esters. These polymers are created by methacrylates. Examples of cure via reaction of these
addition type polymerisations of various combinations side groups include:
of monomers, including:
Etherification with melamine- or benzoguanamine-
Methyl esters of acrylic and methacrylic acids formaldehyde resins

Ethyl and higher esters of acrylic and polyacrylicOH + HOCH2N<


methacrylic acids polyacrylicOCH2N< + H2O

Hydroxyethyl esters of acrylic and Urethane formation with isocyanates


methacrylic acids
polyacrylicOH + O=C=N~
Diol monoarylates or methacrylates, and polyacrylicOC(=O)N~
Acid monomers (i.e., acrylic acid and
Isocyanate-hydroxyl reactions are particularly active,
methacrylic acid).
allowing scope for ambient temperature cures, whilst
etherification requires heat and forms the basis of
Addition polymerisation is usually achieved by free- stoving enamels.
radical initiation (e.g., by photochemical processes),
and other unsaturated monomers (e.g., styrenics) may Hydroxyl groups are also effective for the ring-opening
sometimes be incorporated for process or product of epoxides, and therefore epoxy resins can be used for
optimisation. In addition, acrylic polymers can be blended the cure of suitably functional acrylics. The activity of
with acrylic monomers for viscosity control, which can the (amine catalysed) ring opening by hydroxyl groups
remove the need for solvents, and polyfunctional acrylic decreases in the series, ROH > ArOH > RCO2H, and
monomers enable crosslinking polymerisation reactions therefore epoxy cures offer useful versatility and control
to occur, i.e., curing reactions. for acrylics containing either hydroxyl or carboxylic
acid groups.
Polyfunctional acrylic monomers can be obtained by
reactions of acrylic acid with:
2.1.2 Alkyd resins
Polyhydric alcohols
Hydroxyl-terminated polyesters Alkyd resins are polyesters derived from polyhydric
alcohols and mixed acids including dibasic and
Bis(epoxides) such as bisphenol A diglycidyl ether monobasic types. The polyhydric alcohols include:
(BADGE) (see epoxy resins) glycerol (a commonly used compound), pentaerythritol,
trimethyolpropane and sorbitol. The dibasic acids (or
The reaction of acrylic acid with polyhydroxy anhydrides) include phthalic (again commonly used),
alcohols is a prolific source of polyfunctional acrylic maleic, isophthalic, adipic and sebacic. The monobasic
monomers. Examples of di-, tri- and tetra-functional acids include fatty types with different levels of
products are: unsaturation for air-drying performance. These have their
origins in natural oils, which themselves usually form
the starting material for the production of alkyds. The
dipropylene glycol diacrylate (DPGDA)
first stage in production, at an elevated temperature (>
CH2=CHCO2(CHMeCH2O)2OCOCH=CH2 200 C) is the hydrolysis or alcoholysis (with glycerol),
and the second stage is the addition of the dibasic acid
propoxylated glyceryl triacrylate (GPTA) component with further heating up to 250 C.

(CH2=CHCO2CHMeCH2OCH2)2CHOCH2- The most commonly used types of oil include:


CHMeOCOCH=CH2
a) tung
pentaerythritol tetra-acrylate (PETA) b) linseed
(CH2=CHCO2CH2)4C c) dehydrated castor

6
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

Table 1. Types of Alkyd


Type Oil content (%) Phthalic anhydride (%)
Short oil resins 35-45 >35
Medium oil resins 46-55 30-35
Long oil resins 56-70 20-30
Very long oil resins >71 <20

d) sunflower A well established procedure reacts urea with a two-


e) soya fold molar excess of formaldehyde under alkaline
conditions to yield an intermediate product mix of
f) cottonseed
mono- di-, and tri-methyolureas, together with some
g) olive residual urea and formaldehyde. The condensation
h) coconut takes place under acid catalysis, and may be achieved
in two stages, the first to create a linear polymer, and
Fatty acids which may be incorporated directly include the second to achieve a more complete condensation
tall-oil fatty acids and C8 to C10 synthetic types. that creates a crosslinked network. Acid compounds
such a phthalic anhydride are incorporated into the
A wide range of different products are possible from final curable formulation, the curing being achieved
these reactions. For convenience, alkyds are grouped by heating. These, so-called unmodified resins are
into four different types, as shown in Table 1. used for ink binders but are generally regarded as
unsuitable for coatings owing to their limited solubility
The durability of the cured products decreases with in common solvents.
increasing oil content, whereas the long and very long
oil alkyds have better brushing properties. Very long The solubility limitations can be overcome by
oil alkyds form the basis of ink binders. Mineral spirit modification with alcohols where some of the methylol
is commonly used as a solvent for such binder resins, groups are alkylated, for example:
although the presence of alcohols or glycol ethers can
also lower viscosity. >NHCH2OH + ROH >NHCH2OR + H2O

n-Butanol is commonly used for modification in this


2.1.3 Amino Resins way, i.e., for butylated urea-formaldehyde resins.
(e.g., urea-formaldehyde resins)
Another variation is the use of melamine (triamino-
1,3,5-triazine, C 3 H 6 N 6 ) instead of urea. The
Amino resins are obtained from a complex sequence of
manufacturing sequence is essentially the same as for
reactions (e.g., addition, condensation and eliminations
urea-formaldehyde resins, with addition under alkaline
reactions) for example:
conditions and chain extension and crosslinking under
acid conditions. The acid-catalysed etherification is
H2NCONH2 + CH2O H2NCONHCH2OH
also employed for modification, so that both methylated
and butylated melamine-formaldehyde resins find
H2NCONHCH2OH + CH2O commercial uses. As with the urea-formaldehyde resins,
HOCH2NHCONHCH2OH alkylation is used to enhance solubility in common
solvents and the alkylated resins are preferred for
>NCONHCH2OH + H2NCONH~ coating formulations.
>NCONHCH2NHCONH~ + H2O
Yet another variation is the use of a guanamine instead
~NHCH2OH + HOCH2NH~ of melamine a molecule where one amino group of
~NHCH2OCH2NH~ + H2O the melamine is replaced by an alkyl aryl group. One
such example is benzoguanamine (2,4-diamino-6-1,3,5-
~NHCH2OCH2NH~ ~NHCH2NH~ + CH2O triazine) (Figure 1).

7
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

Epoxies are cured by ring-opening of the oxirane group


either by reaction with active hydrogen compounds or
by catalysed homopolymerisation. For coatings, these
cures generally fall into two types: ambient temperature
cures with polyfunctional amine or thiol co-agents or
with polymerisation catalysts; and elevated temperature
cures with polyfunctional hydroxyl co-agents (or a
combination of epoxide and hydroxyl functionality,
such as with anhydrides).

The reactions with active hydrogen compounds are


sequential in that the epoxide ring opening generates
Figure 1 a hydroxyl group, which, in turn, may initiate further
ring opening. This is illustrated in Figure 2, for the
Structure of benzoguanamine reaction of a primary amine with epoxy, where both
NH bonds may react with epoxy, as may the hydroxyl
groups formed from each addition.

Benzoguanamine closely mirrors melamine in its The third reaction shown, i.e., that of the hydroxyl
addition and subsequent condensation reactions with addition, is the form of the reaction where alcohols, or
formaldehyde. Benzoguanamine-formaldehyde resins phenols, are used as co-agents.
and butylated benzoguanamine-formaldehyde are used
in surface coatings. The use of polyfunctional co-agents (i.e., curing
agents) is important for network development.
Any of these amino resins may be used alone, or in Polyalkylene amines such as diethylenetriamine
combination with other resins, such as epoxies or (DTA) and ethylene diamine (EDA), aromatic
alkyds. diamines such as 4,4 iaminodiphenyl-methane
(DDM) and aminoamides and their derivatives such as
dicyandiamide [H2NC(=NCN)NH2, called DICY),
2.1.4 Epoxy Resins provide low temperature curing and must usually be
applied within a short time (e.g., within 1-2 days)
Epoxy curing reactions exploit the reactivity of the of mixing. A slower reaction affords better control,
epoxide group. Epoxy resins contain at least two such and hydroxyl-functional curatives form the basis of
groups per molecule: the BADGE provides the basis stoving enamels. Polyfunctionality is obtained with
of many epoxy resins. BADGE and its homologues phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins, where the primary
are obtained by the base catalysed reaction of reactions are thought to be those of the phenolic (ArOH)
epichlorohydrin with bisphenol A (BPA). BADGE or methylol (ArCH2OH) hydroxyls (depending on the
(MW 340) is the lowest molecular weight bis-epoxide PF resin type used), although other hydroxyl species
obtainable from this reaction, i.e., 2,2-bis[4-(glycidylo (including the secondary alcohol formed by ring
xy)phenyl]propane. opening) will also be involved.

The phenolic group is also capable of reacting Phenol formaldehyde resins offer some of the highest
with the epoxy groups present and so this is functionalities of epoxy curing agents, and careful
potentially a polymerising reaction, requiring a selection of resin (PF and epoxy) grades is important if
significant excess of epichlorohydrin to avoid brittle products are to be avoided. In typical phenolic-
high molecular weight products. These can be epoxy stoving enamels, a relatively long-chain bis-
regarded as higher homologues of 2,2-bis[4-glyc epoxide molecule (e.g., higher homologue of BADGE)
idyloxy)phenyl]propane with the inclusion of the would be preferred.
- O - C 6H 4- C M e 2- C 6H 4- O - C H 2- C H ( O H ) - C H 2-
repeat unit. The condensation products of this with formaldehyde
will contain both amino (>NH) and aminomethylol
Some polymerisation is helpful, as BADGE itself is a (>NHCH2OH) groups, depending on the extent of
solid, having a melting point of 40-44 C. The inclusion reaction. The inclusion of two, or more, different
of a small amount of polymer allows for liquid (at resins as co-agents in epoxy stoving formulations
ambient temperature) products. is not unusual. One benefit may lie in film forming

8
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

Figure 2
Examples of the reactions that are involved in the curing of epoxy resins

behaviour where the delay of skinning will enhance Nitrocellulose


solvent evaporation to provide for better properties and
improved surface gloss. Nitrocellulose is a cellulose ester. It is a highly polar
polymer which is easy to dissolve in polar solvents
(esters, alcohols) and has good film-forming character
2.1.5 Cellulosics on drying. Nitrocellulose (Figure 3) is obtained by
steeping cellulose (e.g., cotton linters, paper pulp) in
Cellulose is a naturally occurring high mw carbohydrate a mixture of concentrated nitric and sulfuric acids, at
polymer of formula (C6H 10O 5) n. It is extensively 20-40 C. The composition of the acid mix determines
hydrogen bonded and possesses remarkable strength/ the resultant mw. Compositions rich in sulfuric acid
weight characteristics. However, its extensive hydrogen provide the lowest mw products, but grades for inks and
bonding means that it cannot be melted, e.g., for melt lacquers (typical molecular weight of 50,000 or lower)
processing, without thermal decomposition. Nor can are subject to mw reduction by heating with water under
it be dissolved in any solvent in its unmodified form. pressure at 130 160 C.
Given its availability, much effort has been devoted to
the development of modified forms.

The hydroxyl functionality in cellulose allows for a


number of modifications, notably esterification and
etherification. Examples of products produced in this
way include:

cellulose acetate butyrate


ethyl cellulose
hydroxyethylcellulose
methyl cellulose Figure 3
nitrocellulose Nitrocellulose (cellulose nitrate) - typical repeat unit

9
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

The reactions of production are nitration (esterification) Further refinements in synthesis may be achieved
and hydrolysis (of formal OCH2O) groups, i.e.,: by mixed esterification. Cellulose acetate butyrate
(CAB) polymers generally offer better mechanical
~OH + HNO3 ~ONO2 + H2O properties than the acetates, and better compatibility
with other resins and organic solvents. They can be
>CHOCH< + H2O 2>CHOH obtained esterified with a mixture of acetic and butyric
anhydrides. Commercial grades for lacquers may have
By reducing H-bonding associations, the esterification similar numbers of acetate butyrate groups with a very
reduces crystallinity. Hydrolysis reduces the mw . small level of hydroxyl groups (< 0.5) per glucose
Typical degrees of esterification for binder polymers residue) introduced by a second stage hydrolysis.
are around two nitrate groups per glucose residue,
with higher levels being reserved for propellants and
explosives. Cellulose Ethers

Dried nitrocellulose has a glass transition temperature Cellulose ethers such as methyl or ethylcellulose are
(Tg) of around 53 C (depending on the degree of obtained by treating alkali cellulose with the appropriate
esterification) and therefore requires plasticisation for alkyl chloride (e.g., ROH RONa ROMe). The
use in inks and lacquers. Plasticisers for nitrocellulose first step is to treat cellulose with 50% aqueous sodium
include the common types (e.g., phthalates, phosphates, hydroxide at about 60 C to create the alkali cellulose.
etc.) together with natural products such as camphor The subsequent treatment with the alkyl chloride is
and castor oil. accomplished with heat under pressure, the reaction
conditions controlling the degree of substitution.
Nitrocellulose is relatively water resistant although
prone to oxidation. It is not readily amenable to Only a small amount of substitution is needed to disrupt
crosslinking, and chemically active drying systems can the cellulose structure and generate useful solubility.
only be created by blending with other resins. Alkyd, The solubility characteristics depend on the level
ketone, urea, maleate and acrylic resins are available of substitution: intermediate levels of substitution
for formulating with nitrocellulose binders. by methyl or ethyl groups (e.g., 1.3-2.4 groups per
glucose residue) provide solubility in water, whereas
higher levels give solubility in less polar solvents (even
Other Cellulose Esters hydrocarbons at the highest levels of substitution).

Cellulose acetate is prepared by the acetylation of Commercial grades of methylcellulose have substitution
cellulose (e.g., by first steeping cellulose in acetic in the 0.3-1.8 range and are generally exploited for their
acid followed by treatment with acetic anhydride water solubility. However, higher substitution levels
in the presence of sulfuric acid), a process which encountered in commercial grades of ethylcellulose
invariably esterifies all three hydroxyls per repeat unit. where solubility in other solvents is exploited.
The product is cellulose triacetate. The acetate esters Ethylcellulose at around 2.5 ethyl groups per glucose
have better oxidation resistance than the nitrate esters, residue is compatible with a range of plasticisers and
but cellulose triacetate is softer and more difficult to other resins.
plasticise. Acetate levels can be reduced by partial
hydrolysis, and the re-introduction of hydroxyl groups For any polymer, solubility depends on molecular
can benefit both strength and hardness. Cellulose weight and, for cellulose polymers, all these treatments
acetates therefore represent a range of polymers with are accompanied by a useful degree of molecular weight
different degrees of esterification. They are used in reduction (of the original cellulose). The treatment
films, fibres and lacquers. which usually delivers the highest levels of water
solubility is hydroxyethylation.
Lacquer grade polymers typically have around 2.3-
2.4 acetate groups per glucose residue. The degree
of substitution is also measured in terms of acetyl 2.1.6 Polyesters Saturated and Unsaturated
content (as a weight percentage) or as the equivalent
yield of acetic acid. In the latter description, lacquer Polyesters for hard coatings are commonly based
grades have 54-56% acetic acid yield (61-62.5% for on aromatic diacids e.g., phthalic, isophthalic or
the triacetate). terephthalic. MW control (for ease of flow, etc.)

10
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

can be achieved by reaction with diols in excess. Examples include glycerol and trimethylolpropane.
Common examples include low mw glycols such as This allows for crosslinking even with difunctional
ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, diethylene glycol, isocyanates. The hydroxyl/isocyanate reaction is
and 1,4-butanediol. Additional monomers can also sufficiently active to preclude storage-stable one-
be incorporated to provide the functionality that is component mixes, although these are possible if a
necessary for curing. What these are depends on the blocked isocyanate is used. A blocked isocyanate is
cure mechanism used. a thermally-labile urethane, so that un-blocking is
achieved by suitable heating. Phenol is a common
Water is a by-product of polyesterification and the blocking reagent, and it is released in the thermal
extent of reaction is controlled by its removal. This unblocking, for example:
can be hindered by high viscosity mixes, although
modifications in reactor design can help. The chemistry RNCO + HOC6H5 RNHCOOC6H5
of the reaction can also be altered to produce less water, RNCO + HOC6H5
or a different by-product. An example of the latter is the
use of the methyl ester of the diacid, and the former by One mole of phenol is released for each equivalent
using the anhydride instead of the diacid. With phthalic of isocyanate. In effect, the alcohol on the polyester
anhydride, only one mole of water is produced for two competes with the phenol for the available isocyanate,
moles of ester formed. For example: and the (monofunctional) phenol has the potential to
interfere with network formation. However, in thin
~COOCO~ + ROH ~COOR + HOCO~ coatings at elevated temperature, the phenol can be
lost by volatilisation: hence phenol blocking is usually
ROH + HOCO~ ROCO~ + H2O reserved for stoving enamels.

Saturated Polyesters Unsaturated Polyesters

Having a stoichiometric excess of alcohol in the original Unsaturated polyesters have C=C bonds in the backbone,
polyesterification results in a polyester with hydroxyl most commonly introduced via maleic anhydride or
terminals. The cure of saturated polyesters utilises the fumaric acid in the original polyesterification mix.
reactivity of these end groups. The subsequent cure can A typical unsaturated polyester can be obtained
be achieved by reactions such as: by heating maleic and phthalic anhydrides with a
stoichometric excess (e.g., 20%) of propylene glycol.
The mixture is heated at 150-200 C for up to 16 hours
Etherification with melamine-formaldehyde, or
whilst water is continually distilled off. A catalyst, e.g.,
benzoguanamine-formaldehyde resins:
p-toluene sulfonic acid, is sometimes used, and some
xylene may be incorporated to assist removal of water
polyesterOH + HOCH2N< by azeotropic distillation.
polyesterOCH2N< + H2O
The cure of an unsaturated polyester is by a free-radical
Urethane formation with isocyanates: polymerisation, and suitable mobility and reactivity
is introduced into the resin by the incorporation of a
polyesterOH + O=C=N~ co-monomer. Styrene is the common choice, although
polyesterOC(=O)HN~ acrylates are also used, and the final stage of the resin
formation is the incorporation of this monomer together
Melamine-formaldehyde, or benzoguanamine- with an inhibitor such as hydroquinone.
formaldehyde resins, are usually polyfunctional in
methylol groups, and therefore crosslinking occurs The free radical cure of the resin is essentially a
even with difunctional polyesters. The thermal copolymerisation of the unsaturated polymer backbone
activation necessary for etherification allows for useful with the unsaturated monomer. It is possible for oxygen to
control of this cure which is commonly exploited in interfere with the reaction in the curing of thin films and
stoving enamels. steps to exclude it must be taken. Paraffin wax, which has
relatively low solubility in the resin, and hence migrates
Crosslinking can also be provided via polyfunctionality to the surface, is usually used to create a physical barrier.
in the polyester, as is possible when a triol (or polyol), Its addition, at around the 0.1% level, is accomplished
is incorporated into the original polyesterification mix. using a small amount of solvent (e.g., toluene) as a carrier.

11
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

Table 2. Breakdown Products of Diacyl Peroxides


Breakdown Products
Peroxide
Hydrogen Abstraction Radical Coupling
Dibenzoyl Benzene Biphenyl 4,4-dichlorobiphenyl
4-Chlorodibenzoyl Chlorobenzene 2,2 ,4,4 -Tetrachlorobiphenyl
2,4-Dichlorodibenzoyl m-dichlorobenzene

Initiator systems may also be added in solution, these compounds. The chemistry can be illustrated with
solvents for blending are usually the only solvents used in respect to hydroxyl addition. The initially-formed
unsaturated polyester coatings, in which the free monomer adduct itself contains active hydrogens, so that a
provides the major viscosity reduction for application. sequential addition is possible:

Unsaturated polyesters can be cured at room temperature XNCO + HOR XNHCOOR


by the use of either two-part initiation systems, or by urethane formation
photoinitiation. The two-part initiation can use either
of two approaches to promote peroxide breakdown. XNCO + XNHCOOR XNHCON(X)COOR
One utilises drier chemistry to cause the catalytic allophanate formation
breakdown of hydroperoxides. The catalyst used is a
metal soap, typically of cobalt, but its action in this case This second addition binds two molecules of isocyanate
is on intentionally added hydroperoxides, as distinct per starting hydroxyl group, so that this sequence
from the hydroperoxides, formed as a product of air makes for a crosslinking reaction. The active hydrogen
oxidation, that are used in traditional drier chemistry. remains, and the sequence can continue. Hence,
The hydroperoxides that are added include methyl depending on the availability of isocyanate, the reaction
ethyl ketone peroxide or cyclohexanone peroxide, their with allophanate can be represented in a generic sense
breakdown products include methyl ether ketone and as an addition polymerisation of the form:
cyclohexanone, respectively.
nXNCO + XNHCOOR XNHCO[N(X)CO]nOR
The other approach uses tertiary aromatic amines with
acyl peroxides. This involves an electron-transfer Polyurethane curing chemistry is critically dependent on
process to promote diacyl peroxide breakdown, e.g., the nature of the co-reagents, their relative proportions,
with N,N-dimethylaniline: the presence and type of catalysts and the thermal
history of the system.
ArCOOOCOAr + C6H5NMe2
ArCOO [C6H5NMe2]+ + ArCOO Both aliphatic and aromatic isocyanates may be
employed- the former offering better resistance to solar
but the generation of acyloxy radicals has the potential radiation and the latter providing higher reactivities
to produce unwelcome aromatics (e.g., benzene in cure.
from dibenzoyl peroxide) which may preclude this
approach from resins where food contact application For the hydroxyl component of the cure, its activity
is anticipated. with respect to isocyanate is governed by both polar and
steric effects (219). Model compound studies show that
For reference, the anticipated breakdown products the reactivity with isocyanate decreases as:
of commercial diacyl peroxides are listed in Table 2
(195). CH3CH2OH > CH3OH > (CH3)2CHOH >
(CH3)3OH ~ C6H5OH

2.1.7 Polyurethanes So, in hydroxyl-isocyanate cures, aliphatic hydroxyls


provide the co-agents for cure, whilst aromatic
Polyurethanes (PU) are formed as a result of addition (phenolic) hydroxyls provide potential blocking agents.
reactions of isocyanates, usually with active hydrogen In the latter case the isocyanate is introduced into the

12
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

cure formulation as is a phenol adduct (phenyl urethane). Rosin esters, rosin salts, modified rosins and modified
This adduct dissociates on heating: if the dissociation rosin esters, ranging in physical state from viscous
is in the presence of a more aliphatic hydroxyl then an liquids to hard friable solids, are used as binders in a
aliphatic urethane will be formed: variety of ink formulations. The method of incorporation
into the ink depends on the rosin type, notably its
XNHCOOPh XNCO + HOPh acidity. For example, rosin resins may be incorporated
as dispersions in linseed oil, as solutions in alcohol or
XNCO + HOR XNHCOOR hydrocarbons, or as solutions or dispersions in aqueous
ammonia or other alkalies.
The aliphatic hydroxyl co-agents in polyurethane
cures are usually low mw polymers. Examples include Rosin resins are also components of coating formulations,
hydroxyl-terminated polyesters and polyethers and for example or as modifiers for alkyds, or epoxies, or
hydroxyl-containing acrylics. Even without catalysis, for cellulose nitrate lacquers.
the hydroxyl-isocyanate reaction is sufficiently rapid
to compromise storage stability prior to cure and
polyurethanes are commonly two-pack systems.
Catalysts include tertiary amines, metal soaps and 2.1.9 Silicone Resins
organometallics.
A silicone polymer has a backbone of alternating
silicon and oxygen atoms, i.e., RR SiO, where
One pack formulations are possible by using blocked-
R and R may be alkyl, aryl, fluoroalkyl or hydrogen,
isocyanates (as described above), moisture-curing
but are more commonly methyl groups. Therefore, the
systems and those incorporating fully reacted, unreacted
most common repeating unit in a silicone polymer is
polyurethanes which cure by alternative chemistry (such
dimethysiloxanel: Me2SiO.
as air-drying) or undergo physical drying by solvent
evaporation.
Silicone resins are crosslinked products. In this
case, the crosslinking mirrors other silicon systems
Moisture-curing polyurethanes are formulations
(e.g., familiar RTV sealants and elastomers) with
containing a substantial excess of isocyanate in which
the curing process (silanol condensation, i.e., SiOH
the cure proceeds via an initial isocyanate hydrolysis:
+ HOSi SiOSi) essentially being an extension
of the reactions by which the original resin was
XNCO + H2O XNH2 + CO2
prepared. Silicone resins are highly branched and are
effectively crosslinking systems which are held at
This hydrolysis reaction generates active hydrogen, an intermediate state of conversion until the reaction
which undergoes sequential reactions (i.e., by urea and can be completed as part of the final application, or
biuret formation) in the same manner as for the hydroxyl fabrication stage. The polysiloxanes for resins are
addition described earlier. polyfunctional in silanol as a consequence of branch
points obtained by the introduction of trifunctional,
RSi(O)3, or tetrafunctional, Si(O)4, units into
2.1.8 Rosin the siloxane backbone.

Rosin is a natural resin obtained from pine trees. It is In a typical process for silicone resin manufacture,
a thermoplastic acidic product containing about 90% the appropriate mix of chlorosilanes is dissolved in a
of so-called resin acids composed mainly of cyclic solvent such as toluene or xylene and then stirred with
isoprenoid acids. The predominant resin acid is abietic water. At the end of the reaction, the organic layer is
acid which has an empirical formula of C20H30O2. separated and washed free of the acid produced, and
then partially distilled to enrich the solids content
Resins acids are unsaturated and therefore unstable of the resulting solution. Whilst further heating or
with respect to oxidation. Stability can be improved by treatment with catalysts may be used to refine the mw
hydrogenation or by dehydrogenation (aromatisation) distribution, the resin is often kept in this solution
to yield so-called modified rosins. Rosins and until the final cure is required, such as for coating or
modified rosins can be changed further by reactions laminated products.
such as salt formation (e.g., with sodium, potassium
or calcium hydroxides) or esterification. Esterification All resin cures are carried out using heat and a suitable
with polyhydroxy alcohols, such as glycerol or catalyst (metal soaps, organometallics, bases). Heat is
pentaerythritol, provides a useful increase in mw. essential for progressing a highly crosslinking cure,

13
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

where the onset of vitrification causes a transition 2.1.10 Vinyl Polymers


from kinetic to diffusion control. On this basis the
temperature of cure should be at least that of the Examples of vinyl polymers that may be found as
highest temperature expected in service. Although binders in inks and coatings, include polyvinyl acetate
somewhat softer (and less scratch resistant) than (PVAc), polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) and polyvinyl
other thermosetting resins (epoxies, alkyds), silicone acetals.
resins are valued for their heat resistance and
water repellency. Much PVAc is obtained by emulsion polymerisation, a
process which delivers the product in latex form. When
Heat is also capable of effecting silanol exchange dried it is brittle, but it is amenable to plasticisation and
reactions such that the molecular network is, to a is soluble in a range of solvents. Although not amenable
degree, in a state of flux. Low molecular weight to subsequent cure, it has potential uses as a binder in
material can be created through these exchanges, and aqueous and non-aqueous systems. It is also amenable
the principal migratory species in silicone resins are to internal plasticisation by copolymerisation with a
cyclic and linear oligomeric polysiloxanes. monomer such as 2-ethyhexyl acrylate.

The versatility of silicone chemistry means that it is PVAc is the precursor to PVOH. The reaction is usually
relatively easy to manufacture silicone resin products performed as an alcoholysis in methanol solution (often
that are capable of curing at ambient or relatively low from a PVAc prepared in methanol solution) in the
temperatures (e.g., 40 C), after having been applied to presence of sodium methoxide. The reaction can be
the substrate in a solution form (e.g., in isopropanol) represented schematically as:
by methods such as dipping or spraying. Such resins
are useful in a kitchen and general food preparation ROCOCH3 + MeOH ROH + MeOCOCH3
environment as they have very good dirt repellent
properties and so aid the removal of food residues. The degree of substitution can be controlled by the
reaction conditions with the most common commercial
To improve their heat resistance (e.g., up to 650 C) grades offering around 90% substitution. This level of
and chemical resistance, silicone resins are modified substitution offers the highest solubility in water, as
by the addition of, for example, epoxy groups. These further hydrolysis increases inter-polymer H-bonding.
polymers can be obtained as solutions (e.g., 75% Fully hydrolysed PVOH is only soluble in water
w/w in solvents such as methoxypropylacetate) and upon heating.
the coatings resulting from such products, some of
which have FDA approval, can be employed as heat PVOH offers a particularly useful combination of
resistant decorative coatings in the food industry. It properties: for example it offers good water solubility
is also possible to incorporate polytetrafluroethylene and a higher level of mechanical performance than
(PTFE) into such coatings to improve their non-stick normally associated with water-soluble polymers.
performance. PVOH is widely used as a binder in water-based inks
and coatings.
The identity and migration behaviour of species that
originate from a variety of food-contact silicone Polyvinyl acetals are obtained by condensation of
products (rubbers, resins and fluids) are described in the backbone hydroxyl groups with aldehydes. With
the final report of a recent FSA project on silicones formaldehyde, polyvinyl formal is obtained, and with
managed by Rapra (a.1) butyraldehyde, polyvinyl butyral is obtained. A typical
repeating unit in polyvinyl butyral has the form shown
In addition to being used as the primary binder in Figure 4.
material, low mw silicone polymers can be modified
with organic groups, e.g., phenyl groups, polyether or The precursor to polyvinyl butyral is usually the fully
polyester groups, and used as additives in UV curable hydrolysed PVOH. This is suspended in ethanol and
coating formulations (e.g., polyester acrylates). Such heated in the presence of butyraldehyde and acid
additives have been shown to enhance the performance (e.g., H2SO4) catalyst, and the product polymer is then
of the coatings in a number of ways, e.g., increased precipitated with water. Polyvinyl butyral contains
temperature stability, superior adhesion to substrates, residual hydroxyl groups, and the combination of
increased stability towards hydrolysis and a reduction functionality makes for useful solubility in a range of
in surface tension (201). polar solvents from ketones and esters to glycol ethers

14
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

The basic ingredients of barrier or protective coatings


can be broken down into four main classes: polymers,
crosslinking agents, additives and solvents.

The types of polymers that are used to produce coatings


have already been discussed in Section 2.1. The
remaining constituents are covered next.
Figure 4
Structure of polyvinyl butyral
2.2.1 Crosslinking Agents

and alcohols. To a degree, the properties can be tuned by Crosslinking agents are additives, which act chemically
control of the level of acetylation, but polyvinyl butyrals on the polymer to effectively create a significant
are generally soft, low melting point polymers. increase in the molecular weight, ultimately producing a
complete three-dimensional network. This phenomenon
can be regarded as drying via chemical reactions.
The choice of crosslinking agent is specific to the
2.1.11 Other Polymers (e.g., hydrocarbons)
polymer concerned and the relevant examples have
been discussed with the individual polymer types in
Where relatively thin films of rubber (e.g., ethylene-
Section 2.1.
propylene-diene terpolymer) or thermoplastic polymer
(e.g., polyolefin) are used to protect metal surfaces
against corrosion (e.g., in storage tanks), they can also
be regarded as coatings. In these cases, grades of rubber, 2.2.2 Other Additives
or thermoplastics, that are approved for food contact
use will be used and the type of polymer (and polymer Additives fall into several types, e.g., pigments,
compound) chosen will depend upon the nature of the catalysts and various agents to assist flow, leveling or
food product (i.e., aqueous or fatty), and the physical defoaming.
properties (e.g., abrasion resistance) that the application
requires. Pigments include the same multitude of types that are
discussed for inks in Section 2.3.5, and the catalysts for
In addition to solid polymer products, latex type cure are discussed with the polymer types in Section
products are also used as coatings. These are often 2.1. The various other additives include:
found on paper and board type packaging for the food
industry. For example styrene-butadiene latexes are i) higher-boiling solvents (to those listed in Section
commonly used for these types of applications, as are 2.2.3) to promote levelling and film formation,
terpolymers of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS),
the latter offering greater strength and mottle resistance ii) surfactants to promote surface wetting,
when compared to the former materials.
iii) silicates or metal chelates as thickening agents for
viscosity control, and
2.2 Constituents of Coatings
iv) esters, soaps waxes or mineral or silicone oils for
Coatings can be used for protection (e.g., to prevent defoaming action.
the rusting of metal) or, in the case of packaging
materials, for barrier or release performance. There are
also cases where the coating has other functionality, 2.2.3 Solvents
e.g., for anti-mist performance. Coatings that are
used in release type applications may be silicone Solvents are not always used. Where they are, they may
materials, or based on other polymers containing fall into the following classes:
slip additives such as fatty amides. Protective or
barrier coatings may be based on curing systems,
Aliphatic hydrocarbons
or evaporating solutions of thermoplastic (i.e. non-
crosslinking), or rubber-type, polymers. Cycloaliphatic hydrocarbons

15
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

Terpene hydrocarbons and terpenoids 2.3.1 Solvents


Aromatic hydrocarbons
A list of solvents that are typically used in inks is
Chlorinated hydrocarbons
given next:
Alcohols
Water
Ketones
Aliphatic hydrocarbons
Esters
Cycloaliphatic hydrocarbons
Ethers
Terpene hydrocarbons and terpenoids
Glycol ethers
Aromatic hydrocarbons
Alcohols
2.3 Constituents of Inks Ketones
Esters
Printing inks can be solvent-borne or water borne: they Glycols
can exploit reactive or non-reactive drying mechanisms.
The principal ingredients are vehicles and colorants. Vegetable oils
The vehicle is the liquid medium, which carries the
colorant through the printing process to the substrate
and provides stability and gloss to the printed product 2.3.2 Plasticisers
after drying. Vehicles include solvents, binder resins
(i.e., polymers), and additives. Colorants include dyes Plasticisers are used in most systems which dry by solvent
and, more commonly, pigments. evaporation, such as gravure and flexography. Plasticisers
must be compatible with the resin used, and be present
A range of polymer types, natural or synthetic, may at such a loading to provide flexibility and gloss to the
be used as binder resins in inks. Natural resins include product without impairing application. Nitrocellulose
rosin types, whilst synthetic binder resins are commonly resins are commonly plasticised, and examples of the
based on alkyd, amino or acrylic types. Again, the plasticisers that are used include: phthalates, adipates,
various polymers used are discussed in more detail in phosphates and some vegetable oils.
Section 2.1.

The inks that are used in food applications usually have 2.3.3 Driers
complex compositions. The following parameters have
to be considered when formulating them: Driers are metal soaps which have been traditionally
used to catalyse the air oxidation drying of vegetable oils
Type of substrate as in alkyd cures. These are typically the naphthenate,
octoate or linoleate salts of cobalt, lead and manganese,
Type of foodstuffs to be packed sometimes with calcium, zinc or barium salts for
auxiliary action. The primary drier action is the catalysis
Type of printing processes and printing of hydroperoxide breakdown, e.g.:
equipment
ROOH + Co2+ RO + OH + Co3+
Package-forming and filling processes
ROOH + Co3+ ROO + H+ + Co2+
End user specifications
Secondary drier action is less clear, but may well
Compliance to health, safety and consumer involve the formation of ionic crosslinks with any acid
protection regulations groups present in the oil.

Compliance with environmental policies for


printing, manufacturing processes and end use. 2.3.4 Photoinitiators

Some of the more important constituents of these inks Photoinitiation is the photoproduction of free radicals
are described in the next sections. or ions capable of initiating a chain reaction such

16
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

as polymerisation. A photoinitiator is therefore an Photosensitisers


ingredient which is capable of generating free radicals
Anthraquinones
or ions (usually cations) on the absorption of light
(usually UV light). Benzophenones
Camphorquinones
Cationic photoinitiators are effective for ring-opening
polymerisations as for example with epoxies. Thioxanthones
Commercial cationic photoinitiators are the so-
called onium salts, i.e., diaryliodonium, Ar2I+, and
triarylsulfonium, Ar3S+. Common counter ions include: 2.3.5 Colorants
tetrafluoroborate, BF4 and hexafluorophosphate, PF6.
Colorants fall into two main classes: dyes and pigments.
Cationic photoinitiators are a relatively new
development. The more traditional free radical initiators Dyes are coloured substances used for coloration of
are more widely used and generally enable faster substrates by processes such as physical adsorption,
curing. Free radical initiators are used with unsaturated complex formation or, in some cases, covalent bond
monomers, most commonly acrylic. Photoinitiators for formation. Dyes are always soluble in their carriers,
radical polymerisation fall into two types: molecules, and cover a wider colour range than any other colorant
which are capable of photodissociation and those, class. However, as soluble species (i.e., they operate at
termed photosensitisers, which generate radicals the molecular dimension), they are transparent and lack
by an intermolecular reaction. The mechanism of the covering power of pigments.
photodissociation can be illustrated with respect to
the breakdown of benzoin ethers. Absorption of a UV Dyes have speciality roles in printing. For example,
photon generates an excited state, which can dissipate they are used in inkjet printing, in lakes for printing
the excess energy by homolytic bond cleavage: ink pigments and as toners to improve the colour
rendering of pigments. Azo dyes form the largest and
PhC(=O*)CH(OR)Ph most versatile class of dyes.
PhC(=O) + CH(OR)Ph
So-called direct dyes (i.e., water-soluble dyes) which
Carbonyl-containing species which have no easily attach to substrates by hydrogen-bonding directly
available route to photodissociation can still function from solution are commonly used in inkjet dyes where
as photoinitiators by the process of photosensitisation. the substrate is cellulose-based, e.g., paper. Common
The mechanistic steps for photosensitisation are less well thermoplastic packaging films (e.g., polyolefins) do not
understood than the examples given previously, but are provide a fast surface for these dyes.
thought to require a co-agent for radical formation. In the
case of benzophenone, a hydrogen abstraction reaction by Pigments are coloured, colourless or fluorescent
the excited molecule can lead to radical formation: particulate solids usually insoluble in, and
unaffected by, the medium (vehicle) in which
RH + *O=CPh2 R + C(OH)Ph2 they are dispersed. Transparent pigments are used
for process colours i.e., colours developed in
combination (e.g., cyan + yellow green). Pigments
Some examples of photoinitators are: may be organic or inorganic. The most important class
Initiators by photodissociation of organic pigments are the azo types. Others include
metal complexes (e.g., copper phthalycyanine) and
Acylphosphine oxides and bis-acylphosphine higher polycyclic compounds (e.g., anthroquinone,
oxides quinacridone, isoindolinone and perylene).
-Alkyloxyacetophenones
As pigments are dispersed, and not dissolved, they
-Aminoalkylphenones impart stronger colours than dyes, giving better
-Hydroxyalkylphenones coverage. Hence, it is pigments rather than dyes that
are most commonly encountered as colorants in inks.
Benzoin ethers However, dyes can also be converted into a dispersed
form by coating them on translucent particles (e.g.,
Benzyl ketals
alumina). These are lakes and this process extends
Halogenated acetophenones the range of colours available as pigments.

17
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

Azo dyes and pigments setoff and sheet sticking), thickeners (e.g., cornstarch),
anti-skinning agents (to prevent premature drying on
Azo compounds form the most important class of dyes rollers could be an antioxidant). Monomers (e.g.,
and pigments. They are obtained by coupling reactions acrylic) are additives in reactive systems.
between diazonium salts and a range of species such as
phenols, arylamines, arylsulfonate salts. This versatility
enables a wide spectrum of colours to be manufactured.
Members of the naphthalene series couple more readily 3 Coatings and Inks used in the
than single ring compounds, and commercial azo dyes
are often multi-ring molecules.
Food Chain
The food chain is becoming increasingly complex,
An alternative route to azo compounds is by the oxidative
with an increasing choice for the consumer due to the
coupling of hydrazones. By these two routes, a huge
proliferation of pre-prepared foods, rapid movement
variety of azo compounds can be produced, including
of packaged goods by road, and the increasing
types with one (monoazo), two (disazo) three
competitiveness of the global market.
(trisazo) or more (polyazo) azo groups. For example,
most of the orange and yellow pigments are disazo
types based on substituted benzidines. When each of the There is a net flow of materials along the food chain from
coupling components are based on naphthyl or biphenyl the farmers and growers, through the manufacturers and
derivatives, the resulting disazo, trisazo or polyazo processors, to the major supermarkets and food service
molecules may contain six or more aromatic rings. These outlets, e.g., caterers.
large molecules have reduced mobility within the matrix
which, in turn, reduces their migration potential. This section highlights some distinct areas in the food
production chain, and the types of coatings and inks that
are used in those areas. Packaging has been given the
most attention as it is the most important area due to a
Phthalocyanines
number of factors. It is the area in which the greatest
number and range of coating and ink products are
Metal free phthalocyanine [(C 6H 4C 2N) 4N 4], is a
used in, and it also represents the highest potential for
macrocyclic compound made up of four isoindole-
migration to occur as the contact times and areas (per
class units linked by four nitrogen atoms to form a
unit of food) are the usually the greatest.
conjugated chain. It is made by heating phthalonitrile
(1,2-dicyanobenzene), [C6H4(CN)2], in the presence of
bases at 180-200 C. Phthalocyanine pigments contain
metals, such as copper, cobalt, nickel and iron, and 3.1 Food Packaging
provide a wide range of colours through functionalisation
of the phthalocyanine ligand itself. Thus, whilst 3.1.1 Packaging Types
copper phthalocyanine is blue, chlorinated copper
phthalocyanine and sulfonated copper phthaliocyanine
It is convenient to divide the packaging that is used for
provide two different shades of green.
food into three generic categories:
Copper phthalocyanine may be obtained by heating
a) Metals
phthalonitrile and a copper salt in a suitable reaction
medium, or by using a phthalic anhydride urea Coatings and inks can be used in the following
combination in place of phthalonitrile. sectors of metal packaging:

Phthalocyanines are stable to atmospheric oxidation at Beverage cans and ends


temperatures up to 100 C, or higher, depending on the
metal present, but phthalimide is a possible breakdown Food cans and ends
product if oxidation occurs.
Caps and closures

General line (standard, non-specific


2.3.6 Other Additives manufacturing line) used for dry food products

Other additives that are used in inks include: surfactants, Aerosols and collapsible tubes used for food
antioxidants, defoamers, biocides, waxes (to prevent products

18
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

b) Flexibles (i.e., plastic) 4) Tables 13 Inks for Paper and Board Packaging
Coatings, adhesives, primers, varnishes and heat
5) Tables 14 Inks for Flexible Packaging
seals are used in multi-constructions of plastic films
and foils
*Adhesive layers, such as the tie layers in laminates,
can be regarded as a coating and so this type of product
c) Paper and Board has been included here.
Coatings, adhesives, primers, varnishes and heat
seals are all used in this sector. The information in these Tables is complemented by
the discussion in Sections 3.1.2 to 3.1.7.
Some approximate data on the size of the market for
these types of products is given in Tables 3 and 4.
3.1.2 Coatings Used in Metal Packaging
It is useful to try and illustrate the relative importance (Tables 5 to 9)
of the different polymer types used in the production
of metal, flexible and paper and board packaging. Beverage Body and End Stock Externals (Coatings
This has been attempted in Tables 5 to 14 [a.2]. In these Used in Cconjunction With Inks)
tables, the polymer types have been given a rating from
0 to 10. This denotes the relative importance of the The UK market for alcoholic drinks is dominated by
polymers, with the least important being given a rating metal packaging whereas the soft drink market mainly
of 0 and the most important a rating of 10. uses polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. Glass is
only a small market for each (< 10 %). Body stock in
These Tables can be broken down as follows: the UK consists mainly of aluminium construction with
a small proportion made from tinplate and this has an
1) Tables 5 to 9 Coatings used in Metal Packaging impact on the coatings and inks chosen.

2) Tables 10 and 11 Coatings and Adhesives* The preferred combination on aluminium can stock is
used in Flexible Packaging polyester-based inks (see Table 12) with a water-based
over varnish based on polyester or a polyester/acrylic
3) Tables 12 Inks for Metal Packaging technology.

In Europe, countries with a strong steel industry tend


to produce more beverage bodies from tinplate. The
coating situation with tinplate is quite different to
Table 3. Current size of the UK and European aluminium. Generally, a water-based, white basecoat,
Markets for Metal Packaging based on a polyester/acrylic combination, acts as an
European Market (Billions of cans) excellent base for inks requiring no over varnish. Known
40 as Novar inks in the trade they contain higher levels
of lubricants to provide necessary slip and abrasion
29 resistance through the filling lines and track work.
30
5.5 Table 5 shows the strong use of water dispersible
polymers in varnishes and pigmented coatings, e.g.,
7
acrylic, polyester and epoxy.

Table 4. Current Size of the UK Non-metal Packaging Market


Coatings/Sealants/
Inks (Te) Adhesives (Te)
Varnishes (Te)
Flexible Packaging 7200 1500 5000
Paper/Board 2000 4000 4000
Food Labels 500 1000 1500

19
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

Table 5. Polymers Used in Metal Packaging - Beverage Bodies and Easy Open Ends
Relative Importance
Polymer Type End Use Comments
(1-10)
Alkyds 0-1 None to very little Polyesters preferred
Very common base resin for w/b coatings
Acrylics 7 Ends and bodies
and varnishes
Higher quality base resin than acrylics for
Polyesters 10 Ends and bodies
coatings/varnishes
Epoxies 9 Ends and bodies Significant use as base resin for w/b externals of ends
Urethanes 1 None to very little Food contact issue even for externals
Vinyl polymers 2 End stock Chlorine containing vinyl resins being withdrawn
Phenolics 2 Ends and bodies Crosslinking or colouring resin
Principal crosslinking resin for epoxy resin for clear/
Amino 4 Ends and bodies
coloured coatings
Acrylates 1 Base of bodies Small interest for acrylate UV cured rim varnish
Cellulose <1 None to very little Maybe only as an additive
Hydrocarbon 0 Maybe only as lubricant
Small volumes of lubricants and additives are used
Others 1 Lubricants
including PE, PTFE, Carnauba wax and lanolin
w/b = water based

Can end stock is made of aluminium and the externals More flexible coatings are used on both aluminium and
are primarily solvent-based epoxy amino technology. steel draw redraw (DRD) cans to aid in the forming
A very small percentage of ends will be decorated for process. In addition, the Europeans still tend to decorate
promotional reasons. The vast majority of beverage their cans with basecoats/inks and varnishes. In Europe
ends use clear, gold or coloured external coatings. the emphasis is more on quality and therefore direct
The coatings are applied using high speed coil printing of cans and ends is preferred rather than using
application. paper labels. Table 6 shows the use of various other
resins for these cans.
The UK market primarily produces three piece welded
food cans (80%) with approximately 20% produced The inks used on these products will follow the
using the drawn and wall ironed (DWI) process. polymer combinations shown in Table 12. Generally,
conventional inks are used on food cans and ends which
are based on polyester technology.
A major proportion of three piece welded bodies are
left uncoated on the exterior; no external decoration
This market is quite diverse and there are many different
being needed as paper labels are used. However, the
types of caps and closures produced. The most prevalent
steel ends will always be coated with an epoxy-based
type of closure is the steel vacuum closure which is used
material. Many of the easy open ends will be printed
on glass jars for baby food, jams and pastes, etc. Various
with opening instructions and others may be printed for constructions are included such as Regular twist off (RTO)
promotional reasons. and Press Twist (PT) etc., on processed food glass jars.
These external fittings use mainly use polyester or epoxy
Water based epoxy wash coat dominates the external base coats in combination with inks and varnishes.
protection of DWI bodies; again no inks are used as
paper labels are preferred. Caps that are used on alcoholic glass bottles are of the
aluminium Roll on Pilfer Proof (ROPP) construction.
A small number of drawn steel pie cans are produced They require very flexible basecoats, inks and varnishes
in the UK which will receive an external combination to withstand the extreme forming process. Typical choices
of white basecoat, inks and varnishes. will be based on polyester-polyurethane technology.

20
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

Table 6. Polymers used in Metal Packaging - External Food bodies and ends including welded three
piece/Drawn/DRD and DWI cans and ends
Relative Importance
Polymer Type End Use Comments
(1-10)
Alkyds 1 Very little Being replaced by polyesters
Acrylics 2 Overprint varnishes Provides good clear glossy finish
Growing use crosslinked with amino,
Polyesters 3 Ends
phenolic and isocyanate
Main base resin for ends(standard and
Epoxies 10 All sectors
EOE) and DWI washcoat
Urethanes 3 ROPP and other caps Flexible and tough technology
Were used on DRD cans-replaced by
Vinyl polymers 2 Diminishing use
polyesters and epoxies
Phenolics 6 All sectors Important crosslinker for gold coatings
Crosslinker for clear and white coatings/
Amino 4 All sectors
varnishes
Basis for UV curable varnishes and also
Acrylates 1 Three piece bodies
flow agents
Cellulose <1 Small Maybe as an additive
Hydrocarbon <1 Small Maybe as an additive
Base resin for cationic UV curable
Cycloaliphatics 1 Three piece bodies
varnishes
Others :
PTFE/PE <1 All sectors Lubricants used to aid post forming
Carnauba <1 All sectors Lubricants used to aid post forming
EOE: Easy open end

Crown corks are still used on premium beer and beverage For the varnishes, UV technology is either free radical
glass bottles and again use combinations of polyester based (acrylate-based) or the higher performance
basecoats, inks and varnishes based on polyester or epoxy cationic technology based on cycloaliphatic resins.
ester technologies.
The vast majority of aerosols produced in the UK are
Only a small proportion of general line cans produced in of welded tinplate construction. A small proportion of
the UK are used for food products, with the vast proportion the total are produced using the Monobloc aluminium
of general line cans being used for paints, wood varnishes
process. Both types of construction use direct print
and other non-food consumer products. The main food
onto a base coated body which is subsequently
packaging use for general line cans is for decorated
varnished, with the mono bloc aluminium aerosols
confectionary boxes, decorated boxes or cylinders for
premium bottles of spirits, or for baby food powders. mainly using conventional solvent borne basecoats,
and conventional inks and varnishes based on flexible
In the UK, in the last few years, there has been a polyester technology.
considerable move away from thermally cured coatings
and inks for these products to using both UV curable The main three piece tinplate producers are now moving
inks and varnishes. This is inspired by volatile organic to UV curable inks and varnishes. Again, solvent base-
compounds (VOC) regulations, quality and economics. polyester or epoxy resins are used for the basecoats.
The coloured basecoats, however, are normally
solvent-based and produced from a range of resins, but Aluminium collapsible tubes are included in this table,
mainly polyesters. although as none are manufactured in the UK, the

21
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

Table 7. Polymers Used in Metal Packaging - Caps Closures to Include Vacuum Closures/RTO/
ROPP/PT/Crowns etc.
Vacuum
Relative
Closures (incl: Roll on Pilfer
Polymer Type Importance Crown Corks Comments
RTO/ PT/Lug Proof
(1-10)
type/)
Combined with vinyl to
give good flexibility-being
Alkyds 1 Yes Yes
replaced by better polyester
technology
Acrylics 1 Yes Yes Far greater use in Europe
Main resin type preferred
Polyesters 10 Yes Yes Yes for flexibility and good heat
resistance and colour retention
Base of traditional epoxy ester
technology being replaced
Epoxies 4 Yes Yes
by polyester base limited
flexibility
Ideal for the more extreme
Urethanes 6 Yes Yes Yes
draw of ROPP but used for all
Combined with alkyd
Vinyl polymers 2 Yes Yes technology, but now being
replaced
Crosslinker for gold epoxy
Phenolics 2 Yes Yes
-based clear externals
Crosslinker for polyester
Amino 6 Yes Yes
technology
Base for UV technology with
Acrylates 1 Yes Possible limited draw. Proven for RTO
products
Cellulose 0
Hydrocarbon 0
Others:
Cycloaliphatic 1 Yes No Possible Base for cationic varnishes
Lubricants, used in small
PTFE/PE <1 Yes Yes Yes
quantities

relatively small number used for pharmaceuticals and a) General purpose


food pastes are imported mainly from Europe. This type b) Medium performance
of packaging has been mainly replaced by rigid plastic c) High performance
polyethylene (PE) tubes.
Examples of each of these three are described in the
next sections:
3.1.3 Coatings and Adhesives for Flexible
Packaging (Tables 10 and 11) General Purpose

The types of flexible packaging in the market can be This type of packaging is typically used for products such
broken down as follows (a.3): as snacks and crisps. In addition to the metalised inner

22
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

Table 8. Polymers used in Metal Packaging - General Line (Including, Packaging for Dry Foods,
e.g. Baby Food, Coffee and Confectionery)
Relative
Polymer Type Importance End Use Comments
(1-10)
Alkyds 1 Size coat Sizeless systems now preferred
Acrylics 5 Base for white coatings and varnishes Good heat resistance and appearance
Excellent combination of properties and
Polyesters 10 Base for white coatings and varnishes
crosslinked with amino or urethanes
Traditional base for epoxy ester
Epoxies 2 Epoxy esters prone to yellowing
varnishes
Urethanes 4 Superior technology Combination with polyester
Historical base for size/white and Vinylalkyds being replaced by
Vinyl polymers 1
varnish polyesters or acrylics
Phenolics 1 Used as crosslinker in clear golds Combination with epoxy
Amino 4 Clear transparent or white basecoat Combination with polyester
UV technology replacing thermal
Acrylates 5 Basis for UV free radical varnishes
technology in UK
Cellulose 0
Hydrocarbon 0
Others:
More flexible cationic technology
is more versatile than free radical.
Cycloaliphatic 4 Basis for cationic UV varnishes
Replacement of conventional set to
continue

plastic layer (~18 m thick) and outer plastic layer (again (e.g., 130 C for 30 minutes), some thermoforming
~18 m thick), there will be a 2 m adhesive layer and capability and chemical resistance to the product inside.
a 5 m print layer. The presence of the metallised layer A typical six layer construction would be:
provides a degree of oxygen, moisture and light barrier.
Polyester outer 18 mm
Print layer 5 mm
Medium Performance
Adhesive layer 3-4 mm
This type of flexible packaging is typically used for Aluminium foil 20 mm
products such as bacon, cheese and boil in the bag foods.
Adhesive layer 4-5 mm
It often has an outer layer of Nylon (~20 m thick), a
4 m print layer, a 2-3 m adhesive layer and then a Cast polypropylene (PP) 30 mm
30 m polyethylene layer. In common with the general
purpose packaging, it has some barrier properties to The information in Table 10 takes into account the
oxygen, is puncture resistant, thermoformable and can great potential for food manufacturers to import reels
withstand up to 100 C for 60 minutes. of the relatively light weight laminated constructions
from mainland Europe. In this market there is a
45/50/5 split in the use of solvent-free/solvent-based
High Performance and water-based adhesive technologies. It is expected
with VOC emission regulations becoming more
These are typically referred to as retort packs and they stringent the solvent-free option will grow. For the
have the most complicated construction, which imparts vast majority of final uses, polyurethane technology
a total barrier, puncture resistance, high heat resistance is the resin of choice for both solvent-based and

23
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

Table 9. Polymers Used in Metal Packaging - Collapsible Tubes, Three Piece Steel and Aluminium
Monobloc Aerosols
Relative
Polymer Collapsible Three Piece Monobloc
Importance Comments
Type Tubes Aerosols Aerosols
(1-10)
Alkyds <1 Yes Mainly replaced by polyesters
Acrylics 4 Yes Yes Lower cost option to polyesters
Dominates the external size/
Polyesters 10 Yes Yes Yes white and clear basecoats and
overprint varnishes
Used more on three piece
Epoxies 3 Yes yes
aerosols than monoblocs
Isocyanate capped PU used
Urethanes 6 Yes Yes Yes
extensively with polyesters
Vinyl Could be still used on cones and
0-1 Possible
polymers domes
Crosslinker/tinter for epoxy-
Phenolics 2 Yes
based gold coatings
Clear crosslinker alternative to
Amino 5 Yes
polyurethane
Acrylates 1 Yes Base for UV curable varnishes
Cellulose 0
Hydrocarbon 0
Others:
Base for the more flexible and
Cyclo-
2 Yes Possible better adhering UV technology
aliphatic
for varnishes
Small volume used as internal
PTFE/PE <1 Yes Yes yes
lubricants
Small volume used as internal
Carnauba <1 Yes Yes yes
lubricants

solvent-free adhesives. The polyurethane backbone significant resins which tend to dominate this sector
may use polyester or polyether chemistry depending e.g., polyamides and natural rubbers in cold seals,
on the quality needed. Water-based adhesives tend to being highlighted. Ethylene vinyl acetate products are
use a combination of dispersible acrylic and epoxy used in heat sealable lids.
technology crosslinked with amine resins.

The multi-layer construction of flexible packaging


3.1.4 Inks for Metal Packaging (Table 12)
always means that there are combinations of adhesives
and coatings with printing inks. Table 14 covers
printing ink polymers and additives. The bulk of metal decorating inks are applied using
lithography and rely on paste type inks. There are
This area is complex, which makes analysis difficult four main sectors covered by Table 12: beverage,
and it is a lot smaller in volume terms compared to food cans and ends, caps and closures, and general
coatings. Table 11 shows that there is a vast split line and aerosols. A brief discussion of each of these
in types of resin technology used, with some of the is presented next.

24
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

Table 10. Polymers Used in Flexible Packaging - Adhesives Used for Laminating Plastic Films/Foil/
Paper and Metallised
Relative
Solvent- Solvent- Water- UV or EB
Polymer Type Importance Comments
Based Free Based Cure
(1-10)
Alkyds 0
Acrylic functionality aids water
Acrylics 2 Yes
dispersability
Used as backbone for high
Polyesters 7 Yes Yes
performance adhesives or curatives
Used in conjunction with amine
Epoxies 2 Yes Yes
curatives
Polyether or polyester urethane
technology is the most widely
Urethanes 10 Yes Yes Yes
used adhesive technology in the
UK and Europe
Vinyl polymers 0
Phenolics 0
Amino 0
Could be background resin for UV
Acrylates 1 Yes
or EB technology
Cellulose 0
Hydrocarbon 0
Others :
Used in conjunction with an
Amine 2 Yes Yes
epoxy
Can either be used as part of the
Polyether/ PE/PU backbone in the adhesive
6 Yes Yes Yes
polyol part or as a curative in its own right
with an isocyanate capped PU
Used as an adhesion promoter in
Silane/silanol 4 Yes Yes Yes
the curative
Erucamide or oleamide-based
Amide 1 Yes Yes Yes Yes lubricants used to adjust bond
strengths

Beverage Cans The ink technology that is used is based on polyester


resins cured with amino crosslinkers. Pigmentation can
The marketing of all aluminium and tinplate beverage represent 30% of the formulations, small amounts of
cans relies heavily on a high quality image on the diluents (e.g., tridecanol) are used to improve the flow,
exterior of the thin walled cans. This is the biggest and lubricants based on PTFE are frequently used to
sector for metal decoration and the application provide the slip to enable post-necking operations to
is carried out at high speed, in the round. Many be achieved.
combinations of basecoats, inks and over print
varnishes are used to provide the right image for a For all the other metal decorating sectors, sheets are
particular product. printed flat and then post formed.

25
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

Table 11. Polymers Used in Flexible Packaging - Primers/Heat Seals and Varnishes
Relative
Polymer Type Importance End Use Comments
(1-10)
In conjunction with amino resins for heat
Alkyds 2 Varnishes
resistance
Can be applied as waterbased in
Acrylics 5 Lidding heat seals
conjunction with vinyls e.g., yoghurt pots
Polyesters 3 Heat seals Good performance
Can be used with phenolics and
Epoxies 2 Sterilisable trays/coloured cartons thermoplastic dispersion e.g., PP base for
coloured coatings for drawable trays
Urethanes 4 Varnishes High chemical and heat resistance
Traditional polymer base for heat seals-
Vinyl polymers 6 Lidding heat seals or barrier cartons
polyvinylidere chloride major barrier coating
Crosslinker for epoxy based coatings and/
Phenolics 2 Sterilisable trays
or heat seals
Used in conjunction with alkyd and
Amino 2 Varnishes
polyester resins
Acrylates 2 Varnishes Low heat resistance
Nitro cellulose, low cost and low
Cellulose 3 Varnishes
temperature drying
Hydrocarbon 0
Others:
Polyamide 5 Cold seals Release additive
Ethylene vinyl Water-based EVA replacing high VOC
5 Heat seals/lidding
acetate solvent based systems
Used as thermoplastic dispersion with
Maleinised PP 3 Sterilisable trays
thermoset epoxy phenolic
Polyethylene Improves adhesion for direct extrusion
1 Primer for extrusion lamination
-imine lamination
Natural rubber 5 Cold seals Provides cohesive strength
Absorbs water and allows clear view of
Stearates/soaps 1 Anti-mist Coatings
products packed
EVA: Ethylene vinyl acetate

Food Cans and Ends printed to provide an accurate and high quality brand
image after post-forming.
Few tinplate food cans are decorated in the UK. Some
ends are decorated prior to forming. The few can
components that are printed tend to use conventional Caps and Closures
polyester inks without crosslinkers. The caps and closure markets rely on a printed image on
these components to provide differentiation for products
In Europe, the emphasis is more on quality and here packed in glass bottles or jars. Conventional inks are
many cans and ends are printed. It is also the case that used although there is a growing interest in the use of
the smaller portions packed in drawn cans are distortion flexible UV curable technology.

26
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

Table 12. Polymers Used in Inks for Metal Packaging


Relative
Polymer Type Importance End Use Comments
(1-10)
Rosin esters 0
Hydrocarbon Only as a minor diluent, e.g., tridecanol or
0-1 Diluent
Resins 260-290 C hydrocarbon distillate
Phenolics 0
Cellulose resins 0
Acrylic 0
Vinyl resins 0
Polyamide 0
Polyurethane 0
Amino 2 Beverage externals Used to crosslink polyesters
Conventional ink systems not requiring
Alkyds 3 All metal packaging sectors
crosslinking
Ketone resins 0
1. Beverage external decoration 1. Crosslinked with amino
Polyester 10
2. General line/aerosols 2. Used for polyester acrylate in UV
Epoxy 4 All metal packaging sectors Used for epoxy acrylate in UV.
UV/EB curable Free radical UV technology based on mainly
7 All metal packaging sectors
polymers epoxy acrylate with some polyester acrylate
PV 0
Silicone/silicate 0
PTFE 1 Lubricant Provides necessary slip to the surfaces
Titanates/chelates/
0
maleic resins

General Line and Aerosols 3.1.5 Inks for Paper and Board Packaging
(Table 13)
For these sectors there has been a recent move away
from conventional ink technology, relying on thermal As with FSMD, UV technology is being used in
drying of alkyd technology, to UV curable technology. 80% of the cases for paper and board secondary
UV curable inks are now applied to base coated food packaging. This technology is generally based
tinplate which is subsequently formed into welded on free radical curing resins e.g., polyester or epoxy
aerosols, milk cans, confectionery tins, and other acrylates.
components.
UV curable varnishes are widely used on food cartons
UV curing technology for flat sheet metal decorating and labels.
(FSMD) inks use a combination of polyester and epoxy
acrylate technologies photo crosslinked using free The conventional inks used in this sector are based on
radical initiators. Cationic UV technology for inks is not alkyd technology modified with hydrocarbon resins
used because of the difficulties in achieving a correct with minor modifications made with lubricants based
ink-water balance. on PTFE and polyethylene waxes.

27
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

Table 13. Polymers Used in Inks for Paper and Board


Relative Importance
Polymer Type End Use Comments
(1-10)
Rosin esters 0
Hydrocarbon resins 1 Diluent Only as a minor diluent in conventional inks
Phenolics 0
Cellulose resins 0
Acrylic 0
Vinyl resins 0
Polyamide 0
Polyurethane 0
Amino 0
Alkyds 4 Conventional inks 20% of the food paper/board market
Ketone resins 0
Polyester 5 Resin used in conjunction with acrylate for UV
Epoxy 5 Resin used in conjunction with acrylate for UV
UV/EB curable Mainly UV 80% of market
10
polymers Some EB at Tetrapack Combination of polyester and epoxy acrylates
PVB 0
Silicone/silicate 0
PTFE/PE 0-1 Lubricant
Titanates/chelates
0
maleic resins

3.1.6 Inks for Flexible Packaging (Table 14) Other resins such as polyamides and polyvinyl
butyrals (PVB) have limitations. Polyamides, although
The fastest growing packaging market today uses providing superior gloss and adhesion properties,
high quality images produced by reverse printing the are not as effective in heat sealing conditions and
exterior clear plastic film layers of flexible packaging suffer from bad odour. PVB are generally used by
constructions. Inks are normally applied using confectioners as they have low odour characteristics,
flexographic or gravure high speed printers. but only offer below average print flow and heat seal
characteristics.
The most widely used resins for these inks are based on
a combination of nitrocellulose and polyurethane resins The use of nitrocellulose resins is a safety concern
dissolved in fast (i.e., volatile) solvents such as ethyl and ink suppliers are trying to replace these by
acetate or isopropyl alcohol. In the UK and Europe, introducing new film forming technology based
the industry prefers to use low viscosity solvent-based on high mw polyurethane resins. This approach is
inks, while in the USA water-based acrylic technology is seen to be the future as it offers lower migratory
preferred from an environmental and solvent emissions technology.
point of view.

Nitrocellulose resins are used to provide excellent


dispersion of the pigments in inks. Thermoplastic 3.2 Harvesting and Processing of Food
polyurethanes and other resins are used to plasticise
and improve the adhesion characteristics of the The process of harvesting food can bring it into contact
formulated inks. with coating products. Some examples are:

28
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

Fruit and Vegetables Picking and transportation to Foods are also processed in a wide variety of ways, e.g.,
the processing plant. sterilisation, drying, chemical preservation, curing and
fermenting. Although stainless steel is often the material
Meat Slaughtering and preparation of choice for the majority of the food contact surfaces in
ahead of processing. food processing halls, it is possible for food products to,
potentially, encounter other coatings, for example:
Fish Netting and processing on
board. Exposure to painted/
i) Special acrylic-based coatings on the walls
varnished surfaces.
ii) Polyester or epoxy-based powder coating products
Cereals Coatings on harvesting
equipment, milling and storage on metal substrates
in bags.
iii) Cold cure, two pack epoxy or polyurethane coatings
Poultry Slaughtering, cleaning and on the floors
preparation for packaging or
selling. iv) PTFE coated standard conveyor systems

Table 14. Polymers Used in Inks for Flexible Plastic Packaging


Relative
Polymer Type Importance End Use Comments
(1-10)
Rosin esters 0-2 Minor use in gravure
Hydrocarbon
0 Minor use
resins
Phenolics 0 Not of interest due to formaldehyde concern
Nitro cellulose is used in almost all inks applied via
Cellulose resins 10
the flexography and gravure processes
Acrylic 2 Water-based only Mainly in USA
Vinyl resins 6 Move to withdraw chlorine containing polymers
Polyamide 6 Odour issue from amine and solvents possible
Polyurethane 10 High performance ink media reducing the NC content
Amino 0 Mainly coatings Mainly two pack odour issue
Alkyds 0
Ketone resins 1 To modify NC
Polyester 0
Epoxy 0-1 Used in small quantities as an adhesion promoter
UV/EB curable
2 Acrylated PU can be used for UV curable systems
polymers
Preferred base
PVB 5 resin system for Not suitable for heat sealable end uses
confectionary/cold seal
Silicone/silicate 0-1 Waxes
Titanates/chelates/
5 Adhesion promoters Essential additives for inks
maleic resins
NC: Nitrocellulose

29
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

to protect more reactive/interactive substrates (e.g., steel


Table 15. Places in the Food Chain Where
and aluminium). For example, the types of speciality
Contamination Has Taken Place
coatings that can be used in this type of application
Place of Contamination Percentage (%)* include epoxy-phenolic with a glass flake additive, and
Unknown 27.4 sprayable elastomeric polysulfide systems. In addition,
elastomeric polysulfide sealants, epoxy polyamide
Known (listed below) 72.6
holding primers and epoxy grouts can also be used. These
Catering 2.3 types of coatings and coating related products can also be
Food processing plant 5.4 used in other areas of the food and beverage industries.
Kitchen in private homes 6.9
When food products, such as potable water have to
Farm 15.7 be stored in open topped containers (e.g., in small
Restaurants 38.8 reservoirs, storage tanks and silos) it is necessary to have
an appropriate membrane over the top in order to keep
Other 30.9
harmful and contaminating agencies out. It is possible to
*Sample size: 7,115 produce such membranes using twocomponent epoxy-
**Including hotels, cafes, public houses and bars, polysulphide liquid coating systems that have Water
and schools Regulations Advisory Scheme (WRAS) approval for
potable water (a.6). These coatings can also be used on
a fabric carrier in order to produce a bund type liner.

In addition to these, silicone-based coatings have an Food sacks or empty cans are transported on pallets
important role to play, as their versatility means that which may be painted or varnished. This gives rise to the
materials can be manufactured (i.e., epoxy-silanes, possibility that the empty cans could be contaminated
silanes, siloxanes, silicones) that can be used to produce by traces of the odourous components used in these
hygienic coatings on a variety of substrates such as walls, coatings. The switch to pallets made from thermoplastic
general surfaces and pipe work. Use of low temperature, materials eliminates this possibility.
UV curing technology can also mean that such coatings
can be used on heat sensitive substrates, such as Liquids such as milk are often transported in stainless
thermoplastics. (a.4). The performance of these, and other steel tankers and so no contact with any coatings occurs.
coatings, can be enhanced if quaternary ammonium end However, beer and lager are transported in coated
groups are present on low mw silicone-based additives, aluminium casks, with this coating usually being spray
as these confer antimicrobial properties. applied and epoxy/phenolic based.
This type of development in coating technology is
Within the home, the use of refrigerators to store
important as improvements to hygiene in food processing
food is the norm, and there can be problems due to
plants has become an important topic in recent years (203).
the build up of cold tolerant bacteria such as Listeria
Data published in 2002 by the FAO/WHO Collaborating
spp or Salmonella spp. It is now possible to treat the
Centre for Research and Training in Food Hygiene and
surface of a refrigerator with a coating containing a
Zoonoses (a.5) illustrated the most important places where
silver glass ceramic antimicrobial additive that has
the food involved in outbreaks became contaminated. This
been shown in tests to significantly reduce the build
information is summarised below in Table 15.
up of Listeria (155).
Other data in the report includes an assessment of 18,351
foodborne disease outbreaks, of which a contributing
factor could be found for 13,310, and 14% of these were 3.4 Presentation, Dispensing and Cooking
thought to relate to improper hygienic conditions that
allow contamination during processing. Contaminated Packaged products may be exposed to shelving that is
surfaces will have contributed to this category. polyester or epoxy coated. However, this can be more
of an issue with fresh and chilled foods where there is
less of a barrier between the food and these coatings.
3.3 Storage and Transportation
As with the food processing halls and transportation,
Where food needs to be stored in bulk containers, these the coatings that are used are of the chemical and heat
can be stainless steel, but it is also possible to use coatings resistant variety to enable fast and efficient cleaning.

30
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

Drinks sold in cans are inherently protected from external The over-print varnish (usually un-pigmented) may
contamination by the packaging. However, the possibility be of the same form as the ink, if the application area
of contamination of can exteriors from the cleaning requires the definition achieved by lithography or may
chemicals used to clean the surfaces of the vending be of the lithographic type (see next) if the application
machine needs to be considered and guarded against. is by a simple roller.

The use of silicone-based resins to impart non-stick The use of low volatility solvents inhibits drying and so
surfaces to cooking equipment such as baking trays, a post-printing heating step is often used. When used
cake tins and loaf tins, and frying pans is increasing, with heat-resistant substrates, this heat step can also
with this technology often replacing PTFE based be used to ensure that the ink is fully cured. On more
coatings. These products are being marketed for both heat-sensitive surfaces, e.g., paper, absorption of the
use in the domestic environment as well as commercial solvent plays a part in the drying process. In the case of
kitchens. These types of products were included in the UV-curing inks, more than one irradiation step may be
recent FSA project undertaken by Rapra (a.1) used in the printing stage for example, immediately
after the application of a colour where there is risk of
smudging when the next colour is applied.

4. Application Techniques for Inks UV-curing ink formulations for lithography may utilise
only low levels of acrylic monomers and rely on multi-
4.1 Lithography functional acrylic polymers to provide the necessary
consistency and cure activity.
Lithography is one of the oldest printing techniques.
It utilises a flat plate or smooth roller which is treated Lithography offers some of the finest definitions seen
to accept ink in a selective way. The surface most in printed packaging and is associated with some of the
commonly used is metal, mainly aluminium, although highest quality products.
it is possible to use other materials such as ceramics.
The surface is treated to provide different degrees of
hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity to define the required
image. In one form of the process, the plate is then 4.2 Flexography
treated with an aqueous solution prior to inking with
a solvent-based formulation. In another form, the
Flexography is a relief printing process. A mirrored
non-image areas are treated with a silicone-based
master of the required image is created in relief on a
product before inking (this is referred to as waterless
flexible polymeric printing plate. Flexography uses
lithography). When the ink is transferred to the
liquid inks - which can be solvent-based, water-based or
substrate for printing via a roller (or train of rollers),
UV-curing formulations. It is also capable of operation
the process is called offset lithography.
on a range of substrates, including rough ones such as
corrugated cardboard.
Conventional lithography has sequential treatments
of aqueous and different coloured ink solutions (and
possibly a varnish to complete), and successful ink The type of solvent that is chosen for the ink must
formulations must be resistant to emulsification (which be compatible with the polymer used in the printing
would result in ink bleed to the non-image areas). plate. For this reason, aggressive aromatic solvents
Lithographic inks are usually of higher viscosity than are not usually acceptable, and commonly used ink
for other processes and quite commonly are in a paste formulations usually employ alcohol or ester solvents to
form. Traditional paste inks are oil-based and use ensure that a wide range of resins types can be used for
oxidative curing. Shear plays a part in the ink-transfer the process. In addition, the high solvent levels in liquid
process and the solvents in litho inks must be less inks means that their volatilisation makes a significant
volatile than in other inks to avoid drying on the rollers. contribution to the drying process and ensures that there
Typical solvents in oil-based litho inks are petroleum is less reliance on other drying mechanisms. This in turn
distillates in the boiling range 260-320 C or, more means that it is possible to use a wide range of polymer
recently, long-chain esters derived from vegetable oils, binders in the flexographic inks themselves.
by processes such as alcoholysis, for example.:
Traditionally, flexographic printing plates were
glyceryl oleate + methanol made from vulcanised rubber. The relief is created
glycerol + methyl oleate by vulcanising the rubber, under pressure, against a

31
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

suitably profiled tooling such as an etched metal mould drying by evaporation, and gravure can achieve very
(e.g., photoengraved magnesium). Solvent resistance fast printing speeds. However, the high cost of plate
is a particular issue with natural rubber, the non-polar manufacture means that gravure is usually restricted
synthetic rubbers, and silicone rubber. It is not possible to long print runs.
to use inks based on aromatic hydrocarbons with
these materials. Ink formulations for gravure are selected on the basis of
their flow characteristics and the substrate for printing,
Specialty rubbers (e.g., PU, acrylics, fluoroelastomers, ensuring that no compatibility issues arise with respect
and fluorosilicones) offer differing levels of solvent to the printing plate material.
resistance, and liquid moulding/curing technologies (PU
and silicone rubbers) provide the scope for moulding
against softer tooling (e.g., photo-polymerised plastic).
4.4 Inkjet
Newly available photopolymers now enable the
direct manufacture of resilient flexographic plates
without having to use moulding processes, and have The mechanics of inkjet printing (nozzle size, etc.)
given improvements in definition, for better half-tone require low viscosity formulations which are mostly
reproduction, and so on. dye rather than pigment based. Where pigments are
used, they must be exceptionally well dispersed
(i.e., particle sizes of 0.5 m or less). In order to
Innovations in the materials and technology of plate
maintain suitably low viscosities without problematic
production are helping to overcome the traditional
evaporation losses (blocking nozzles, etc.), water-
quality issues associated with compression of the relief
based inks are generally preferred.
at the point of printing, referred to as ink squash.
Flexography is emerging as the dominant process for
printing on flexible packaging, and is gaining increasing Inkjet printing is applicable to a wide range of substrates,
importance on boxes and cartons. and is widely used for printing sell by/best before
dates and bar codes.
Flexible packaging substrates (i.e., plastic films) are
more complex than other substrates in that they are often
multilayer to provide an appropriate balance of strength, 4.5 Influence of Substrate Type
clarity, permeability and materials usage.
4.5.1 Inks for Metal Packaging
Printing on flexible film is a high speed process
which requires sophisticated mechanisms for tension Metals do not provide an absorbent surface and hence
control. These capabilities, coupled with increasing the only drying mechanisms are by the evaporation of
sophisticated performance requirements mean that
solvent, and curing. Crosslinking technology figures in
lamination and printing are often in-line operations.
most inks and coatings for metal substrates. The bulk
Lamination after printing, so that the printed surface
of metal decorating inks are applied using lithography
is sandwiched between two layers, provides so-called
and rely on paste type inks.
reverse printing and dispenses with the need for an
overprint varnish.
For beverage containers, made of aluminium, much
ink technology is based on polyester resins, cured with
amino resins, with a water-based overprint varnish,
4.3 Gravure based on polyester or polyester/acrylic technology. On
mainland Europe, the strong steel industry leads to a
Gravure is a relief printing process where the image higher proportion of beverage containers from tinplate.
areas are recessed on the printing plate, in contrast to Inks and coatings for tinplate differ from those for
flexography, where the image area stands proud. The aluminium not the least because of a need to provide
plate is made from metal, usually made by chemically- higher lubricity and abrasion resistance for the harder
etching copper plated steel. The etched-copper surface metal. Lubricants based on PTFE may be used in inks
is then chromium plated for improved hardness and for either tinplate, or aluminium, where useful slip
service life. Gravure provides for high definition properties are required. Lubricity is important for coated
printing and requires low viscosity inks for penetration aluminium containers if a shaping operation (e.g., for
of the smallest recesses in the plate. The use of low roll-on screw tops or Monobloc aerosols see next) is
molecular weight, i.e., volatile, solvents allows for rapid applied after decoration.

32
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

For food cans, tinplate predominates mostly using three- UV curable inks are now applied to base coated tinplate,
piece welded construction. A large proportion of three- which is subsequently formed into welded aerosols,
piece welded bodies are left uncoated on the exterior as milk cans, confectionery tins, and other components.
paper labels are used for decoration. A small number of
drawn steel pie cans are produced in the UK, which Also used for food are the so-called general line
will receive an external combination of white basecoat, cans. These are steel cans of various shapes and
inks and varnishes. Direct metal decoration is also
sizes used for a variety of products, more typically in
more common for food cans from mainland Europe.
non-food (e.g., for paint), but these types of cans are
Conventional inks based on polyester technology are
used for the bulk packaging of foodstuffs, or where
generally used.
additional presentation is required. Examples include:
Metal caps and closures are encountered on jars and decorated confectionary or biscuit boxes, decorated
bottles and may be steel or aluminium, with aluminium boxes or cylinders for premium bottles of spirits and
universal in the ROPP screw top. The latter require very baby food powders. For these products, there has
flexible basecoats to withstand the extreme forming been a considerable move away from thermally cured
process. coatings to using UV inks and varnishes, mainly due
to VOC (volatile organic hydrocarbon) regulations
Similar flexibility is required for the decoration of and economics. The coloured basecoats, however, are
aluminium aerosol containers which are used for solvent based and produced from a range of resins but
cream in the UK and other foodstuffs (e.g., ketchup) mainly polyesters.
elsewhere. Aluminium aerosols are commonly made by
the Monobloc route where a single aluminium slug is Polymer binders for inks that are used on metal
drawn to provide the (one-piece) base and sides of the substrates are summarised in Table 12.
aerosol can which is usually decorated before shaping
the top (necking) and profiling for the valve seat.
4.5.2 Inks for Paper and Board
For printing of Monobloc beverage cans, the aluminium
profile is supported on a mandrel, and automated fail-
safe procedures are put in place to prevent the accidental Drying by absorption (i.e., penetration of the substrate)
contamination of the inside of the can which would occur can play a part in the drying processes that occur when
if an empty mandrel was presented to the lithographic inks are used on paper and board. This allows for the
plate (i.e., to transfer print to the inside of the next can use of more mobile (i.e., less viscous) ink formulations
which arrives on the mandrel). Such accidental transfer than with metal substrates. This can compensate
is called set off, and additional mechanisms for this somewhat for the limited scope for heat-activated
are discussed later in this section. curing, although many papers and boards have coated
surfaces, which necessarily allow for rapid uptake. Set
Within the UK, a large number of aerosols (e.g., off may be an issue unless a speedy chemical cure can
for cream) are still produced by three piece welded be incorporated.
construction with tinplate. As with other tinplate
decoration, conventional solvent-based polyesters are As with flat sheet metal decorating, UV curing is used in
widely used in the inks and coatings. the majority of the cases for food packaging involving
paper and board. UV technology is generally based
For caps and closures, conventional inks are used on free radical curing resins, e.g., polyester or epoxy
although there is a growing interest in the use of UV
acrylates. UV curable varnishes are also widely used
curable technology. The same trend applies in general
on food cartons and labels.
line and aerosol printing where thermal drying based
on alkyd technology is being replaced by UV curable
technology. Conventional inks are based on alkyd technology
modified with hydrocarbon resins. Minor modifications
UV technology for FSMD inks use a combination are made with lubricants based on PTFE and polyethylene
of polyester and epoxy-acrylate technologies photo- waxes.
crosslinked using free radical initiators. Cationic UV
technology for inks is not used because of retardation Polymer binders for inks used with paper and board
of cure due to pigment interactions. products are summarised in Table 13.

33
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

4.5.3 Inks for Flexible Plastic Packaging are tightly rolled or, in the case of printed paper or board,
possible diffusion through the substrate. Although of
The substrates for plastic packaging include various greater barrier performance than paper or board, plastic
laminated films, whether all-polymer, or laminates films may not be completely impermeable.
which also include foil, paper or metalised layers.
Thermal or adhesive lamination may be used. PU Transfer in stacked or rolled sheet is more likely with
is often the resin of choice for both solvent-based poorly adhering decoration or if the cure is incomplete.
and solvent-free adhesives. The PU backbone may Such deficiencies point to batch or process problems
use polyester or polyether chemistry depending on which can impact on all the material processed at the
the quality needed. Water-based adhesives tend to time. On this basis, such set off is unlikely to be missed
use a combination of dispersible acrylic and epoxy by QC checks and procedures. The quick and effective
technology crosslinked with amine resins. detection of set off is usually a stringent requirement
of the manufacturers customers.
This fast growing packaging market creates for high
quality images by reverse printing the exterior clear A non-destructive test method has been developed by
plastic film layers of flexible packaging constructions. the workers at the Central Services Laboratory, DEFRA,
to measure the invisible set off of inks and lacquer on
Inks are normally applied using flexographic or gravure the food contact surface of food packaging (143).
high speed printers. The most widely used resins for
these inks are based on a combination of nitro-cellulose
and PU resins dissolved in fast-drying solvents such as
ethyl acetate or isopropanol. Nitrocellulose resins are
used to provide excellent dispersion of the pigments in
5 Regulations Covering the Use of
inks. Thermoplastics PU and other resins are used to Inks and Coatings with Food
plasticise and improve the adhesion characteristics of
the formulated inks. There are a number of regulatory documents that can
be used to demonstrate the safety of coatings and inks
Some limited usage applies to other resins such as intended for food use. A recent review of the regulations
polyamides and polyvinyl butyrals (PVB). Polyamides, for food packaging that exist in both the Europe and the
although providing superior gloss and adhesion USA has been published by Rapra (179). In addition,
properties, are not as effective in heat sealing conditions a recent overview of the legislation and testing of food
and suffer through bad odour. PVB are generally used contact materials, as it applies to additives, was given
by confectioners as they have low odour characteristics by Sidwell at the 2006 Addcon Conference in Cologne
but only offer below average print flow and heat seal (39). Each of the principal regulatory documents that
characteristics. are relevant to coatings and inks are briefly described
in the relevant sections next.
The use of nitrocellulose resins is a safety concern and
ink suppliers are trying to replace these by introducing
new film forming technology based on high molecular 5.1 Regulation in the European Union
weight PU resins. This approach is seen to be promising
for the future as it offers lower migratory technology. There are no specific harmonised regulations in the EU
that cover the use of either coatings or inks with food.
Polymer binders that are used for inks in flexible plastic However, the Framework Regulation 1935/2004 applies
packaging applications are summarised in Table 14. to all materials intended for food contact and so it must
be complied with by all manufacturers of printing inks
and coatings. This document states that food contact
4.5.4 Set Off materials and articles:

The term set off applies to the unintentional transfer of a) Shall be manufactured in compliance with good
inks and coatings substances from the decorated outer manufacturing practice
surface of packaging to the inner, food contact surface.
The accidental printing of an empty mandrel is one such b) Shall not transfer their constituents to foodstuffs
mechanism of set off. Other mechanisms include the in quantities which could endanger human health,
transfer of material when printed sheets are stacked, or and

34
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

c) Shall not bring about an unacceptable change in that are comprised of multi-material layers on the
the composition of the foodstuff or a deterioration condition that the food contact surface is a plastic. The
in its organoleptic characteristics. definition of these products is such that the print and
the print substances could be regarded as a layer. This
In an annex to the regulation, printing inks are listed document also specifies that printing ink, when used
among the substances that may be covered by specific to manufacture articles for food contact, should be
measures, although at the time of writing these measures included in the determination of overall migration.
will be far in the future as it is thought that no work on
printing inks is in progress in the EU. It is also worth mentioning in this section, the
Synoptic Documents that are issued by the EU. These
In addition to the Framework Regulation, manufacturers summarise the status of the substances listed and give
must also comply with specific substance documents the current evaluations by the Scientific Committee
such as: for Food (SCF). The Synoptic Document that is of
relevance here is entitled Draft of provisional list of
i) BADGE/BFDGE/NOGE Regulation 1895/2005/ monomers and additives used in the manufacture of
EC* plastics and coatings intended to come into contact
with foodstuffs. Although it has been in existence
for a number of years, this working document is a
ii) Vinyl Chloride Monomer Directive 78/142/EEC
provisional and incomplete list of all the monomers
and additives that are used for food contact plastics
*where: BFDGE = bis(hydroxyphenyl)methane
and coatings (excluding silicones) within the member
bis(2,3-epoxypropyl)ethers states of the EU. It is a working document and is
not legally binding, and updated lists are issued as
NOGE = novolal glycidyl ethers different substances are evaluated by the SCF. These
substances are submitted by industry, often through
Regulation 1895/2005/EC, covering food contact trade organisations, and are then examined by the SCF
materials, articles, surface coatings and adhesives, from a toxicological viewpoint and classified into one
took into account new toxicological data and placed of ten lists numbered 0 to 9. There is also a List W
restrictions on the use of these epoxy derivatives. (Waiting List) for substances that are not yet included
For example, the use of BFDGE and NOGE were in the positive lists of the member states. Although
prohibited as from 1st January 2005 and 1st March these substances appear in the Synoptic Document
2003, respectively, with the exception of heavy duty they cannot be included in the EU list as they lack the
coatings in tanks having a capacity greater than 10,000 data required by the SCF.
litres. For BADGE, and its hydrolysis products, a
migration limit of 9 mg/kg of food was set, and for
BADGE chlorohydrins the limit is 1 mg/kg of food.
5.2 Council of Europe (CoE) Regulations
This legislation is of historical interest with the EU as
it was the first to set out any rules that are specific to
food contact coatings. 5.2.1 Coatings

One EU document that does refer specifically to coatings There is a CoE Resolution on coatings intended to
and inks is the Regenerated Cellulose Film Directive come into contact with foodstuffs Resolution ResAP
Directive 93/10/EEC (as amended by Directives (2004). This document covers the following types of
93/111/EEC and 2004/14/EC). The positive list in food contact coating:
this regulation does not include dyes, pigments and
adhesives, and substances used for these purposes are a) Coatings for metal packaging
not allowed to migrate into food in detectable amounts.
If a plastic coating is to be applied to the film, only b) Flexible packaging coatings
substances in the lists of authorised substances in the c) Heavy duty coatings
Plastics Directive 2002/72/EC (as amended) can be used
and the whole film has to comply with the overall and A coating being defined by the Resolution as the
specific migration limits laid down in this Directive. finished material prepared mainly from organic
materials applied to form a layer/film on a substrate in
There is in existence a draft version of a Super- such a way as to create a protective layer and/or impart
regulation for plastics which includes products technical performance.

35
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

In addition to the Framework document, this Resolution area of the product or material, or 60 mg/kg of food.
has two Technical documents associated with it: There are restrictions on the types of monomer that can
be used to produce the silicone polymers and there is
1. Technical document No.1. Contains an inventory of an inventory list : Technical document No.1 List of
substances to be used in the manufacture of coatings substances used in the manufacture of silicone used for
intended to come into contact with foodstuffs. food contact applications.
This list has been compiled with the help of The
European Council of Paint, Printing Inks and Where rubber type protective coatings are used, there is
Artists Colours Industry (CEPE). no specific EU legislation, but there is a CoE Resolution,
APRes (2004). The Resolution contains an inventory of
2. Technical document No. 2. This document contains additives (Technical document No. 1) and a small section
the scientific background for the elaboration of the on breakdown products nitrosamines and amines. In
Resolution addition, there are four other technical documents,
covering such things as good manufacturing practice,
The Inventory is divided into two categories, monomers and test conditions and methods. The Resolution also
and additives, all of which have some national member places rubber products into one of three categories
state or FDA authorisation. Both of these sub-lists are according to their application and the migration that
divided into those which are already fully evaluated and may occur. Migration testing is required for only the
included in SCF/ European Food Safety Asscoiation first two of these, where an overall migration limit of
(EFSA) lists, and those that have not yet been fully 60 mg/kg food applies.
evaluated by SCF/EFSA (called the Temporary
Appendix). The Temporary Appendices to the monomer
and additive lists are time limited with a deadline for 5.2.2 Inks
evaluation of five years from the date that the Resolution
is adopted. Although this Resolution, in common
The CoE has recently issued a Resolution on Packaging
with other CoE Resolutions, has no legal status, it is
inks applied to the non-food contact surface of
regarded as being useful in demonstrating compliance
materials and articles intended to come into contact
until such time as the EU has fully incorporated surface
with foodstuffs Resolution AP(2005)2. As the title
coatings into its legislative framework. In addition to
being manufactured according to good manufacturing suggests, inks that come into direct contact with food
practice (GMP) using the monomers and additives are not covered by this Resolution. Also excluded are
listed in the Inventory, the Resolution states that the inks used on the outside of glass bottles and metal
Resolution on polymerisation aids AP (92)2 should cans (as the substrate material is regarded as being a
also be adhered to. The Resolution also stipulates an comprehensive barrier). Its main purpose is to regulate
overall migration limit of 10 mg/dm2, or 60 mg/kg of the inks used on the outside of plastic, and paper and
food for certain specified situations, as measured by EU board type food packaging. One of the problems that
methods (see Section 6.1). were encountered in the drafting of the resolution was
the understandable reluctance of industry to release
The Resolution also states that coatings should not detailed information on the formulation of ink products.
transfer migrating components, not listed in Technical The Resolution states that the ink supplier is responsible
document No. 1, which have a molecular weight of less for the composition of the ink. There are three technical
than 1000 daltons in quantities which could endanger documents that accompany the Resolution:
human health. If such migrants are detected, they should
be subjected to appropriate risk assessment taking into 1) Technical document No. 1: Contains an inventory
account dietary exposure as well as toxicological and of substances being used in the industry, an exclusion
structure-activity considerations (see Section 6.6). list, and specific migration limits where possible.

For those coatings that are based on silicone type 2) Technical document No. 2: This is a GMP Guide,
polymers, there is a specific CoE Resolution, APRes in two parts. The first part addresses inks and
(2004). Both silicone rubbers and silicone resins are has been drawn up by CEPE, the second, which
covered by this Resolution. Blends of silicone rubber addresses the plastic and paper and board substrates
with organic polymers (EPDM rubber) are also covered has been prepared by the European Forum of
by the Resolution provided that the silicone monomer Flexible Packaging Industry and the International
units are the predominant species by weight. There is Confederation of Paper and Board Converters
an overall migration limit of 10 mg/dm2 of the surface (CITPA).

36
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

3) Technical document No. 3: This document These industry concerns have led to groups such, as
provides guidance on the conditions that should the British Coatings Federation (BCF) in the UK, to
be used for the testing of packaging inks applied to compile their own, alternative Inventory lists. A draft
the non-food contact surface of food packaging. version of the BCF list (as it stood in June 2006) is
included as an Appendix in the final report for the
The main CoE Ink Resolution requirements can be FSA Coatings and Inks project (a.8). There are also
summarised as follows: other industry driven documents such as the EuPIA
Guideline, Declaration of Conformity and Good
i) The packaging inks should be manufactured and Manufacturing Practice. These documents, which are
applied on the support in accordance with the available from the EuPIA web site (www.eupia.org)
guidelines for good manufacturing practice and were issued to states within Europe during 2005 and
with the recommendations of the converters as 2006. There is also a EuPIA funded investigation into
ink additives that have not been evaluated and listed,
set out in Technical Document No. 2
and a commitment to reduce the migration limit of no
concern for these non-evaluated substances to 50 ppb
ii) The printed or overprint varnished layer of finished
by 2010, with a further reduction to 10 ppb by 2015,
printed materials or articles should not come into
which will bring inks in line with other food contact
direct contact with food. materials (a.7).

iii) There should be no or only negligible visible set-


off or migration from the printed or varnished non-
food contact layer to the food contact surface. 5.3 National Regulations within the EU

iv) The overall migration and specific migration The regulations that exist within certain states in
level (SML) for the substances in the inventory the EU can be used to demonstrate compliance with
lists apply. the Framework Regulation. For coatings, the most
comprehensive of these is the Dutch Verpakkingen-en
Gebruiksartikelenbesluit (Hoofdstuk X). This contains
v) Migrated printing inks shall not be detectable at the
a positive list of permitted starting substances and
lowest concentration at which a substance can be
is widely used within the EU. In those cases where
measured with statistical certainty by a validated
thermoplastic polymers are used as the coating (e.g.,
method of analysis, i.e., a detection limit of 10
on a metal substrate), the plastic food contact materials
ppb or below.
and articles Directive 2002/72/EC can often be used to
demonstrate food safety. However, food use coatings
This Resolution has attracted some controversy, with are far more likely to be of the thermosetting type (see
industry groups in the EU (e.g., The European Printing Section 2.1), which are more complex and not fully
Ink Association (EuPIA) a sector of CEPE) saying covered by 2002/72/EC. In these cases, reference to the
that there will be problems with its implementation, CoE Resolution on Surface Coatings (see Section 5.2),
and in some cases that it is unworkable in its present or the published opinions of the Scientific Committee
form. (a.7). There are a number of reasons cited for on Food/European Food Safety Authority (SCF/EFSA)
this, for example: can be used to demonstrate compliance.

a) The Inventory is incomplete, with only In Germany, Recommendation XV of the BfR


representative examples of generic groups regulations covers silicone rubbers and silicone
present, and many key raw materials are missing resins both of which can be used as coatings. The
altogether, e.g., there are no adhesion promoters relevant sections stipulate acceptable starting materials
(used with flexible packaging inks on polyolefin and additives that may be used in processing and
films), no phenolic resins (used in most sheetfed manufacture both types and maximum levels. There
offset litho inks), and no photoinitiators (used in are overall limits for volatile organic material as well
UV-cured inks). as total extractable material, and specific limits for
certain starting substances, e.g., residual peroxides in
b) The majority of the substances have not been the case of silicone rubbers.
evaluated and so migration studies have to be
carried out using a demanding and, in some cases In the case of rubber coatings, there are a number of
unfeasible, 10 ppb detection limit. The end result national regulations that can apply. The most prominent
could be that some inks become unavailable. of these include (32):

37
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

a) French requirements - Arrete of November 9th 1994, The current regulations in the US for both coatings
Journal Official de la Republique Francaise, 1994. and adhesives have been reviewed by Baughan (196).
At the same PLACE conference, Lin and co-workers
b) D u t c h r e g u l a t i o n s - Ve r p a k k i n g e n e n (197) presented a paper describing developments and
gebruiksartikelenbesluit (Chapter III). These are improvements that had been made to the migration tests
similar to the CoE Rubber Resolution. that are necessary to establish if electron beam (EB)
and UV cured coatings and adhesives complied with
c) Italian requirements - Supplemento ordinario alla the FDA regulations. The contribution of relatively new
Gazetta Ufficiale della Repubblica Italiana, 1973. analytical techniques, such as liquid chromatography
(LC) mass spectrometry (MS)/MS, to this type of work
d) United Kingdom requirements - Statutory Instrument is featured.
1987 No 1523 Materials and Articles in Contact
with Foodstuffs. Inks are very rarely used in direct contact with food
because there are virtually no ink formulations that
The French and Italian regulations cited previously comply with the FDA. For example, there a very few
are the general food contact documents and so other carbon black pigments which are acceptable to the FDA
coatings materials, in addition to rubber, are also and, to achieve coloured inks, only food colorants are
covered by them. Food contact materials in Belgium permissible. This latter requirement severely limits
are regulated under the Royal Arrete of May 1992 the methods that can be used for the application of the
on Materials Intended for Contact with Foodstuffs. A ink. In addition, manufacturers of food contact inks
total of seven EU Member States (Belgium, France, have to ensure that no carry over was possible from
Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain the UK,) have equipment that had been used in the manufacture of
some form of National positive list of permissible non-contact products (e.g., for external decoration on
substances for use in manufacturing food contact cans and metal tins etc), which are not required to be
materials in addition to the EU Directives. A listing of FDA compliant.
national food packaging legislation is available from
the European Commission and additional information
is available in book written by Ashby, Cooper, Harvey 5.5 Other Considerations for Industrial Use
and Tice (212).
In addition to the Regulations described in Sections
With respect to inks, there a very few National 5.1 to 5.4, there are other reference documents that
regulations within Europe. An exception is Chapter industrialists need to be aware of:
XXXVI of the German Recommendation BfR, which has
a general statement on colorants and optical brighteners a) REACH EU Regulation
in the food contact material. This states that they should
not migrate into foodstuff and that no testing is required This Regulation covers the Registration, Evaluation
for packages intended for dry, non-fatty food. and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH) of
chemicals and might have an impact on the
substances used in coatings and inks in the future.
5.4 FDA Regulations The cost of compliance may mean that some small
volume chemicals disappear from the market place,
The food regulations for polymer and resinous coatings although implementation may take over 10 years
are given in the FDA Code of Federal Regulations for some substances. Importantly, as polymers
(CFR) 21.These documents, which are used globally for are exempt from the Regulation those used in the
the formulation of a large number of coating products, manufacture of coatings and inks will not need to
list authorised starting substances and lay down test be registered.
conditions and migration limits. Coatings for specific
substrates can be found in the following sections of b) CEPE Exclusion list for Printing Inks
CFR 21:
In addition to its GMP guides, CEPE has published
Metal substrates and repeated use 175.300 an exclusion list for printing inks. The substances
on this list are present in the Dangerous Substances
Polyolefin films 175.320
Directive (67/548/EEC), and pigments colorants
Paper coatings 176.170 based on antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium

38
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

(VI), lead, mercury and selenium. Some solvents ii) Coated metal pails and drums with volumes
are also on the list, as are cyclohexane, and some ranging from 10 to 250 litres.
stilbenes, butylphenols and benzophenones
compounds. This CEPE list is not identical to the iii) Coated articles with volumes 250 to 10,000 litres.
CoE exclusion list.
iv) Heavy duty coated articles having a volume
c) British Coating Federation Documents >10,000 litres.

The BCF has issued a guide to printing inks for food v) Coated flexible aluminium packaging.
wrappers and packagings. At the time of writing
it is also working on an inventory designed to be Sectors which will be incorporated at a later date when
an alternative to that contained within the CoE more details are available are:
Resolution on Inks Technical document No. 1
(Section 5.2). The reason that the BCF believes that i) Printing inks in direct food contact.
an alternative list is necessary, is that whereas the
CoE Inventory list mainly originated from national ii) Coated primarily used to seal food packaging.
legislation their list relates to those substances
iii) Gaskets for metal closures.
currently used in Industry. To help understand the
regulatory status of the BCF listed substances, the iv) Coated flexible plastic packaging.
two lists have been compared in the final report of
the Rapra FSA project (A03055) (a.8) and those v) Coatings and inks for paper and board.
substances not in the COE Inventory list have been
highlighted. This exercise showed that a relatively The Code of Practice does not apply to:
large number of substances in the BCF list are not
included in the CoE list. i) Repeated use, non-stick coatings, which remain
regulated by the specific chapters of BfR, VGB,
d) Good Manufacturing Practice and FDA applicable to them.

The coatings and ink industries have their GMP ii) Extrusion coated materials or articles where the
guidelines to ensure that their products are extrusion coating being a plastic, should comply
manufactured to the highest standards. with the provisions of Directive 2002/72/EC, as
amended.
e) CEPE Code of Practice for Coated Articles where
the food contact layer is a coating iii) Laminated packaging articles or components where
the food contact layer, being a plastic, should comply
This extensive and wide ranging, industry driven, code of with the provisions of 2002/72/EC, as amended.
practice will be taken by the Commission as a base for a
specific regulation on coatings. Work on this document is iv) Printing inks and coatings applied to the non-
on-going at the time of writing - Draft 10 was published food contact surface of food packaging materials
on 30th June 2006. This code and its guidelines, which and articles intended to come into contact with
has similarities to the Plastics Super Regulation and the foodstuffs.
4th amendment to the Plastics Directive 2002/72/EC
(see Section 5.1), and which describes how compliance v) Coatings on paper and board which remain
with the Framework Regulation 1935/2004/EC can regulated by specific chapters of BfR, VGB and
be demonstrated for direct food contact coatings, are FDA applicable to them.
voluntary in nature and individual companies may decide
to apply them either fully or partly, according to their own vi) Coatings on regenerated cellulose which are
judgement. A list of the companies supporting the code covered under Commission Directive 93/10/EEC
can be obtained from CEPE. and its amendments.

The Code of Practice applies to the food contact surfaces vii) Can end sealants based upon rubbers and elastomers
of the following: which remain covered by rules applicable under
national legislation.
i) Coated light metal packaging up to a volume of
10 litres. viii) Tin coatings, wax coatings and adhesives

39
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

6 Assessing the Safety of Inks and to achieve, the comprehensive analysis of coating
migrants down to concentrations that are presently
Coatings for Food Applications regarded as safe with the analytical instrumentation
currently available.
As this review illustrates, many different types
of polymers and types of polymer product (e.g.,
thermoplastic, thermoset and rubber) can potentially
be used for coatings in food applications (see Sections 6.1 Global Migration Tests
2.1.1 to 2.1.11).This in turn means that a large number
of different regulations and requirements may have to be This is the usually the simplest test to perform and
addressed, in order to decide upon the correct conditions it is used to determine if the product is suitable for a
(e.g., choice of simulant, test samples, times and particular food use application by passing the global
temperatures) under which to carry out food migration migration limit that is stipulated by all of the various
testing. This point is illustrated by the summary of regulations covered in Section 5.
regulations which is provided in Section 5.
The methodology of the test varies depending on the
For direct food contact coatings, the CEPE Code of regulation that is being addressed, as does the way of
Practice (see Section 5.5) provides a great deal of useful expressing the data and the limits that have to be met.
information on how compliance with the Framework Specific details can be obtained from the various pieces
Regulation 1935/2004/EC can be demonstrated. An of legislation.
overall migration limit of 60 mg/kg is provided, and
SML for particular substances are provided in the For example, in the EU, the global migration tests
Annexes. In addition, guidance on the food simulants that apply to coatings and inks, and other food contact
for the migration testing is provided, as are guidelines materials, are described in the following documents:
on assessing exposure to migrating substances and basic
rules for demonstrating compliance with the overall i) Council Directive 82/711/EEC of 18th October
migration limit (OML) and the SML. 1982, as amended by Commission Directive 93/8/
EEC of 15th March 1993
Inks for food use, on the other hand, do not present
such a complicated problem as they represent a specific ii) Commission Directive 97/48/EC of 29th
product category in themselves, are mainly used on July 1997
the non-food contact service of food packaging, and
the binders in them do not span such a wide range of
iii) Council Directive 85/572/EEC of 19th
polymers types and chemistries.
December 1985

There is an on-going effort to ensure that migration


The food simulants that are specified in these
data is as accurate as possible. For example, the EU
Directives are:
recently funded a research project (EU AIR 94-1025)
to facilitate the introduction of migration control into
a) Aqueous foods - Distilled water
GMP and into enforcement policies and a part of this
project involved the re-evaluation of the analytical b) Acidic foods 3% acetic acid
approaches to extract and identify potential migrants
c) Alcoholic food 10% ethanol
from food contact materials. The results of this part
of the project are published in the journal, Packaging d) Fatty food olive oil
Technology and Science (191) and the journal Food
Additives and Contaminants (206) Migration testing using these simulants should be
performed under the worst foreseeable contact times and
There is also a continuing need to detect migrating temperatures that can be envisaged for the application.
substances at lower levels. For example, toxicologists For example, long-term storage at room temperature
have suggested that species which are ingested in is represented by testing for ten days at 40 C. The
amounts exceeding 1.5 mg/day should be identified 82/711/EEC document provides a correlation table
and toxicologically evaluated. Identification and for migration test conditions. The analytical methods
quantification of species at such a low level will cause for testing overall, and specific migration, have been
problems and these are discussed in a paper by Grob standardised at the European level by CEN (the
(208). The conclusion reached is that it will be difficult European standardisation body).

40
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

6.2 Specific Migration Tests problem with inks when only small amounts of material
are used, for example., in printing. The considerations
These tests are used to target specific chemical detailed previously will mean that the samples are in the
compounds for which there is a toxicological concern solid phase, and so the headspace GC-MS techniques
and a SML, i.e., listed substances. In common with the are the most applicable, with the dynamic version
global migration test, the tests specified (target species having the advantage over the static in that it requires
and test conditions) vary from regulation to regulation, less sample. The solvent extraction GC-MS technique
but some species appear regularly due to the degree of may be applicable where larger areas of coating and
concern associated with them. print are available for analysis. This method has the
disadvantage, however, of the initial solvent front
There are a number of cases where there are specific obscuring early eluting (i.e., low molecular weight)
analytical test methods documented, particularly in species. The relatively recent commercialisation of
cases where there are resolutions or regulations on a two dimensional GC-MS instruments has provided
particular migrant. For example: the analyst with greater resolving power, coupled with
improved detection limits and enhanced deconvolution
i) Free vinyl chloride monomer Analytical methods software (142).
described in Commission Directives 80/766/EEC
and 81/432/EEC As in-house, coatings and inks specific databases are
developed for LC-MS, the inclusion of this technique
ii) Determination of 4-methyl-1-pentene in food into the fingerprinting process will complement GC-MS
simulants CEN/TS 13130-25:2005 (a.9) data by contributing information on thermally labile,
relatively large (e.g., oligomers), and highly polar (e.g.,
iii) Determination of bisphenol A in food simulants organic salts) potential migrants.
CEN/TS 13130-13:2005 (a.10)
Albert and co-workers (197) have reviewed, and
iv) Determination of 1-octene and tetrahydrofuran in compared, the use of modern liquid chromatography
food simulants CEN/TS 13130-26:2005 (a.11) methods, such as LC-MS and LC-MS/MS, with
the GC-MS technique for the analysis of potential
The test methods that should be used for specific migrants from FDA compliant, EB and UV curable
migrants from coatings that can be regarded as plastics food packaging coatings and adhesives. In addition to
are described in EN 13130-1 (a.12) comparing the analytical capability of these systems,
the effect that various processing variables (e.g., curing
There are also cases where a particular species has voltage and dosage) had on the extractable data were
attracted a lot of analytical attention in recent years. also evaluated.
A good example of this is BADGE from can coatings
and a number of approaches for its determination have
been documented (200). 6.4 Determination of Specific Target Species
in Coatings and Ink Products and in Food
Simulants and Foods
6.3 Fingerprinting of Potential Migrants from
Coatings and Inks The use of specified tests to determine species that
have SML has been covered in Section 6.2. There are
It is often useful to produce a qualitative or semi- reasons why further analytical testing is often required,
quantitative fingerprint of the low molecular weight for example to ensure that a coating or ink has been
species in coatings and ink products that have the formulated using only additives and ingredients that
potential to migrate into food. Gas chromatography- are present in a particular positive list, or to quantify a
mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) is often used for this potential migrant for which there is as yet no specific
due to its high resolution and the identification power migration test or SML. A review of the analytical
of the mass spectrometer. In order for the data to be methods that can be used to identify and quantify a range
representative, it is important that the coating and ink of species that can be found in food contact materials
product is in the form in which it is used in the final end has been written by Veraart and Coulier (29).
use product. As both of these materials usually have to
undergo a curing or drying stage, this should be carried For convenience, species have been placed into
out prior to any analysis step, or samples taken from functional categories next and the analytical techniques
the final product in situ. The latter option can present a used to detect and quantify them explained.

41
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

6.4.1 Monomers, Solvents and Low Molecular 6.4.3 Plasticisers and Oil-type Additives
Weight Additives and Breakdown Products
These additives are essentially high boiling point liquids
Monomers are either gaseous or relatively volatile and so the most appropriate technique to use is LC-MS.
liquids and so GC and GC-MS based techniques A range of synthetic plasticisers such as phthalates,
are usually used to determine them in both the final adipates, mellitates and sebacates can be detected using
coating and ink product and the food simulant/food the atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mode. If
product. To simplify the analysis, a static headspace, data on non-polar hydrocarbon oils is required, then
an atmospheric pressure photoionisation head (which
or dynamic headspace, sampler is often used to
can detect non-polar species is required) or, if the oil
isolate the analyte from the sample matrix (a.13), an
has a sufficiently high aromatic character, in-line UV
extraction procedure often presenting problems due to
or fluorescence detectors can be used.
the masking effect of the solvent. There are important
examples, however, where analysis, sometimes
following chemical derivatisation work is used. This
approach was used by Paz-Abuin and co-workers (210) 6.4.4 Polar Additives and Metal Containing
to carry out specific migration work on two epoxy Compounds
resin coatings for use with drinking water. The amine
curing agents were determined by high performance For additives that are highly polar (salts or ionic
liquid chromatography (HPLC) with pre-column compounds), for example, antistats, thickening agents
derivatisation, whereas the epoxy resin monomer was and surfactants, there are two analytical techniques
which can be of use to the analyst: an LC-MS fitted
quantified using HPLC without any derivatisation.
with an electrospray head, and anion and cation ion-
A reverse phase HPLC system with fluorescence
chromatography. Both of these have the potential
detection was used in both cases.
drawback that they are much easier to use on aqueous
samples, rather than fatty ones- an intermediate
In addition to antidegradants and curatives (which are extraction step often being required in the latter case.
mentioned next), other additives (e.g., pigments) can
also produce breakdown products which are regarded In certain cases, compounds which have a metal
as harmful. For example, Michlers ketone, can be component (e.g., platinum catalysts used in certain
a degradation product of certain violet dyes used in silicone products) are present in the coating or ink
printing. This compound is regarded as a potential product. In order to determine these types of migrants
carcinogen and so methods to assess its migratory at a low (i.e., ppm) level, techniques such as atomic
behaviour into food simulants have been developed absorption spectrophotometry and Integrated coupled
(a.14) plasma have to be used. One complicating factor which
needs to be borne in mind with this type of analysis
The use of GC-MS to determine the levels of photo- is that a value for the target metal will be obtained
initiators and acrylic esters which have the potential irrespective of which compound/additive it is in;
to migrate from inks into food simulants has been interferences can therefore occur and knowledge of the
described by Papilloud and Baudraz (207). The study products composition and/or the service history of the
covered the migratory behaviour of nine different sample are important.
acrylate monomers and six different photoinitiators in
a range of aqueous and fatty food simulants.
6.4.5 Cure System Species, Initiators, Catalysts
and Their Reaction Products
6.4.2 Oligomers
These species are usually low, or relatively low
molecular weight organic compounds of intermediate
Prior to the commercialisation of LC-MS instruments, polarity and as such as ideally suited for determination
supercritical fluid chromatography was widely used by GC-MS. Problems can occur if the species are very
for the analysis of oligomers. As the molecular weight thermally labile and/or reactive, and in these cases (as in
range of LC-MS instruments can be extended up to the cases of metal salts see previously) LC-MS is the
4000 daltons this capability makes them ideal for the preferred technique. It is also easier to use LC-MS with
detection and quantification of oligomers. For example, a number of the approved food simulants as they can be
it has been shown that silicone oligomers can be detected injected directly into the instrument, being compatible
by LC-MS in food simulants (108), and (a.1). with the mobile phase.

42
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

6.4.6 Antidegradants, Stabilisers and Their importance in a number of other manufacturing


Reaction Products sectors (e.g., automotive), a great deal of effort has
been expended in the search for a device that can
This class of additives is generally less thermally labile act an effective and reliable electronic nose. It now
and reactive than the preceding one and so GC-based seems that such an instrument, which is based on a
methods can be used for a number of them. Where high chemical sensor array, will soon be acceptable for
processing temperatures dictate the use of relatively routine analysis within the food and packaging industry.
high molecular weight, oligomeric type stabilisers, An investigation by van Deventer (a.19) on volatile
LC-MS methods have to be used. chemicals from inks on plastic films showed that the
quartz sensors of an electronic nose system were able
to discriminate between packages with different levels
of retained solvents, and Frank and co-workers (a.20)
6.5 Sensory Testing demonstrated that an instrument containing eight
sensors and eight microbalances gave a good correlation
This category covers subjective testing by a panel of with human assessment panels concerning retained
trained human assessors to identify taints and odours in solvents in printed wrapping foils.
food packaging. The number of assessors in the panel
is determined by the sensitivity that is required for the
test, i.e., the statistical reliability. Although the test is
subjective, experience has shown that a well trained 6.6 Toxicological assessment of migrants
panel will produce consistent results.
Defining the starting substances for coatings and inks
The transfer of a taint is more important from a legal can depend upon which part of the industry a person
point of view, whereas an odour has more importance comes from the ingredients industry or coatings
from a marketing point of view. manufacturing. The list that results (monomers,
additives, polymerisation aids, resins, oligomers,
additives) is therefore very extensive.
For the evaluation of the odour of printed paper, board,
plastic or any other material, test pieces are stored in
This large list, coupled with the complex chemistry
jars for a certain time. The odour present in the jar air
associated with the manufacture of the starting
is then assessed by the panellists and the intensity rated
substances and the chemical reactions that take place
on a scale such as 0 (no odour) to 4 (strong odour). To
to produce the finished products, leads to a very
evaluate taint, test pieces are stored with a test food
complex mixture of substances having the potential to
(e.g., chocolate) in a jar and then the taint of the food is
migrate into food simulants and food. A CoE working
assessed and rated by the experts. There are a number
group has shown that it is impossible to evaluate all of
of ways of performing this operation. For example, in a
these substances from the toxicological point of view
triangle test, one portion of food has been stored with
according to EU guidelines.
the material to be tested, the other two are reference
samples, and the assessors have to select the odd one
out. In a multi-comparison test, the assessors are given One way of dealing with this problem for substances
a reference food sample that is regarded as having a that are not listed (i.e., their toxicity is not known), is to
value of 0 and then they score the intensity of the taint use a tiered approach, which takes into account dietary
of an analysis sample using a scale usually of 0 (no taint exposure as well as toxicological and structure-activity
i.e., same as reference) to 4 (strong taint). considerations, the aim being to reduce the number of
toxicological evaluations that are required.
There are no specific international standards for
assessing odour and taint as a result of inks and coatings, For example:
but there is a general ISO standard, ISO 13302:2003
(a.15) that addresses the modification of the flavour of 1) Tier One
foodstuffs due to packaging materials. There is also a Substances which migrate into food or food simulant
specific standard for paper and board, EN 1230-1 (a.16) at less than 10 ppb should not be evaluated.
and two draft standards on sensory analysis in general,
ISO 4120:2004 (a.17) and ISO 5492:2005 (a.18).
2) Tier Two

Because carrying out sensory testing for odour by a Many substances used in coatings can be reduced to
human panel is time consuming, and of increasing smaller units (e.g., the oligomers and polymers to the

43
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

monomers). As this smaller unit represents the worse case commercial products (which may be mixtures), and high
scenario in terms of toxicity it is toxicologically assessed MS acquisition rates, or the use of two dimensional (i.e.,
and the result applied to the oligomers and so on. GCxGC) instruments may be necessary to resolve the
individual components (see Section 6.4).
In accordance with EU guidelines of toxicity testing,
the following applies:
7.2 Amines
i) >10 ppb up to < 50 ppb Three mutagenic tests
The aromatic amines can be of particular concern as
ii) >50 ppb up to < 5ppm Three mutagenic tests, some of these compounds are classed as carcinogens.
90 days Although the most potent carcinogens are found amongst
feeding study two-ring aromatics (benzidine, naphthylamine), even
single ring compounds such as ortho-toluidine or
iii) >5 ppm Three mutagenic tests, ortho-anisidine (2-methoxyaniline) are found on the
90 days feeding study, IARC listings. Both of these single ring aromatics have
2 years feeding study been detected in aqueous extracts of printed multi-layer
plastics, and ortho-anisidine has also been detected in
3) Tier 3 olive oil extracts (a.21). The same studies also found
2,4-dimethylaniline in both aqueous and olive oil
The decision to use Tier 2 is based on state of the art extracts. For all three amines, detection in olive oil was
knowledge and/or QSAR. If any scientific knowledge by headspace GC-MS (detection limit 20 g/kg) and,
and/or QSAR show that toxicity of a monomer is not in water, solid-phase extraction was used followed by
equal or less than the toxicity of the oligomer/polymer, GC-MS (detection limit 0.1 g/kg).
an evaluation of the oligomer/polymer has to take place
using the same toxicity guidelines as given for Tier 2.
A significant amount of research work has been
carried out on the amines which are the precursors and
Note: QSAR = Quantitative Structure-Activity hydrolysis products of the isocyanates in PU, notably
Relationship. A mathematical model that relates a the three aromatic amines, the 2,4- and 2,6- isomers
quantitative measure of chemical structure (e.g., of toluene diamine (2,4- and 2,6-diaminotoluene), and
a physicochemical property) to a property or to a 4,4-methylenebis(aniline). Potential sources are the PU
biological effect (e.g., a toxicological endpoint). QSAR used in coatings and ink binders, or in the laminating
are being used more extensively to save time, money adhesives used for multilayer packaging. All three
and in the interests of animal welfare. amines were detected in aqueous extracts of laminated
films using derivatisation followed by GC-MS (a.22).
Solid-phase derivatisation with trifluoracetic anhydride
(RNH2 RNHCOCF3) was used, and the respective
7 Potential Migrants and Published detection limits were in the range 0.1-0.4 g/l.

Migration Data Derivatisation is necessary with these types of


compound to avoid peak tailing in GC analysis. Other
7.1 Acrylates reagents which can be used for this purpose include
hexafluorobutyric anhydride, as in the OSHA 1910
The lower acrylates are known irritants, and ethyl acrylate method for airborne species, with GC electron capture
is regarded by the IARC as a Group 2B carcinogen. detection for the subsequent analysis step. Derivatisation
However, there are many acrylate monomers used in can also be performed to enhance sensitivity to UV
ink and coating formulations and these lower acrylates detection, and this forms the basis for the global analysis
may be far from representative. Of higher molecular of primary aromatic amine by diazotisation and coupling
weight, and commonly used in UV-curing inks are the with(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride
acrylate esters of polyhydric alcohols. These types of (a.23) (a.24). This method has a detection limit of
acrylates have been detected and quantified by GC-MS 8 g/kg (total aromatic amine quantified with respect to
(207). Reference materials having molecular weights up aniline), and provides a valuable screening technique.
to 470 were determined with a detection limit of 20 ng.
The quantification of these monomers in food migration A recently reported technique which provides good
samples can prove difficult owing to the complexity of sensitivity without derivatisation uses electrospray

44
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

ionisation with tandem mass spectrometry (a.25) The styrene continued to evolve as a result of on-going
technique is rapid as there is no chromatography step depolymerisation. The levels determined (at 200 C)
and the reported detection limits were 2-3 ng/ml in included: up to 37 mg/kg of ethylbenzene, up to 180 mg/
aqueous ethanol extracts. kg of benzaldehyde and up to 1330 mg/kg of styrene.

One aromatic amine which does not arise specifically The dynamic headspace GC, or GC-MS, method is
from colorants or PU is 4,4-bis(dimethylamino) unsuitable for the determination of these aromatics
benzophenone [(Me2NC6H4)2C=O, Michlers ketone]. in foodstuffs, or aqueous simulants, because of the
Michlers ketone is a photoinitiator for UV-curable interference of water. Gramshaw and Vandenberg
inks. Although its potential carcinogenicity excludes its extended their studies into foodstuffs using a workup
direct use in food contact materials, Michlers ketone procedure which included azeotropic distillation and
is a well-established initiator, and concerns have been pentane extraction to find up to 188 g/dm2 styrene in
raised over its introduction into food packaging via pork cooked in contact with an unsaturated polyester
recycled fibres (a.14). for 1.5 hours at 175 C.

7.3 Aromatics from Unsaturated Polyesters 7.4 Aromatics from Photoinitiation Reactions
and Photoinitiator additives
Amongst the species considered here are: acetophenone,
benzaldehyde, benzene, ethylbenzene and styrene. Amongst the species considered here are: benzene,
Benzene and ethylbenzene are classified by IARC benzophenone, and the thio- or iodoaromatics from
as Group 1 and Group 2A carcinogens, respectively. cationic photoinitiation, in addition to the photoinitiators
Benzaldehyde is harmful by ingestion and has a themselves.
potential to cause allergic reactions.
Benzene is a carcinogen and a potential by-product
Benzene can be found in unsaturated polyester resins of cationic photoinitiator action. Benzene has been
due to it being a relatively minor component of the detected in packaging and foodstuffs (a.26) and studies
styrene feedstock. Styrene being the most commonly have been carried out to determine benzene and other
used reactive diluent for these types of resins. aromatics in headspace volatiles and toluene extracts
of UV cured inks (a.27). No benzene was detected,
Dynamic headspace GC with flame ionisation or MS although a number of other aromatics compounds were
detection has been used for the determination of low detected, as shown below in Table 16.
molecular weight aromatics in cured unsaturated
polyesters (214). At 200 C, volatilisation of ethylbenzene With regard to the three compounds that have been
and benzaldehyde was complete after 1 hour, whilst detected at the highest levels, diphenyl disulfide (also

Table 16. Aromatic Compounds Detected from UV Cured Ink


Sample By-product Level mg/m2 Comments
Triarylsulfonium Diphenyl sulfide 8.0
Standard (Uvacure 1592) Benzene - Nd
Iodonium standard Toluene - Nd
IGM440 Iodotoluene - DNQ
Meerkat Biphenyl 4.2
Isopropylthioxanthone 15.7
Polecat Biphenyl - DNQ
Bobcat Isopropylthioxanthone 9.1 (ITX)
Nd = Not detected by the method
DNQ = Detected but not quantified

45
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

called phenyl sulfide) is a severe irritant to the respiratory milk-and soya-based products the level of ITX ranged
and digestive tract, and biphenyl is an irritant to both of from 54 to 219 ug/l, and the level of EHDAB from 27
these, but there is little information to hand on the acute to 134 ug/l. Investigations at the time are believed to
or chronic toxicity of isopropylthioxanthone (ITX). Work have revealed that the initiators found their way into
that was reported on ITX as a result of it being detected the food products as a result of being transferred to the
in infant formula (see below) concluded that the existing food contact site of the packaging by the phenomenon
in vivo genotoxicity studies do not indicate a genotoxic known as off-set (see Section 4.5). Details of EFSAs
potential for ITX. The other initiator that was involved opinions on ITX and EHDAB can be found on their
in this incident, 2 ethylhexyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate web site (www.efsa.europa.eu).
(EHDAB), is not regarded a genotoxic or a teratogen.

The extraction medium is important for aromatic


7.5 BPA and BADGE and Derivatives
compounds of this type. For UV-cured epoxy films
initiated with a mixed triarylsulfonium phosphate
BPA and, to a lesser extent, BADGE are of concern for
(Cyracure UVI-6990), much higher levels of extractables
endocrine disruption, and much effort has been devoted
were observed with 50% ethanol rather than 10% ethanol
to the investigation of the possible migration of these
or water: up to 272 ppb diphenyl sulfide was taken up in
from cured epoxies. BADGE is an important epoxy
50% ethanol (213). HPLC with UV detection was used for
monomer and BPA is its immediate precursor. Whilst
these extract analyses. A method for the detection by GC
the focus of this work has been on direct food-contact
of the photoinitiator residues in aqueous media has also
been developed (207). In this case, solid-phase extraction coatings (i.e., can coatings), epoxies have widespread
(on C18-modified siloxanes) was used, followed by application in packaging as adhesives, coatings and
methanol desorption for the work up of the extracts. binder resins for inks. Of course, the expectation is that
direct food contact provides the worst-case scenario,
where g/kg levels of BPA and mg/kg levels of BADGE
Benzophenone is a photosensitiser, which may cause
have been detected in certain foodstuffs (a.29) (a.30)
digestive tract irritation. GC-MS has been used to
and (211).
test for migration of this compound from cartonboard
packaging (193). In this study, 143 out of 350 samples
of printed cardboard used with foodstuffs surveyed Studies on the resin itself showed that BADGE
contained detectable benzophenone. In food, the highest migration levels decreased with increasing time of
level (7.3 mg/kg) was found for a high fat chocolate cure (217), whilst a further heating step reversed the
product packaged in direct contact, with 24% of the trend (209). The influence in thermal history seen here
food samples surveyed having levels between 0.5 and reflects the transition from kinetic to diffusion control
5.0 mg/kg. In those cases where there was no direct in the progress of cure (218) and (215), and impact of
contact with the food, a six-fold reduction in the amount state of cure on migration behaviour (a.31).
of benzophenone present was found.
Recently efforts have been made to improve analytical
Recently there have been reports of the photoinitiators, capability with respect to BADGE derivatives and
ITX and EHDAB, being found in products that are related compounds. The former include low molecular
packed in printed cartons, such as milk and fruit juices. weight BADGE oligomers, and the latter includes
A notification from the Italian authorities under Article BFDGE.
50 of the Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 on the Rapid
Alert System for Food and Feed showed the occurrence HPLC coupled with UV, fluorescence and electrospray
of ITX in liquid milk for babies at a level of 250 ug/l. ionisation MS have all been used for the detection
As part of the investigation that ensued, the presence of BADGE oligomers of up to 1000 daltons (173).
of EHDAB, often used as a synergist with ITX, was The technique was applied to can coatings where
also revealed in food samples. Following a request a cumulative total of up 0.7 g/dm2 of coating was
from the Commission, a survey of ITX and EHDAB determined for BADGE-related species below 1000
in a wide range of carton packed drinks, varying from daltons by acetonitrile extraction.
water and fruit juices to flavoured milk, was carried out
by industry. In this study, the full results of which are HPLC coupled with fluorescence detection has been
reported in The EFSA Journal (a.28) ITX was found used for the simultaneous determination of BADGE
to vary from 120 to 305 ug/l in milk products intended and BFDGE by two separate research groups (a.32)
to be consumed by babies and very young children. (a.33). A limit of detection in various food simulants
No data on EHDAB was reported for these samples. In approaching ppb (g/l) levels was claimed.

46
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

Excluding the oligomers from this analysis allows GC- expected to drive much of the solvent from the product.
MS to be used, and Czech researchers have recently Nevertheless, migration of solvent residues from
reported the determination of BPA, BADGE, BPF, printing inks can be a possible source of off-flavour in
BFDGE by this technique (a.34) The limits of detection food (a.38)
in acetonitrile or food-stimulant extracts of coatings were
below 1 g/dm2 for all four analytes. BPF and BFDGE Given the wide volatility range of solvents exploited
were virtually undetectable in the coatings studied. in the control of film formation, it might be expected
that some of the higher boiling solvents (e.g., glycol
ethers) might remain in the dried film product. Residual
7.6 Epichlorohydrin alkylbenzenes (C10-C13 chain length) have been found
to migrate into hamburger rolls and into a Tenax
Epichlorohydrin (1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane), is a food simulant (a.39) Printed hamburger collars had
carcinogen and a precursor to epoxy resin monomers. alkylbenzene contents in the range 70-500 mg/kg, and
A method for the detection of epichlorohydrin in epoxy migration from the collar resulted in levels of 2 mg/kg
coatings by n-pentane extraction and analysis by GC in the hamburger rolls.
with flame ionisation detection or selective-ion mass
spectroscopy has been developed (a.35) The respective
limits of detection were 0.05 g/ml for the former, and 7.9 Plasticisers
0.02 g/ml for the latter. However, no epichlorohydrin
was detected. Work by the Norwegian Food Safety Authority showed
that a plasticiser used in ink formulations, n-ethyl-
The analysis of foodstuffs for epichlorohydrin has figured o/p-toluene-sulfonamide (N-ETSA), migrated into
in one study where headspace GC-MS with selective ion packaged cheese at a level of 13 mg/kg. Although
detection was used to give a sensitivity of 0.02 mg/kg there is no specific migration limit for N-ETSA in
(a.36) No epichlorohydrin was detected in this survey. particular, European legislation prescribes a limit of
0.1 mg/kg for sulfonamides having a similar chemical
structure. The level found by the Norwegians is
7.7 Bisphenol A obviously significantly higher than this, but these types
of problems can be avoided by the use of polymeric
Although there is conflicting evidence regarding the type plasticisers/flexibilisers that have a greatly reduced
safety of BPA, it has been targeted by organisations such potential to migrate. This targeted piece of research
as Friends of the Earth (FoE) and placed within a group is complemented by a surveillance exercise of food
of chemicals that are regarded as known, or suspected packaging materials undertaken by the same authority.
endocrine disruptors, and/or are bioaccumulative. FoE When a printed laminate was tested, N-ETSA was found
have been successful in persuading a number of major to have migrated into the water and oil olive simulants.
retailers (e.g., Marks and Spencer, Boots and B&Q) to Other plasticiser and ink related species were also
sign a pledge committing them to identify products that detected and quantified (59).
contain such chemicals and phase them out by 2008
(a.37). To help the retailers, FoE provided official lists,
such as those issued by the Swedish, Danish and Dutch 7.10 Extractables from UV-Cured Coating
governments, and the companies used these to help for Cardboard
themselves draw up a list of 15-20 priority substances.
For example, one of the substances on the list were
Gaube and Ohlemacher (216) have reported on the
epoxy resin lacquers, containing BPA, which were used
parameters that affect the extractables of cationic UV-
on the food contact side of the metal lids on food jars.
cured coatings that are applied to cardboard. Specific
These were phased out during 2004 and replaced by a
migration and extraction experiments were carried out
non-epoxy resin lacquer (194).
to determine the affect of changing parameters such
as pre-treatment of the cardboard, and the formulation
of the coating, on the concentration of the cationic
7.8 Solvents photoinitiator (Bis[4-(diphenylsulfonio)-phenyl]sulfide-
bis-hexafluorophosphate) and the epoxy monomer
Where solvents are used, they are required for (3,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexane
application purposes, and efficient drying would be carboxylate).

47
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

7.11 Potential Migrants the UK FSA and, as a part of the final report, important
species that had the potential to migrate were tabulated.
A recent research project looking at the potential This information is reproduced in Table 17. A
migrants present in coatings and inks used on the non- subjective importance rating based on toxicity, potential
food contact side of food packaging was carried out at abundance, mobility and molecular weight is provided
Rapra Technology (a.8). This project was sponsored by in Table 17.

Table 17. Possible Impurities and Breakdown Products Identified by the FSA Coatings
and Inks Project
Listed in this Table are species not included in either the CoE or BCF Inventory lists. The entries here are based on
the chemistry discussed in the final FSA report (copy available from the FSA see Section 10), and reference should
be made to the appropriate section of this report for due context. This compilation is intended to illustrate some of
the possibilities and is not intended to be exhaustive. A subjective importance rating based on toxicity, potential
abundance, mobility, and molecular weight are also provided. (1 = High, 2 = Medium, 3 = Low)
Relative
CAS No Substance ADI/TDI or SML etc. Source
importance
Not established Precursor to polyacrylamide
79-06-1 Acrylamide 1
Possible carcinogen (water-soluble binder)

5-Aminobenzimidazolone, Aromatic amine Precursor/breakdown


95-23-8 (5-amino-1,3-dihydro-2H- 1
SML = Not detectable product of PY 194
benziimidazol-2-one)
Aromatic amine Possible breakdown product
873-74-5 4-Aminobenzonitrile 1
SML = Not detectable of PY 181

Aromatic amine Precursor/breakdown product


62-53-3 Aniline 1
SML = Not detectable of PR 2, PY 1 & PY 12

Possible breakdown product


of sulfonium photoinitiator.
71-43-2 Benzene Carcinogen 1
Possible impurity in
unsaturated polyester binders

Aromatic amine Possible precursor/


2,4-Bis(p-amino-
25834-80-4 breakdown product of PU 1
benzyl)aniline SML = Not detectable binders
Possible breakdown product
Bis(thiophenyl)benzene Lack of information 1
of sulfonium photoinitiator

4-Chloro-2,5- Aromatic amine Precursor/breakdown


6358-64-1 1
dimethylaniline SML = Not detectable product of PY 83

Possible precursor/breakdown
4,4-Diaminodiphenyl- Aromatic amine product of PU binders.
101-77-9 methane, (4,4 methylene- 1
dianiline) SML = Not detectable Possible curing agent in
epoxy binders
Aromatic amine Precursor to PY 12, 13, 14,
91-04-1 3,3-Dichlorobenzidine 1
SML = Not detectable 17, 55 & 83

3,3-Dimethoxybenzidine, Aromatic amine


119-90-4 Precursor to PO 16 1
(o-dianisidine) SML = Not detectable

2,4-Dimethylaniline, Aromatic amine Precursor/breakdown


95-68-1 1
(2,4-xylidine) SML = Not detectable product of PY 13

48
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

Table 17. Continued


Relative
CAS No Substance ADI/TDI or SML etc. Source
importance
2-Ethoxyaniline, Aromatic amine Precursor/breakdown
94-70-2 1
o-phenetidine SML = Not detectable product of PR 170
2-Methoxyaniline, Aromatic amine Precursor/breakdown
90-94-0 1
o-anisidine SML = Not detectable product of PY 17
2-Methylaniline Aromatic amine Precursor/breakdown
95-53-4 1
(o-toluidine) SML = Not detectable product of PR 12, PY 14
4-Methylaniline Aromatic amine Precursor/breakdown
106-49-0 1
(p-toluidine) SML = Not detectable product of PY 55
m-nitrotoluene Possible breakdown product
99-08-1 Possibly some genotoxicity 1
(3-nitrotoluene) of PY 1, PR 3 & PR 12
2,4-toluenediamine, Aromatic amine Possible precursor/breakdown
95-80-7 1
(2,4 diaminotoluene) SML = Not detectable product of PU binders
2,6-toluenediamine, Aromatic amine Possible precursor/breakdown
823-40-5 1
(2,6 diaminotoluene) SML = Not detectable product of PU binders
SML = 0.05 mg/kg Precursor/breakdown
2835-68-9 p-Aminobenzamide 2
(only to be used in PET) product of PY 181
Anisole (methoxybenzene); Possible breakdown product
100-66-3 Lack of information 2
(methyl phenyl ether) of PY 194
Possible breakdown product
55-21-0 Benzamide Not in 2002/72/EC 2
of PR 170
Possible breakdown product
92-52-4 Biphenyl Fungicide used with oranges 2
of sulfonium photoinitiator
Relatively common Possible breakdown product
2409-55-4 2-Tert-butyl-4-methylphenol 2
breakdown product of BHT (antioxidant)
2,5-Di-tert-butyl-1,4- Possible breakdown product
2460-77-7 Lack of information 2
benzoquinone of BHT
3,5-Di-tert-butyl-4- Possible breakdown product
1620-98-0 Lack of information 2
hydroxybenzaldehyde of BHT
p-Dichlorobenzene, SML = 12 mg/kg Possible breakdown product
106-46-7 2
(1,4-dichlorobenzene) (2002/72/EC) of PR 2
2,4-Diethyl-9H-thioxanthen- Possible breakdown product
Lack of information 2
9-ol of DETX
Diphenyl-2-methanol Possible breakdown product
91-01-0 Limited information found 2
(benzhydrol) of benzophenone
Diphenyl sulfide Possible breakdown product
139-66-2 Lack of information 2
(phenyl sulfide) of sulphonium photoinitiator
Possible breakdown product
4088-22-6 Distearylmethylamine Lack of information of dimethyldioctadecyl- 2
ammonium chloride
Common impurity in Possible impurity in
100-41-4 Ethylbenzene 2
styrenics unsaturated polyester binders
4,4-Ethylenebis(2,6-di-tert- Possible breakdown product
Lack of information 2
butylphenol) of BHT
Possible breakdown
4-Hydroxymethylphenyl-4-
Lack of information product of 4-benzoyl-4- 2
methyldiphenyl sulfide
methyldiphenyl sulfide

49
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

Table 17. Continued


Relative
CAS No Substance ADI/TDI or SML etc. Source
importance
-Hydroxynaphthoic acid,
(3-Hydroxy-2-naphthoic Precursor/breakdown
92-70-6 Lack of information 2
acid), (2-Hydroxy-3- product of PR 48:2
naphthoic acid)
Possible breakdown
p-Iodoisobutylbenzene Lack of information product of diaryliodinium 2
photoinitiator
Possible breakdown
624-31-7 p-Iodotoluene Lack of information product of diaryliodinium 2
photoinitiator
Possible breakdown
Isobutylbenzene
538-93-2 Lack of information product of diaryliodinium 2
(2-methyl-1-phenylpropane)
photoinitiator
Isophorondiamine
Possible precursor/breakdown
2855-13-2 (5-amino-1,3,3-trimethyl- Lack of information 2
product of PU binders
cyclohexane-methylamine)
2-Isopropyl-9H-thioxanthen- Probably considered in Possible breakdown product
2
9-ol EFSA review of ITX of ITX
Hexamethylenediamine Possible precursor/breakdown
124-09-4 SML = 2.4 mg/kg 2
(1,6-hexanediamine) product of PU binders

Possible modifier in alkyd


26266-77-3 Hydroabietyl alcohol SCF list 8 2
binders
5-Methylbenzimidazolone
Possible breakdown product
(5-methyl-1,3-dihydro-2H- Lack of information 2
of PO 64
benziimidazol-2-one)
Possible precursor/
4,4-Methylenebis(cyclo-
1761-71-3 Lack of information breakdown product of PU 2
hexylamine)
binders
-Naphthol Precursor/breakdown
135-19-3 Lack of information 2
(2-hydroxynaphthalene) product of PR 3

Possible precursor to
Neopentyl glycol SML = 0.05 mg/kg in polyester binder. Precursor/
126-30-7 2
(2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediol) 2002/72/EC breakdown product of
neopentyl glycol plasticisers
TDI (NP) = 0.005 mg/kg Precursor to ethoxylated
104-40-5 4-Nonylphenol 2
body weight/day nonylphenol surfactants
TDI (NP) = 0.005 mg/kg Precursor to ethoxylated
11066-49-2 Isononylphenol 2
body weight/day nonylphenol surfactants
4-(tert-octyl)phenol,
Precursor to ethoxylated
140-66-9 [4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethyl- Lack of information 2
octylphenol surfactants
butyl)phenol]
Precursor/breakdown product
85-41-6 Phthalimide Lack of information 2
of PB 15 and 15:1-15:6
Possible breakdown product
638-65-3 Stearonitrile Lack of information 2
of stearic acid amide

50
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

Table 17. Continued


Relative
CAS No Substance ADI/TDI or SML etc. Source
importance
3,3,5,5-tetrabis(tert-butyl)- Possible breakdown product
Lack of information 2
4,4-stilbenequinone of BHT
Possible breakdown product of
diaryliodinium photoinitiator.
108-88-3 Toluene Some toxicity 2
Possible impurity in
unsaturated polyester binders
Listed in 2002/72/EC. Possible precursor to alkyd
124-04-9 Adipic acid 3
No SML binders
Breakdown product of
Listed in 2002/72/EC.
DMPA initiator. Possible
100-52-7 Benzaldehyde Warning given re: possible 3
impurity in unsaturated
tainting of food
polyester binders
Benzoguanamine
Possible precursor to amino
91-76-9 (2,4-Diamino-6-phenyl- QMA = 5 mg/6 dm2 3
binders
1,3,5-triazine)
Chloromethane, (methyl Possible breakdown product
74-87-3 bp 24 C
chloride) of cationic surfactants
Cyanoguanidine Listed in 2002/72/EC. Possible curing agent in
461-58-5 3
(dicyanodiamide) No SML epoxy binders
Possible breakdown product
N,N-Dimethylcoco- Not listed in 2002/72/EC but
of (cocoalkyl)trimethyl- 3
alkylamine probably of low toxicity
ammonium chloride
Possible breakdown product
Di-n-octyltin mono(2- Controlled by SML(T) of
of di-n-octyltin bis(2-
ethylhexyl mercaptoacetate 0.006 mg/kg expressed as tin 3
ethylhexyl mercaptoacetate
monochloride) in 2005/79/EC
(in PVC)
Dodecandioic acid, (1,10- Possible precursor to
693-23-2 In 2002/72/EC No SML 3
decanedicarboxylic acid) polyester binder
2-Ethyl-1-hexanol, (isooctyl Precursor to 2-ethylhexyl
104-76-7 Low toxicity 3
alcohol) phthalate plasticisers
Listed in 2002/72/EC. Possible precursor to alkyd
110-17-8 Fumaric acid 3
No SML binders

Itaconic acid Listed in 2002/72/EC. Possible impurity in water-


97-65-4 3
(methylenesuccinic acid) No SML soluble binders
SML = 30 mg/kg in Possible precursor to amino
108-78-1 Melamine 3
2002/72/EC binders
Possible breakdown product
Mono-n-octyltin bis(2- Controlled by SML(T) of
of mono-n-octyltin tris(2-
ethylhexyl mercaptoacetate) 0.006 mg/kg expressed as tin 3
ethylhexyl mercaptoacetate)
monochloride in 2005/79/EC
(in PVC)
Possible breakdown product
Mono-n-octyltin mono(2- Controlled by SML(T) of
of mono-n-octyltin tris(2-
ethylhexyl mercaptoacetate) 0.006 mg/kg expressed as tin 3
ethylhexyl mercaptoacetate)
dichloride in 2005/79/EC
(in PVC)
Nitrous oxide is used as a
Possible breakdown product
Oxides of nitrogen propellant gas with food 3
of nitrocellulose binders
products

51
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

Table 17. Continued


Relative
CAS No Substance ADI/TDI or SML etc. Source
importance
Listed in 2002/72/EC. Possible precursor to alkyd
111-20-6 Sebacic acid 3
No SML binders
Listed in 2002/72/EC. Possible precursor to alkyd
50-70-4 Sorbitol 3
No SML resins
SML = 6mg/kg in 2002/72/ Possible precursor to alkyd
77-99-6 Trimethylolpropane 3
EC resins
ADI: Acceptable daily intake
TDI: Tolerable daily intake
DETX: 2,4-diethylthioxanthane
BHT: Butylated hydroxyl toluene
NP: Nonyl Phenol
QMA: Maximum permitted quantity of substance in the finished product
bp: Boiling point
SML (T): Total of substances/moieties listed
DMPA: 2,2 Dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenane
PVC: Polyvinylchloride

In many coatings and inks products, the drying (curing) such as the Council of Europes see Section 5.2) and
mechanisms rely on reactive systems and the reaction have not yet been evaluated by the European Food
products are included in Table 17. Some substances Safety Authority (EFSA).
such as styrene, BADGE and the photoinitiator ITX
have already been the subjects of migration studies (see
Section 7.4). Other important by-products of initiator
action include benzaldehyde, benzene, biphenyl and
diphenyl sulfide. 8 Improving the Safety of Inks and
Coatings for Food Use
Aromatic amines are used in the manufacture of azo
dyes and pigments, and amines are also potential 8.1 New Food Approved Pigments
breakdown products from the hydrolysis of amides,
unreacted isocyanates or the action of heat on Work is on-going to widen the range of pigments that
cationic surfactants, all used with inks and coatings. can be used for food contact applications, and a steady
Commission Directive 2002/72/EC details that stream of new products from the manufacturers is
materials and articles manufactured by using aromatic
being brought onto the market. In addition to providing
isocyanates or colorants prepared by diazo-coupling,
alternatives to pigments that do not have food approval,
shall not release primary aromatic amines (expressed
other improvements cited are the ability to used in
as aniline) in a detectable quantity - detection limit
higher loadings and the wider range of manufacturing
= 0.02 mg/kg of food or food simulant, analytical
processes and conditions for which the pigments are
tolerance included. In the list of possible important
compatible (89), (119) and (132)
impurities and breakdown products in Table 17, fifteen
non-permitted aromatic amines are detailed. A further
important precursor/pigment breakdown product that
is included is the potentially genotoxic substance 8.2 Water-Based Systems
nitrotoluene.
The exposure of humans to phthalate ester compounds
Many starting substances currently used in food use has been a concern now for many years, with the first
coatings and inks are not listed in Inventory lists (e.g., major press release by MAFF warning of the potential

52
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

for migration from packaging materials, particularly of substances used in UV/EB curable coatings, ink and
cling film, coming in the middle of the 1980s. The adhesive materials (46).
most widely used phthalate, di-ethylhexyl phthalate has
been linked in animal studies to damage to the kidneys
and liver, and has been labelled as a probable human
8.4 New Initiators for UV Curable Inks
carcinogen (199) and (204). Phthalate plasticisers are
still used in some coating and ink formulations and
this has assisted the development of a new generation As mentioned previously, UV curable inks are gaining
of water-based coatings, which are free of phthalates in popularity over conventional solvent and water
(80). In addition, these coatings, which can be used for based inks. Although this technology offers a number
a wide range of applications, have the additional benefit of benefits, it is appreciated that one area where there is
of being free from VOC, which assists manufacturers in scope for more work is in the development of a greater
their endeavours to meet environmental emission targets range of initiators that do not produce breakdown
for these types of compounds. However, there is now a and reaction products that can cause taint and odour
further move, to newer technology using UV/EB curing problems in food contact applications (115).
systems (see Section 8.3).

8.3 UV/EB Curable Systems 9 Future Trends

For a number of years now there has been a move away In addition to the constant improvements in the safety
from water-and solvent-based coating and ink systems of coatings and inks, which are described in Section 8,
and towards the use of formulations that can be cured there are also a number of technological improvements
by utilising either the energy produced by an UV source surrounding the coatings and inks industry that are
or an EB. In addition to offering advantages in ease of worth mentioning. Some principal examples of these,
handling, superior flow characteristics and low odour, the together with the citation of some relevant recently
technology results in a lower level of potential migrants published literature, are covered next.
in the final product an obvious benefit for food contact
applications (202) (205). However, although offering
some common benefits, the two technologies are quite 9.1 Improvements in Recycling Systems
different and the EB curing mechanism is regarded as
having a number of advantages over the ultraviolet
Although the use of multi-layer, laminate products
light curing mechanism for food packaging applications
for the packaging of food can cause problems when
(174) (172). Examples of these advantages include:
it comes to recycling them at the end of their life (see
a higher degree of reaction (giving a lower level of
Section 9.2), systems are being developed that can cope
extractables), a higher processing speed, and that fact
with packaging that has a coating or is multi-layered. An
that no initiator breakdown products are generated.
example of this is a plant that can recycle polyethylene
terephthalate (PET) beer bottles to generate a food grade
Despite the advantages that these techniques offer, resin that can be re-used in drinks bottles (150).
there are still some manufacturing problems that
are encountered. For example, a problem that can
be experienced when off set printers use UV ink
technology is poor adhesion to the substrate (either 9.2 Biodegradability
plastic or metal), due to either poor wetting or film
shrinkage, or a combination of the two. This is being Biodegradability and compostibility are becoming
addressed by applying modifications to the technology increasing attractive attributes for all food contact
(e.g., the development of new resins), and by raising the products, as the need to reduce the amount of waste
surface energy of certain substrates (e.g., polyolefins) that is placed into conventional landfill sites. This is
by using in-line techniques such as Corona discharge a particularly advantageous property for products that
treatments (110). are made up of a number of different polymer based
components, which makes recycling an unattractive
To facilitate the expansion and acceptance of UV/EB option due to separation problems.
technology for food contact products, the RadTech
Food Packaging Alliance has been formed and it has An example of the new, multi-component biodegradable
sponsored the production of migration data on a number products that are coming onto the market is lunch

53
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

box sheet, where the film, adhesive and ink are all able to withstand both high temperature processing and
biodegradable. This enables the complete product to be acidic environments and, being a hydrophobic protein,
placed into a composter for disposal (124). has Generally recognised as safe status in the USA
for use in cheese products (198). In addition to Nisin,
chitosan (a polysaccharide and deacetylated form of
9.3 Use of Coatings to Improve Barrier chitin) also shows promise as a natural antimicrobial
Properties of Food Packaging for use in paper binders (192).

Coatings can be used to improve the barrier properties Gergely has recently reviewed the regulatory situation
of food packaging films, and hence increase the shelf in the EU with respect to additives in food contact
life of food and beverages. In addition to decreasing materials that exhibit antimicrobial activity (154).
the amount of permeation that takes place, these
coatings can also have secondary benefits when used in
laminating products, such as improving the interlayer 9.5 Laser Marking to replace Conventional Inks
adhesion (44).
Continual improvements in laser technology have
Nanotechnology is being incorporated into a wide range resulted in a system for plastics that offers indelibility
of manufacturing sectors, and one application of it in coupled with high speed (58). Given that a laser pigment
food packaging is to improve the barrier properties of for this type system has received FDA approval, this
films. This can be achieved by the use of thin polymer type of technology could begin to mount a credible
films that contain nanoclay particles (136). challenge to conventional inks in the future.

Grande has recently discussed the latest developments


in barrier technologies, including coatings, with respect
to polyethylene terephthalate polyester bottles (73). 9.6 Intelligent and Active Packaging

A definition of intelligent packaging is the kind of


packaging that uses devices within the pack or as
9.4 Antimicrobial Systems part of the package itself to sense and register certain
changes in the pack and its contents. Areas of intelligent
Interest in the use of antimicrobial products for the food
packaging that are attracting an increasing amount of
industry is growing. Their has been a lot of activity in the
attention are the development of time-temperature
development of antimicrobial additives for food contact
indicators and, for foods that have been packaged under
rubbers and, in order to create a antimicrobial coating for
inert environments, oxygen sensors.
rubbers, silver nanoparticles have been deposited onto the
surface of food contact silicone rubbers (32). These types
In the case of oxygen sensors, it is important that they are
of products are also being developed for the coatings and
non-evasive and an example of the type of product which
inks industries. A particular example is a white pigmented
is of relevance in this report is the use of an oxygen sensor
powder coating type paint for the food processing industry
that has antimicrobial functionality due to the presence that can be printed as an ink onto packaging (177).
of silver ions (131). The use of a silver glass ceramic
antimicrobial additive for the inner surfaces of refrigerators Active packaging is the term used to describe packaging
has already been mentioned in Section 3.3. products that are not simply passive protectors of
the food within them, but interact with the product
In the food packaging area, antimicrobial technologies to maintain its integrity and increase its shelf life.
(e.g., in the form of an internal coating) have the potential Examples of active packing include (190):
to extend the shelf life of perishable products. In the
case of the food processing industry, paints are being a) The scavenging of ethylene to slow the ripening of
developed that contain anti-microbial additives such as fruits and vegetables
silver glass and silver zeolite (131).
b) The scavenging of oxygen to prevent things such
The anti-microbial properties of paper and board type as the development of odours, changes in colour,
food packaging materials can be improved by the use and mould growth.
of polymer binder solutions that have been treated with
Nisin, a bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis. This c) Use of gases such as carbon dioxide or sulfur
natural anti-microbial agent has the benefits of being dioxide to prevent microbiological growth.

54
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

9.7 Applications of Nanotechnology searching and species selectivity. The introduction


of mid-priced multi-hyphenated techniques such as
The use of nanotechnology to improve the barrier GCxGC-time-of flight MS and LC-MSxMS are examples
properties of food packaging has been mentioned in of this. In addition to contributing to conformity work,
Section 9.3. Another area where nanotechnology shows and the analysis of food simulants, these instruments
considerable promise is where nanoparticles in inks can with their greater resolving power and selectivity are
be used to improve the capability of radio frequency also improving routine, direct analysis of food products,
identification technology. In addition to conventional where the potentially large range of low molecular weight
bar code type information, this would also enable species can cause interference problems.
addition information such as the state of the food in the
packaging to be accessed. Another area that is under
development and evaluation is the use of nanoparticles
as pigments in inks. The use of nanotechnology to
produce intelligent packaging is also being investigated
10 Conclusion
by a team at Strathclyde University (158).
This review has provided the reader with an overview
of the types of coatings and inks that are used for food
It was the increasing use, and potential use in the future,
contact materials, an introduction to the technology that
of nanotechnology in food packaging applications that
is associated with their manufacture and an overview
led the FSA to fund a project to assess the impact that
of the legislation that is associated with these types
this technology could have on the safety of food contact
of products. It has also provided a summary of the
materials. Information on this project, which started in
migration data that is available and a description of the
2005, can be found on the FSAs web site (see Sources
advances that are being taken by industry to improve the
of Information.
safety and functionality of these types of products.

Food contact legislation for coatings and inks within the


9.8 Developments in Analytical Techniques EU has been a very active area recently, with both a CoE
resolution on coatings, and one for inks for non-direct
Analytical chemistry plays a vital role in the assessment food use, having been adopted within the last couple of
of food safety of all food contact materials and is years. The latter document has proved to be controversial,
invaluable in the determination of the specific migration with industry groups such as the BCF and EuPIA being
behaviour of selected, targeted species. For many years, far from happy with it, and providing their own inventory
HPLC was, in practice, the only available technique for list and guideline documents in response.
the determination of thermally labile and/or relatively
high molecular weight migrant species. However, For the analysis of coatings and inks, the commercial
in the past five years or so LC-MS instruments have proliferation of LC-MS instruments, with their
proliferated to the extent that they have now replaced enhanced capability compared to the much older HPLC
HPLC in the majority of laboratories. These instruments technique, and complimentary status to GC-MS, will be
are a much better complement for GC-MS, than HPLC, of great benefit to analysts who are carrying out tasks
and enable the analyst for the first time to routinely ranging from reverse engineering and failure diagnosis
generate data on a full range of compounds (i.e., to migration studies. This technique will enable all
thermally labile, stable and polar substances, such as of this work to be carried out with greater ease and
salts) up to 1000 daltons, which is the established upper effectiveness, and may assist in the work required to
limit for chemical absorption in the gastrointestinal generate EU regulations for both coatings and inks.
tract. LC-MS enables more accurate conformity checks
to be performed on coatings and inks formulations, as The product groups within the inks and coatings sector are
well as adding to the understanding of the migration experiencing a number of important developments. Some
behaviour of their low molecular weight constituents of these address environmental concerns, such as the move
and reaction and breakdown products. from solvent-based systems to water-based products,
and the increased use of biodegradable materials,
Development work also continues to provide analytical whereas others, such as the use of nano-materials, the
instrumentation which offers commercially accessible use of antimicrobial agents, and those to produce active/
improvements in important parameters such as molecular intelligent packaging, are designed to create products that
weight range, detection limits, software assisted peak provide the customer and the retailer with products having
deconvolution, analysis speed, accuracy of library greater degrees of safety and quality.

55
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

Coatings and inks for food contact materials will Subject to Limitation - Part 13: Determination of
continue to be a very active and dynamic area of the 2,2-Bis(4-Hydroxyphenyl)Propane (Bisphenol
polymer industry for the foreseeable future. A) in Food Simulants, 2005.

a.11. CEN/TS 13130-26, Materials and Articles in


Contact with Foodstuffs - Plastics Substances
Subject to Limitation - Part 26: Determination
Additional References of 1-Octene and Tetrahydrofuran in Food
Simulants, 2005.
a.1 M.J Forrest et al, Food Standards Agency a.12 EN 13130-11, 2004, Materials and Articles in
Project A03046 Chemical migration from Contact with Foodstuffs Plastics Substances
silicones used in connection with food contact Subject to Limitation - Part 1: Guide to Test
materials and articles, Food Standards Agency, Methods for Specific Migration, 2004.
London, UK, 2003-2005.
a.13 S.M. Jickells, C. Crews, L. Castle and J. Gilbert,
a.2 R. Good, Contribution to Food Standards Food Additives and Contaminants, 1990, 7, 2,
Agency Project A03046 Chemical migration 197.
from silicones used in connection with food
contact materials and articles, Food Standards a.14 J. Salafranca and R. Franz, Deutsche
Agency, London, UK, 2003-2005. Lebensmittel Rundschau, 2000, 96, 10, 355.

a.3 R. Good, Presentation on Speciality Coatings a.15 ISO 13302, Sensory Analysis - Methods for
and Varnishes for Metal & Flexible Packaging, Assessing Modifications to the Flavour of
Food Packaging Interactions, Campden and Foodstuffs Due to Packaging, 2003.
Chorleywood Food Research Association,
a.16 EN 1230-1, Paper and Board Intended for
Chipping Campden, UK, 2005.
Contact With Foodstuffs - Sensory Analysis
a.4 K. Johns in Proceedings of Silicone in Coatings - Part 1: Odour, 2001.
IV, Guildford, UK, 2002, Paper No.13.
a.17 ISO 4120, Sensory Analysis - Methodology
a.5 WHO Surveillance Programme for Control - Triangular Test, 2004.
of Foodborne Infections and Intoxications in
a.18 ISO 5492, Sensory Analysis Vocabulary,
Europe, 7th Report 1993-1998, EDS., C. Tirado
2005.
and K. Schmidt, FAO/WHO Collaborating Centre
for Research and Training in Food Hygiene and a.19 D. van Deventer and P. Mallikarjunan,
Zoonoses, Berlin, Germany, 2000. Innovative Food Science Emerging Technology,
2002, 3, 1, 93.
a.6 Trade Literature, Stirling Lloyd Polychem Ltd,
Knutsford, UK, 2002. a.20 M. Frank, U. Ulmer, J. Ruiz, P Visani and U
Weimar, Analytica Chimica Acta, 2001, 431,
a.7 C. Whitehead in Proceedings of European 1, 11.
Food Packaging Regulations: Support from
your Printing and Coating Suppliers, EuPIA a.21 C. Brede, I. Skjevrak and P. Fjeldal, Colour
seminar, Solihull, UK, 2006. Substances in Food Packaging Materials, SNT
Arbeidsrapport, Oslo, Norway, 2003.
a.8 M.J. Forrest et al, Food Standards Agency
Project A03055 An Assessment of the a.22 C. Brede, I. Skjevrak and H. Herikstad, Journal
Potential of Migration of Substances from Inks of Chromatography A, 2003, 983, 1-2, 35.
and their Associated Coatings, Food Standards
Agency, London, UK, 2005-2007. a.23 L. Castle in Proceedings of the PIRA
conference, Plastics and Polymers in Contact
a.9 CEN/TS 13130-25, Materials and Articles in with Foodstuffs, Coventry, UK, 2003.
Contact with Foodstuffs - Plastics Substances
Subject to Limitation - Part 25: Determination of a.24 K. Bouma and E. Wijma, Migration of Primary
4-Methyl-1-Pentene in Food Simulants, 2005. Aromatic Amines from Multilayer Films for
Food Packaging, The Netherlands Inspectorate
a.10 CEN/TS 13130-13, Materials and Articles in for Health Protection and Veterinary Public
Contact with Foodstuffs - Plastics Substances Health, Report No. ND1FC004/01, 2002.

56
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

a.25 N. Palibroda, J. Brandsh, O. Piringer and Sources of Further Information


R. Brandsh, Journal of Mass Spectrometry,
and Advice
Letters, 2004, 39, 12, 1484.

a.26 MAFF, Survey of Benzene in Food Contact There are a number of routes that a researcher can take
Plastics, Food Surveillance Information Sheet, to obtain further information. It is not possible within
No 35, September, MAFF, London, UK, this format to provide a comprehensive list, but this
1994. section provides a summary of the key areas where
knowledge can be found, with a number of examples
a.27 S.L. Herlihy, B. Rowatt and R.S. Davidson, included in each category.
RadTech Europe Papers of the Month
August 2004, RadTech Europe, The Hague,
Netherlands, 2004. Reference Books
a.28 The EFSA Journal, 2005, 293, 1.
1. T.A Turner, Canmaking: The Technology of Metal
a.29 J.A. Brotons, M.F. Olea-Serrano, M. Villalobos, Protection and Decoration, Crown Cork and Seal,
V. Pedraza and N. Olea, Environmental Health Blackie Academic and Professional, London, UK,
Perspectives, 1995, 103, 6, 608. 1997.

a.30 MAFF, Survey of BADGE epoxy monomer in 2. Manual for Resins for Surface Coatings, Volume 2,
canned foods, Food Surveillance Information Eds., P. Oldring and G. Haywar, SITA Technology,
Sheet, No 125, October, MAFF, London, UK, London, UK, 1987.
1997.
3. T. Hutton, Food Manufacturing: An Overview,
a.31 A.H. Windle in Polymer Permeability, Ed., J.
CCFRA, Chipping Camden, UK, 2001.
Comyn, Elsevier Applied Science, London,
UK, 1985.
4. T. Hutton, Introduction to Food Hygiene in Food
a.32 R.S. Garcia, P.P. Losada and C.P. Lamela, Processing, CCFRA, Chipping Camden, UK,
Chromatographia, 2003, 58, 5-6, 337. 2007.

a.33 N. Leepipatpiboon, O. Sae-Khow and S. 5. T.Hutton, Food Packaging, CCFRA, Chipping


Jayanta, Journal of Chromatography, A, 2005, Camden, UK, 2003.
1073, 1-2, 331.
6. N. Anyadike, Introduction to Flexible Packaging,
a.34 I. Jordakova, J. Dobias, M. Voldrich and J.
PIRA, Leatherhead, UK, 2003.
Poustka, Czech Journal of Food Sciences,
2003, 21, 3, 85.
7. The Printing Ink Manual, 5th Edition, Eds., R.H
a.35 H. Ohno, M. Suzuki, T. Aomaya and K. Mitani, Leach and R.J Pierce, Kluwer Academic Publishers,
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi, 2003, 44, 6, 332. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2002.

a.36 MAFF, Survey of Chemical Migration from 8. P. Oittinen and H. Saarelma, Printing, Fapet Oy,
Can Coatings into Food and Beverages, Helsinka, Finland, 1998.
2. Epichlorohydrin, Food Surveillance
Information Sheet, No 170, January, MAFF, 9. Lacquers, Varnishes and Coatings for Food and
London, UK, 1999. Drink Cans and for the Metal Decorating Industry,
ICI Packaging Coatings, 2000.
a.37 ENDS Report, 2002, No.331, 31.

a.38 M. Huber, J. Ruiz and F. Chastellain, 2002, 10. Chemical Migration and Food Contact Materials,
Food Additives and Contaminants, 2002, 19 Eds., K.A. Barnes, C.R. Sinclair and D.H. Watson,
Supplement 1, 221. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, 2006.

a.39 B. Aurela, T. Ohra-Aho and L. Soderhjelm, 11. Migration from Food Contact Materials, Ed.,
Packaging Technology and Science, 2001, 14, L.L. Katan, Blackie Academic and Professional,
2, 71. London, UK, 1996.

57
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

12. Additives for Coatings, Ed., J. Bieleman, Wiley- Professional, Research, Trade and
VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2000. Governmental Organisations

13. Chemistry and Technology of UV and EB


Council of Europe Partial Agreement in the Social
Formulation for Coatings, Inks and Paints, Volume
II: Prepolymers and Reactive Diluents, Ed., G. and Public Health Field, www.coe.int/soc-sp
Webster, John Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1997.
UK Food Standards Agency (FSA), www.foodstandards.
14. J.P. Dowling, P. Pappas, B. Monroe and A. gov.uk
Carroy, Chemistry and Technology of UV and EB
Formulation for Coatings, Inks & Paints, Volume V:
US Food and Drug Agency, www.fda.gov
Speciality Finishes, Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1997.

15. B. Thomson, Printing Materials: Science and Bundesinstitut fur Risikobewertung (BfR) (German
Technology, PIRA International, Leatherhead, UK, Federal Institute for Risk Assessment), www.bfr.bund.de
2004.
The European Council of Paint, Printing Inks and
Artists Colours Industry (CEPE), www.cepe.org
Reports
European Printing Ink Manufacturers Association
1. Food Standard Agency Reports
(EuPIA), www.eupia.org
Food Standard Agency/MAFF Projects on Food
Contact Rubbers and Rubber Latex: European Food Safety Association (EFSA), www.efsa.
europa.eu
A03043 J. Haines et al., Assessment and
quantification of latex protein (LP) transfer from
Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining (IOM3),
LP-containing materials into food and drink www.iom3.org
products, 2004.

A03038 M.J. Forrest et al., Rubber Breakdown Leatherhead Food International,


Products, 2005. www.leatherheadfood.com

FS2248 J.A. Sidwell et al., Further Migration Central Science Laboratory, www.csl.gov.uk
Data on Food Contact Rubbers, 1997.

FS2219 J.A. Sidwell et al., Migration Data on PIRA International, www.pira.co.uk


Food Contact Rubbers, 1994.
Fraunhofer Institut Angewandte Polymerforschung,
M.J Forrest et al., Food Standards Agency Project
www.pioneers-in-polymers.com
A03046 Chemical migration from silicones used
in connection with food contact materials and
articles, 2005.
Commercial Abstract Databases
E. Bradley, Combined Food Standards Agency
Projects FS2251 and A03022 Overall Title : A
systematic investigation into potential chemical a) Rapra Abstracts (The Polymer Library)
migration from inks and associated coatings used Rapra Technology
on the food contact surface of packages, 2002.
b) PIRA Abstracts Pira International
2. British Coatings Federation, The BCF guide
to printing inks for use on food wrappers and
packages, Leatherhead, 2002. c) Chemical Abstracts American Chemical Society

3. C. Brede, I. Skjevrak and P. Fjeldal, SNT d) World Surface Coatings Database PRA Coatings
Arbeidsrapport, 2003, 3. Technology Centre

58
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

Acknowledgements DRD Draw redraw

DTA Diethylene triamine


The author would like to acknowledge the contribution
made to this report by Dr Bryan Willoughby and Dr DWL Drawn and wall ironed
Ray Good. This arose out of the work that they were
commissioned to do by Rapra Technology for the EB Electron beam
FSA Coatings and Ink project (Contract A03055). In
particular, Dr Willoughbys work been used in Chapters EFSA European Food Safety Association
2, 4 and 7 and Table 17, and Dr Goods industry survey
has been used as the basis for Chapter 3 and Tables 5 EFSA European Food Safety Authority
to 14.
EHDAB 2-Ethylhexyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate

EOA Ethylene diamine

EOE Easy open end


Abbreviations
EPDM Ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer
ADI Acceptable daily intake
EU European Union
BADGE Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether
EuPIA European Printing Ink Manufacturers
BCF British Coatings Federation Association
BFDGE Bisphenol F diglycidyl ether EVA Ethylene vinyl acetate
BHT Butylated hydroxyl toluene FOA Food and Drugs Administration
bp Boiling point FOE 4,4 Diamino diphenyl-methane
BPA Bisphenol A FSA Food Standards Agency
BPF Bisphenol F
FSMD Flat sheet metal decorating
CAB Cellulose acetate butyrate
GC-MS Gas chromatography - mass
CEN Comit Europen de Normalisation spectrometry
(European Committee for
Standardisation) GMP Good manufacturing practice

CEPE The European Council of Paint, Printing GPTA Propoxylated glyceryl triacrylate
Inks and Artists Colours Industry
HPLC High performance liquid
CITPA International Confederation of Paper chromatography
and Board Converters in Europe
IARC International Agency for Research on
CoE Council of Europe Cancer

DEFRA Department for Environmental, Food ITX 2-Isopropylthioxanthone


and Rural Affairs
LC Liquid chromatography
DETX 2,4-Diethylthioxanthone
MAFF Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and
DICY Dicyanidiamide Food

DMPA 2,2-Dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone MS Mass spectrometry

DNQ Detected but not quantified NC Nitrocellulose

DPGDA Dipropylene glycol diacrylate Nd Not detected by the method

59
Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials

N-ETSA n-Ethyl-o/p-toluene-sulfonamide QC Quality control

NOGE Novolal glycidyl ethers QMA Maximum permitted quantity of the


substance in the finished material or
NP Nonyl Phenol article expressed as mg per 6 dm2 of the
OML Overall migration limit surface in contact with foodstuffs

PE Polyethylene QSAR Quantitative structure-activity


relationship.
PET Polyethylene terephthalate
REACH Registration, evaluation and
PETA Pentaerythritol tetra-acrylate authorisation of chemicals
PF Phenol-formaldehyde ROPP Roll-on pilfer-proof
PP Polypropylene RTO Regular twist off
ppb Parts per billion RTV Room temperature vulcanising
ppm Parts per million SCF Scientific Committee for Food
PT Press twist (Pre EFSA)

PTFE Polytetrafluoroethylene SML Specific migration limit(s)

PU Polyurethane(s) TDI Tolerable daily intake

PVAc Polyvinyl acetate Tg Glass transition temperature

PVB Polyvinyl butyral(s) UV Ultra-violet

PVC Polyvinyl chloride VOC Volatile organic compound(s)

PVOH Polyvinyl alcohol w/b Water based

60
References and Abstracts

References from the Polymer Library Database

Item 1 the use of fluorescence lifetime imaging to ascertain


European Coatings Journal the surface packing of the protein on polymer. 60 refs.
No.6, 2007, p.60-63 Copyright (c) 2007 Elsevier Inc.
INTEGRATING THE PHOTOINITIATOR: SELF- EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; PORTUGAL;
INITIATING RESINS PRODUCE UV COATINGS UK; WESTERN EUROPE
WITH FEW EXTRACTABLES Accession no.999065
Esselbrugge H
Ashland
Item 3
The synthesis via the Michael reaction of self-initiating ANTEC 2007. Proceedings of the 65th SPE Annual
resins for UV coatings based on acrylate oligomers conference held Cincinnati, Oh., 6th-11th May 2007.
containing a photo-labile chromophore as a source of Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2007, p.164-168, PDF 0214, CD-
free radicals on exposure to UV irradiation is described. ROM, 012
Films coated with the resins were subjected to extraction ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR LASER
and migration tests with food simulants and the results MARKING OF PLASTICS
are discussed in terms of potential food packaging Sabreen S R
applications. Sabreen Group Inc.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; (SPE)
NETHERLANDS; WESTERN EUROPE
The newest generation of laser material science and
Accession no.998987
hardware/software is driving strong industry demand for
indelible, high speed laser marking processes to replace
Item 2 conventional ink printing. This paper presents a total
Journal of Colloid And Interface Science solutions methodology for achieving unprecedented
312, No.2, 2007, p.193-200 marking contrast quality and colour laser marking of
FLUORESCENCE PROBE TECHNIQUES plastics via concomitant engineering of: 1) laser additive
TO MONITOR PROTEIN ADSORPTION- material science, 2) primary moulding operations, 3) laser/
INDUCED CONFORMATION CHANGES ON software technology, and 4) systems integration. The first
BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS of its kind laser pigment to receive U.S. Food and Drug
Benesch J; Hungerford G; Suhling K; Tregidgo C; Administration (FDA) approval for use in laser processes
Mano J F; Reis R L is introduced as well as techniques to achieve high speed
Minho,Universidade; Portugal,Institute for vector marking of alphanumeric text, graphics and product
Biotechnology and Bioengineering; Kings College security codes. 4 refs.
The study of protein adsorption and any associated USA
conformational changes on interaction with biomaterials Accession no.997413
is of great importance in the area of implants and
tissue constructs. This study aimed to evaluate some
Item 4
fluorescent techniques to probe protein conformation on
Applied Organometallic Chemistry
a selection of biodegradable polymers currently under
21, No.6, June 2007, p.412-424
investigation for biomedical applications. Because of
DETERMINATION OF MIGRATION OF N-
the fluorescence emanating from the polymers, the
BUTYLTINS AND N-OCTYLTINS TO FOOD
use of monitoring intrinsic protein fluorescence was
SIMULANTS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-
precluded. A highly solvatochromic fluorescent dye,
MASS SPECTROMETRY
Nile red, and a well-known protein label, fluorescein
Papaspyrou S D; Thomaidis; Lampi E N; Lioupis A
isothiocyanate, were employed to study the adsorption
Athens,University; Athens,General Chemistry State
of serum albumin to polycaprolactone and to some
laboratory
extent also to two starch-containing polymer blends
(SPCL and SEVA-C). A variety of fluorescence A simple gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method
techniques, steady state, time resolved, and imaging for the simultaneous determination of butyltin and octyltin
were employed. Nile red was found to leach from the compounds in water-based food simulants (water and
protein, while fluorescein isothiocyanate proved useful 3% (w/v) acetic acid) is described and applied to various
in elucidating a conformational change in the protein PVC samples (cling films, containers and water pipe. The
and the observation of protein aggregates adsorbed to method is based on one-step derivatisation/extraction
the polymer surface. These effects were seen by making with sodium tetraethyl borate directly in the aqueous
use of the phenomenon of energy migration between phase in the presence of 1 ml of 0.05% (w/v) tropolone in
the fluorescent tags to monitor interprobe distance and hexane. Optimisation of the derivatisation conditions and

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 61


References and Abstracts

calibration with mixed standard solutions of organotins char might only be considered as a potential for use as
are described. 51 refs. a co-fuel by relatively few industries.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GREECE; Juniper
WESTERN EUROPE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN
Accession no.998245 EUROPE
Accession no.995340
Item 5
Analytical Chemistry Item 7
79, No.8, 15th April 2007, p.3099-3104 New Scientist
MOLECULARLY IMPRINTED 194, No.2603, 12th May 2007, p.28-29
POLYMERIC FIBERS FOR SOLID-PHASE RECYCLED PLASTIC TO GET CLEAN BILL OF
MICROEXTRACTION HEALTH
Turiel E; Tadeo J L; Martin-Esteban A Reilly M
Spain,Instituto Nacional de Investigacion y Tecnologia
The techniques used to remove contaminants from plastic
Agraria y Alimentaria
bottles before they can be recycled consume up to 2 litres
A simple approach for the preparation of imprinted fibres, of water per 500 grams of recycled material. This means
which involves the direct synthesis of the fibres using plants cannot be built in areas where water is scarce.
silica capillaries as moulds and the etching away of the Waste from plants can also pollute local rivers. The plants
silica after polymerisation. The method is demonstrated typically earn around 1 cent per 500 grams of PETP they
using the system propazine/methacrylic acid/ethylene recycle, thanks to their high water and detergent bills,
glycol dimethacrylate as a model for the preparation of and to the low returns on selling the recycled plastic
the fibres. The optimisation of variables affecting both for industrial packaging. A new generation of plastics
polymer morphology and binding-elution conditions for recycling plants will use technologies that reduce or even
target analytes is described and the performance of the eliminate the need for water and produce plastics clean
imprinted fibres for the solid-phase microextraction of enough for food packaging, at a lower cost than existing
triazines from environmental and food samples evaluated. techniques. Gary DeLaurentiis, now at ECO2 Plastics in
15 refs. California, has developed a system for stripping bottles
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; SPAIN; before they are recycled that dispenses with water
WESTERN EUROPE altogether. Shredded bottles are first immersed in the
Accession no.998248 solvent ethyl lactate to clean them and then moved to a
second chamber where they are blasted with liquid carbon
dioxide to remove any remaining solvent. The evaporated
Item 6
solvent and carbon dioxide are captured so they can be
Banbury, Waste & Resources Action Programme, 2006, reused. The distillate at the bottom of the stills, mostly
pp.47, ISBN, 30cm, 8(13). Online available from: left-over solvent and contaminants from the bottles,
http://www.wrap.org.uk/downloads/FINAL_Market_ can be disposed of as solid waste. Since ethyl lactate is
Study_on_the_demand_for_char_11.01.07.f3e15db0.pdf derived from beets and corn, it has been approved by the
(Accessed 11/06/07) US FDA for use in cleaning food-preparation equipment.
MARKET STUDY ON THE DEMAND FOR CHAR The solvent is said to be safe for preparing plastic for
FROM TYRE PYROLYSIS: PROJECT CODE: recycling into food and drink packaging.
TYR020
Waste & Resources Action Programme ECO2
EUROPE-GENERAL; USA
This report focuses on the market opportunity for tyre Accession no.995642
derived char in the UK, and provides information on the
potential magnitude of the opportunity for char derived
Item 8
from tyre pyrolysis, the potential market demand for
Colloid and Polymer Science
char, and market accessibility. The study showed that
285, No.2, Nov.2006, p.161-168
there are two main potential opportunities to use tyre
TAMARINDUS INDICA MUCILAGE AND ITS
derived char in the near-term in the UK: using the
ACRYLAMIDE-GRAFTED COPOLYMER AS
material as a general low grade carbon black filler,
FLOCCULANTS FOR REMOVAL OF DYES
and the possibility of using the char as a raw material
Mishra A; Bajpai M; Pal S; Agrawal M; Pandey S
for making pigments. The potential market for char as
Kanpur,Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University
rubber filler is about 15,000-20,000 tonnes per year, and
the possible demand in the carbon pigments industry is Acrylamide was grafted onto a food-grade polysaccharide,
around 13,000-15,000 tonnes per year. Other end uses tamarindus indica seed mucilage, by free-radical
were investigated, but were found to have one or more polymerisation using a ceric ion/nitric acid redox initiator
technical, commercial, or regulatory issue. As a fuel, and structurally characterised by FTIR spectroscopy. Both

62 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


References and Abstracts

tamarindus indica seed mucilage and its copolymer with and binary mixtures of solvents and analysed using the
acrylamide were evaluated as flocculants for removing e-nose and by GC-FID. The responses obtained from
dyes from model textile wastewater containing azo, basic the e-nose were processed using principal component
and reactive dyes. The effects of flocculant dose, dye analysis and discriminate factorial analysis in order
concentration, contact time and pH on percent dye removal to identify the residual solvents. Partial least squares
were investigated and the performance of the copolymer analysis was also used to quantify the amount of residual
compared with that of the pure mucilage. 19 refs. solvent and to correlate the e-nose results with gas
INDIA chromatography, which is currently the standard method
Accession no.996046 for determining residual VOCs in packaging films. There
was good agreement between the e-nose responses and gas
chromatography results for single solvents. The technique
Item 9 also worked for binary solvent mixtures. The electronic
Macromolecular Materials and Engineering nose can be a viable alternative to traditional techniques
292, No.3, 12th March 2007, p.272-284 while providing simplicity and objectivity, which would
DIFFUSION OF MODEL CONTAMINANTS IN be extremely advantageous in routine quality control of
HIGH-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE residual solvents. 15 refs.
Voultzatis I S; Papaspyrides C D; Tsenoglou C J; USA
Roussis C
Accession no.994591
Athens,National Technical University
Four liquid solvents, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, toluene,
Item 11
chlorobenzene and octane, were used as model
Food Additives and Contaminants
contaminants in sorption experiments in PE in order
24, No.4, April 2007, p.438-444
to study their diffusion behaviour between 40 and 70
2- (2-ITX) IN FOOD AND FOOD PACKAGING
deg.C and assess the plausibility of utilising recycled
MATERIALS ON THE GERMAN MARKET
plastics as safe functional barriers in food packaging
Rothenbacher T; Baumann M; Fuegel D
applications. A hybrid model that combined molecular
Stuttgart,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt
and free volume theory elements was used to interpret
the collected experimental data. This helped in evaluating A fast and reliable method, based on HPLC coupled to a
microstructural characteristics pertaining to the penetrant- diode array and a fluorescence detector, for detecting the
polymer systems tested, correlating these characteristics photoinitiator, 2-ITX, and also 2,4-diethylthioxanthone
with the molecular properties of the solvent, and had an in food and food packaging materials is described and
eventual role in predicting sorption and diffusivity in used to detect the presence of 2-ITX in a large number of
similar untested systems. 41 refs. food products packed in cartons, plastic cups and films.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GREECE; The method is shown to detect migration of 2-ITX from
WESTERN EUROPE packaging materials into foodstuffs in 20% of samples.
Accession no.996220 15 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY;
WESTERN EUROPE
Item 10
Accession no.994005
Packaging Technology and Science
20, No.2, March-April 2007, p.99-112
DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTRONIC NOSE Item 12
METHOD FOR EVALUATION OF RESIDUAL Plastics Technology
SOLVENTS IN LOW-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE 53, No.2, Feb.2007, p.60/75
FILMS EXTRUDING BIOPOLYMERS
Yuzay I E; Selke S It is explained that plastics made from renewable carbon
Michigan,State University chain resources, rather than fossil carbon from oil or gas,
Flexible packaging films containing high levels of VOCs are suddenly a firm commercial reality. The attraction is not
can alter the flavour and odour of packaged foods. just that they are marketed as environmentally friendly, but
Currently, a range of gas chromatographic techniques also that the prices are stable since they are not linked to
and sensor evaluations are used for assessing the residual petrochemicals. This article looks at the situation in detail,
VOCs in packaging films. An objective method for explains exactly what biopolymers are, and also highlights
assessing the residual solvents from LDPE was developed some of the bioplastic products available today.
using an Alpha MOS Fox 3000 electronic nose equipped BASF AG; BASF Corp.; Novamont North America Inc.;
with 12 metal oxide semiconductor sensors. Three VOCs, DuPont; Stanelco plc; Wild Oats Markets; Sainsbury;
ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and toluene, were chosen as Washington,Earth Policy Institute; Eastman Chemical
models for solvents of interest in flexible food packaging Co.; BioBag; Huhtamaki; Wentus; Plantic Technologies
analysis. LDPE film samples were spiked with single Ltd.; Cereplast Inc.; Tate and Lyle Biopolymers;

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 63


References and Abstracts

Mitsui Chemical; Shimadzu Chemical; Purac America; flexibility, lower use levels and stable performance on
Galactic SA; Metabolix; Archer Daniels Midland Co.; storage. 2 refs. (XXVIII Fatipec Congress, 12th-14th June,
Kaneka; Cargill; Dow Chemical; SRI Consulting; 2006, Budapest, Hungary)
Anson Packaging; Wilkinson Industries Inc.; Wal-Mart; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN
Plastic Suppliers Inc.; Coop Box; Sabert Corp.; Ex-Tech EUROPE
Plastics Inc.; Fabri-Kal Corp.; Parkinson Technologies Accession no.992718
Inc.; Marshall & Williams; BCC Research; Conair;
Intertech-Pira; NatureWorks LLC; Plastic Engineering
Item 15
Associates Inc.; Polymer Process Communications;
Polymer International
Spartech Corp.; Xaloy Inc.; Treofan Group
AUSTRALIA; BELGIUM; CHINA; EU; EUROPE-GENERAL;
56, No.4, April 2007, p.497-505
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN ECONOMIC EFFECT OF CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND
COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FINLAND; GERMANY; COMPOSITION OF THE RESIN PHASE ON
ITALY; JAPAN; NETHERLANDS; NORWAY; SCANDINAVIA; VINYL CONVERSION OF AMORPHOUS
UK; USA; WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL;
WORLD
CALCIUM PHOSPHATE-FILLED COMPOSITES
Skrtic D; Antonucci J M
Accession no.994061 US,National Institute of Standards & Technology
The effect of chemical structure and composition of the
Item 13
polymer matrix on the degree of vinyl conversion(DC)
Surface Coatings International
of copolymers (unfilled resins) and their amorphous
90, No.2, March 2007, p.68/75
calcium phosphate(ACP) composites attained upon
PHOTOINITIATORS OLD AND NEW: FOOD
photopolymerisation was studied. The DC could also be
FOR THOUGHT an indicator of the relative potential of these polymeric
Green W A materials to leach out into the oral environment unreacted
The history of the use of photoinitiators for UV-curable monomers that could adversely affect their biocompatibility.
inks is discussed and type I photoinitiators, the aryl alkyl The following resins were examined: 2,2-bis(p-(2-hydroxy-
ketones, and type II photoinitiators, the aryl aryl ketones, 3-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl)propane/triethylene glycol
are described. The possible migration of low molec.wt. dimethacrylate(TEGDMA) (1:1 mass ratio; BT resin)
initiators is examined and developments in polymeric combined with hydroxyethyl methacrylate(HEMA; BTH
and high molec.wt. photoinitiators, which exhibit reduced resin) and with HEMA and zirconyl dimethacrylate (BTHZ
migration, are reported. The necessity for attempting to resin); urethane dimethacrylate(UDMA)/HEMA resins;
achieve zero risk is questioned and the advantages of the and pyromellitic glycerol dimethacrylate(PMGDMA)/
low molec.wt. ITX (a thioxanthone) over alternatives are TEGDMA (PT resin). To make composite specimens,
described. Future developments in photoinitiators are resins were mixed with a mass fraction of 40% zirconia-
considered. 11 refs. (Radcure Coatings and Inks: Cost and hybridised ACP. Copolymers and their composites were
Performance, Manchester, UK, June 2006) evaluated using near-IR spectroscopy for DC after 1 d and
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN 28 d post-cure at 23 deg.C. Inclusion of HEMA into the
EUROPE BT and UDMA resins yielded copolymers and composites
Accession no.994095 with the highest DCs. The significantly lower DCs of PT
copolymers and their composites were attributed to the rigid
aromatic core structure, tetravinyl functionality and limited
Item 14 methacrylate side-chain flexibility of the surface-active
Pitture e Vernici PMGDMA monomer. There was, however, an increase in
83, No.2, 1st-28th Feb.2007, p.65-72 the 28 d DC for the PT materials as there was for the BTHZ
English; Italian system. Surprisingly, the usual decrease observed in DC in
NOVEL DEFOAMERS AND REGULATORY going from unfilled polymer to composite was reversed for
COMPLIANCE FOR FOOD CONTACT the PT system. 25 refs.
PRINTING INKS AND OVER PRINT VARNISHES USA
James V
Dow Corning Ltd. Accession no.992911

The use of novel silicone-polyether copolymer defoamers,


Item 16
which meet the defoaming needs of manufacturers for
Canadian Plastics
printing inks and over print varnishes for indirect food
65, No.3, March 2007, p.10-13
contact while combating foam effectively and avoiding
NEW ADDITIVES: HANDFULS OF INNOVATION
surface defects, such as craters and fish eyes, is discussed.
Stephen M
The benefits of these defoamers over traditional PDMS
technology are demonstrated and the use of 100% Additives suppliers are unveiling a host of new
organomodified silicones for achieving greater formulation formulations designed to improve processing and

64 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


References and Abstracts

performance, provide brighter and longer lasting colours, work are examined. The research is reported to allow a better
and meet tougher safety and environmental regulations. evaluation of migration into foods by estimating the lowered
This article outlines new nucleating/clarifying agents, diffusion in the foods, and by estimating the partitioning
chemical foaming additives, flame retardants, processing between the plastic materials and the real food.
aids, internal mould release agents, UV stabilisers, EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY;
pigments and colourants, and additives based on WESTERN EUROPE
biodegradable carriers. Accession no.989882
NORTH AMERICA
Accession no.991261 Item 19
Food Contact Polymers 2007. Proceedings of a
Item 17 conference held Brussels, Belgium, 21st-22nd Feb.2007.
Food Additives and Contaminants Shawbury, Rapra Technology, 2007, Paper 10, pp. 4,
24, No.3, March 2007, p.326-335 ISBN 9781847350121, 29cm, 012
INVESTIGATION INTO THE MIGRATION SILICONE ELASTOMERS FOR FOOD
POTENTIAL OF COATING MATERIALS FROM CONTACT APPLICATIONS
COOKWARE PRODUCTS Klaassen E
Bradley E L; Read W A; Castle L Momentive Performance Materials Inc.
UK,Dept.for the Environment,Food & Rural Affairs (Rapra Technology)
The migration potential of coating materials from Silicone elastomers are particularly suitable for food-
cookware samples covering a wide variety of products, contact applications since their basic chemistry allows
coating/metal types and food contact applications, and for food-contact compliance. Their unique combination
including polymer coatings such as poly(ether sulphone), of properties includes elasticity, temperature resistance,
poly(tetrafluoroethylene) and bisphenol A/epichlorohydrin chemical resistance, neutral odour and taste, and a non-
was investigated by solvent extraction and by migration stick surface. Key European regulations for food-contact
tests using food simulants. Analysis of the extracts was and drinking water applications are examined. Typical
carried out using GC-MS and LC-MS to identify and applications are described, and include bakery moulds, ice
quantify extracted species, and the migration of phthalates cube trays, tubes for drinking water and coated sheets for
and bisphenol A is discussed. 14 refs. use on conveyor belts used in the food industry. Product
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN categories and processing technologies are described and
EUROPE regulatory compliance is discussed.
Accession no.991443 EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY;
WESTERN EUROPE
Accession no.989886
Item 18
Food Contact Polymers 2007. Proceedings of a
conference held Brussels, Belgium, 21st-22nd Feb.2007. Item 20
Shawbury, Rapra Technology, 2007, Paper 6, pp.4, Plastic Packaging Innovation News
ISBN 9781847350121, 29cm, 012 3, No.1, 20th March 2007, p.6
MODELLING MIGRATION FROM PLASTICS GLOWING TEMPERATURE-SENSITIVE FILM
INTO FOODSTUFFS A NOVEL AND COST UNDER DEVELOPMENT
EFFICIENT APPROACH FOR COMPLIANCE It is briefly reported that a prototype of a new film
EVALUATION AND CONSUMER EXPOSURE that will show if food has been exposed to extremes of
ESTIMATION temperature is in development and should be ready at the
Stoermer A; Franz R end of 2008. Food wrapped in the intelligent film can be
Freising,Fraunhofer Institut Verfahrenstechnik & checked for temperature damage under long-range UV
Verpackung IVV lamps, which usually make the film glow green, but cause
(Rapra Technology) a blue luminescence if the wrapper is damaged. The film is
Migration modelling from plastics into food simulants is currently made with a food-grade dye and a biodegradable,
generally accepted as a tool for compliance evaluation but not food-grade polyester. Researchers at the University
of food contact materials according to Plastics Directive of Pisa say it will not be difficult to develop a food-grade
2002/72/EC. However, the question is raised as to how polymer, providing the material can be melt-processable.
migration modelling into food simulants compares to In the future, it is intended to combine the film with self-
that with real foods. The European project known as repairing technology.
Foodmigrosure attempted to fill this gap by carrying out Pisa,University
systematic studies on mass transport from plastics into EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; ITALY;
foodstuffs to derive a mathematical model for estimation of WESTERN EUROPE
migration into foods. The first conclusions drawn from this Accession no.990159

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 65


References and Abstracts

Item 21 Item 23
Plastics Additives and Compounding PETplanet insider
9, No.2, March-April 2007, p.14 8, No.3, 2007, p.17
CLARIFIER IMPROVES HAZE AND PROVIDES PET CATALYSTS AND THE ANTIMONY
HIGHER STIFFNESS QUESTION
Thiele U
A new clarifier, developed by Adeka, is claimed to exhibit a
higher crystallisation temperature and shorter crystallisation The current estimated world polyester production of
half-time resulting in alpha-form crystals, as well as a about 42 million tonnes/year is more than 97% based on
higher crystallisation rate and degree of crystallinity. antimony catalysts, which represents some 8,970 tonnes
Lower moulding temperatures are needed to maximise the of antimony. The increasing number of antimony catalyst
clarifying ability of the new additive, ADK STAB NA-71, producers, mainly those offering antimony trioxide, has
it is briefly reported. The clarifier improves haze effectively resulted in growing product diversity and also uncertainty
and provides excellent transparency even at low loading among catalyst users about product quality. However,
levels of around 0.1 wt.%, and exhibits superior clarity in driven by the needs of bottle grade PETP resin producers
thin-walled moulded articles. Use of the clarifier also results for the lowest lead and arsenic content in their antimony
in higher stiffness, a 25% increase in flexural modulus. catalysts, products such as those offered by Arkema,
The product is claimed to be easy to use and offers an Campine, Chan Long, Honeywell, J&M/Synetix, Mikuni
economically effective approach for clarified PP. or Yizheng have improved remarkably over the last 10
Adeka Corp. years. The currently established antimony limits for
USA drinking water are presented. Scientific leaching tests
Accession no.989019 indicate that the increase in antimony concentration caused
by leaching into liquid foodstuffs packed in PETP bottles
is an order of magnitude less than the limits set for US
Item 22 and EU drinking water standards.
Plastics Additives and Compounding
WORLD
9, No.2, March-April 2007, p.32-35
STABILIZING POLYOLEFINS AND Accession no.989045
ENGINEERING RESINS TO MEET SPECIFIC
APPLICATION NEEDS Item 24
Markarian J Journal of Applied Polymer Science
Antioxidants and UV stabilisers are key additives for 104, No.1, 5th April 2007, p.273-278
enabling performance of polyolefins and engineering NOVEL POLY(VINYL ALCOHOL)-
resins in a wide range of applications. The global market TETRAETHOXYSILANE HYBRID MATRIX
for antioxidants in plastics, outside of heat stabilisers MEMBRANES AS OXYGEN BARRIERS
used in PVC, was about 326 thousand metric tons in 2006 Patil M B; Patil S A; Veerapur R S; Aminabhavi T M
and consumption is expected to grow at 4-5% AAGR. Karnatak University
Antioxidant production is growing in the Middle East and Synthesis of membranes which act as oxygen barriers by
Asia/Pacific to support expanding polymer production in crosslinking polyvinyl alcohol using tetraethoxysilane,
these regions. Use of additive blends, with antioxidants followed by solution casting and solvent evaporation is
and other additives premixed for compounding into the described. Membranes were characterised using Fourier
polymer as a single feedstream, has grown in the last transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction,
decade. High temperature processes require specialised thermogravimetric analysis and gas separation
stabilisation. Chemturas Anox ProcessPlus stabiliser experiments. Oxygen permeability was measured for
blends were designed for improved process stabilisation membranes of two different thicknesses, and was seen to
and colour under severe processing conditions, such as vary with thickness and applied pressure. Films may be
found in PP pipe, BOPP and thin wall injection moulding. suitable for food packaging applications. 20 refs.
The global market for UV stabilisers in plastics was 57 INDIA
thousand metric tons in 2006, with about 60-65% going into Accession no.989293
polyolefin resins. UV stabilisers with application-specific
advantages are being used in areas such as agricultural
film and automotive parts. For example, Ciba Tinuvin Item 25
NOR 371 hindered amine UV and thermal stabiliser Plastics Technology
protects greenhouse and mulch films in the presence of 52, No.11, Nov.2006, p.27
agrochemicals and harsh environmental conditions that CLEAR NYLONS ARE CHEMICAL RESISTANT
can reduce the efficacy of standard HALS. Nylon Corp. of America Inc. (Nycoa) has introduced
WORLD a new line of clear transparent nylons, which targets
Accession no.989023 applications involving exposure to harsh solvents - where

66 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


References and Abstracts

polymers such as polycarbonate and polystyrene are not unsaturated photoinitiators, which makes their use in
suitable. Brief details are given in this short article about medical applications possible. Food-contact applications
the properties of the new Nycotrans resins. are also mentioned. 10 refs.
Nylon Corp.of America Inc. EASTERN EUROPE; POLAND
USA Accession no.989698
Accession no.989540
Item 28
Item 26 Chemical Migration and Food Contact Materials.
Plastics Technology Cambridge, Woodhead Publishing, 2007, p.64-83, ISBN
52, No.12, Dec.2006, p.38-43 084939130X, 24cm, 938
MORE FILLER, LESS RESIN TRACEABILITY AND FOOD CONTACT
MATERIALS
It is explained that, in the world of T-shirt bags and can
Dainelli D
liners, where profit margins are razor thin and resin prices
Sealed Air Corp.; European Plastics Converters Assn.
high, packaging film processors have, over the last year
Edited by: Barnes K A; Sinclair C R; Watson D H
and a half, increased their loadings of calcium carbonate
fillers by about ten percent. This article looks in detail Tracing of all elements that contribute to a finished
at the market for fillers, and the consequences of using product is mainly needed to address quality defects. The
higher loadings. Section headings include: factors pushing good quality of food contact materials is not only a legal
fillers, concentrates improve, filler affects properties, how requirement, but it is in the industrys interest to maintain
output increases, saving on additives, and, equipment a high level of control over its production, which can
modifications. be achieved through suitable traceability systems. This
Ampacet Corp.; Inteplast Group; Battenfeld Gloucester chapter discusses the European regulations associated with
Engineering Co.; Bayshore Industrial Inc.; Heritage the traceability of food contact materials, and provides
Plastics Inc.; Hosokawa Alpine America; Imerys industrial guidelines for this traceability. The limits of
Performance Minerals; Ingenia Polymers Group; traceability systems in plastic processing are examined
Kiefel Inc.; Omya Inc.; Plastics Touchpoint Group with respect to bulk storage of resins, reprocessed
Inc.; Reifenhauser Inc.; Hilex Poly Co.; Heritage Bag; materials, and printing inks. 10 refs.
Formosa Plastics Group; Chemical Market Associates BELGIUM; EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION;
ITALY; WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL
Inc.
CANADA; EUROPE-GENERAL; NORTH AMERICA; TAIWAN; Accession no.987608
THAILAND; USA; WORLD
Accession no.989599 Item 29
Chemical Migration and Food Contact Materials.
Item 27 Cambridge, Woodhead Publishing, 2007, p.87-121,
European Coatings Journal ISBN 084939130X, 24cm, 938
No.2, 2007, p.26-30 COMPLIANCE TESTING OF CHEMICAL
CHOOSING THE RIGHT INITIATOR. MIGRATION FROM FOOD CONTACT
IMPROVED PERFORMANCE OF UV- MATERIALS
CROSSLINKING PRESSURE-SENSITIVE Veraart R; Coulier L
ADHESIVES TNO Quality of Life
Czech Z; Klementowska P; Drzycimska A Edited by: Barnes K A; Sinclair C R; Watson D H
Szczecin,University of Technology
In this chapter, the authors discuss how food contact materials
The use of UV light for crosslinking of adhesives can be tested for compliance with the relevant legislation in
is described and conventional and multifunctional the European Union. Two complementary approaches to
photoinitiators are compared. The importance of the testing are examined. Conventional compliance testing
correct selection of photoinitiators for UV curing of is a target analysis of migrants, based on knowledge of
pressure-sensitive adhesives is discussed. The results of the composition of the food contact material, and a non-
experimental studies of the performance properties (tack, target approach for the non-intentionally added substances
peel adhesion and shear strength) of solvent-borne, acrylic, (NIASs). The main difference between them is that in
pressure-sensitive adhesives, synthesised with different conventional compliance testing, the investigation is focused
amounts of test acryloyloxy photoinitiators and applied on the ingredients (monomers, additives, etc.), used, and on
onto a smooth polyester film, are presented. It is shown how much of these ingredients are present and can potentially
that there is a clear relationship between the performance migrate into the food. In the non-target compliance approach
of UV-crosslinked pressure-sensitive adhesives and the all possible components that can migrate to the food are
correct unsaturated photoinitiators and that very high included, with the focus on components that were included
shear strengths can be achieved using multifunctional in the polymer without the intention to be added. These

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 67


References and Abstracts

include components such as oligomers, by-products, reaction Item 32


products and impurities, etc. The methods of compliance Chemical Migration and Food Contact Materials.
testing are described, with details of relevant European test Cambridge, Woodhead Publishing, 2007, p.271-302,
standards and procedures. 63 refs. ISBN 084939130X, 24cm, 938
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; RUBBER AND CHEMICAL MIGRATION INTO
NETHERLANDS; WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE- FOOD
GENERAL Forrest M
Accession no.987609 Rapra Technology
Edited by: Barnes K A; Sinclair C R; Watson D H
Item 30 In contrast to plastics, rubbers are rarely used in the
Chemical Migration and Food Contact Materials. packaging of food products. Exceptions to this include
Cambridge, Woodhead Publishing, 2007, p.158-179, the use of rubber in flip top seals on beer bottles and the
ISBN 084939130X, 24cm, 938 seal that is present in food cans. However, in the food
TOXICOLOGY AND RISK ASSESSMENT processing industry, a number of situations exist where
OF CHEMICAL MIGRANTS FROM FOOD significant contact between rubber and food can occur.
CONTACT MATERIALS Variations in contact conditions have an important effect on
Arvidson K B; Cheeseman M A; McDougal A J the potential of chemical species to migrate from the rubber
US,Food & Drug Administration components into the foodstuff, and in general, the contact
Edited by: Barnes K A; Sinclair C R; Watson D H times are usually short and the contact areas with the
In the US, components of food contact materials are exception of hose and belting, are small. It is common for
regulated as food additives under the Federal Food, Drug, a rubber formulation to contain 10-15 ingredients, hence
and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). The FDA has the responsibility there is a large range of monomers, oligomers, processing
for the administration and enforcement of the FFDCA aids and compounding ingredients to be taken into account
with regard to food contact materials. This chapter gives when considering the potential for migration. This chapter
lists the most important classes of rubbers used in the food
an overview of the FDAs current approach to toxicology
industry, the main classes of additives used, and identifies
review and risk assessment for components of food contact
typical food contact conditions. Current European and US
materials. The regulatory framework is described, and
regulations regarding the use of rubber as a food contact
methods for the safety assessment of food additives, including
material are examined. Methods of assessing the safety of
threshold approaches to safety assessment, are discussed. The
rubber as a food contact material are discussed in terms
carcinogenicity risk assessment for constituents of food
of migration testing, fingerprinting potential migrants, and
additives is examined, together with the use of a structure-
determination of species in rubbers and migrants in food
activity relationship analysis technique. 44 refs.
simulants and food products. 34 refs.
USA
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; USA;
Accession no.987611 WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL
Accession no.987616
Item 31
Chemical Migration and Food Contact Materials. Item 33
Cambridge, Woodhead Publishing, 2007, p.228-250, Chemical Migration and Food Contact Materials.
ISBN 084939130X, 24cm, 938 Cambridge, Woodhead Publishing, 2007, p.302-319,
PLASTICS AND CHEMICAL MIGRATION INTO ISBN 084939130X, 24cm, 938
FOOD FOOD PACKAGING INKS AND VARNISHES AND
Cooper I CHEMICAL MIGRATION INTO FOOD
Pira International Aurela B; Soderhjelm L
Edited by: Barnes K A; Sinclair C R; Watson D H KCL Finland
This chapter is primarily devoted to assessing the safety of Edited by: Barnes K A; Sinclair C R; Watson D H
food-contact materials. It includes a brief discussion on the This chapter deals with the use of printing inks and varnishes
different plastics used in the manufacture of food-contact used on food packaging. It describes the processes and
materials, their key attributes and properties, composition problems relating to printing on food packaging, dealing
and manufacture. The requirements of the EU Plastics primarily with the components of ink and their possible
Directive are examined, and shows how compliance with migration into the packaged foodstuffs. Sensory (odour and
the legislation is demonstrated. Degradation products are taint) aspects and testing thereof is covered and statutory
reviewed, followed by a section on future trends in plastics requirements are discussed. 12 refs.
materials, and source of further information. 21 refs. EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FINLAND;
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN SCANDINAVIA; WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-
EUROPE GENERAL
Accession no.987614 Accession no.987617

68 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


References and Abstracts

Item 34 Item 36
Chemical Migration and Food Contact Materials. Composites Science and Technology
Cambridge, Woodhead Publishing, 2007, p. 320-332, 67, No.3-4, 2007, p.399-405
ISBN 084939130X, 24cm, 938 SLIDING WEAR PERFORMANCE OF
FOOD PACKAGING ADHESIVES AND POLYAMIDE 6-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES IN
CHEMICAL MIGRATION INTO FOOD WATER
Bradley E; Castle L Srinath G; Gnanamoorthy R
UK,Dept.for the Environment,Food & Rural Affairs; Indian Institute of Technology
UK,Central Science Laboratory Polyamide 6 (PA6) clay nanocomposites, a new class of
Edited by: Barnes K A; Sinclair C R; Watson D H specialty polymer, shows improved tribological properties
under dry sliding conditions. In food and chemical industry,
The possibility of adhesive chemicals used in food the polymeric materials are widely used in the machine
packaging migrating into the foods is discussed. The elements due its excellent chemical inertness. Water, being a
many different types of adhesives and the wide variety of widely used solvent, tends to have contact with the machine
ways in which they can be used, influence the potential elements and can either act as a lubricant or as a contaminant.
for migration of chemicals into the packaged food. The Many factors such as the interaction of polymer with water,
two main parameters considered therefore are the surface surface wettability, etc., play a major role on the friction and
area of the adhesive used, and the residual content of low wear of polymers in aqueous conditions. This work reports
molecular weight substances. Examples are given of the the sliding wear performance of PA6 clay nanocomposites
adhesive types used in food packaging applications, and in water. Addition of clay affects the crystallinity of the
their typical application. For each type, details are given nanocomposites, which in turn affects the plasticisation.
of the potential for chemical migration, and how the safety Plasticisation of the surface by water causes increase in wear
of these substances can be tested experimentally. The and decreases the coefficient of friction. 18 refs.
current regulatory situation in the EU and USA is also INDIA
briefly discussed. 23 refs. Accession no.987687
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; USA;
WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Item 37
Accession no.987618 Rubberchem 2006. Proceedings of a conference, held
Munich, Germany, 5th-6th Dec.2006.
Shawbury, Rapra Technology, 2006, Paper 2, pp.30,
Item 35
ISBN 1847350054, ISBN 9781847350053, 29cm, 012
Chemical Migration and Food Contact Materials.
BREAKDOWN PRODUCTS OF CURATIVES AND
Cambridge, Woodhead Publishing, 2007, p.3476-370,
ANTIDEGRADANTS USED TO PRODUCE FOOD
ISBN 084939130X, 24cm, 938
CONTACT ELASTOMERS
CHEMICAL MIGRATION FROM MULTI-LAYER Forrest M J; Coulier L; Willoughby B G; Thorn A
PACKAGING INTO FOOD Rapra Technology; TNO Nutrition & Food Research
Sidwell J (Rapra Technology)
Rapra Technology
A report is presented on an extensive research project
Edited by: Barnes K A; Sinclair C R; Watson D H
carried out for the UK Food Standards Agency to obtain
The potential for chemical migration from multilayer information on the breakdown and reaction products of
packaging into food is discussed. Multilayer technology curatives and antidegradants having the potential to migrate
enables several materials to be combined in a laminated into food. The curatives and antidegradants targeted are
structure in order to optimise the properties of the those present in the inventory list contained within the
packaging for a specific end use applications. This Council of Europe Resolution on Rubber. The objectives
structure can be achieved by co-extrusion or by laminating of the project were to provide a comprehensive list of the
breakdown products originating from the 161 curative
films using adhesives. Potential chemical migration is
and antidegradant compounds in the inventory list and to
influenced by the choice of materials and the additives
carry out a programme of work on test rubber compounds
used for the different layers, and whether the food-contact
containing a selection of the curatives and antidegradants
surface layers acts as a barrier to migratory species from using both food simulants and food products to assess
underlying materials. Most migration research relates to the the potential of the breakdown products to migrate.
migration of species from laminating adhesives. Typical Investigative techniques employed included headspace gas
multilayer constructions and materials are described, with chromatography-mass spectroscopy and solvent extraction
details of the adhesives commonly used, and their potential gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy.
for chemical migration. 11 refs. UK,Food Standards Agency
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION;
EUROPE NETHERLANDS; UK; WESTERN EUROPE
Accession no.987620 Accession no.988268

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 69


References and Abstracts

Item 38 HIGH BARRIER SOLUTIONS FOR PLASTIC


ANTEC 2006. Proceedings of the 64th SPE Annual CONTAINERS USING FLUORINATION
conference held Charlotte, NC., 7th-11th May 2006. PROCESS
Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2006, p.2660-4, PDF 103707, CD- Singh B
ROM, 012 Bloom Packaging Pvt.Ltd.
STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF BIAXIALLY
HDPE/PP rigid containers can be treated with fluorine gas
ORIENTED POLYPROPYLENES (BOPP)
to form high barrier fluorinated plastic containers. The
Dias P; Hiltner A; Baer E; Van Dun J; Chen H; Chum S P fluorination process and theory of solvent permeation and
Case Western Reserve University; Dow Chemical Co. barrier function are outlined. Fluorination treatment is
(SPE) quantified using FTIR. A table showing the conversion of %
The solid-state structure, mechanical properties, and transmission ratio to level of fluorination is given. Permeation
gas transport of biaxially oriented polypropylenes are test data of fluorinated HDPE containers are also presented.
investigated. Specifically, the effect of chain architecture Applications of fluorinated plastic containers include
on processing conditions and resulting properties of agrochemicals, flavours (food products) and fragrances
the oriented films is studied. Relationships between the (non-food products), automotive fuels and fuel additives,
process, solid state structure, and properties are described. automotive fuel tanks, aromatic and non-polar chemicals,
6 refs. solvent based adhesives, and inks, paints and thinners.
USA INDIA

Accession no.986417 Accession no.985858

Item 39 Item 41
Addcon World 2006. Proceedings of the 12th ENDS Report
International Plastics Additives and Modifiers No.384, Jan.2007, p.24-25
Conference, held Cologne, Germany, 17th -18th EXPERTS CONCERNED OVER HEALTH RISKS
Oct.2006. OF ORGANOTINS
Shawbury, Rapra Technology, 2006, Paper 2, pp.14, Organotins are used as pesticides, biocides, catalysts
ISBN 1847350038, ISBN 9781847350039, 29cm, 012 and stabilisers, but have immunotoxic and endocrine
LEGISLATION AND TESTING OF FOOD disrupting effects. They have also been linked to obesity.
CONTACT PLASTICS - AN UPDATE WITH The European Commission has rejected a third draft risk
RESPECT TO ADDITIVES assessment for underestimating the dangers. The biggest
Sidwell J sources of human exposure to organotins are considered to
Rapra Technology be: food, particularly seafood which can be contaminated
(Rapra Technology) by organotins used in antifouling paint; indoor air and
This paper reviews the current regulatory position within dust where PVC flooring and wall coverings contain
the European Union with regard to the selection of organotins as stabilisers; skin absorption via clothing,
additives and related substances for plastics in contact where organotins may be present in PVC coatings or
with foods. The European Commission is moving in textiles where they may be used as a biocide. The
towards compiling a positive list of approved substances. assessment does not consider exposure to organotins via
Topical issues associated with the migration of several PVC medical equipment, silicone breast implants or rubber
additives are discussed. These include: benzophenone pillows, and these need to be investigated.
and isopropyl thioxanthone photoinitiators in UV curable EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; WESTERN
EUROPE-GENERAL
printing ink systems; epoxidised soyabean oil in PVC
formulations; phthalate plasticisers; ethyl hexanoic acid; Accession no.985877
bisphenol A; bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE);
and aromatic amines from laminating adhesives. Current Item 42
research undertaken at Rapra to examine the migration of 2004 PLACE Conference. Proceedings of a conference
additives, including antioxidants, stabilisers and antistatic held Indianapolis, In., 29th Aug.-2nd Sept.2004.
agents, using chromatographic techniques based on mass Atlanta, Ga., TAPPI Press, 2004, Paper 27, pp.7, CD-
spectrometry, is reviewed. 15 refs. ROM, 012
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; WESTERN FLEXIBLE PACKAGING ADHESIVES - THE
EUROPE-GENERAL BASICS
Accession no.985580 Jopko L
Rohm & Haas Co.
(TAPPI)
Item 40
Popular Plastics and Packaging Flexible packaging adhesives, which are predominantly
52, No.1, Jan.2007, p.84-89 based on urethane and acrylic chemistry, are discussed with

70 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


References and Abstracts

emphasis on basic chemistries, end-use performance levels film were investigated. Oxygen barrier performance was
and some chemical features that dictate performance. The reported. The technology was developed for food, medical
general components of a PU adhesive are described, including and industrial end uses. 3 refs.
polyol, backbone modifiers, isocyanate, and the creation of USA
urethane is outlined. The advantages and disadvantages of Accession no.986385
solvent-based, 100% solids and PU dispersion adhesives are
considered. Acrylic-based, polyvinylidene chloride-based Item 45
and energy-cured adhesives (i.e. UV cured and electron 2004 PLACE Conference. Proceedings of a conference
beam cured) are also discussed. held Indianapolis, In., 29th Aug.-2nd Sept.2004.
Accession no.986358 Atlanta, Ga., TAPPI Press, 2004, Paper 57, pp.6, CD-
ROM, 012
Item 43 EVALUATION OF LOW VOLTAGE ELECTRON
BEAM PROCESSORS USING THIN FILM
2004 PLACE Conference. Proceedings of a conference
DOSIMETRY TECHNIQUES
held Indianapolis, In., 29th Aug.-2nd Sept.2004.
Rangwalla I
Atlanta, Ga., TAPPI Press, 2004, Paper 47, pp.9, CD-
Energy Sciences Inc.
ROM, 012
(TAPPI)
HIGH PERFORMANCE STRETCH HOOD
PACKAGING FILMS USING METALLOCENE Thin film dosimetry is described and the use of radiochromic
POLYETHYLENE nylon thin film from Far West Technologies is discussed.
Halle R W; Ohlsson S; Weisinger D R The dosimetric evaluation of low voltage electron beam
ExxonMobil Chemical accelerators used to cure coatings, inks and laminating
(TAPPI) adhesives, especially for food flexible packaging
applications, is considered. The analysis of the performance
A stretch hood is a type of product protection system, of electron beam processors is examined with reference
commonly used to unitise and secure palletised products to yield measurements, beam uniformity, and depth dose.
during shipping and storage. The use of a combination of Future developments are mentioned. 5 refs.
a metallocene-catalysed PE with a new EVA copolymer
Far West Technologies
(vinyl acetate content 7.5%, melt index 0.5) to produce a USA
new high-performance stretch hood film is described. The
Accession no.986388
coextruded film is shown to outperform both conventional
monolayer and coextruded films in several different stretch
hood and shrink hood applications. These applications Item 46
include stretch hood films for building materials, 2004 PLACE Conference. Proceedings of a conference
held Indianapolis, In., 29th Aug.-2nd Sept.2004.
heavy-duty sacks, empty PETP bottles, appliances, and
Atlanta, Ga., TAPPI Press, 2004, Paper 58, pp.9, CD-
beverages, food and bottled goods. Statistics are given on
ROM, 012
global stretch hood market growth and on market segment
ADVANCING THE USE OF UV/EB MATERIALS
estimates for 2003 to 2010. 1 ref.
IN FOOD PACKAGING ALLIANCE
ASIA; BELGIUM; EU; EUROPE-GENERAL; EUROPEAN
COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; USA; WESTERN EUROPE;
Golden R; Marrapese M
WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Surface Specialties; Keller & Heckman LLP; Radtech
International North America
Accession no.986378
(TAPPI)
The work of the RadTech Food Packaging Alliance, which
Item 44
is a self-funded group with the objective of serving as a
2004 PLACE Conference. Proceedings of a conference
catalyst for expanding the use of UV and electron beam(EB)
held Indianapolis, In., 29th Aug.-2nd Sept.2004.
materials in food packaging, is described. Particular attention
Atlanta, Ga., TAPPI Press, 2004, Paper 54, pp.7, CD-
is paid to the work of the Alliance aimed at accomplishing
ROM, 012 one or more successful Food Contact Notifications(FCNs)
HOW TO APPLY AN OXYGEN BARRIER of UV/EB workhorse materials. The FCNs will establish a
PRIMER WITH A ROLL COATER public baseline for what the FDA will accept in designing
Cushing G; Ostness L UV/EB formulations for food packaging uses. Migration
Mica Corp.; Black Clawson Converting Machinery Inc. studies are reported and substances cleared for use in paper
(TAPPI) coatings, can coatings, films, adhesives and printing inks in
A water-based primer was developed which imparted contact with foodstuffs are considered.
oxygen barrier properties and strong interlayer adhesion RadTech Food Packaging Alliance; US,Food & Drug
to film and metallised film substrates. Direct and reverse Administration
gravure coating techniques for achieving a smooth, level USA
coating of the Mica M-2345 coating on oriented PETP Accession no.986389

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 71


References and Abstracts

Item 47 Item 50
2004 PLACE Conference. Proceedings of a conference Woodston, Recoup, 2006, pp.4, 30cm. Available from:
held Indianapolis, In., 29th Aug.-2nd Sept.2004. www.recoup.org/design/docs/recycability_pet.pdf
Atlanta, Ga., TAPPI Press, 2004, Paper 61, pp.12, CD- (Accessed 2nd October 2006)
ROM, 012 DESIGNING PET PACKAGING FOR
NEW EVAL EVOH RESINS FOR FLEXIBLE RECYCLABILITY: A BRIEF GUIDE
PACKAGING Reckitt Benckiser
Armstrong R B, EVAL Americas (USA)
(Recoup)
(TAPPI)
This guideline focuses on the design of PET bottles
The use of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers(EVOHs)
to facilitate recycling. It provides a summary of
of varying mol % ethylene, including new grades of
EVOH optimised for high-speed coextrusion coating key considerations to make plastic packaging more
and laminating, is discussed, with particular reference to recyclability. Advice is provided in the form of a set of
basic properties and processability, gas, flavour and aroma general guidelines together with compatibility matrices
barrier properties, and thermal stability. An overview of for PET bottles materials.
applications and structures is presented. 8 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN
USA EUROPE

Accession no.986392 Accession no.982665

Item 48 Item 51
Journal of Plastic Film and Sheeting Woodston, Recoup, 2006, pp.4, 30cm. Available from:
22, No.4, Oct.2006, p.265-274 www.recoup.org/design/docs/recycability_pvc.pdf
COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE (Accessed 2nd October 2006)
AND BARRIER PROPERTIES OF DESIGNING PVC PACKAGING FOR
BIODEGRADABLE THERMOPLASTICS AND RECYCLABILITY: A BRIEF GUIDE
NANOBIOCOMPOSITES VERSUS PET FOR Reckitt Benckiser
FOOD PACKAGING APPLICATIONS (Recoup)
Cava D; Gimenez E; Gavara R; Lagaron J M
IATA; CSIC; Castellon,University; Nanobiomatters Ltd. This guideline focuses on the design of PVC packaging
to facilitate recycling. It provides a summary of
The performance of packaging films made from biodegradable
key considerations to make plastic packaging more
polylactic acid, amorphous polylactic acid, polycaprolactone,
hydroxyalkanoate-valerate copolymer and their clay- recyclability. Advice is provided in the form of a set of
containing nanocomposites is compared with those produced general guidelines together with compatibility matrices
from PETP in terms of heat and retort resistance and for PVC packaging materials.
permeability to water, aromas, oxygen and solvents. 10 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN
(SPE, ANTEC 2005, 1st-5th May, Boston, Massachusetts) EUROPE

EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; SPAIN; Accession no.982666


WESTERN EUROPE
Accession no.985124 Item 52
Woodston, Recoup, 2006, pp.4, 30cm. Available from:
Item 49 www.recoup.org/design/docs/recycability_ps.pdf
Woodston, Recoup, 2006, pp.4, 30cm. Available from: (Accessed 2nd October 2006)
www.recoup.org/design/docs/recycability_hdpe.pdf DESIGNING POLYSTYRENE PACKAGING FOR
(Accessed 2nd October 2006) RECYCLABILITY: A BRIEF GUIDE
DESIGNING POLYETHYLENE PACKAGING Reckitt Benckiser
FOR RECYCLABILITY: A BRIEF GUIDE
(Recoup)
Reckitt Benckiser (Recoup)
This guideline focuses on the design of polystyrene
This guideline focuses on the design of polyethylene
packaging to facilitate recycling. It provides a summary
plastic packaging to facilitate recycling. It provides a
summary of key considerations to make plastic packaging of key considerations to make plastic packaging more
more recyclability. Advice is provided in the form of a set recyclability. Advice is provided in the form of a set of
of general guidelines together with compatibility matrices general guidelines together with compatibility matrices
for polyethylene materials. for polystyrene packaging materials.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN
EUROPE EUROPE
Accession no.982664 Accession no.982667

72 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


References and Abstracts

Item 53 alkali. It is based on a modified polyol resin and two types


Woodston, Recoup, 2006, pp.4, 30cm. Available from: of polyisocyanate hardening accelerators.
www.recoup.org/design/docs/recycability_pp.pdf Adeka Corp.
(Accessed 2nd October 2006) JAPAN
DESIGNING POLYPROPYLENE FOR Accession no.981671
RECYCLABILITY: A BRIEF GUIDE
Reckitt Benckiser
(Recoup) Item 56
High Performance Plastics
This guideline focuses on the design of polypropylene Aug.2006, p.8/9
packaging to facilitate recycling. It provides a summary BIODEGRADABLE PLASTIC THAT SOLIDIFIES
of key considerations to make plastic packaging more IN SECONDS
recyclability. Advice is provided in the form of a set of
general guidelines together with compatibility matrices At the Tokyo Institute of Technology in Japan, scientists
for polypropylene packaging materials. have now found a method of rapidly curing polylactic
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN acid (PLA), in order to make biodegradable plastic for
EUROPE applications such as food containers. This small item
Accession no.982668 reports very briefly on their research, which involves
adding cyclodextrin microparticles to the PLA.
Tokyo,Institute of Technology
Item 54 JAPAN
Journal of Applied Polymer Science
Accession no.982084
102, No.6, 15th Dec.2006 p.5841-5847
ANTIMICROBIAL POLY(N-VINYL-2-
PYRROLIDONE-ALT-MALEIC ANHYDRIDE)/ Item 57
POLY(ETHYLENE IMINE) MACROCOMPLEXES Chemical Week
Temiz A; Togay S O; Sener A; Guven G; Rzaev Z M O; 167, No.41, 30th Nov.-7th Dec.2005, p.42
Piskin E RAD TECHNOLOGY
Hacettepe,University Technology advances help UV/EB-curable adhesives
Preparation of antimicrobial polymer and polymer expand into new applications. With a reduced level of
macro complexes of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone-alt-maleic VOCs, ease of handling, high performance and flow
anhydride), using radical alternating polymerisation characteristics said to be better than solvent- and water-
initiated by azobisisobutyronitrile) in dioxane and based formulations, adhesives usage for radiation curing is
interaction with polyethyleneimine (PEI) in aqueous sustaining double-digit growth. Laminating glues is by far
solution, is described. Characterisation was carried out the largest application, while pressure-sensitive adhesives
using elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared is among the fastest-growing UV/EB end products. Cytec
and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies, is focusing on developing the next generation of UV-
thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning curable waterborne resins for plastic and wood substrates,
calorimetry, determination of nitrogen content and leading-edge UV/EB applications in coil coatings and auto
intrinsic viscosity measurements. Antimicrobial refinish, and environmentally friendly, low-odour and low-
properties of both alternating copolymer and its PEI extractable products for use in food packaging.
macrocomplexes were evaluated against gram-positive RadTech International North America; Cytec
and gram-negative bacteria. Differences in behaviour to USA
two gram-positive bacteria were discussed and explained. Accession no.954744
49 refs.
TURKEY
Item 58
Accession no.982907 ANTEC 2005. Proceedings of the 63rd SPE Annual
conference held Boston, Ma., 1st-5th May.
Item 55 Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2005, pp.7, PDF 101619, CD-
Japan Chemical Week ROM, 012
47, No.2394, 30th Nov.2006, p.2 ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGH
ADEKA MARKETS NEW, FAST-HARDENING CONTRAST & COLOR LASER MARKING OF
POLYMER CEMENT PLASTICS
Sabreen S R
It is briefly reported that Adeka has started marketing
Sabreen Group Inc.
its new polymer cement as a floor material for kitchens
(SPE)
and food and chemicals factories. The new cement is an
improved version of the Adeka New Coat System, a floor The newest generation of laser material science and hardware/
material with high resistance to boiling water, acid and software is driving strong industry demand for indelible, high

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 73


References and Abstracts

speed laser marking processes to replace conventional ink mechanical properties of the printed films was studied.
printing. This paper presents a total solutions methodology Instron tensile strength, Mocon permeability test and
for achieving unprecedented marking contrast quality and thermodynamic results were obtained that suggested that
colour laser marking of plastics via concomitant engineering there was no appreciable change in the physical properties
of: 1) laser additive material science, 2) primary moulding when the films were printed with UV curing inks. 6 refs.
operations, 3) laser/software technology, and 4) systems USA
integration. The first of its kind laser pigment to receive U.S. Accession no.958685
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for use in
laser processes is introduced as well as techniques to achieve
high speed vector marking of alphanumeric text, graphics Item 61
and product security codes. 4 refs. Asian Plastics News
USA
Jan.-Feb.2006, p.14/7
BETTER LIVING THROUGH ADDITIVES
Accession no.955951 Boi K
End users from various industries are leveraging heavily
Item 59 on the latest developments in polymer additives to provide
Food Additives and Contaminants options for improving processing and for raising the
22, No.10, Oct.2005, p.1012-22 quality of everyday products. BASF is positioning its
NON-TARGETED MULTI-COMPONENT Hexamoll DINCH as a choice non-phthalate plasticiser for
ANALYTICAL SURVEILLANCE OF sensitive human contact applications in toys and childcare
PLASTIC FOOD CONTACT MATERIALS: articles, as well as food contact and medical applications.
IDENTIFICATION OF SUBSTANCES NOT Chemturas Anox No Dust Blends of antioxidants include
INCLUDED IN EU POSITIVE LISTS AND THEIR Anox FiberPlus for the process stabilisation of PP fibre
RISK ASSESSMENT grades and Anox ProcessPlus for process stabilisation of
Skjevrak I; Brede C; Steffensen I-L; Mikalsen A; PP and HDPE. Hyperform HPN-68L nucleating agent from
Alexander J; Fjeldal P; Herikstad H Milliken is developed as a new class of nucleators that
Norwegian Food Safety Authority; Norwegian Institute offer improvements over the conventional and advanced
of Public Health nucleation technologies used for PP. In nanocomposite
A procedure used by the Norwegian Food Safety Authority developments, PolyOne is investigating the use of its
for surveillance of contaminants from plastic food materials, Nanoblend concentrates for large injection moulded parts,
based on GC-MS analysis of food simulants exposed to replacing traditional mineral or glass reinforcements
the plastic materials, is described. Migrants identified from and flame-retardant additives in a wide variety of resin
polyolefin water bottles, electric kettles, polyamide cooking compounds.
utensils and laminated food packaging included polymer WORLD
degradation products and impurities, as well as extraneous Accession no.959514
materials such as adhesives, solvents and coatings. 36 refs.
NORWAY; SCANDINAVIA; WESTERN EUROPE
Item 62
Accession no.958019 Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
22, No.1, 2006, p.1-21
Item 60 CONTAMINANTS AND THEIR LEVELS OF
ANTEC 2005. Proceedings of the 63rd SPE Annual RETENTION IN EXTRUDED, RECYCLED
conference held Boston, Ma., 1st-5th May. POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE)
Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2005, pp.3, PDF 102096, CD- FROM CURBSIDE COLLECTION. PART 1:
ROM, 012 EXTRACTION KINETICS AND PARTICLE SIZE
IMPACT OF UV CURED INKS AND UV EFFECTS
EXPOSURE ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF Konkol L M; Cross R F; Harding I H; Kosior E
BOPP FILMS Swinburne,University of Technology; Visy Technical
Shrotri K; Upasani T; Williams S; Seung Kim; Centre
Kamaran Rab Extruded recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate)(PET) from
Rochester,Institute of Technology kerbside collections was subjected to solvent extraction and
(SPE) GC-MS analysis as particles after annealing and grinding
Biaxially-oriented PP(BOPP) films are extensively used to determine contaminants and their levels. The effects of
in the food packaging industry primarily because of their particle size on the extraction and analysis process were
good barrier properties, machinability and printability. The investigated, and the results are discussed in terms of food
effect of flexographic UV-cured acrylic inks on BOPP films contact applications of the recycled PET. 13 refs.
was investigated with emphasis on permeability towards AUSTRALIA
oxygen and moisture. The temperature dependence of the Accession no.959703

74 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


References and Abstracts

Item 63 stages in the moulding cycle. The additives are mixed


China Chemical Reporter with the polymer prior to melting in the injection extruder.
17, No.4-5, 6th-16th Feb.2006, p.22-3 Since the additive works internally, it works automatically
MALEIC ANHYDRIDE CAPACITY IS SERIOUS within the polymer during the moulding cycle to effect
SURPLUS many benefits. These include effective mould release,
and post-moulding benefits such as torque release, a
Maleic anhydride is an important organic chemical raw
reduction in surface friction, scratch and scuff resistance,
material and fine chemical product mainly used in the
post-moulding part assembly, and pigment dispersion.
production of unsaturated polyester and alkyd resin, and
Improvements to cycle time are also examined.
also in pesticides, pharmaceuticals, coatings, ink, lubricants,
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN
food additives and surfactants. The total capacity of maleic EUROPE
anhydride in China is more than 420,000 t/y, with an output
of 236,000 tons in 2004. Capacity is concentrated in the Accession no.961389
north and the market is already saturated. East China and
South China, however, are the major producing areas of Item 66
UPR and there is a supply shortage of maleic anhydride. China Chemical Reporter
Several units are to be constructed or expanded in the near 17, No.7, 6th March 2006, p.15
future. If these projects can start production on schedule, WHAT IS LEADING FLEXIBLE PACKAGE
capacity of maleic anhydride in China will be more than MATERIAL TO GROW
500,000 t/y in 2010. Demand was around 227,000 tons in Wang D
2004 and will reach 393,000 tons in 2010.
China has over 5,000 flexible packaging producers
CHINA
with a total capacity of more than 1.8 million t/y. Film
Accession no.960278 manufacturers such as DuPont, Dow and Shell have been
active suppliers of BOPP and BOPETP in Chinas market,
Item 64 while the OPS thermal shrink film market is controlled
Plastics and Rubber Weekly by Japanese companies. PVDC, EVOH, high-insulating
24th Feb.2006, p.11 aluminium foil film and modified PVA coating film will
PLASTICS PACKAGING, YES PLEASE be the future development direction in Chinas flexible
According to a new report from Frost & Sullivan, market packaging market. In inks, chlori-PP ink holds a 60%
revenues for flexible food packaging in western Europe market share in China and polyamide ink a 30% market
will increase from Euro1.491bn in 2005 to Euro1.926bn by share. Water-based adhesives and alcohol-based ink have
2012. Greater demand for processed foods by consumers is entered a good development period in China. Currently,
supporting the need for plastic packaging, with emphasis 90% of flexible packaging adhesives are solvent-based,
on multilayer structures and vacuum packaging. Low- but water-based acrylic adhesives, mainly sold by Rohm
weight stand-up pouches are replacing alternatives such as & Haas, and PU adhesives are gaining more market share
cans and glass jars. Improvements in the properties of PE, in China.
achieved by new synthesis methods, will contribute to the CHINA
polymers sustained growth. PP producers are investing Accession no.961486
in R&D efforts for catalysis development, aiming at
commercialising new grades, which are expected to reach Item 67
the market by 2006-07. Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2005, 18 papers, 30cm, 012
Frost & Sullivan 4TH EUROPEAN ADDITIVES AND COLORS
WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL CONFERENCE. PROCEEDINGS OF A
Accession no.960295 CONFERENCE HELD AACHEN, GERMANY,
16TH-17TH MARCH 2005
Item 65 (SPE,Additives & Color Europe Div.)
Injection Moulding 2005. Proceedings of a conference Eighteen papers are published following this 2 day
held Copenhagen, Denmark, 1st.-2nd. March 2005.. conference focusing on the modification and colouration
Copenhagen, Hexagon Holdings Aps, 2005, Paper 10, of plastics and polymers in Europe. Papers include:
pp.12, CD-ROM, 012 additives for improved optical appearance of plastics, low
TAILORED MOULD RELEASE FOR OPTIMUM warping pigments for colouration of moulded articles,
OUTPUT wetting agents for pigment dispersion: advantages and
Read M disadvantages, nano clay additives for oxygen and
Croda Polymer Additives humidity barrier of polymers.
(Hexagon Holdings Aps)
EUROPE-GENERAL; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN
Details are given of the IncroMold range of additives UNION; GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE
which aid in the injection moulding process at various Accession no.961604

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 75


References and Abstracts

Item 68 phase process ethylene-hexene resin. The resins were


POLYOLEFINS 2005. Proceedings of a conference held characterised to evaluate their behaviour under processing
Houston, Tx., 27th. Feb. - 2nd. March 2005. conditions and their overall performance in injection
Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2005, Paper 3, pp.10, CD-ROM, moulding applications. 4 refs.
012 USA
METALLOCENE-CATALYZED Accession no.962389
POLYETHYLENES FOR THE GLOBAL LLDPE
MARKET
Farley J M; Davey C R; Kolb R Item 70
Univation Technologies Brand
(SPE,South Texas Section; SPE,Thermoplastic 5, No.2, Jan.-Feb.2006, p.34-9
Materials & Foams Div.; SPE,Polymer Modifiers & LET THERE BE LIGHT
Additives Div.; Society of Plastics Engineers) Vine K
Pira
A description is given of next generation metallocene-
catalysed linear, low density polyethylenes. Advances In todays market, point of purchase decisions are all
in catalyst and process technologies have allowed the important and there is an increasing market trend for the
production of polymers with tailored microstructures using use of transparent packaging. However, the disadvantage of
a single, gas-phase reactor. The comonomer and molecular using clear packaging is that it lets in unfiltered light, which
weight distributions are determiners of the ultimate balance has a detrimental effect on food and drink, particularly dairy,
of properties. Both can be controlled by the choice of catalyst meats and fresh juices. As well as discolouration, more
system and reactor process conditions. This ability to tune serious effects include reducing shelf-life, effect on product
polymer properties allows the resin producer to optimise flavour and reduction of nutritional content. The quest is on
grades for specific applications. In addition, the converter to develop packaging films and containers with high clarity
can further optimise the balance of film properties by and high barrier to sun and artificial light. Research has
adjusting the fabrication process. Commodity grades such as shown that the main cause of the damaging effects of light
liners or stretch film as well as value-added grades for food on food and drink products is the process of photooxidation.
packaging can be produced without a catalyst transition. The To an extent, products can be protected from the effects of
enhanced polymer performance combined with the attractive light by reducing exposure to oxygen. The number of factors
economics of the Unipol gas-phase reactor are claimed to that influence the effects of light makes it very difficult to
make this new technology widely applicable to the global provide a universal packaging structure.
LLDPE market. Market trends and recent developments at WORLD
Univation Technologies are discussed. Accession no.962452
USA
Accession no.962363 Item 71
Flexible
Item 69 4, No.5, Jan.-Feb.2006, p.40/8
POLYOLEFINS 2005. Proceedings of a conference held SOLUBLE ISSUES
Houston, Tx., 27th. Feb. - 2nd. March 2005. Preston N
Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2005, Paper 29, pp.13, CD-ROM, Polyvinyl alcohol is the most commonly used water-
012 soluble film and dissolves within about one minute when
A NEW APPROACH TO ENHANCING immersed in water. The first soluble packaging application
POLYETHYLENE PRODUCT PERFORMANCE on the consumer market was for the packaging of pre-
FOR RIGID THIN WALL LIDS USED FOR FOOD measured pouches of laundry detergents. In Europe alone,
PACKAGING 15% of the laundry detergent market is accounted for
(SPE,South Texas Section; SPE,Thermoplastic by PVAL unit-dose products. The personal care sector,
Materials & Foams Div.; SPE,Polymer Modifiers & including body wash, shampoo and conditioner, is the next
Additives Div.; Society of Plastics Engineers) big area expected to be hit by the soluble film phenomenon.
A new linear low density polyethylene has been developed Sanitary items are another growth area, with significant
for thin walled lids used in rigid food packaging potential for soluble films for tampon packages that the
applications. The resin Surpass IFs932-A from Nova consumer can flush down the toilet. Edible, food-based
Chemicals Corp. is claimed to combine outstanding films represent an alternative to PVAL and have obvious
processability with excellent physical properties and application in food packaging. The US Agricultural
part aesthetics. It is a single-site based ethylene-octene Research Service has developed food-based films that can
copolymer which is produced using Nova Chemicals be used as food wrap or straws, but also dissolve in liquid
advanced Sclairtech technology and patented single- so that they can be eaten too.
site catalyst. It is compared to a Ziegler-Natta solution WORLD
process ethylene-butene resin and a Ziegler-Natta gas Accession no.962458

76 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


References and Abstracts

Item 72 colour-matching system and database) was launched in


High Performance Plastics July 2005. It is called Matchmycolor.com. Brief details
Aug.2005, p.4 are given.
POLYESTER ELASTOMERS WITH BETTER Matchmycolor.com; SpecialChem; Ciba Specialty
THERMAL PROPERTIES Chemicals; DuPont Titanium Technologies; X-Rite;
Ticona, the US engineering thermoplastics company, has Nelli Rodi TrendLab
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE;
recently introduced a series of thermoplastic copolyester WESTERN EUROPE
elastomers that offer enhanced thermal properties. This
short article provides us with brief details of the five new Accession no.963006
grades, which are known as Riteflex 425, Riteflex 430,
Riteflex 435, Riteflex 440, and Riteflex 447. Item 75
Ticona; US,Food & Drug Administration Polimeri
USA 26, No.3, 2005, p.128-32
Accession no.962970 Croatian
SUSPENSION GRADE POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)
AND HAZARDS OF ITS PRODUCTION
Item 73 Kovacic T; Andricic B
Plastics Technology Split,University
51, No.8, Aug.2005, p.52/9
BARRIER BOTTLE TECHNOLOGIES SQUARE In suspension polymerisation of PVC, the monomer, liquid
OFF vinyl chloride(VC), is mechanically dispersed in water and
Grande J A polymerised by monomer-soluble initiator in the presence
of protective colloid. The process is carried out in a batch
Single-serve packaging containers are raising shelf life reactor, in a closed system. From the environmental
demands, so packaging producers are looking for the viewpoint, modern suspension polymerisation exhibits a
barrier with the best cost-performance for PETP bottles. relatively small number of problems. Among them, the most
This article discusses in detail the latest developments in important is monomer carcinogenicity, as demonstrated
multilayer barrier solutions, as well as monolayer, coating, in 1973. Technologists, physicians and scientists were
and oxygen-scavenging technologies. soon engaged and new technological solutions were
Advanced Plastics Technologies; Amcor PET found, which eliminated monomer emission during the
Packaging; Business Development Associates; technological process, exposure of workers to VC, as well
Colormatrix Corp.; DevTech Labs; Futura as the danger of high residual monomer concentration in
Polyesters; Honeywell Specialty Polymers; Husky the polymer. The maximum allowed concentrations of VC
Injection Molding Systems Ltd.; Coca-Cola Co.; were also defined. Modern technology, using degassing
Germany,Institute of Plastics Processing; Invista; Kortec and recovery of excess VC, removal of monomer from
Inc.; M and G Polymers; Mitsubishi Gas Chemical the polymer suspension, wastewater treatment and good
America Inc.; Nanocor Inc.; Schoenwald Consulting; process control, are shown to enable safe plant operation
Sidel Inc.; SIG Corpoplast; SIPA Inc.; Valspar Corp.; and use of PVC in the food and pharmaceutical industries
Wellman Inc.; SBA-CCI WorldPET; Martens; Coors and in medicine. 11 refs.
Brewing Co.; Anheuser-Busch; Hite Brewery Co.; CROATIA
Hyosong Corp.; Oriental Brewing; Graham Packaging; Accession no.965084
Schott Hicotec; Shell Chemical; Kosa; US,Food &
Drug Administration; Rexam; Foroya Bjor; Honeywell
Performance Products Item 76
ASIA; BELGIUM; CANADA; DENMARK; EU; EUROPE- Plastics Additives and Compounding
GENERAL; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; 8, No.2, March-April 2006, p.40-2
GERMANY; INDIA; KOREA; NORTH AMERICA; RUSSIA; STABILIZERS: SOME RECENT
SCANDINAVIA; SOUTH KOREA; UK; UKRAINE; USA;
WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL; WORLD
DEVELOPMENTS
Accession no.963005 Ferro has introduced five environmentally-friendly non-
lead mixed-metal heat stabilisers that offer improved
performance compared to currently available alternatives
Item 74
to lead stabilisers. Therm-Chek 7208P is a calcium-
Plastics Technology
zinc powder stabiliser for high temperature cable and
51, No.8, Aug.2005, p.67
automotive wire applications. Chemturas Mark OBS
COLOR MATCHING GOES ONLINE
Organic Based Stabilizers for rigid and flexible PVC are
This short article informs us that a new subscription-based heavy-metal-free alternatives to traditional lead, Ba/Zn
service for formulating custom colours on the Internet and Ca/Zn stabilisers. To meet the growing need for a
(aimed at smaller companies that do not have their own high performance UV screener for the PETP packaging

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 77


References and Abstracts

industry, Cytec has introduced Cyasorb 3638F light DETERMINE TRANSPORT PROPERTIES AND
stabiliser. Another product, Cyasorb 3808PP5 light INTERACTIONS IN FOOD PACKAGING FILMS
stabiliser, is said to provide outstanding weatherability Cava D; Cabedo L; Gimenez E; Gavara R; Lagaron J M
in interior and exterior automotive TPO. Cytec is also CSIC; Jaume I,Universitat
introducing CEC 350, a light stabiliser product for two-
A simultaneous analysis of the transport properties of water
and three-year greenhouse film applications. through extruded food packaging films made of ethylene-
WORLD
vinyl alcohol copolymers with various ethylene contents
Accession no.965451 (26 to 48 mol %) and of water/polymer interactions was
carried out using FTIR spectroscopy. A characterisation of
Item 77 solvent uptake (water sorption isotherms), diffusion and
New Scientist permeability coefficients as a function of ethylene content
190, No.2549, 29th April 2006, p.25 and relative humidity was performed across the above
DISAPPEARING TATTOO composition range. From the results, a previously unreported
Langmuir contribution was found at low relative humidity
It is briefly reported that new tattoo inks that are safer to conditions for the copolymers, which could be responsible
use and far easier to remove are set to be launched next for the unusual trend in oxygen permeability reported earlier
year. Freedom-2 is planning to introduce a range of dyes for these materials. Furthermore, a distribution of water
that have already been approved by the FDA for use in molecules with different hydrogen bonding strengths and
cosmetics, food, drugs and medical devices. To prevent the different diffusion rates was encountered, which suggested
dyes being absorbed by the body, they are encapsulated in that the interaction and transport properties of moisture in
protective polymer beads just 1-3 micrometres in diameter. these polymers was not a simple and homogeneous process.
This is small enough to allow them to be injected into 14 refs.
the skin and absorbed by skin cells to form a tattoo. The EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; SPAIN;
pigment can be removed by a single laser treatment which WESTERN EUROPE
splits the beads open, dumping the dye into cells where Accession no.966205
it is absorbed.
Freedom-2 Item 80
USA Package Print and Converting International
Accession no.965474 May-June 2006, p.8
HIGH PERFORMANCE PHTHALATE-FREE
WATER-BASED COATING
Item 78
Journal of Macromolecular Science A In recent years, phthalate ester emissions have become a
A43, No.2, 2006, p.315-26 major environmental and health concern. Food packaging
GRAFT COPOLYMERIZATION OF concerns have been focused on the use of phthalate
POLYACRYLAMIDE ONTO TAMARIND plasticisers in inks and coatings, and some packaging films,
MUCILAGE as there is a risk that the phthalates may migrate into foods.
Mishra A; Bajpai M A new generation of water-based coatings available from
Kanpur,Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University Starna Industries, which is free from phthalates such as
DINP, DIDP, DNOP, BBP and DEHP, is Curecoat. Not only
The graft copolymerisation of polyacrylamide onto a water- is Curecoat free from phthalates, the formulae is also free
soluble food grade polysaccharide, Tamarind mucilage, from VOCs and HAPs. Application is via flexo, gravure or
initiated by ceric ion, and characterisation of the products roller coater and drying is via hot air or infrared. Curecoat
by viscosity, FTIR, SEM, DSC, TGA and biodegradation can be used as a primer on coated and non-coated papers,
studies is described. The effects of monomer concentration, foils and fabrics and offers users the possibility as a primer
initiator concentration, reaction time and temperature on on metallised films and papers.
grafting efficiency and degree of grafting were investigated Starna Industries
and the results are discussed. 15 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN
INDIA EUROPE

Accession no.965602 Accession no.967417

Item 79 Item 81
Polymer Testing Brand
5, No.3, March-April 2006, p.42-8
25, No.2, 2006, p.254-61
OIL CHANGE
EFFECT OF ETHYLENE CONTENT ON THE
Vine K
INTERACTION BETWEEN ETHYLENE-VINYL
ALCOHOL COPOLYMERS AND WATER. I. In March 2006, for the first time, biopolymers and oil-based
APPLICATION OF FT-IR SPECTROSCOPY TO polymers have reached the same price by weight. This

78 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


References and Abstracts

removes one of the main barriers to the use of bioplastics, standard solution and from food samples was investigated.
material costs. Biopackaging refers to packaging that is The use of NMR titration experiments and molecular
either biodegradable (it will break down or compost) or modelling in determining the relative ratios of template
sustainable (it is made from a renewable resource). There to functional monomer, and in the choice of solvent as
are three main forms of renewable biopackaging: polylactic porogen and the amount used is discussed. A stepwise
acid, polyhydroxyalkanoates and thermoplastic starch. procedure for the development and testing of a molecularly
Despite the fact that the use of biopackaging is on the imprinted polymer is proposed.
increase, applications are still relatively few and it remains EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; IRELAND;
a niche market. This article looks at whether biopackaging WESTERN EUROPE
will ever be able to move into the mainstream packaging Accession no.967738
market. It examines the main drivers for the biopackaging
industry and how these differ between different global
Item 84
markets, the types of biopackaging being used by retailers
Shawbury, Rapra Technology, 2006, pp. 148, 29 cm.
and brand owners, and the downsides to biopackaging that
Rapra Review Rept. No. 182, vol. 16, No. 2, 2006
are holding the market back.
FOOD CONTACT RUBBERS 2 - PRODUCTS,
WORLD
MIGRATION AND REGULATION
Accession no.967425 Forrest M J
Rapra Technology
Item 82 Edited by: Humphreys S
Shawbury, Smithers Rapra Ltd., 2006, pp.viii, 280, (Rapra Technology)
ISBN 1859575277, 25cm, 6P Rapra Review Report No.182
ASSESSING FOOD SAFETY OF POLYMER This review report gives a comprehensive overview of
PACKAGING the use of rubber as a food contact material. It includes
Vergnaud, J; Rosca I information on the types of rubber and rubber products
(Rapra Technology) used in the industry, formulations, contact regulations and
This book is designed to help current and prospective migration testing regimes. Also included are details of
researchers in the field of food safety in plastic packaging. on-going research to improve its safety, and future trends.
The book is divided into 7 chapters. Chapter 1 is devoted to Some major research projects carried out in the UK are
a theoretical discussion of the process of diffusion through discussed, and a comprehensive survey of the available
a sheet. Chapter 2 is concerned with the transfer of the migration data is included. 257 refs.
contaminants taking place in packages before they are in EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; WESTERN
contact with food. Chapter 3 is devoted to the problems EUROPE-GENERAL
caused by the process of co-extrusion or co-moulding of Accession no.969308
the films or of the packages. Chapter 4 is the chapter in
which some applications of the theoretical considerations Item 85
established in Chapters 1 to 3 are developed further. Chapter Rubber and Plastics News
5 considers the future, when use of active packaging will be 35, No.24, 26th June 2006, p.14-16
widespread. Chapter 6 discusses the misconceptions arising REVIEWING SCIENCE OF COLORING RUBBER
from the processes or misuse of equations. Chapter 7 details COMPOUNDS
the conclusions arising from the book.
Stewart W M
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN
Excel Polymers LLC
EUROPE
Accession no.967542 Colour science is often misunderstood. Rubber
technologists spend years learning how to compound
and develop excellent compound properties, yet few
Item 83
truly understand the importance of colour selection and
Analytica Chimica Acta
dispersion to overall compound properties. This paper
566, No.1, 27th April 2006, p.60-8
reviews the science of colour and appearance then focuses
PREDICTING THE PERFORMANCE OF
upon pigment selection and several types of pigment
MOLECULARLY IMPRINTED POLYMERS:
incorporation technologies. Different light sources can lead
SELECTIVE EXTRACTION OF CAFFEINE BY
to metamerism and surface texture may dramatically affect
MOLECULARLY IMPRINTED SOLID PHASE
the appearance of the colour. The basics of colour science
EXTRACTION
and some different methods for introducing colourants into
Farrington K; Magner E; Regan F
production batches are examined. Looking beyond the
Dublin,City University; Limerick,University
initial raw material cost allows the evaluation of various
The design and synthesis of a molecularly imprinted methods for lower total production cost. It is important
polymer capable of extracting caffeine as template from a to review the costs associated with scrap, cleanup and

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 79


References and Abstracts

efficiency of manufacturing process. Knowledge, quality, short flow times or at low temperatures, it behaves in the
consistency and innovation are important characteristics same way as rubber. This application note describes the
to look for in colour suppliers. analysis of PDMS by GPC using the PL-GPC 50 integrated
USA GPC instrument. Due to the importance of the viscometric
Accession no.970315 properties of the material in many final applications, a PL-
BV 400 viscometer was included in the PL-GPC 50 as well
as the standard refractive index detector. This combination
Item 86 of detectors also allows analysis of the material by the
Plastics Additives and Compounding Universal Calibration method, giving accurate molecular
8, No.3, May-June 2006, p.9 weights which are not reliant on the chemistry of the
EUPOLEN PE BLUE RECEIVES FDA APPROVAL standards used for calibration.
BASFs pigment preparation Eupolen PE Blue 69-1501 EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN
has received Food Contact Notification approval from the EUROPE
American FDA, it is briefly reported. As a result, the product Accession no.970438
can be used in concentrations up to 2% in plastic items
that come into contact with food, including closures for Item 89
drinks bottles, crates for fruit and vegetables, freezer boxes, Plastic Packaging Innovation News
drinks cans, plastic cups and packaging films. Eupolen PE 2, No.9, 27th June 2006, p.8
Blue 69-1501 is a highly concentrated polyolefin-based, BASF RECEIVES FOOD CONTACT APPROVAL
dispersed mono-pigment concentrate. High colour strength, FOR BLUE PIGMENT
good fastness to light and weathering, constant colouristic
properties, good metering properties and a low-dust physical It is briefly reported that BASFs new pigment preparation
form are the characteristics of Eupolen PE Blue 69-1501. could be used in plastic packaging within weeks. Although
BASF the pigment is already on the market, BASF only received
USA approval for food contact use from the US FDA in March
2006. The pigment preparation, Eupolen PE Blue 69-1501,
Accession no.970380
can now be used in concentrations of up to 2% in plastic
packaging that comes into contact with food, such as
Item 87 closures for drinks bottles, plastic cups or packaging films.
Plastic Packaging Innovation News The pigment is also suited for use in all kinds of injection
2, No.8, 13th June 2006, p.7-8 moulding applications such as flatware, plates or closures.
RESEARCHERS DISCOVER COLOURANT BASF
THAT DOESNT STAIN USA
It is briefly reported that researchers have discovered a Accession no.970443
natural yellow pigment that will not stain plastic packaging.
The pigment, called phloridzine oxidation product (POP), Item 90
a by-product of the cider industry, could provide a natural Food Additives and Contaminants
alternative to existing yellow pigments such as tartrazine 23, No.7, July 2006, p.726-737
and carotene. POP is completely water soluble and can be EXAMINATION OF STYRENE-
used in both the food and cosmetics industries. DIVINYLBENZENE ION-EXCHANGE RESINS,
INRA USED IN CONTACT WITH FOOD, FOR
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE;
POTENTIAL MIGRANTS
WESTERN EUROPE
Sidwell J A; Willoughby B G
Accession no.970426 Rapra Technology Ltd.
The nature of extractable substances from various styrene-
Item 88 divinylbenzene ion exchange resins, including strong
LCGC Europe acid cation resins, strong and weak base anion resins
19, No.7, Suppl., July 2006, p.41 and an active carbon replacement resin (macroporous
ANALYSIS OF POLYDIMETHYL SILOXANE BY crosslinked PS based Macronet with a very high internal
GPC VISCOMETRY surface area) was investigated by means of electrospray
Saunders G liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy- and gas
Polymer Laboratories Ltd. chromatography-mass spectroscopy techniques. Volatile
Polydimethyl siloxane or PDMS is a non-toxic, non- species were detected and the possible implications of the
flammable silicon-based polymeric material noted data obtained on food safety briefly discussed. 7 refs.
for its unusual rheological behaviour. PDMS is a EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN
viscoelastic material, which with long flow times or at high EUROPE
temperatures behaves similar to a liquid. However, with Accession no.971848

80 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


References and Abstracts

Item 91 REINFORCED A POLYAMIDE-6,6 FROM


Food Additives and Contaminants DUPONT ENGINEERING POLYMERS
23, No.7, July 2006, p.738-746 DuPont Engineering Polymers
DIFFUSION OF LIMONENE IN (M-Base Engineering and Software GmbH)
POLYETHYLENE
CAMPUS datasheet for a heat-stabilised, 25% glass
Limm W; Begley T H; Lickly T; Hentges S G
fibre, 15% mineral reinforced polyamide-6,6 for injection
US,Food & Drug Administration; Dow Chemical Co.;
moulding applications. It exhibits very low warpage,
American Plastics Council
and improved mechanical strength and temperature
Diffusion coefficients of limonene in various LLDPEs, resistance. It contains black pigment. Identification:
HDPEs and LDPEs were determined from sorption ISO 1043: PA66-(GF+MD)40. ISO 3795 / FMVSS
data by TGA and the effects of comonomers, catalysts 302 burning rate: B51 mm/min. Specific certification is
and processing methods on the barrier properties of the available on request. This grade is not compliant with
polyethylenes at 30C investigated using limonene as the European food contact requirements. Applications include
probe sorbent. Absorption and desorption tests were also automotive fan shrouds. This datasheet is one in a range
carried out on heat-pressed films made from the resins, the of datasheets provided by Materials Data Center from
results of which indicated that the diffusion coefficients of the CAMPUS (Computer Aided Material Preselection
limonene did not change substantially. 31 refs. By Uniform Standards) database. All data is measured
USA according to strict CAMPUS ISO standards, thus ensuring
Accession no.971849 a high standard of data comparability across different
manufacturers datasets. For an indication of properties
given on the datasheet, please see the list of keywords
Item 92 below. If appropriate, this datasheet PDF is updated
Campus Datasheet at 3 monthly intervals. For subscription information
CAMPUS DATASHEET FOR MINLON EFE6096 regarding the Materials Data Center, please follow the
GY090A, A MINERAL-FILLED POLYAMIDE-6,6 link on the Rapra Polymer Library home page http://www.
FROM DUPONT ENGINEERING POLYMERS polymerlibrary.com
DuPont Engineering Polymers EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; WESTERN
(M-Base Engineering and Software GmbH) EUROPE-GENERAL

CAMPUS datasheet for an impact-modified, heat- Accession no.972269


stabilised, 15% mineral-filled polyamide-6,6 for injection
moulding applications. It exhibits very low warpage and Item 94
improved impact resistance. It contains grey pigment. Food Additives and Contaminants
Identification: ISO 1043: PA66-IMD15. ISO 3795 / 23, No.8, Aug.2006, p.854-860
FMVSS 302 burning rate: < 100 mm/min. Specific MIGRATION OF DEHYDROABIETIC
certification is available on request. This grade is not AND ABIETIC ACIDS FROM PAPER AND
compliant with European food contact requirements. PAPERBOARD FOOD PACKAGING INTO FOOD-
Applications include wheel covers. This datasheet is SIMULATING SOLVENTS AND TENAX TA
one in a range of datasheets provided by Materials Data Asako Ozaki; Tomoko Ooshima; Yoshiaki Mori
Center from the CAMPUS (Computer Aided Material Osaka,City Institute of Public Health and Environmental
Preselection By Uniform Standards) database. All data Sciences
is measured according to strict CAMPUS ISO standards,
An investigation was undertaken to establish the
thus ensuring a high standard of data comparability across
concentration in paper products of dehydroabietic(DHA)
different manufacturers datasets. For an indication of
and abietic(AA) resin acids, present in rosin, which are
properties given on the datasheet, please see the list
major toxicants of pulp- and paper-mill effluent. Their
of keywords below. If appropriate, this datasheet PDF
migration was studied from paper and paperboard products
is updated at 3 monthly intervals. For subscription
into various food-simulating solvents and the substitute
information regarding the Materials Data Center, please
fatty food simulant Tenax TA (modified polyphenylene
follow the link on the Rapra Polymer Library home page
oxide). DHA and AA were detected in 5 of 10 virgin paper
http://www.polymerlibrary.com
products and in all 10 recycled paperboard products for
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; WESTERN
EUROPE-GENERAL food-contact use at concentrations of 14-500 and 110-1200
microgram/g, respectively. In virgin paper products, the
Accession no.972268
highest migration was into 95% ethanol or heptane, with
negligible or no migration into other solvents. In recycled
Item 93 paperboard products, migration was highest into 95%
Campus Datasheet ethanol, but was also observed into 20% ethanol, water
CAMPUS DATASHEET FOR MINLON EFE6091 and heptane. Migration to Tenax TA was also observed and
BK375, A GLASS FIBRE AND MINERAL the migration level increased with time. The maximum

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 81


References and Abstracts

migration levels of DHA and AA into food simulants were in PP resins subjected to multiple heat histories. The
0.853 and 3.14 microgram/g, respectively. The results materials are expected to find applications in end-uses
suggested that, in the worst case, the daily intake of DHA such as pharmaceuticals, infant products and some food
and AA from paper and paperboard products was 50 times packaging, allowing processors to benefit from the technical
lower than the tolerable daily intake of rosin. 21 refs. and physical properties of clarified PP without sacrificing
JAPAN clarity and transparency. Several grades in the PProTint
Accession no.975308 range are now FDA compliant. This abstract includes all
the information contained in the original article.
PolyOne
Item 95 USA
Plastics Additives and Compounding
Accession no.976953
8, No.4, July-Aug.2006, p.40-43
SETTING NEW STANDARDS FOR THE
ANALYSIS OF ADDITIVES IN POLYETHYLENE Item 98
Van Der Maten T Plastic Packaging Innovation News
PANalytical BV 2, No.16, 3rd Oct.2006, p.6-7
POLYVAL PUSHES SOLUBLE BAGS AT FRESH
The analysis of additives in polymers is an essential
FOOD INDUSTRY
part of the production process. Recent advances in X-
ray fluorescence spectroscopy have provided polymer It is briefly reported that Polyval is looking to supply its
and plastics manufacturers with better process control, PVAL film to the packaging industry for fresh produce.
higher cost efficiency and a much clearer overview of Although the bags are made from fossil fuels, they dissolve
their environmental impact. The data presented clearly in water within a few hours and then fully degrade into
demonstrates that the new PANalytical XRF spectrometer, water and carbon dioxide after 12 weeks. Polyval has food
Axios-Poly, with ADPOL calibration standards delivers the contact approval for the film, but the major limitation is
accurate and repeatable measurement that is required in the that it can only be used to package dry foods. One of the
industry today. The combination offers a highly effective main advantages of the film over PE is that it is impervious
method of measuring sub-ppm levels for a wide range of to gases, but it allows water vapour to be transmitted,
important elements. preventing condensation from forming on the inside of a
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; package. Other potential applications of the dissolvable
NETHERLANDS; WESTERN EUROPE material are laundry bags and cement bags.
Accession no.975912 Polyval plc
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN
EUROPE
Item 96 Accession no.977006
Woodston, UK, Recoup, 2006, 30cm, pp.39, Available
online from http://www.recoup.org/design/docs/
Recyclability_40page.pdf (Accessed on 22/09/06) Item 99
PLASTICS PACKAGING: RECYCLABILITY BY LNW Label and Narrow Web
DESIGN 11, No.6, Sept.2006, p.50/57
Reckitt Benckiser FILM LABEL ADVANCEMENTS
(Recoup) Sartor M

The objective of this guide was to produce definitive According to Fasson Roll North America, the largest
guidance to designers and specifiers on the design of plastic film markets for narrow web include home and personal
packaging to facilitate recycling. The guide is divided into care, beer and beverage, security and food labelling. The
the following main sections: aims, general guidelines, and company expects 3-5% growth for films in the home and
material specific guidelines for containers and film. personal care industry and double digit growth in the beer
and beverage industry. One of the largest growth areas for
Nestle waters; SPI
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; film is the use of pressure sensitive labels in the beverage
WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL market with some notable key users switching to PP-based
Accession no.976040 PS labels, primarily in the beer sector. Plastic Suppliers
manufactures EarthFirst PLA film which is used in the
flexible packaging, labelling, shrink sleeve labelling,
Item 97 tamper evident and windowing markets. Working with
European Plastics News films poses different challenges for converters than
33, No.9, Oct.2006, p.33 working with papers. Surface treatment of most films is
CUTTING THE HAZE IN PP RESINS important for adhesion of inks, toner and adhesives.
PolyOnes OnColor PProTint and PProTintPlus are two USA
new products designed to mask the haze that develops Accession no.977020

82 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


References and Abstracts

Item 100 reaching 2500 MPa in future. Other developments include


2005 PLACE Conference. Proceedings of a conference impact resistance grades for food packaging and durable
held Las Vegas, Nv., 27th-29th Sept.2005. goods, improved melt flow rates to meet the demands of
Atlanta, Ga., TAPPI Press, 2005, Paper 23, pp.23, CD- complex mouldings, and heat resistant, scratch resistant
ROM, 012 and paintable products for automotive applications. Film
THE EFFECTS OF RETORT CONDITIONS and pipe applications are also examined.
ON CLEAR HIGH BARRIER LAMINATED EUROPEAN UNION; FINLAND; SCANDINAVIA; WESTERN
STRUCTURES EUROPE; WORLD
Mueller T R Accession no.977989
Rohm & Haas Co.
(TAPPI)
Item 103
The performance of solventless and solvent-based Flexible
adhesives in retort structures was evaluated. Tests 5, No.2, July-Aug.2006, p.10-17
were conducted on pouches made from four ply PETP ASIAN FILMS
laminations with and without aluminium foil, which were
filled with water and retorted at 121 deg.C for one hour, This article discusses the prospects for Asias flexible
132 deg.C for 30 minutes or 132 deg.C for 30 minutes and packaging industry. China is developing the worlds
water quenched. The barrier properties and interlaminar largest packaging industry, which is expected to grow by
bond strengths before and after retort were assessed and 12% annually through to 2010. The main end-users of
compared with those of conventional foil structures. flexible packaging are ranked as pharmaceutical, fast food,
USA pet food and personal care and hygiene. In India flexible
packaging is the most common packaging format, with
Accession no.977614
many traditional rigid pack formats being replaced with
flexible versions. For many years, India has been exporting
Item 101 unconverted BOPP, PETP and PE films, and more recently
High Performance Plastics converted products. Vietnam has been growing at a rate of
May 2006, p.4 7% annually and its emerging flexible packaging industry
METALLIZED POLYESTER FILM has been experiencing extraordinary growth rates.
A new thermal silver-metallised PETP film has been ASIA
introduced by GBC Films Group Europe of the Netherlands, Accession no.978244
it is reported here. The film, known as 7100 Metallized
PET, is geared at applications in food and retail packaging.
Brief details are given in this little item. Item 104
Flexible
GBC Films Group Europe; Acco Brands Corp.
EUROPE-GENERAL; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN 5, No.2, July-Aug.2006, p.18/27
UNION; NETHERLANDS; USA; WESTERN EUROPE FLEXED FOR GROWTH
Accession no.977751 With the increasing demand volume of flexible packaging
in each end-user market, the annual output of the Chinese
Item 102 flexible packaging plants is surging. In 2004, shipments
Modern Plastics World Encyclopedia of flexible packaging in China amounted to 3.09 million
2006, p.87-88 tonnes, with the market growing at an annual rate of more
MULTIPLE USES MEAN PP SPANS than 10%. This article gives an overall description of the
COMMODITIES TO VALUE-ADDED PRODUCTS raw materials market, focusing on the main properties of
Herrgard G the materials and their application status in the Chinese
Borealis Polymers Oy flexible packaging plants. Films include PE, BOPP, CPP,
The ability of polypropylene to be used in a variety of EVOH, metallised film, PA/BOPA, PVC, PVDC, PETP/
applications is discussed with reference to market trends BOPETP and metallocene polymers. Adhesive, ink and
and material developments. PP is the worlds third most heat/cold seal coatings are also examined.
popular polymer after polyethylene and polyester. Its CHINA
production is estimated to be 44.38 million tonnes in Accession no.978245
2005. demand for PP in mature areas of application is
being stimulated by improved resin performance. Injection
Item 105
moulding, pipe, automotive and some film applications
Plastic Packaging Innovation News
have growth rates above the average. Technology
2, No.17, 17th Oct.2006, p.5
developments in these areas are described, and include
PACKAGING STICKS
products providing a stiffness/impact balance, grater
stiffness, achieved by means of multimodal polymerisation According to a 2006 Pira market report, the global market
using high isotacticity catalysts, and flexural moduli for adhesives in flexible packaging in 2004 was almost 245

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 83


References and Abstracts

million kg. It was expected to increase by 8.4% in 2005 or are well known to the formulator. This paper will deal
and by a further 13.2% between 2005 and 2010. Growth with a subset of the colorants in yellow colour space while
is expected to continue across all main end use markets clarifying the selection process with respect to some of
between 2005 and 2010, with the exception of cosmetics the most important properties of the colorants for plastics
and toiletries, where a slight decline is noted. The largest and fibres. 4 refs.
rise in demand is anticipated in the meat, fish and poultry, USA
pet food and savoury snacks product sectors as these
Accession no.979210
markets evolve in developing economies. Technological
developments are being driven by legislation as well as
cost-reduction considerations. In the coming years, there Item 108
is likely to be a significant improvement in the range Silicone Elastomers 2006. Proceedings of a conference
of laminating adhesives available, involving the use of held Frankfurt, Germany, 19th-20th Sept. 2006.
new and improved chemistry, films and resins. Broad Shawbury, Rapra Technology, 2006, Paper 3, pp.24, 29
changes are anticipated in the use of adhesives, reflecting cm, 012
a move away from solvent-based adhesives towards more THE USE OF GCXGC-TOFMS AND LC-MS FOR
environmentally friendly products such as water-based THE DETERMINATION OF MIGRANTS FROM
adhesives. SILICONE RUBBERS INTO FOOD SIMULANTS
Pira International AND FOOD PRODUCTS
WORLD Forrest M J; Holding S R; Howells D; Eardley M
Accession no.978345 Rapra Technology
(Rapra Technology)
Item 106 The aim of this work is to demonstrate how the enhanced
Polymers Paint Colour Journal capabilities of GC-GCxTOFMS and LC-MS can be used
196, No.4504, Sept.2006, p.48/50 to generate migration data on silicone rubbers in contact
FOOD FOR THOUGHT with both aqueous and fatty food simulants and foods,
James V that would not be possible using standard GC-MS and
Dow Corning Ltd. HPLC instruments. Specific migration experiments were
U.S. Food and Drug Administration and Council of Europe carried out using both food simulants (distilled water and
food packaging regulations which could severely limit 95% ethanol), and a number of food products (carbonated
material choice for the ink and varnish industries are water, white wine and olive oil). The results obtained from
discussed. It is shown that with expertise in modifying the the analysis of these samples by GCxGC-TOFMS and
architecture of silicone-polyether copolymer technology, LC-MS showed that the principal species of interest were
structures can be designed which can achieve good foam siloxane oligomers. 4 refs.
control and film quality in the manufacture and application EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN
of waterborne inks and varnishes while, most importantly, EUROPE
allowing compliance with food packaging legislation in Accession no.979244
place to protect the public. 2 refs.
US,Food & Drug Administration; Council of Europe
EUROPE-GENERAL; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN Item 109
UNION; UK; USA; WESTERN EUROPE Przemyst Chemiczny
Accession no.979151 85, No.7, July 2006, p.471-477
Polish
THE TRENDS IN INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS
Item 107
OF REACTIVE POLYMERS ON THE EXAMPLE
ANTEC 2006. Proceedings of the 64th SPE Annual
OF ROHM AND HAAS COMPANYS PRODUCTS
conference held Charlotte, NC., 7th-11th May 2006.
Kociolek-Balawejder E; Surowiec J
Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2006, p.92-7, PDF 103578, CD-
Wroclaw,Academy of Economics; Rohm & Haas France
ROM, 012
WORKING WITH ORGANIC PIGMENTS IN SAS
YELLOW COLOR SPACE A review is presented on ion exchange resins for the
Cole D T; Reinicker R A treatment of industrial water, potable water, polymeric
Ciba Specialty Chemicals Corp. catalysts and resins for food purification, environmental
(SPE) protection and pharmaceutical and medical diagnostic
Formulators colouring plastics and synthetic fibres applications. 16 refs.
can select from a variety of organic colorants in order EASTERN EUROPE; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN
to achieve a final desired colour. The choices can be UNION; FRANCE; POLAND; WESTERN EUROPE
confusing unless the colorants are previously specified Accession no.980073

84 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


References and Abstracts

Item 110 materials with optimised and enhanced agricultural


European Coatings Journal and food packaging performances. Microhardness
No. 10, 2004, p.31/6 measurements are used to analyse the mechanical
UV SYSTEM HAS STICKING POWER response of the materials in order to obtain information
Tonnoir O about the dispersion of the two immiscible components.
SICPA Good versatility is achieved although properties may
be improved by addition of a compatibilising agent. 23
Adhesion issues relating to UV ink technology in
refs.
converting applications are discussed, and an alternative
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; SPAIN;
UV technology is presented which is claimed to provide
WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL
outstanding adhesion. This involves the use of new resins
based on chemically-modified epoxy acrylate, and a Accession no.927180
dual curing mechanism. The modification results in an
isocyanate prepolymer which can be cured under UV light. Item 113
When the film is cured under UV light, it becomes a part Popular Plastics and Packaging
of the substrate, linked by a strong molecular bonding 49, No.10, Oct.2004, p.100-2
within the ink film and between the film and substrate. LATEST DEVELOPMENTS IN PLASTICS
The technique is reported to be able to address the PACKAGING
continuous problem of how to achieve a good printability Kulshreshtha A K
without altering adhesion, and is proposed as an economic Indian Petrochemical Corp.Ltd.
alternative to expensive technical solutions to the adhesion
problem. 3 refs. This article discusses the latest developments in active
packaging, including oxygen scavengers, antimicrobial
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE;
WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL films and intelligent films.
INDIA
Accession no.926596
Accession no.927262
Item 111
Modern Plastics International Item 114
34, No.11, Nov.2004, p.52 Plastics News(USA)
HIGH-PERFORMANCE PE TARGETS 16, No.39, 29th Nov.2004, p.4
THINWALLED PARTS TORAY EXPANDS PET, PP FILMS
Pryweller J
A new grade of Surpass single-site catalyst-produced PE,
IFs932A, targets thin-wall injection moulding applications, It is briefly reported that Toray Plastics (America) is
it is briefly reported. This material has low viscosity to expanding into PETP film packaging applications in North
allow easier mould fills with high cavitation tools, shorter America. The company has introduced a coextruded,
cycle times, high clarity and energy savings due to lower chemically treated film that offers good adhesion to water-
barrel temperatures. It has a balance of toughness and and solvent-based inks and a one-sided, heat-sealable
stiffness. The organoleptic properties are said to be superior film for wrapping portable foods. The company has also
to other PE grades on the market, making it ideal for food launched a heat-sealable oriented PP film for food packets
packaging applications such as lids and closures. and stand-up pouches. To make the films, the company will
Nova Chemicals shift production in North Kingston, R.I., away from the
CANADA manufacture of PETP tape films for the video market.
Accession no.926682 Toray Plastics (America) Inc.
NORTH AMERICA
Accession no.927265
Item 112
Journal of Polymer Science: Polymer Physics Edition
42, No.20, Oct. 2004, p.3766-74 Item 115
OXYGEN PERMEABILITY IN BLENDS OF A Polymers Paint Colour Journal
VINYL ALCOHOL/ETHYLENE COPOLYMER 194, No.4482, Nov.2004, p.15-6
AND A METALLOCENIC ETHYLENE/1-OCTENE PACKAGING INKS GO GREEN
COPOLYMER Ivory N
Laguna M F; Cerrada M L; Benavente R; Perez E Sun Chemical Ltd.
Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros
Problems experienced in the application of cationically-
The preparation, morphological characterisation and cured printing inks to non-food contact packaging
oxygen permeability of blends of a vinyl alcohol-ethylene resulting from the by-products of photolysis of the
(VAE) copolymer with a metallocenic ethylene-1-octene photoinitiators causing odour or taint and the potential
copolymer (CEO) are presented. The study aims to design for migration of chemical species into food, are reviewed.

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 85


References and Abstracts

The commercial development of new cationic initiators US,Food & Drug Administration; Fabes GmbH
to overcome these problems is described.
The migration of Tinuvin 234 (2-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK;
WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL
4,6-bis(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)phenol) into food simulants
from PETP was measured using high-performance liquid
Accession no.927672 chromatography with UV detection. Ethanol/water,
isooctane and a fractionated coconut oil simulant (Miglyol)
Item 116 were used as food simulating solvents. The migration
European Plastics News characteristics were measured at temperatures in the range
32, No.1, Jan.2005, p.10 40 to 70C. Diffusion coefficients were determined. At 40C,
BIOPOLYMERS KEEP GROWING the amount of migration into 95% ethanol after 10 days was
2 microgram/sq dm. Isooctane was found to be a good fatty
Proctor & Gamble is continuing its research into bio-based
food simulant which provided similar results for PETP to
biodegradable aliphatic polyester (PHA). Although there
those of fatty foods. 12 refs.
has been progress towards commercialisation, there are
still performance and design barriers to be addressed. Ciba Specialty Chemicals Corp.
USA
In blow and injection moulding the challenges are cycle
time and impact resistance. However, one tableware Accession no.929906
application already looks attractive for P&G in Nodax
PHA, painted tableware, where Nodax provides not only Item 119
an enhancement over the conventionally used PP materials Plastics Additives and Compounding
in terms of strong adhesion without using a primer coat, 6, No.6, Nov.-Dec.2004, p.11
but cost savings as well. Italian packaging company RECYCLABLE PRODUCTS BENEFIT FROM
Alcas has released a range of ice-cream cups made YELLOW PIGMENT
from NatureWorks PLA. In film, Dutch fresh produce
It is briefly reported that Shepherd Color has introduced
distribution company The Greenery plans to produce its
a chrome-free yellow pigment which the company says
first produce packed in biopolymer film.
can be used in products that need to meet recycling and
WORLD
food contact legislation. The pigment, Yellow 20P296, is
Accession no.928478 part of the companys Artic infrared reflecting pigment
line and is a clean, red, buff shade. Because it is heavy
Item 117 metal free, it can be used in an variety of products that
Macromolecular Bioscience fall under environment or food contact legislation. These
4, No.11, 20th Nov.2004, p.1053-60 include applications in the automotive and electrical
PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF markets where materials are often recycled at the end of
COUPLED POLY(LACTIC ACID)/STARCH/ the product life.
MALEIC ANHYDRIDE BLENDS PLASTICIZED Shepherd Color Co.
BY ACETYL TRIETHYL CITRATE USA
Zhang J-F; Sun X Accession no.930311
Kansas State University
The effects of acetyl triethyl citrate as plasticiser on the Item 120
properties of blends of poly(lactic acid) with starch, Plastic Packaging Innovation News
compatibilised with maleic anhydride using 2,5-bis(tert- 1, No.1, 16th Dec.2004, p.7
butylperoxy)-2,5-dimethylhexane as initiator, were ROHM AND HAAS GETS STUCK INTO WATER-
investigated by tensile testing, water absorption, DSC and BASED ADHESIVES
SEM. Migration and leaching of the plasticiser into water
Rohm & Haas has revealed it is developing a water-based
is discussed in terms of potential food-contact applications
adhesive for foods that are challenging to pack because of
of the blends. 31 refs.
their moisture content, such as cheese, meat and coffee.
USA
The company plans to have an improved version of its
Accession no.929443 Robond L, an acrylic water-based adhesive for dry bond
lamination applications, commercialised during 2005.
Item 118 The advanced version of Robond L will have improved
Food Additives and Contaminants product resistance for use with fat, vinegar, oil and fruit
21, No.10, Oct.2004, p.1007-14 juice and temperature resistance for withstanding the high
MIGRATION OF A UV STABILIZER FROM temperatures during pasteurisation.
POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE(PET) Rohm & Haas Co.
INTO FOOD SIMULANT USA
Begley T H; Biles J E; Cunningham C; Piringer O Accession no.930367

86 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


References and Abstracts

Item 121 propylene-based performance elastomers, the Tafmer XM


Patent Number: EP 1475425 A1 20041110 Series, which feature greatly enhanced homogeneity. When
THERMAL PROCESS FOR THE used in blends in the heat sealing layer of a PP film, the new
MANUFACTURE OF A LAMINATE AND series will allow heat sealing at a temperature 20C lower
APPARATUS THEREFOR compared to the existing conventional propylene-based
Narumiya T; Asano I; Kasahara H; Tanaka R Tafmer, thereby significantly enhancing the efficiency
Nakamoto Packs Co.Ltd.; Nissei Chemical Co.Ltd. of the food packaging process. Furthermore, the series
can be expected to improve efficiency in the OPP film
The manufacturing method involves laminating a first
coating process, and also to make inroads into a wide
substrate film layer and a second substrate film layer
variety of applications in addition to resin modifiers, such
through an adhesive resin layer, integrating the adhesive
as automotive.
resin layer with the first substrate film layer, heating the
surface of the adhesive resin layer by heat rays in the Mitsui Chemicals
JAPAN
presence of oxygen to induce functional groups which
contribute to adhesion and superimposing the second Accession no.932496
substrate film layer on the adhesive resin layer to be bonded
thereto with pressure. The thermal laminate is strong Item 124
without the need for solvent and is safe and hygienic in Japan Chemical Week
contact with food. 46, No.2305, 10th Feb.2005, p.2
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; JAPAN; DAINICHI BARES 100% BIODEGRADABLE
WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL ANTIMICROBIAL SHEET
Accession no.930660
Dainichiseika Color & Chemicals has developed a totally
biodegradable lunch box sheet, it is briefly reported. Not
Item 122 only the sheet itself, but also the ink and adhesive are
British Plastics and Rubber biodegradable and after use the sheet can be disposed of in
Jan.2005, p.22-3 compost. The antimicrobial sheet, Wasapearl, comprises a
RINGING THE CHANGES ON ENGINEERING laminate of polylactic acid film, made from corn, and paper
THERMOPLASTICS from rayon pulp, impregnated with an extract of natural
Cyclics Corporation is planning to double the size of its wasabi (Japanese horseradish) and mustard possessing
2,500 t/y plant at Schwarzeheide, Germany, towards the bacteriostatic activity.
end of this year and has started planning for a second Dainichiseika Color & Chemicals Mfg.Co.
plant of 25-50,000 t/y capacity which could be on-line by JAPAN
2009. Cyclics makes cyclic PBTP, CBT, a low viscosity Accession no.932543
form of PBTP. CBT has particular potential in processes
where its water-like viscosity can be used to advantage, Item 125
such as rotational moulding, casting and infusing fibre Brussels, Cefic, 2004, pp.2, 30 cm, 3/3/05
reinforcements. CBT has an inherent high gloss surface and MIGRATION OF STYRENE FROM
for Class A applications can also be painted. Mechanically UNSATURATED POLYESTER RESINS
and thermally it outperforms PE, so can achieve high Cefic; PIRA; APME
stiffness at lower wall thicknesses with lower part weight.
Cyclics has signed up with Ahlstrom Glassfibre to supply The migration of styrene from unsaturated polyester
CBT resins for Ahlstrom to combine with its glass fibre resins was tested in four commercially available resins
reinforcements to produce composite systems for wind subjected to a number of post cure conditions. Styrene
turbine and marine applications. migration into three food stimulants, 3% acetic acid,
10% ethanol, and olive oil, was determined using single
Cyclics Corp.
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; sided migration cells. The exposure conditions for the
GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE- migration measurements were 2 hours at 70 deg.C and
GENERAL 40 days at 40 deg.C. The residual styrene levels for all
Accession no.931332 samples were measured to assess the possible correlation
between migration of styrene into the stimulants and the
residual styrene content in the material. The materials
Item 123
tested were SMC, solid surface materials, gel coated flat
Japan Chemical Week
sheeting, and flat sheeting, and GRP pipe with a resin-rich
46, No.2304, 3rd Feb.2005, p.4
liner. Apart from the pipe sample, the correlation between
MITSUI CHEM INTRODUCES PROPYLENE-
styrene migration and residual styrene content is claimed
BASED PERFORMANCE ELASTOMERS
to be sufficiently encouraging to speculate that by simply
It is briefly reported that Mitsui Chemicals has used measuring the residual styrene level of food contact
metallocene catalysis in the development of a new series of products manufactured from unsaturated polyester resin,

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 87


References and Abstracts

an assessment of an acceptable styrene migration level The pigment ultramarine blue is examined with respect to its
can be made. environmental impacts, health hazards and safety. Whilst the
WESTERN EUROPE pigment has a favourable toxicity profile and a long history
Accession no.933574 of application in sensitive applications such as cosmetics
and in food-contact applications, in order to meet the
requirements of discerning customers practice sustainable
Item 126 procurement and look for products with a beneficial life
European Polymer Journal cycle analysis. This paper, therefore, outlines the results
41, No.4, April 2005, p.707-14 of a study which shows how a commitment to sustainable
FTIR INVESTIGATION OF THE SPECIFIC manufacture is an essential addition to the favourable
MIGRATION OF ADDITIVES FROM RIGID toxicity profile. Areas for improvement are recognised and
POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) options for renewable energy resources are discussed.
Atek D; Belhaneche-Bensemra N EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK;
Algiers,Ecole Nationale Polytechnique WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

The migration of additives from rigid poly(vinyl chloride) Accession no.935629


(PVC) containing epoxidised sunflower oil as an organic
costabiliser, zinc and calcium stearates as primary Item 129
stabilisers, and stearic acid as a lubricant was examined Plastics and Rubber Asia
by using sunflower oil and 15% (v/v) aqueous ethanol as 20, No.132, March 2005, p.18
models for foods. Circular samples of the rigid PVC were BASELLS FILM DEVELOPMENTS
immersed in a known volume of the model food for 12 days Basell has introduced a family of Ziegler catalysts that
at 40 deg C. Samples of the polymer and the food model are designed for use in gas phase PE technologies, it
were removed each day for analysis by Fourier-transform is briefly reported. Known as Avant Z230, the catalysts
IR spectroscopy. The direct analysis of the model foods are said to be able to produce narrow molecular weight
was complicated by the overlap of bands in the additives. for film, injection moulding and rotomoulding grades of
However, an analysis of the PVC films obtained by LLDPE, MDPE and HDPE. Basell has also developed a
dissolution of the circular samples in tetrahydrofuran and new generation PP copolymer, Clyrell RC1314. Based on
evaporation of the solvent was more conclusive. Although the Spherizone technology, Clyrell is said to have better
some migration of the additives was detected, the level of optical, stiffness and sealing properties as well as low
migration was less than that legally permitted for food- odours. Designed for use in side layers, processors have
contact materials (10 mg/sq dm). 11 refs. reported that Clyrell displays no visible crystallisation line.
ALGERIA Potential applications include retort food pouches, hygiene
Accession no.934921 product packaging and large-size bags for animal feed.
Basell
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION;
Item 127 NETHERLANDS; WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-
Additives for Polymers GENERAL
Dec.2004, p.9 Accession no.935930
BASF GREEN PIGMENT RECEIVES FDA
APPROVAL Item 130
BASF has been granted approval from the US Food & Drug Food Additives and Contaminants
Administration for its phthalocyanine pigment, known as 21, No.12, Dec.2004, p.1179-85
Heliogen Green K 9360, for food-contact applications. METHOD OF TEST AND SURVEY OF
Brief details are given in this very short article. CAPROLACTAM MIGRATION INTO FOODS
PACKAGED IN NYLON-6
BASF; US,FOOD & DRUG ADMINISTRATION Bradley E L; Speck D R; Read W A; Castle L
USA
UK,Dept.of Environment,Food & Rural Affairs
Accession no.935359
An analytical method for determining residual caprolactam
content in foods is described and applied to an analysis of
Item 128 50 retail foodstuffs in polyamide-6 packaging. The method
Hot Colors, Cool Plastics 2004. Proceedings of a SPE entails extraction of the foodstuff with ethanol/water
Retec conference held Marco Island, Fl., 20th.-21st. containing caprolactam as internal standard, defatting
Sept.2004. of the extract with hexane and analysis of the defatted
Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2004, p.51-9, CD-ROM, 012 extract by liquid chromatography combined with mass
GOING GREEN WITH ULTRAMARINE BLUE spectrometry. 14 refs.
Calvert D EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK;
Holliday Pigments Ltd. WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL
(SPE,Color & Appearance Div.) Accession no.936458

88 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


References and Abstracts

Item 131 affecting the additives industry. About 75% of all additives
Paint and Coatings Industry measured by tonnage and 60% by value are used in just one
21, No.4, April 2005, p.38/44 polymer, PVC. PVC is the target destination for almost all
CHECKMATE FOR MICROBES heat stabilisers and about 86% of all plasticisers by volume,
Zeren S; Preuss A; Konig B together with rather more than three-quarters of all impact
Ciba Specialty Chemicals Inc. modifiers, over 60% of antimicrobial additives and more
than half of all chemical blowing or foaming agents. Over
Paints that repel microorganisms are increasingly in
90% of all antiblock and slip agents by volume go into
demand, and biocides based on silver ions are suitable for
polyolefins, together with well over 60% of light stabilisers
this purpose. In this study, a silver glass and a silver zeolite
and antioxidants and more than half of all nucleating and
were used as biocide additives. Two different powder
clarifying agents. In the building and construction sector,
coating systems were used, namely a clear coat, based on
PU for use in the health and hospital sector, and a white there are likely to be higher fire resistance standards in
pigmented powder coating, based on a hybrid for the food- future, offering opportunities for increased consumption
processing industry. In order to characterise the overall of flame retardants.
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK;
antimicrobial additive effectiveness in combating bacteria
WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL
and fungus on the powder coating surface, the following
tests were carried out to determine the bactericidal and Accession no.940102
fungicidal activity at the surface: determination of the
lowest concentration of the A1-type biocide additive Item 134
necessary in the PU clear coat to repel all three types of Modern Plastics Worldwide
organisms; repeat testing of the antimicrobial effect on the 82, No.5, May 2005, p.23
surfaces after a rinsing and light exposure test, allowing the REGULATORY SHOWDOWN?
long-term effect of biocide additives to be monitored; and Deligio T
characterisation of the surfaces of the powder coatings by According to the US FDA, substances that are not expected to
means of colour, gloss and haze measurements. 4 refs. become a component of a food stuff, or those that do not pose
SWITZERLAND; WESTERN EUROPE a health risk, are cleared using analytical chemistry data and
Accession no.938061 extrapolation to show they pose no toxicological concern. In
Europe, however, all materials present must be cleared using
relatively exhaustive toxicological evaluations, regardless of
Item 132
the amount or likelihood of migration. As the European Union
Paper Film and Foil Converter
works towards a Super-Regulation, differences that require
79, No.4, April 2005, p.12
reconciliation seem likely, especially for companies looking
FDA OKS BASF PIGMENT
to employ one packaging platform across continents. One
BASF has been granted approval from the US FDA for its current point of contention is migration, where, unlike the
phthalocyanine pigment Heliogen Green K 9360 under the EU, the FDA offers some exemptions.
Food Contact Notification programme. BASF claims it is EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; USA;
the only supplier of a pigment with this Color Index number WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL
(Pigment Green 36) to have been granted approval. The Accession no.941117
pigment is approved for use as a food-contact substance
in all types of polymers. The coloured polymers may be
Item 135
used according to the conditions of use C-G, table 2 of 21
British Plastics and Rubber
CFR 176.170(c), and not to exceed temperatures of 70C.
May 2005, p.16
Users are subject to the provisions of 21 CFR 178.3297.
FOOD CONTACT APPROVAL FOR LIGHT
This abstract includes all the information contained in the
STABILISER
original article.
It is briefly reported that BASFs Uvinul 5050 H light
BASF Corp.
USA stabiliser for polyolefins has been given a Food Contact
Notification by the US FDA. This enables its use in
Accession no.939074
applications such as woven tape bags like big bags for
flour and grain, packaging films and milk containers
Item 133 when the requirements and definitions laid down in 21
Plastics Engineering Europe CFR 177.1520 of FDA are observed. Uvinul 5050 H is
3, No.1, Spring 2005, p.36-8 a sterically hindered amine which prevents plastics from
PLASTICS ADDITIVES ROUNDUP degrading by scavenging the free radicals that are formed
Pritchard G when plastics are exposed to UV light.
Rapra Technology Ltd. BASF
This article examines some of the important technology USA
developments, economic issues and regulatory concerns Accession no.941148

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 89


References and Abstracts

Item 136 Startin J R; Hird S J; Sykes M D


Brand UK,Central Science Laboratory
4, No.4, May-June 2005, p.36-41
A novel method for determining ETU and PTU in food
TINY MIRACLES
is described. It involves extraction of ETU and PTU by
For the packaging industry, nanoparticles in the form of blending with dichloromethane in the presence of sodium
nanoclays have gone into nanocomposites used in thin- sulphate, sodium carbonate, thiourea and ascorbic acid,
film barriers and rigid packaging to improve gas barrier removal of dichloromethane by rotary evaporation after
protection. These improved gas barriers increase the shelf filtration, redissolving the extract in water, analysis by
life of food and beverages. Nanoparticles are currently reversed phase liquid chromatography and detection by
made from a wide variety of materials, with the most means of atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-mass
common of the new generation being ceramics. The big spectrometry using a double focusing mass spectrometer.
story for nanotechnology in packaging applications may 27 refs.
be to enable low-cost devices that sense their environment EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK;
and process information. The two relevant areas are WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL
sensing technologies, or smart dust, and radio frequency Accession no.942989
identification. RFID technology has so far provided merely
self-identification in the form of bar codes, but through Item 139
nanotechnology it could have much greater functionality, Food Additives and Contaminants
such as detecting when food has gone bad. Nanotechnology 22, No.3, March 2005, p.280-8
in printing is also discussed. DIETARY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT OF
WORLD
INFANTS TO BISPHENOL A FROM THE USE OF
Accession no.942227 POLYCARBONATE BABY MILK BOTTLES
Kwok Onn Wong; Lay Woon Leo; Huay Leng Seah
Item 137 Singapore,Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority
Canadian Plastics A study was made of residual Bisphenol A content in
63, No.4, April 2005, p.13/6 various polycarbonate baby milk bottles available on the
SPECIAL ADVANTAGE Singapore market. The potential migration of Bisphenol A
LeGault M from each bottle was also determined under more severe
The US FDA recently approved Shepherd Colors temperatures than usual using food-simulating solvents
StarLight FL 105 for use as a colourant in all types of and time conditions recommended by the US,Food &
food-contact applications. The pigment is designed to Drug Administration. It was established that the dietary
create sparkling effects in items such as plastic tumblers, exposure of Bisphenol A from the bottles was below the
dinnerware and packaging for food and cosmetics. EMD oral Reference Dose laid down by the US,Environmental
Chemicals line of Iriodin WMD pearlescent special effects Protection Agency and that there was no health risk to
pigments is produced using a new process that makes the infants from use of the bottles. 17 refs.
pigment easier to use, with improved throughput. Teknor US,Food & Drug Administration; US,Environmental
Color has launched a line of microbead colour concentrates Protection Agency
SINGAPORE
designed to create striking sparkling effects in PETP
beverage bottles. Clariant Masterbatches has expanded its Accession no.942990
Soft-Touch special effects line, previously limited to blow
moulded containers, to injection-moulded products such Item 140
as caps and closures. Soft-Touch uses a soft-textured resin Journal of Membrane Science
compound in combination with a masterbatch colourant 253, No.1-2, 5th May 2005, p.139-47
system to provide a soft matte finish. WATER AND HEXANE PERMEATE FLUX
NORTH AMERICA THROUGH ORGANIC AND CERAMIC
Accession no.942345 MEMBRANES. EFFECT OF PRETREATMENT
ON HEXANE PERMEATE FLUX
Garcia A; Alvarez S; Riera F; Alvarez R; Coca J
Item 138
Oviedo,University; Valencia,Polytechnical University
Food Additives and Contaminants
22, No.3, March 2005, p.245-50 The behaviour of several organic and inorganic membranes
DETERMINATION OF ETHYLENETHIOUREA in the presence of organic solvents (hexane) for application in
(ETU) AND PROPYLENETHIOUREA (PTU) IN edible oil processing was studied. Ceramic membrane with
FOODS BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID a zirconia filtration layer and molec.wt. cut-offs(MWCO)
CHROMATOGRAPHY-ATMOSPHERIC of 1000 and 5000 g/mol and polyethersulphone(PES)
PRESSURE CHEMICAL IONISATION-MEDIUM- membranes with MWCO of 4000 and 9000 g/mol
RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRY were tested in pilot-plant scale equipment. The effect

90 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


References and Abstracts

of pretreatment, consisting of soaking the membranes dimensional gas chromatography(GC) with time-of-flight
in mixtures of solvents of decreasing polarity, on the mass spectroscopy(MS) are examined. The principles
performance of both types of membranes was evaluated. and practice of the technique are described and results
The pretreatment was very effective for PES membranes, of analyses of compounds based on nitrile rubber,
but ineffective for zirconia membranes. Hexane flux was fluorocarbon rubber, acrylic rubber, epichlorohydrin rubber
higher through pretreated PES membranes than through and butyl rubber are presented and discussed. Comparison
ceramic membranes with higher MWCO. The results is made between data generated by this two-dimensional
obtained could be explained by the different hydrophilicity GC-MS technique and by conventional GC-MS. The main
of PES and ceramic membranes. The Hagen-Poiseuille applications of the new analysis technique are discussed,
equation was not able to predict the results on permeate including reverse engineering of unknown rubber samples,
flux, which indicated that other parameters apart from extractables testing and food migration testing.
viscosity should be taken into account, e.g. surface tension, EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK;
hydrophobicity. WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; SPAIN; Accession no.944177
WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL
Accession no.943107 Item 143
Food Additives and Contaminants
Item 141 22, No.5, May 2005, p.490-502
Kunststoffe Plast Europe TEST METHOD FOR MEASURING NON-
95, No.4, 2005, p.102-5 VISIBLE SET-OFF FROM INKS AND LACQUERS
NICKEL AND CHROMIUM RUTILE YELLOW ON THE FOOD-CONTACT SURFACE OF
- PIGMENT CLASS WITH LOW RISK PRINTED PACKAGING MATERIALS
Endriss H; Fischer R Bradley E L; Castle L; Dines T J; Fitzgerald A G;
BASF AG; Deutscher Verband der Gonzalez Tunon P; Jickells S M; Johns S M; Layfield E
Mineralfarbenindustrie S; Mountfort K A; Onoh H; Ramsay I A
UK,Dept.for the Environment,Food & Rural Affairs;
A risk assessment of nickel and chromium yellow pigments
Dundee,University; Laser Installations Ltd.
is presented. It is shown that, although these pigments
contain heavy metals, they exhibit virtually inert behaviour, The development of a test method to measure invisible
as the metals are not bioavailable. Studies undertaken as set-off of inks and lacquers based on various resins such
part of the OECD High Production Volume Programme, as acrylics or polyurethanes on the food-contact surface
which confirm that these yellow pigments have only low of food-packaging materials such as polyethylene is
hazard potential, are described. The use of rutile pigments described. A method using luminescence was found to
in food packaging is discussed. The colouration of plastics meet the requirements of sensitivity, together with low
with this class of pigments can be regarded as being more cost, ease of use, non-destructive testing and a clear pass
or less harmless from a toxicological and ecological or fail indication. 20 refs.
perspective. 4 refs. EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK;
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL
GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE- Accession no.945764
GENERAL
Accession no.944171
Item 144
Plastics Technology
Item 142 51, No.3, March 2005, p.61
High Performance and Speciality Elastomers 2005. ONLINE SERVICE HELPS MEET EU
Proceedings of a conference held Geneva, Switzerland, PACKAGING SPECS
20th-21st April 2005.
Shawbury, Rapra Technology Ltd., 2005, Paper 2, French company SpecialChem has launched a new
pp.17, 29cm, 012 on-line calculation service called MigraPass, to help
USE OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL GC-MS FOR THE manufacturers comply with the 2002 European Union
IDENTIFICATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF regulations on the migration of hazardous substances in
LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT COMPOUNDS food packaging applications. Brief details are offered in
this concise article.
FROM HIGH PERFORMANCE ELASTOMERS
Forrest M; Holding S; Howells D SPECIALCHEM; FABES GMBH RESEARCH CO.;
Rapra Technology Ltd. PIRA INTERNATIONAL
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE;
(Rapra Technology Ltd.)
GERMANY; UK; WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-
The practical implications for the compositional analysis GENERAL
of the low molec.wt. compounds in rubber using two- Accession no.946128

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 91


References and Abstracts

Item 145 when exposed to ultraviolet light by scavenging free


High Performance Plastics radicals, has been granted a Food Contact Notification
April 2005, p.3 by the US Food & Drug Administration, it is reported in
HOMOGENEOUS PROPYLENE-BASED this small article.
ELASTOMERS FOR FOOD PACKAGING BASF AG; US,FOOD & DRUG ADMINISTRATION
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION;
Japanese company Mitsui Chemicals Inc. has launched
GERMANY; USA; WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-
a series of propylene-based elastomers intended for food GENERAL
packaging applications, it is announced in this small
Accession no.948316
article. Brief details are given of the new series, which is
known as Tafmer XM.
MITSUI CHEMICALS INC. Item 149
JAPAN High Performance Plastics
Accession no.946168 June 2005, p.3
SOLVENT-FREE POLYESTER FILMS

Item 146 In this short article two new coated PETP films from
High Performance Plastics ExxonMobil Chemical Co. of the USA are briefly
April 2005, p.8/9 introduced to us. The films, designated XPET 700 and
STABILIZER MIGRATES INTO FOOD XPET 800, are water-based and are intended for the
packaging of fresh food.
A study was carried out at the US Food & Drug
EXXONMOBIL CHEMICAL CO.
Administration to measure the migration of the commonly- USA
used UV stabiliser Tinuvin 234 from a PETP sample
into food simulants, using high-performance liquid Accession no.948321
chromatography with UV detection. Brief details are
presented in this short article. Item 150
US,FOOD & DRUG ADMINISTRATION PETplanet insider
USA 6, No.9, 2005, p.12/4
Accession no.946177 BEER IN PET: RECYCLING CONSIDERATIONS
As a global leader in bottle-to-bottle production, Amcor
Item 147 PET Packaging takes a keen interest in the impact of coated
Adhesives and Sealants Industry and multilayer beer bottles on the bottle-to-bottle recycling
12, No.8, Aug.2005, p.22/5 chain. At the companys recycling plant in Beaune, France,
FORMULATING CONCEPTS OF ENERGY- state-of-the-art technology produces food grade resin ready
CURABLE LAMINATING ADHESIVES to be reused in drinks bottles. The recycling facility is able
Des Roches S to handle coloured bottles, multilayer bottles, coloured
RAHN USA Corp. multilayer bottles and even coloured coated bottles. There
is no need for pre-sorting. Beaune can produce 24,000
Over the past decade, laminating adhesives have become
tonnes of resin pellets from over 30,000 tonnes of post-
a relevant sector of energy-curable technology. Recent
consumer PETP, equivalent to approximately 700 million
development work into the realm of food packaging
PETP bottles. Around 17,000 tonnes of the resin produced
has begun to build profitable businesses for those using
is of food grade quality, known as Amcor SuperCycle,
this technology. RAHN is a supplier of energy-curable
while the remaining 7,000 tonnes of NuCycle is used for
raw materials used in finished formulated products. The
non-food applications. Amcor recommends a 25% content
company has formulated four laminating adhesives with
of SuperCycle resin in new multilayer beer bottles.
different end properties to suit industry needs. T-peel
properties, viscosity and reactivity are discussed. Amcor PET Packaging
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE;
USA
WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL
Accession no.947689 Accession no.948783

Item 148 Item 151


Additives for Polymers
China Chemical Reporter
May 2005, p.8
16, No.25, 6th Sept.2005, p.8
BASF LIGHT STABILIZER RECEIVES FDA
OPPORTUNITY OF ENVIRONMENTAL
APPROVAL
FRIENDLY FLEXIBLE PACKAGING
BASF AGs Uvinul 5050 H sterically hindered amine ADHESIVES IN CHINA
light stabiliser, which prevents plastics from degrading Wang D

92 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


References and Abstracts

Vinyl acetate- and toluene-borne two-component PU Item 154


adhesives are still the main varieties used in the flexible Addcon World 2005. Proceedings of the 11th
packaging market in China. However, reports of solvent International Plastics Additives and Modifiers
residue problems in packaging and cost pressures Conference, held Hamburg, 21st-22nd Sept.2005.
from upstream products such as crude oil, are pushing Shawbury, Rapra Technology Ltd., 2005, Paper 12,
the flexible packaging adhesive market towards more pp.4, 29cm, 012
environmentally friendly and healthy products. Water- ANTIMICROBIALS IN FOOD-CONTACT
borne flexible adhesive producer Rohm & Haas sponsored APPLICATIONS IN THE EU - A REGULATORY
two flexible packaging seminars in China in 2002 and PUZZLE
2004 to promote green adhesive and ink. The company Gergely A
is now the largest water-borne flexible adhesive player in Keller & Heckman LLP
China. Henkel is also promoting its solvent-free adhesive (Rapra Technology Ltd.)
in China, but the development is very slow compared
The regulations concerning additives with antimicrobial
with water-based adhesive as it needs new investment in
activity used in plastics in direct contact with foodstuffs
lamination machines.
are discussed and an examination is made of the use
CHINA
conditions and possible migration of the additive into food
Accession no.950659 to define whether the use of the additive in the intended
application complies with the regulations governing that
Item 152 application.
Italia Imballaggio BELGIUM; EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION;
WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL
No.10, Oct.2005, p.132-3
Italian; English Accession no.952278
ENVIRONMENTALLY TESTED
The commitment of Italian converter Gerosa Group to Item 155
sustainable development is seen in the adoption of water- Addcon World 2005. Proceedings of the 11th
based adhesives, replacing solvent-based ones, for the International Plastics Additives and Modifiers
production of laminated film for use with cold sealers. Conference, held Hamburg, 21st-22nd Sept.2005.
Rohm & Haas supplied the innovative water-based Shawbury, Rapra Technology Ltd., 2005, Paper 13,
Robond L acrylic adhesives for dry bond laminating. pp.4, 29cm, 012
These adhesives have high solids formulations, so less IMPACT OF SILVER GLASS CERAMIC
water evaporation is needed compared to other water-based ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVE INGREDIENT ON
systems. Laminations cure quickly and exhibit high green COLD TOLERANT GERMS ON REFRIGERATOR
bonds, improving productivity. INTERIORS
Studer H
Rohm & Haas; Gerosa
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; ITALY;
Sanitized AG
WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL (Rapra Technology Ltd.)
Accession no.951641 Data are presented showing the effectiveness of Sanitized
Silver, an antimicrobial containing silver as active
Item 153 ingredient, for reducing cold-tolerating listeria on the
Journal of Applied Polymer Science surfaces of refrigerator interiors made from plastics and
98, No.3, 5th Nov.2005, p.1186-91 coated with the silver compound. 3 refs.
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SWITZERLAND; WESTERN EUROPE
POLYACRYLAMIDE GRAFTED COPOLYMERS Accession no.952279
OF KUNDOOR MUCILAGE
Mishra A; Bajpai M Item 156
Kanpur,Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University Asian Plastics News
Details are given of the grafting of acrylamide onto water- Nov.2005, p.7
soluble food-grade polysaccharide Kundoor mucilage MITSUI CHEMICALS LAUNCHES NEW
initiated by ceric ion in aqueous medium. The effect of ELASTOMER BRAND
monomer concentration, initiator concentration, reaction It is briefly reported that Mitsui Chemicals is launching
time, and temperature in terms of grafting efficiency and a new line of alpha-olefin-based elastomers based on its
percent of grafting were investigated. The graft copolymers proprietary metallocene catalyst technology, with the
were characterised by FTIR, DSC, SEM, and X-ray crystalline structure being controlled in nano-order. By
diffraction. 25 refs. being able to control its structure in nano order, the Notio
INDIA elastomer achieves better performance balance in terms
Accession no.952096 of transparency, heat resistance, flexibility and rubber

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 93


References and Abstracts

elasticity. Notio applications will be as the protection films manufactured by Energy Sciences, is now further optimised
of electronic and optical parts, as well as for a variety of to meet the broader needs of the film packaging material
sealing materials. When used as an impact modifier for PP, converter. Through these optimisations, smaller, lower
Notio blends have impact resistance and scratch resistance cost, energy efficient, second generation (EZCure 2) EB
at high levels without impairing transparency. equipment has been developed. The cost effective and
Mitsui Chemicals environmentally friendly electron beam curing process could
JAPAN be the future curing/drying method of choice given certain
Accession no.952746 restrictions and problems which face the converter today,
particularly in the field of solventless laminating adhesives
Item 157 and solvent based adhesives and lacquers. Electron beam
Additives for Polymers chemistry is 100% solids, not unlike UV, but does not require
Feb.2004, p.2 the photoinitiator catalyst of UV and therefore presents a
BASF INTRODUCES ADVANCED SILVER much more viable case for use in food packaging.
PIGMENT FOR PLASTICS COLORATION ENERGY SCIENCES INC.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN
Germanys BASF AG has introduced a new silver pigment EUROPE
for colouring plastics, which is known as Variocrom Accession no.906427
Magic Silver K 1000. This concise article provides
us with brief details about the new pigments special
properties and intended applications. Item 160
Chemical and Engineering News
BASF AG
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; 82, No.6, 9th Feb.2004, p.25-9
WESTERN EUROPE BIOCATALYSIS IN POLYMER SCIENCE
Accession no.904520 Freemantle M
Biocatalysis in polymer science is a highly interdisciplinary
Item 158 area. Much of the research in this area has focused on the
Flexible use of enzymes for the synthesis of novel monomers
2, No.5, Jan.-Feb.2004, p.40/8 and polymers, for the catalysis of polymer modification
ATOMIC EXPLOSION reactions and for polymer degradation. Researchers at
Anyadike N Hercules have used biocatalysis to modify and improve
the properties of polymeric materials. One such material
After a rapid increase in its adoption outside packaging,
is Kymene G3-X, a water-soluble polymer manufactured
nanotechnology has demonstrated its significant long-
by Hercules that is used to make paper products stronger
term commercial potential. This article reviews current
when wet. Researchers at the University of Maryland
developments and assesses the value of bringing this
technology into the packaging environment. The US is Biotechnology Institute are looking into the use of enzymes
the world leader in nanoscale science research with well to create functionally useful biopolymer-based materials
over 400 US domestic companies involved. The industrys that would be difficult to obtain by alternative synthetic
holy grail is to turn clay particles into smart materials by routes. Nijmegen University is developing techniques for
combining them with functional organic molecules to form the smart assembly of hybrid biopolymers. The work
hybrid materials. By doing this, a whole new spectrum of has potential applications for protein purification and in
materials can be developed that will respond in a particular the biosensor field, for protein recognition.
way in a particular environment. A team at Strathclyde WORLD
University is currently developing intelligent packaging, Accession no.906376
using nanoparticles that change colour if there has been
any oxidation of food inside the packaging. Item 161
WORLD Brand
Accession no.906457 3, No.2, Jan.-Feb.2004, p.42-8
CHALLENGING FILMS
Item 159 Anyadike N
Package Print and Converting International Intelligent packaging is set to take off as technologies to
Jan.-Feb.2004, p.46-7
manufacture films improve. The market for intelligent
EB CURING OF SOLVENTLESS ADHESIVES
packaging is forecast to double in value between 2002-07
AND OVERPRINT VARNISHES
to reach a total of Euro493.3m. Intelligent breathable films,
Wild L
aimed at enhancing freshness, is one area of packaging
Edlon Machinery Ltd.
technology that is growing rapidly. A definition of intelligent
The platform technology used to develop the low voltage, packaging is the kind of packaging that uses devices within
low cost electron beam curing equipment type EZCure, the pack or as part of the package itself to sense and register

94 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


References and Abstracts

certain changes in the pack and its contents. For example, Several new products which have been launched by Atofina
labels or films that change colour to signal an external are drawn to our attention in this article. The company
or internal temperature change. In intelligent packaging, has introduced Plastistrength 770, a high-performance
the package function is able to switch itself on and off in processing aid for rigid PVC packaging applications,
response to changing external and/or internal conditions. Thermolite 140 and Thermolite 179 heat stabilisers
Active packaging systems consist of a matrix polymer, such for PVC building products, Finaclear 636 and Finaclear
as PETP, plus an oxygen scavenging/absorbing component 609 impact modifiers for PS, and also Finaclear 540
and a catalyst. Antimicrobial technologies also have the and Finaclear 550 impact modifiers aimed at film and
potential to extend the shelf life of perishable foods. sheet extrusion-thermoforming applications for food
WORLD packaging.
Accession no.907122 ATOFINA CHEMICALS INC.
EUROPE-GENERAL; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN
UNION; NETHERLANDS; USA; WESTERN EUROPE
Item 162
Accession no.907903
Chemical Week
166, No.8, 10th March 2004, p.4
FULLER ACQUIRES ADHESIVES AND RESINS Item 165
BUSINESS IN PORTUGAL High Performance Plastics
Feb.2004, p.5/6
It is briefly reported that H.B. Fuller has acquired the
DAINIPPON AND ASAHI KASEI IN PS SHEET
adhesives and resins operations of Probos (Oporto,
DEAL
Portugal). The acquired business consists of water-
based, hot melt, reactive and solvent-based adhesives, In Japan, Asahi Kasei Corp. and Dainippon Ink &
and emulsions for paints, textiles and food products. It Chemicals Inc. are planning to integrate their PS sheet
has sales of approximately 30m US dollars/year. Probos business into a 50:50 joint venture. The new company
manufactures Fullers Rakoll-brand woodworking will become Japans largest supplier of PS sheet, a product
adhesives under a long-term contract. which is widely used in transparent food containers. Brief
Fuller H.B.; Probos SA details of the companies plans are given.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; PORTUGAL; DAINIPPON INK & CHEMICALS INC.; ASAHI
WESTERN EUROPE
KASEI CORP.; ASAHI KASEI LIFE & LIVING
Accession no.907161 CORP.; MITSUBISHI CHEMICAL
JAPAN

Item 163 Accession no.909177


Chemical Market Reporter
265, No.10, 8th March 2004, p.3 Item 166
H.B. FULLER ACQUIRES ADHESIVES AND Chemical Market Reporter
RESINS BUSINESS 265, No.14, 5th April 2004, p.FR8-9
H.B. Fuller has purchased the adhesives and resins INDUSTRY GEARS UP FOR INDUSTRIAL
businesses of Probos SA, based in Oporto, Portugal, it is BIOTECHNOLOGY WAVE
briefly reported. The Probos businesses have combined Mirasol F
annual sales of roughly 30m US dollars and primarily Although still far from being a well-established and well-
serve the Iberian peninsula. The acquired product lines accepted sector, industrial biotechnology has already
include water-based, hot melt, reactive and solvent-based set roots in a wide variety of practical applications.
adhesives for the assembly, woodworking, footwear These include the use of biofeedstocks such as sugars
and converting industries, and emulsions for the paints, and biomass to replace fossil oil and gas, the use of
textiles and food product industries. For several years, bioprocesses such as fermentation and biocatalysis
Probos has been the exclusive licensee of Fullers Rakoll for production of vitamins and active pharmaceutical
woodworking brand for the Portuguese market. ingredients, and the production of bio-based products such
FULLER H.B.,CO.; PROBOS SA as biopolymers and enzymes. Cargill Dow is leading the
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; PORTUGAL;
way in the biopolymer revolution with the rapid success
WESTERN EUROPE
of its biology-based technology. A year ago the company
Accession no.907213 launched Ingeo, a natural fibre akin to cotton manufactured
from its NatureWorks polylactic acid. Last July, Metabolix
Item 164 and BASF AG formed a research collaboration for
Additives for Polymers developing plastics from renewable resources. Metabolix
Jan.2004, p.2/3 is expected to produce polyester plastics from sugar using
ATOFINA LAUNCHES NEW PROCESS AID AND fermentation technology, supplying BASF with pilot-
IMPACT MODIFIERS scale sample quantities. In turn, BASF is investigating

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 95


References and Abstracts

the materials technology and processing the properties Item 169


of the products. Materials World
WORLD 12, No.5, May 2004, p.30-2
Accession no.909701 PERFECT PITCH
Inditherm is a Rotherham-based company that has
Item 167 developed a material of the same name that looks like a
New Scientist clothing textile, but that conducts low-voltage electricity
182, No.2444, 24th April 2004, p.26 to provide an evenly heated surface for virtually any
WRAPPERS SMARTEN UP TO PROTECT FOOD purpose, from sports physiotherapy and warm steering
Kleiner K wheels to concrete structures and football pitches. The
essential ingredients of Inditherm are carbon black and
While conventional packaging simply acts as a barrier an elastomeric polymer. Unlike other heating solutions,
that protects food, active packaging can do a lot more. which are prone to hot and cold spots, Inditherms flexible
The French Monoprix supermarket chain is using a device carbon-based polymer conducts electricity, in the range
called a time temperature indicator on a number of fresh of 6v to 48v, to provide a consistently heated surface that
foods. The TTI is a label that tracks the temperature a can be controlled and monitored up to 120C in ambient
package has been kept at and for how long. The bullseye- conditions as low as -40C.
like label has a central ring containing a chemical
Inditherm
which polymerises, changing colour as it does so from EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN
clear to dark. Increasing the temperature speeds up the EUROPE
polymerisation. The National Center for Toxicological Accession no.910917
Research has developed a plastic disc impregnated with
a dye that sits inside food packaging and changes colour
if telltale gases produced by decay are present. Landec Item 170
has developed a membrane wrapper which changes its Flexible
permeability as the temperature changes in a way that 2, No.6, March-April 2004, p.5
keeps different products at their optimal oxygen/carbon EXXONMOBIL CHEMICAL INTRODUCES NEW
dioxide concentrations. WAVE OF METALLOCENE POLYPROPYLENES
WORLD Building upon its Exxpol technology that produced the first
Accession no.909789 metallocene-catalysed PP in 1995, ExxonMobil Chemical
is introducing a new wave of Achieve metallocene PP
Item 168 following the development of an additional catalyst
Shawbury, Rapra Technology Ltd., 2004, pp. 164, 29 platform. The new Achieve lines have applications across a
cm. Rapra Review Rept. No. 171, vol. 15, No. 3, 2004. range of markets, beginning with nonwovens, but also set
NALOAN to include both flexible and rigid packaging applications.
PVC COMPOUNDS AND PROCESSING Achieve TM 6936G1 is the first mPP designed for
Patrick S meltblown applications. It has the high-melt flow rate and
Edited by: Humphreys S narrow molecular weight distribution needed to reach the
(Rapra Technology Ltd.) next level of performance in meltblown processes. Tests
Rapra Review Report No.171 have shown that nonwoven fabrics made from Achieve
TM 6936G1 offer increased barrier properties, increased
This review of PVC compounds and processing techniques comfort from reduced weight and greater air flow, reduced
includes information on health and environmental aspects, spray impact penetration and FDA compliance for use
and recycling and waste management of PVC. An as articles or components of articles intended for food
overview is given of the PVC industry, with an outline of contact.
PVC resin producers and compounders, and details of the ExxonMobil Chemical Co.
global market by application. Key additives are identified USA
and specific consideration is given to heat stabilisers, Accession no.910948
plasticisers, multifunctional additives, property modifiers,
lubricants, fillers, flame retardants, pigments, biocides,
blowing agents, antioxidants, and light stabilisers. Item 171
Compounding and processing technology is reviewed, with Flexible
reference to dry blend mixing, melt compounding, liquid 2, No.6, March-April 2004, p.18/25
PVC blending, gelation, extrusion, injection moulding, ADOPTION PROCESS
extrusion blow moulding, orientation, calendaring and Ver-Bruggen S
moulding processes for plastisols and pastes. 466 refs. Cryovacs oxygen scavenging film can be used in rigid
WORLD and flexible packaging with both high-moisture content
Accession no.909981 foods and dry products. The oxygen scavenger is

96 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


References and Abstracts

activated by light from a special UV lamp, supplied by technical Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether with solvents and
Cryovac and fixed to the packaging line. Wipak claims its phenols are employed to confirm the identification of
oxygen scavenging film, which has almost clear visibility, migrants and the method is validated using several epoxy
is gaining interest on the continent. The film uses a coatings applied to tinplate strips. (Pt.2, ibid, p.377-89)
moisture-triggering technology that does not require 35 refs.
additional preparation or equipment to activate the EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY;
scavengers. However, for the foreseeable future, sachets, WESTERN EUROPE
even with the additional cost of inserting them into Accession no.911080
packs, are much cheaper to use than film. Antibacterial
films have traditionally courted controversy because
they may be used to package foods that are going bad, Item 174
even if they are stifling the growth of microbes. Active 2003 PLACE Conference and the Global Hot Melt
flexible packaging and active films are still very much Symposium. Proceedings of a Conference held Orlando,
in the development stage and will only begin to thrive in Fl., 3rd-7th Aug. 2003.
Europe once the revised food contact materials council Atlanta, Ga., TAPPI Press, 2003, Paper 27-2, 30 cm.
directive is implemented. 012
WORLD EMBRACING EB/UV CURABLE TECHNOLOGY
FOR FOOD PACKAGING END-USED THROUGH
Accession no.910952
FDA COMPLIANCE SELF-CERTIFICATION
PROCESS
Item 172 Lin A; Wind G; Wornick F
Flexible Sovereign Specialty Chemicals Inc.
2, No.6, March-April 2004, p.42-8 (TAPPI)
FAST CURES
Anyadike N The development of a comprehensive testing protocol
employing cell extraction and liquid chromatography
The world market for laminated food packaging materials with a mass selective spectrometer for UV/electron
is growing at an annual average rate of approximately 4- beam curable, acrylated coatings/adhesives/inks is
5%. There is growing interest in low-cost electron beam described. FDA compliance of UV/electron beam
curing technology in the flexible packaging industry, with curable chemistry can be determined with the aid of this
interest sparked by the recent availability of lower-cost testing protocol through support of the No Migration/
EB units. EB is seen as a more food packaging friendly No Food Additive statutory exemptions under FDA
alternative to UV-curable technology. Today there are regulations. Possible commercial applications of this
around 150 different PUR laminating adhesives that can technology are indicated as are the steps necessary to
realistically be substituted by UV or EB cure adhesives. ensure continuous FDA compliance of food packaging
However, in order for this to happen, a considerable materials using UV/electron beam curable chemistry.
amount of testing would need to be done. Therefore, a 14 refs.
cure primer, which accelerates the cure of well-proven
laminating adhesives is a much simpler and more cost- US,Federal Drugs Administration
USA
effective technology approach.
WORLD Accession no.912030
Accession no.910955
Item 175
Canadian Plastics
Item 173
62, No.5, May 2004, p.22
Food Additives and Contaminants
OPTIMIZING USE OF TPES
21, No.4, April 2004, p.390-405
MIGRATION FROM CAN COATINGS: PART RTP has introduced a new series of TPE compounds
3. SYNTHESIS, IDENTIFICATION AND formulated for specific properties and optimised
QUANTIFICATION OF MIGRATING EPOXY- performance. RTP 6002 and RTP 6003 have been
BASED SUBSTANCES BELOW 1000 DA specifically developed for improved bonding in two-shot
Schaefer A; Simat T J or insert overmoulded applications. Bayer Polymers is
Hamburg,University; Dresden,Technische Universitat expanding its line of aromatic Desmopan thermoplastic
A report is presented on the development of a method for PUs with four new highly transparent grades. These are
identifying and quantifying Bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether- primarily targeted for ski boots and sports and leisure
related substances below 1000 Da migrating from epoxy- footwear, applications for which good abrasion resistance
based can coatings. The analysis is performed using HPLC is required.
coupled with UV light, fluorescence and electrospray NORTH AMERICA
ionisation-mass selective detection. Microreactions of Accession no.914372

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 97


References and Abstracts

Item 176 PROPYLENE GLYCOL


European Plastics News
The major outlet for propylene glycol (PG) is the
31, No.7, July-Aug.2004, p.15
production of unsaturated polyester resins, which are used
L/LDPE HINTS AT RECOVERY
in surface coatings and GRP. The second largest consumer
Platt D
is antifreeze where it is replacing ethylene glycol in de-
According to Nexant Chem Systems, Western European icing aircraft and as a coolant in the food industry. The PG
consumption of LDPE fell 2.2% to 4.8 million tonnes market is currently well balanced to tight due to various
in 2003, reflecting a poor economic performance in production problems in Spain and scheduled outages in
major European economies. At the same time, LLDPE France and Germany. Demand in Europe is said to be
consumption increased 4.6% to 2.6 million tonnes. While relatively healthy and in line with expectations. Overall,
LDPE tends to remain fairly stable, LLDPE takes most the market in western Europe was up by 6% last year on
of the growth in the market because it costs less and is a 2002, but exports were down because of the weak dollar.
tougher material. Nexant is predicting around 1%/year Future demand growth in Europe is forecast at GDP rates.
growth for LDPE consumption during the next five years, Asia is the fastest growing market and consumption here
while LLDPE demand is expected to grow by 7.6%. is predicted to grow between 6-10%.
Film accounted for around 72% of total LDPE and 80% WORLD
of LLDPE consumption in 2003. Growth in demand is Accession no.915123
being driven primarily by the increasing use of plastic
for food packaging. The consultancy expects very limited
additional LLDPE capacity to come onstream in Europe Item 179
during the next five years. As such, most of the growth in Shawbury, Rapra Technology Ltd., 2004, pp. 120, 29
European LLDPE demand will be taken up by imports. In cm. Rapra Review Rept. No. 173, vol. 15, No. 5, 2004.
2009, it is projected that over a million tonnes of LLDPE NALOAN
will come into Europe from the Middle East. REGULATION OF FOOD PACKAGING IN
EUROPE AND THE USA
Nexant Chem Systems
WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Knight D J; Creighton L A
Safepharm Laboratories Ltd.
Accession no.914398
Edited by: Humphreys S
(Rapra Technology Ltd.)
Item 177 Rapra Review Report No.173
Brand
This report updates Rapra Review Report 61, and covers
3, No.4, May-June 2004, p.22-7
food packaging regulations in the EU, the general
DIVINE COMBINATION
framework Directive and the main daughter Directive
Ver-Bruggen S
on plastics. This is followed by a brief description of the
Within the diagnostic packaging sector, most investment national legislation relating to food packaging for most of
and research is directed into developing time-temperature the important European countries. Consideration is given
indicators and wireless time-temperature labels. However, to the safety of food packaging, whose absence from EU
another hot area is the work being done by various institutes or national regulation, means that this is assessed largely
to develop non-invasive oxygen sensors. Oxygen scavengers from CoE Recommendations, draft Recommendations,
provide the second biggest market for active packaging, other European national approvals, (in particular from
after moisture scavengers. Packaging which extends product Germany), or US approval. Safety evaluation of food
shelf life by either removing oxygen through absorption packaging includes exposure assessments, toxicology
or displacing the oxygen with other gases, as in the case testing and risk assessment. Future developments relating
with MAP, is becoming the industrys preferred method of to food packing in the EU are discussed, and include the
preserving fresh produce. The Acosic project, funded by use of active and intelligent packaging materials, and the
the EU, aims to develop combined indicator and scavenger disposal and recycling of plastics, and control of migration
systems, which can absorb oxygen, whilst indicating the is also addressed. 449 refs.
functionality of the scavenger and whether the pack has EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; USA;
any leaks. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland is WESTERN EUROPE
working on improving the properties of its oxygen sensor Accession no.916375
so that it can be printed as an ink onto packaging.
WORLD
Item 180
Accession no.914434 Chemical Week
166, No.24, 21st-28th July 2004, p.31-2
Item 178 UV/EB IS FUTURE FORCE TO BE RECKONED
European Chemical News WITH
81, No.2108, 12th-18th July 2004, p.16 Valero G

98 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


References and Abstracts

RadTech International North America reports the use of COLORANTS BASED ON RENEWABLE
UV/EB formulated products reached 82,800 metric tons in RESOURCES AND FOOD-GRADE COLORANTS
2003, up 8% over 2001. Graphic arts applications and the FOR APPLICATIONS IN THERMOPLASTICS
wood finishes industry continue to be the largest market van den Oever M J A; Boeriu C G; Blaauw R; van
segments with a combined 45% share. Because UV-cured Haveren J
coatings provide the durability required by automotive Agrotechnology & Food Innovations BV
coatings, industry observers say it has opened the door
Colourants based on renewable resources and food grade
for expanded developments by OEM paint manufacturers
colourants covering most of the colour spectrum were
and peaked the interest of auto makers. UV-cured powder
evaluated for use in PP and PVC. Most of them could be
coatings is another market with vast growth potential.
processed in PP at 200C or even 260C while retaining
Performance issues surrounding the use of photoinitiators
good colour intensity and colour brightness. In PP, the
in UV curing are being overcome by the development
light stability of alizarin (red), carmine (red), indigo
of new raw materials that are inherently photoreactive,
(blue), purpurin (red), quinizarin (red) and the aluminium
enabling no-odour coatings and inks that are potentially
lakes of quinoline yellow and indigo carmine (blue) was
usable in food packaging.
close to the requirements for indoor applications. A few
NORTH AMERICA
colourants showed bleeding from PP but this was reduced
Accession no.917844 to a large extent by bonding these colourants to the reactive
carrier maleic anhydride grafted PP. After processing in
Item 181 PVC at 200C, good colour intensity and saturation was
Journal of Applied Polymer Science maintained. Quinizarin (a structural analogue of alizarin
92, No.5, 5th June 2004, p.2845-58 and purpurin) showed a light stability which was close to
FUNCTIONAL BARRIERS IN PET RECYCLED that of commercial lead chromate/molybdate orange-based
BOTTLES. PART I. DETERMINATION OF colourants. The best performing natural colourants were
DIFFUSION COEFFICIENTS IN BIORIENTED suitable for applications such as underground PVC water
PET WITH AND WITHOUT CONTACT WITH drainage pipes and indoor PP applications where moderate
FOOD SIMULANTS heat resistance and UV light stability are required. 27
Pennarun P Y; Dole P; Feigenbaum A refs.
Reims,Institut National de la Recherches Agronomiques EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION;
NETHERLANDS; WESTERN EUROPE
The presence of a layer of virgin polymer (a functional
Accession no.920749
barrier) intercalated between a layer of recycled polymer
and foodstuff in order to prevent the migration of
contaminants of the recycled polymer into the food was Item 183
studied. Diffusion coefficients of a large set of model High Performance Plastics
pollutants (surrogates) at low concentrations in PETP June 2004, p.3
were measured under various conditions. A solid-to-solid ALLOY POLYMER SHEETS
diffusion test was devised to avoid the use of a solvent In the USA, Spartech Corp. has recently introduced a range
which may have plasticising and partitioning effects. The of new products: Acrylloy XLB (acrylic film), Enviro-
diffusion coefficients obtained for the surrogates agreed Guard AM (acrylic/ABS sheet), Laser Pro (olefin-based
with published data for gases measured by permeation additive), Millennium V (polycarbonate/ABS alloy
experiments where no plasticisation occurred. Migration sheet), Packalloy LTO (olefin-based sheet and rollstock),
from PETP into food simulants was then studied. Migration Polyshield CR (transparent cell-cast sheet), StatPro
into an aqueous medium was largely influenced by the SD (colour concentrate), SoundX Plus (mineral-filled
solubility of the surrogates. Less soluble ones were not polymer sheet), Solarex SV (copolyester sheet), and
detected, despite high diffusion coefficient values. With WeatherPro S (coextruded ABS sheet). Brief details of
ethanol there were no partitioning effects and the high each are supplied here.
plasticisation effect of PETP by ethanol considerably
SPARTECH CORP.
increased the apparent diffusion coefficients. The larger USA
the molecular weight of the surrogate, the more important
was the plasticisation effect on the diffusion coefficients. Accession no.920804
28 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE; Item 184
WESTERN EUROPE Flexible
Accession no.920738 3, No.3, Sept.-Oct.2004, p.16/24
BRAND NEW BARRIER
Anyadike N
Item 182
Journal of Applied Polymer Science Cyclic olefin copolymers (COCs) are produced by
92, No.5, 5th June 2004, p.2961-9 polymerising ethylene and norbornene using metallocene

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 99


References and Abstracts

catalyst technology. They have a better water vapour solvent-free polyurethane laminating adhesives with smart
barrier than PP or PE, although the oxygen barrier is cure for compliance with food packaging regulations is
similar to both PP and PE. The major difference is in discussed.
their mechanical characteristics. They are considerably EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY;
stiffer than LDPE, but with the same layer thickness, WESTERN EUROPE
making it possible to maintain film stiffness in much Accession no.922631
thinner coextruded materials. Applications for COCs
are as a discrete layer in a multilayer structure, either by
Item 187
coextrusion or extrusion coating, and as a blend with PE.
Plastics Technology
Ticona is by far the most prominent supplier of COCs and
50, No.9, Sept.2004, p.41-2
recently launched a range of proprietary COCs marketed
ANTIOXIDANTS FOR OLEFINS, PVC
under the Topas name. They are approved for food-contact
applications such as flexible packaging in both Europe and Several large chemical additive companies will introduce
the US. Blister packs represent an area of major potential new polymer antioxidants at the K 2004 show to be held in
for COCs. Medical-grade blister packs must be designed Dusseldorf in Germany. This short article provides a brief
in such a way as to protect the contents from moisture and overview of what is to be unveiled at the show, including
other environmental factors. Anox ProcessPlus from Great Lakes Chemical Corp.,
WORLD and a new environmentally-friendly antioxidant for PVC
Accession no.921290 from Ciba Specialty Chemicals, called Irgastab PVC 11
EM.
Item 185 GREAT LAKES CHEMICAL CORP.; CIBA
Polymer Engineering plus SPECIALTY CHEMICALS; CROMPTON CORP.; GE
No.74, 9th-15th Sept.2004, p.6 SPECIALTY CHEMICALS
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY;
FDA APPROVAL FOR STARLIGHT PIGMENT USA; WESTERN EUROPE
StarLight FL 105 pigment has been approved by the US Accession no.925189
FDA for use as a colourant in all types of food-contact
polymers. Approval will allow the pigment to be used in
Item 188
items such as plastic tumblers, dinnerware and packaging
Plastics Technology
for food and cosmetics. The product line has been
50, No.9, Sept.2004, p.43
developed using innovative MicroMirror technology to
NON-WARPING PIGMENTS
obtain a brilliance and sparkle in a variety of different
applications. With StarLight, the edges are coated, making Ciba Specialty Chemicals, BASF Corp., and Lanxess will
the effect visible at any orientation. The sparkle can be all be introducing new polymer non-warping pigments at
created at low pigment levels, even as low as 500ppm and the K 2004 show, which is shortly to be held in Dusseldorf,
can even be achieved with opaque pigments. StarLight in Germany. This small article briefly highlights for
pigments are compatible with most polymers, blends and us the new pigments they will be exhibiting, and their
alloys and can be processed at high temperatures without advantageous properties.
problem. CIBA SPECIALTY CHEMICALS; BASF CORP.;
Shepherd Color Co. LANXESS CORP.; BAYER AG
USA EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY;
USA; WESTERN EUROPE
Accession no.921331
Accession no.925192
Item 186
Adhasion Kleben und Dichten Item 189
48, No.9, Suppl.(within original), 2004, p.24/8 Plastics Technology
German; English 50, No.9, Sept.2004, p.91
TRENDS IN PACKAGING - A CHALLENGE FOR SPECIALTY PE RESINS
PACKAGING ADHESIVES Two new families of polyethylenes (PEs) made with a
Onusseit H single-site catalyst by Borealis are to be launched by
Henkel KGaA the company at the forthcoming K 2004 exhibition in
Developments in the field of packaging adhesives, initiated October, we are informed in this small article. The new
by new materials, new production processes and additional developments are briefly introduced here.
requirements to be met by packaging, are reviewed in terms BOREALIS COMPOUNDS LLC
of application methods, bonding of more sophisticated EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY;
coated and printed packaging materials and high speed USA; WESTERN EUROPE
production lines. The development of solvent-based and Accession no.925203

100 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


References and Abstracts

Item 190 Item 192


Flexible Packaging Technology and Science
2, No.2, July-Aug.2003, p.34/41 16, No.3, May-June 2003, p.99-106
ADDED FLAVOUR WIDE-SPECTRUM ANTIMICROBIAL
Anyadike N PACKAGING MATERIALS INCORPORATING
NISIN AND CHITOSAN IN THE COATING
The market for films and coatings that have the ability
Lee C H; An D S; Park H J; Lee D S
to interact with the packaged product or act as a barrier
Kyungnam,University; Korea,University
is growing. In the area of food packaging it is important
for films to function as a flavour, odour and fragrance Nisin and/or chitosan were coated, in 3% concentrations,
barrier, and it is also important from a point of preventing onto paper with a binder medium of EVA to provide
contamination that there be no unwanted migration from antimicrobial activity for use in food packaging. The
the packaging to the product. Active packaging involves combined use of nisin and chitosan in the coating was an
plastics designed to increase shelf life of specific products. attempt to give a wide antimicrobial spectrum that could
It is vital that food remains stable in terms of aroma inhibit the growth of several food spoilage and poisonous
concentration and composition during the shelf life of microorganisms. The migration of the preservative from
the product. the coatings to water was evaluated at 10C and related to
WORLD the suppressed microbial growth in the water and microbial
medium. The paper coated with nisin was more effective
Accession no.902321
than the chitosan-coated paper in inhibiting the Gram-
positive bacterium, Listeria monocytogenes, whereas the
Item 191 latter was more effective against Escherichia coli O157:
Packaging Technology and Science H7. Combined inclusion of nisin and chitosan in the
16, No.5, Sept.-Oct.2003, p.209-20 coating gave antimicrobial activity against both bacterial
SAFETY AND QUALITY OF PLASTIC FOOD strains and could improve the microbial stability of milk
CONTACT MATERIALS. OPTIMIZATION OF and orange juice stored at 10C. 24 refs.
EXTRACTION TIME AND EXTRACTION YIELD, SOUTH KOREA
BASED ON ARITHMETIC RULES DERIVED Accession no.895898
FROM MATHEMATICAL DESCRIPTION OF
DIFFUSION. APPLICATION TO CONTROL
Item 193
STRATEGIES
Food Additives and Contaminants
Scholler D; Vergnaud J M; Bouquant J; Vergallen H;
20, No.6, June 2003, p.607-18
Feigenbaum A
BENZOPHENONE IN CARTONBOARD
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique
PACKAGING MATERIALS AND THE FACTORS
Migration of packaging constituents into food may raise THAT INFLUENCE ITS MIGRATION INTO
concerns about food safety. This paper describes the FOOD
conclusions of a EU research project aiming to facilitate the Anderson W A C; Castle L
introduction of migration control into good manufacturing UK,Dept.for the Environment,Food & Rural Affairs
practice and into enforcement policies. The first part
A method is described to test for benzophenone in
describes a re-evaluation of analytical approaches to cartonboard packaging materials and to test for migration
extract and identify potential migrants released by plastic levels in foodstuffs. The extracts were analysed by gas
materials, viz. comparison of analytical methods, choice of chromatography-mass spectrometry. 11 refs.
extraction solvents and of fat simulants. The study focuses EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN
on the extraction time needed to achieve a given extraction EUROPE
yield. By correlating these parameters with simple and Accession no.891699
practical equations, it is possible to design alternative
tests for control of compliance of packaging plastics.
Using a reference experiment, it is possible to calculate the Item 194
percentage of extraction which can be achieved in a given ENDS Report
time, or the time necessary to reach a target extraction level No.339, April 2003, p.32
for other polymer/solvent combinations. A global control BOOTS REMOVES BISPHENOL A FROM FOOD
scheme is proposed, which indicates whether and when JAR LIDS
calculation and testing should be applied. Guidelines are Boots has become the latest member of a small band of
proposed and can be adapted to both industrial control and retailers to have produced strategies for managing the
to enforcement laboratories. 11 refs. health, environmental and reputational risks posed by
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE; chemicals in products. The strategy includes plans to
WESTERN EUROPE phase out the use of lacquers containing bisphenol A in
Accession no.900965 food jar lids and to encourage suppliers to seek alternatives

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 101


References and Abstracts

to phthalates. Three years ago, Boots was potentially is not intended to have a technical effect in food. Options
the prime target of a campaign by Friends of the Earth for establishing FDA status are examined.
to persuade retailers to stop using hazardous chemicals USA
and to post information about the chemicals they did use Accession no.883522
on their websites. Due to potential public opinion, the
company has become one of the initial group of retailers Item 197
- also including Marks & Spencer, the Co-op, B&Q and 2002 PLACE Conference. Proceedings of a conference
the Early Learning Centre - to sign up to FoEs risky held Boston, Ma., 9th-12th Sept. 2002.
chemical pledge in 2002. This has committed them to Atlanta, GA, TAPPI Press, 2002, Session 13, Paper 48,
identify known or suspected endocrine disrupters or pp.27, CD Rom, 012
bioaccumulative substances, and to aim to phase them out RECENT ADVANCEMENTS IN TESTING
within five years. Details are given. PROTOCOLS FOR FDA COMPLIANT EB
BOOTS CO.PLC; FRIENDS OF THE EARTH COATINGS AND ADHESIVES
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN Lin A; Gao H; Wind G; Wornick F
EUROPE
Sovereign Specialty Chemicals Inc.
Accession no.889235 (TAPPI)
A comprehensive testing protocol utilising cell extraction
Item 195 method and liquid chromatography with a mass selective
Shawbury, Rapra Technology Ltd., 2003, p.viii, 244, spectrometer has been developed for testing UV/EB
ISBN 1859573746, 25cm, 123-921T curable, acrylated coatings, adhesives and inks, in order
AIR MONITORING IN THE RUBBER AND to determine the suitability of the chemistry as part of
PLASTICS INDUSTRIES the food packaging materials. The testing protocol helps
Willoughby B G to determine FDA compliance of the UV/EB curable
chemistry by supporting the no migration/ no food
This book examines the types of chemicals found in the
additive statutory exemptions under FDA regulations.
polymer industry and the potential hazards. It goes on Examples are described, which demonstrate the suitability,
to explain the common chemical reactions of concern to advantages and selectivity of LC-MS/LC-MS-MS detection
health and safety. Monitoring methods are described in methods over the GC-MS method. Also demonstrated is
some detail together with their limitations. This book is the possibility of achieving FDA compliance with EB
divided into the following seven chapters: Chapter 1 - What curable, acrylated chemistry, and to be able to maintain
to look for - Whats there at the start; Chapter 2 - What the same compliance with normal process variation, e.g.
to look for - Whats created during processing; Chapter 3 coat weight, curing voltage, curing dosage. A powerpoint
- Air monitoring strategies; Chapter 4 - Indirect methods version of this paper is also included. 6 refs.
- Trapping species from air; Chapter 5 - Indirect methods USA
- Laboratory analysis; Chapter 6 - Indirect methods - Data
Accession no.883512
Analysis; Chapter 7 - Direct methods
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN
EUROPE Item 198
Accession no.888365 Packaging Technology and Science
15, No.5, Sept.-Oct.2002, p.247-54
PROPERTIES OF NISIN-INCORPORATED
Item 196 POLYMER COATINGS AS ANTIMICROBIAL
2002 PLACE Conference. Proceedings of a conference PACKAGING MATERIALS
held Boston, Ma., 9th-12th Sept. 2002. Young-Min Kim
Atlanta, GA, TAPPI Press, 2002, Session 16 Paper 58, Kyungnam,University
pp.14, CD Rom, 012 Nisin was incorporated into binder solutions of acrylic
ESTABLISHING A SUITABLE FDA STATUS FOR polymer and EVA and then coated onto paper. Diffusive
COATINGS AND ADHESIVES migration of incorporated nisin and the antimicrobial
Baughan J S activity of the polymer coatings were investigated in
Keller & Heckman LLP order to understand the way of controlling nisin migration
(TAPPI) and the extent of microbial suppression by the coated
This powerpoint presentation discusses the establishment of paper. EVA exhibited faster rate and higher degree of
a suitable FDA status for coatings and adhesives used in the migration into aqueous food simulant solutions compared
food industry or in food-contact applications, with respect to acrylic polymers, and also exhibited a higher degree
to the FDAs definitions of a food additive or a food contact of suppression against Micrococcus flavus ATCC 10240
substance. The latter is defined as any substance intended inoculated into the microbial medium. 28 refs.
for use as a component of materials used in manufacturing, SOUTH KOREA
packing, packaging, transporting or holding food if such use Accession no.879348

102 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


References and Abstracts

Item 199 Because additives have been around for decades, they have
Paper Film and Foil Converter never diminished from research focus in formulations.
77, No.2, Feb.2003, p.22 Even though additives represent a minor portion of a
CONCERN OVER PHTHALATES IN FOOD formulators paint or milk formula, without them surface
PACKAGING defects can be significant. In particular, silicone additives
Podhajny R M bring to the coatings table a range of surface-modifying and
enhancing properties. As a result of the increasing pressure
Plasticisers are used extensively to soften plastics,
to reduce VOCs, UV-curable technology is experiencing
building products, blood bags, cosmetics and personal
a significant growth in the market. The technological
care products, as well as packaging inks and coatings. The
advancements of silicone additives are examined as they
majority of plasticisers fall into a broad class of chemicals
have progressed through simple polyether modification,
called esters. In recent years, phthalate esters emissions
which have helped overcome incompatibilities in coatings
have become a major environmental and health concern. formulations. The more reactive functional modifications
Phthalate esters vary in their toxicity, but the most widely that silicones are heading towards still help to maintain
used phthalate, DEHP, has been labelled as a probable compatibility but offer more permanent results. Typical
human carcinogen. Food packaging concerns have been coating film defects such as cratering and orange peel
focused recently on the use of phthalate plasticisers in are avoided, and the negative effects of floating can be
many inks, coatings and packaging films, as phthalates suppressed. Furthermore, these additives provide smooth
can migrate into food from these products. surfaces as well as improving the gloss and allowing the
WORLD coating to be more scratch resistant. 4 refs.
Accession no.879267 EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY;
USA; WESTERN EUROPE

Item 200 Accession no.878217


Plastics in Contact with Foodstuffs. Proceedings of a
conference held London, 12th Dec. 2000. Item 202
Leatherhead, Pira International, 2000, Paper 8, pp.8, 31 Adhesives Age
cm, 012 45, No.11, Nov.2002, p.22-5
DETERMINATION OF BADGE, BFDGE AND LIGHTING IT UP
NOGE IN FOODS, FOOD SIMULANTS AND Lin A
COATINGS Sovereign Specialty Chemicals Inc.
Rijk R; Bas R
More and more flexible packaging applications including
TNO Nutrition & Food Research
adhesives, coatings and inks have been drawn to electron
(Pira International)
beam and UV curable chemistry for many obvious reasons.
In order to enforce the draft EU directive which intends to These reasons include zero or very low VOC and HAPS,
exclude the use of Novolac diglycidyl ethers (BADGE) as space saving, increase in productivity and lower energy
a hydrogen chloride scavenger in organosol based coatings, consumption. However, the applications in food packaging
analytical methods are required. TNO has been working for segments have been limited, especially the food use
several years on the development of a suitable analytical flexible packaging area. Some of the common concerns
method to determine both BADGE, NOGE (Novolac from the converters, in the past, have been related to odour,
diglycidyl ethers), and BFDGE, (the smallest molecule potential migration, lack of proper testing protocols, lack
in the series of NOGE) including their derivatives in food of a simple and secure cure monitoring mechanism and
simulants, foodstuffs and coatings.. Details are given of the lack of understanding regarding FDA status/regulations
development of an analytical method and a confirmation of the chemistry. This article discusses the advancements
procedure for the determination of the epoxides and their that have been made in the industry to address these
reaction products. concerns.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; USA
NETHERLANDS; UK; WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.874611
Accession no.878454
Item 203
Item 201 Hygenic Coatings. Proceedings of a conference held
Surface Coatings International Part B Brussels, Belgium, 8th-9th July 2002.
85, No.B4, Nov.2002, p.309-12 Teddington, Paint Research Association, 2002, Paper 8,
ORGANIC-MODIFIED p.1-7, 29cm, 012
POLYDIMETHYLSILOXANES FOR UV- THE NEED TO IMPROVE HYGIENE IN FOOD
CURABLE COATINGS PROCESSING PLANTS
Stalker D L; Sandmeyer F Notermans S; Hoornstra E
Wacker Silicones Corp.; Wacker-Chemie GmbH TNO Nutrition & Food Research

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 103


References and Abstracts

(Paint Research Association) of uncured monomers. Several barrier layers are often
employed to minimise migration, but long-term effects are
Food-borne disease statistics and data on endemic bacteria
only estimated, as information is often gathered through
in food processing plants are presented and discussed.
simulated accelerated age testing. Despite these issues, UV
Factors contributing to the outbreak of disease and
curing inks are growing in usage because of their durability
related to inadequate handling are considered and a new
and gloss. Aspects covered include formulation with UV,
strategy for improving hygiene in food processing plants is
applications and personalisation.
proposed. The results of experiments carried out using UV-
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN
disinfection to inactivate microorganisms on a conveyor EUROPE
belt (Ammaraal Nonex) are also reported. 6 refs.
BELGIUM; EUROPE-GENERAL; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY;
Accession no.863726
EUROPEAN UNION; NETHERLANDS; USA; WESTERN
EUROPE; WORLD
Item 206
Accession no.873118 Food Additives and Contaminants
19, No.2, Feb.2002, p.184-201
Item 204 SAFETY AND QUALITY OF FOOD CONTACT
Paper Film and Foil Converter MATERIALS. I. EVALUATION OF ANALYTICAL
76, No.8, Aug.2002, p.18 STRATEGIES TO INTRODUCE MIGRATION
REDEFINING PLASTICIZERS IN INKS AND TESTING INTO GOOD MANUFACTURING
COATINGS PRACTICE
Podhajny R M Feigenbaum A; Scholler D; Bouquant J; Brigot G;
Ferrier D; Franz R; Lillemark L; Riquet A M; Petersen J
Plasticisers are chemicals that can soften binders used H; van Lierop B; Yagoubi N
in ink and coatings, improving their flexibility. Most Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique;
plasticisers are high boiling liquids that partially dissolve Reims,University; Paris II,Universite;
the polymer framework of select binders. These plasticisers DenmarkVeterinary & Food Administration;
effectively reduce the softening point of the ink or coating Keuringdients van Waren
binder. One of the undesirable effects of using plasticisers
is they can raise the COF by making the ink or coating Results of a research project (EU AUR Research
formulation softer. Not only is this effect evident in Programme CT94-1025) aimed at introduction of control
the ink and coating surface, but some plasticisers can of migration into good manufacturing practice and into
migrate from front to back of the film within the roll. enforcement work are reported. Representative classes of
Higher temperature and pressure will increase the rate of polymer were defined on the basis of chemical structure,
migration. As a rule of thumb, if the COF of a printed or technological function, migration behaviour and market
coated film rises with time, plasticiser migration would share. These classes were characterised by analytical
be suspected. methods. High-temp. gas chromatography was shown
USA to be a powerful method for identification of potential
migrants and PMR provided a convenient fingerprint of
Accession no.865441
plastics materials. Volatile compounds were characterised
by headspace techniques, in which it was shown to be
Item 205 essential to differentiate volatile compounds desorbed
Polymers Paint Colour Journal from those generated during the thermal desorption
192, No.4454, July 2002, p.21-2 itself. For metal trace analysis, microwave mineralisation
INKS FOR NEW MARKETS followed by atomic absorption was employed. These
Sime K different techniques were introduced into a systematic
Ink formulation relies heavily upon the end use requirement. testing scheme that was envisaged as being suitable both
A growth area is in the food packaging industry, where for industrial control and for enforcement laboratories.
solvent-based inks are frowned upon due to the VOCs 24 refs.
present. There are several classes of ink grades from direct DENMARK; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION;
FRANCE; GERMANY; NETHERLANDS; SCANDINAVIA;
contact with the food, e.g. printing onto eggs, all the way WESTERN EUROPE
through to exterior packaging. Direct contact with food
Accession no.863624
obviously has the most stringent parameters to fulfil in
safety terms. Food packaging that will not come into direct
contact with the food item has less stringent rules and much Item 207
of the testing is done inhouse. Often, for historical reasons, Food Additives and Contaminants
an ink is used with no testing, simply relying on the fact 19, No.2, Feb.2002, p.168-75
that it has always been used and everybody else uses it. ANALYSIS OF FOOD PACKAGING UV INKS
Very little is understood about the possible migration of FOR CHEMICALS WITH POTENTIAL TO
materials through food packaging, especially in the areas MIGRATE INTO FOOD SIMULANTS

104 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


References and Abstracts

Papilloud S; Baudraz D The migration kinetics of BADGE from processed and


Sicpa Printing Inks non-processed model cans with epoxy resin-based lacquers
into vegetable oil were investigated as a function of the
Chromatographic methods developed for analysis of the
process treatment and the temp. of storage. Aliquots from the
level of ink ingredients potentially available to migrate
samples were taken at regular intervals for more than a year.
into food simulants are described and results obtained by
Samples were analysed for BADGE by high-performance
application of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to
liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The
quantification of the levels of photoinitiators and acrylates results showed that heat processing had the greatest effect
are presented and discussed. It is shown that these methods on migration of BADGE. Storage temp. also significantly
can be used to assess the quality of printing inks intended influenced migration from non-processed cans, particularly
for primary food packaging to ensure that the release of at higher storage temps. such as 60C. Some samples were
chemicals is negligible. 10 refs. subjected to 60C storage after an initial period at 20C and an
SWITZERLAND; WESTERN EUROPE effect on migration was also noted, although to a lesser extent
Accession no.863622 than from processing. The results of migration at higher
temps. were also correlated with the potential degradation of
BADGE from oxidation products. 15 refs. (2nd International
Item 208
Symposium on Food Packaging: Ensuring the Safety and
Food Additives and Contaminants
Quality of Foods, Vienna, Austria, Nov.2000)
Vol.19, Suppl., 2002, p.185-91
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; ITALY;
COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF MIGRATES WESTERN EUROPE
FROM FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIALS: A
Accession no.863610
CHALLENGE
Grob K
Zurich Canton,Official Food Control Authority Item 210
Epoxy Technologies for Ambient Cure Protective
It is suggested that present European regulation of food Coatings. Conference proceedings.
packaging materials does not provide the assessment for Brussels, 12th-14th May 1997, paper 23
safety corresponding to the opinion of toxicologists that INFLUENCE OF THE BENZYL ALCOHOL
migrants ingested in amounts exceeding a threshold of ON THE REACTIVITY RATIO, SECONDARY
1.5 microgram/day should be identified and evaluated AMINE/PRIMARY AMINE, IN THE CURE OF
toxicologically. Many substances that migrate are neither EPOXY AMINE. CASE APPLICATION: COATING
starting point materials nor obvious derivatives thereof FOR DRINKING WATER
and are, therefore, not covered by existing systems based Paz-Abuin S; Lopez-Quintela A; Pazos M; Prendes P;
on positive lists. Safety presupposes the comprehensive Varela M; Paseito P
analysis of the migrating substances, ultimately to the Gairesa
limits in terms of concentration and molec.wt. considered (Paint Research Association)
to be of toxicological concern. Expected problems with this
analytical challenge are considered, leading to the conclusion Based on a kinetic model proposed, the ratio of rate
that it will be difficult to achieve comprehensive analysis constants (R), secondary amine (k2) to primary amine
(k1) is directly obtained by evaluation of concentrations
down to the concentrations presently considered safe, but
of the primary and secondary amines. The measurements
that systematic work should start to define the possibilities
are carried out by IR spectroscopy (FTIR) in the near-
and limitations of analytical chemistry for a migrate-oriented
IR. Two epoxy formulations are prepared. Bisphenol A
coating legislation. 12 refs. (2nd International Symposium
epoxy resin (DGEBA)/m-xylenediamine and DGEBA/
on Food Packaging: Ensuring the Safety and Quality of
mXDA/12.8% benzyl alcohol (BA), being R determined
Foods, Vienna, Austria, Nov.2000)
at different temperatures. The BA formulation at 250 deg.
SWITZERLAND; WESTERN EUROPE
C has the highest value of R which should be related to
Accession no.863618 the maximum chemical resistance. A coating based on this
formulation is prepared, cured at 250 deg.C and tested
Item 209 following UE regulations (foods and drinks). Global and
Food Additives and Contaminants specific migration is obtained. 20 refs.
Vol.19, Suppl., 2002, p.73-8 EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; SPAIN;
WESTERN EUROPE
TIME-TEMPERATURE STUDY OF THE
KINETICS OF MIGRATION OF BADGE Accession no.769455
(BISPHENOL-A-DIGLYCIDYL-ETHER) INTO A
FATTY MEDIUM Item 211
Simoneau C; Theobald A; Roncari P; Hannaert P; Journal of Coatings Technology
Anklam E 70, No.877, Feb.1998, p.69-74
European Commission POTENTIAL EXPOSURE TO BISPHENOL

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 105


References and Abstracts

A FROM FOOD-CONTACT USE OF EPOXY substances using GC and HPLC methods. Generally, ppb
COATED CANS levels of UVR 6110, propylene carbonate (PC), diphenyl
Howe S R; Borodinsky L; Lyon R S sulphide (DPS), and bis and thio salts were found. The
SPI; Keller & Heckman LLP; US,National Food concentrations of extractables depended on thermal
Processors Assn. treatment, processing temperature and solvent. 5 refs.
USA
The potential dietary exposure to bisphenol A from the use
of food and beverage cans coated with bisphenol A-based Accession no.628048
epoxy resins was investigated. The calculation was based
on migration data from extraction studies using food- Item 214
simulating solvents and time and temperature conditions Food Additives and Contaminants
recommended by the FDA. It was demonstrated that no 12, No.2, March/April 1995, p.223-34
detectable BPA was found in the extracts from beverage COMPOSITIONAL ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES OF
cans using a method sensitive to five parts per billion in THERMOSET POLYESTER AND MIGRATION
the food stimulant. 6 refs. OF ETHYLBENZENE AND STYRENE FROM
USA THERMOSET POLYESTER INTO PORK
Accession no.671437 DURING COOKING
Gramshaw J W; Vandenburg H J
Leeds,University
Item 212
Surrey, PIRA International, 1997, pp.xi,334. 125.00. The levels of ethylbenzene, styrene, benzene and
28cms. 10/11/97. 938 benzaldehyde in samples of thermoset polyester were
FOOD PACKAGING MIGRATION AND determined by dynamic headspace/gas chromatography.
LEGISLATION Styrene was present at levels from 50 to 1400 mg/kg,
Ashby R; Cooper I; Harvey S; Tice P ethylbenzene up to 25 mg/kg and benzaldehyde up to 180
PIRA International mg/kg. Benzene levels were usually less than 1 mg/kg,
but one article contained 19 mg/kg. Levels of styrene
Comprehensive information both on new directives dimers and trimers were estimated using SEC followed
published on food contact materials and draft directives by gas chromatographic analysis and were present at
related to the topic. Chapter headings include EU about 100 and 700 mg/kg, respectively. The principal
regulations on food contact materials and articles, standard identified constituents of solvent extracts were stearic and
methods of test for plastics and polymeric coatings intended palmitic acids, present at a combined level of nearly 1 wt
to come in contact with food, practical aspects of migration % of the plastic. Styrene was shown to be produced by
testing, paper and board and regenerated cellulose films thermal depolymerisation at temps. of 175C and above.
intended for contact with foodstuffs, and rationalising the The migration of ethylbenzene and styrene into belly pork
testing of food contact plastics. Also covered are the future cooked in thermoset polyester dishes for 1.5 h at 175C was
developments in directives for food contact materials and measured by Likens-Nickerson extraction of the cooked
a review of recent migration research. meat and GC/MS analysis of the extracts. Migration ranged
Accession no.653405 from 6 to 2400 micro g/kg for styrene and from less than
6 to 34 micro g/kg for ethylbenzene. 13 refs.
Item 213 EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN
EUROPE
RadTech 96 North America. Volume 1. Conference
proceedings. Accession no.548000
Nashville, Tn., 28th April-2nd May 1996, p.29-34. 895
CATIONIC UV COATING EXTRACTABLES Item 215
Carter J W; Davis M S; Jupina M J Progress in Organic Coatings
Union Carbide Corp. 22, No.1-4, May-Sept.1993, p.145-59
(RadTech International) DIFFUSION CONTROLLED KINETICS OF
FDA-type migration experiments were conducted using a CROSSLINKING
model cationic UV coating in an attempt to demonstrate Dusek K; Havlicek I
that good container and packaging hygiene can be achieved Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences
if cationic UV inks and overprint varnishes are properly Reactions of polymer formation and crosslinking become
used to decorate and protect food containers and food diffusion-controlled when, during the reaction, the
packaging. After thermal processing, the coating samples increasing Tg comes close to the reaction temp. The reaction
were extracted two hours later using different food still continues below the Tg, but the reaction rate decreases
simulants (aq. ethanol solutions) and processing conditions markedly. A theory is presented relating the apparent rate
to simulate different foods and applications. Extraction constant to the difference between the reaction temp. and
samples were analysed for epoxide and photoinitiator Tg based on the free volume or the Adams-Gibbs theory of

106 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


References and Abstracts

Tg. The theory is correlated with experiments on curing of Item 218


diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A with 1,3-propanediamine. Structural Adhesives:Developments in Resins and
The implications for formation of chemically-crosslinked Primers.
protective films are discussed. The presence of a solvent and Barking,Elsevier Applied Science Publishers
its evaporation are shown to affect the reaction rate through Ltd.,1986,p.1-27. 6A1
a change in concentrations of reactants as well as in Tg. 34 CURE AND PROPERTIES OF THERMOSETTING
refs. (18th International Conference in Organic Coatings POLYMERS
Science & Technology, Athens, Greece, July 1992) Gillham J K
CZECH REPUBLIC PRINCETON,UNIVERSITY
Accession no.497034 Edited by: Kinloch A J
The time-temperature-transformation cure diagram
Item 216 (showing Tgs of fully cured system and of reactants, and
Radtech Europe - Creating Tomorrows Technology. temperature at which gelation and vitrification occurred
Conference Proceedings. together), properties of thermosetting systems, and the
Edinburgh, 29th Sept-2nd Oct.1991, Paper 36, p.461-70. torsional braid analysis/torsion pendulum technique for
89 characterising thermosetting systems were described
PARAMETERS AFFECTING EXTRACTABLES with relevant equations. They were used to characterise
OF CATIONIC UV CURED COATINGS IN rubber-modified (CTBN: prereacted carboxy-terminated
CARDBOARD APPLICATION NBR and ATBN: amino-terminated NBR) epoxy resin
Gaube H; Ohlemacher J (cure, transitions, morphology, mechanical properties).
Degussa AG Mechanical properties of the ATBN-modified system were
(Radtech Europe) more sensitive to cure history than those of the prereacted
CTBN one. Fracture energy rose with temperature for all
The results are reported of a study of the critical parameters systems (due to rising matrix ductility) and usually in the
affecting extractable and potentially migratable residues order neat to CABN to ATBN systems. 22 refs.
from pigment-coated cardboard to which a cationic USA
UV varnish based on a low odour epoxide monomer
Accession no.331091
had been applied. Emphasis was placed upon substrate
pretreatment and UV coating composition in order to
minimise extractable residues along with increasing Item 219
coating reactivity. 6 refs. Step-Growth polymerizations
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE New York, Dekker, 1972, p.95-113. 7221
Accession no.496359 POLYURETHANES: THE CHEMISTRY OF THE
DIISOCYANATE-DIOL REACTION
Lyman D J
Item 217 Solomon D H
Analyst
113,No.2,Feb.1988,p.239-42 This chapter focuses primarily on the kinetics and
DETERMINATION OF OLIGOMER 340 AND mechanism of the diisocyanate-diol reaction. The effects
POLYAMINES IN CURED EPOXY RESINS BY of the structure of the reactants and the reaction medium
EXTRACTION AND HIGH-PERFORMANCE are discussed. 87 refs.
LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY Accession no.731
Henriks-Eckerman M.Laijoki T
TURKU REGIONAL INSTITUTE OF
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH
The efficiency of acetone in extracting unreacted oligomer
340 and aliphatic polyamine hardeners (diethylenetriamine
and triethylenetetramine) from cold-cured epoxy resins
was investigated by HPLC. Several epoxy resins, including
coatings and adhesives, were tested. Acetone-soluble
amounts of oligomer 340 and polyamine were determined
as a function of cure time and extraction was performed
in an ultrasonic bath. The data obtained demonstrated the
suitability of the method to evaluate health risks of cured
epoxy resins and to obtain additional information on the
curing kinetics of epoxy resins. 13 refs.
FINLAND
Accession no.352838

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 107


References and Abstracts

108 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


Subject Index

Subject Index

A ADHESION PROMOTION, 99 172


ADHESIVE, 27 28 34 35 39 40 42
ANTIMONY, 3 23
ANTIOXIDANT, 22 30 31 37 39
ABIETIC ACID, 94 45 46 49 50 51 52 53 57 59 66 61 76 133 168 187
ABRASION RESISTANCE, 36 96 99 100 103 104 105 120 121 ANTISTATIC AGENT, 39 133 168
175 183 122 124 147 151 152 159 162 AQUEOUS PHASE, 4
ABSORPTION SPECTRA, 13 182 163 166 172 174 186 196 197 ARCHITECTURAL
ACCELERATED AGEING, 205 202 217 APPLICATION, 183
ACCELERATOR, 32 55 84 195 ADHESIVE LABEL, 39 71 99 AROMA, 47 48
ACETIC ACID, 4 ADHESIVE TAPE, 27 AROMATIC AMINE, 34 35 39
ACETONE, 217 AEROPLANE, 183 ARRHENIUSS LAW, 198
ACETYL TRIETHYL CITRATE, AEROSPACE APPLICATION, 183 ARYL ALKYL KETONE, 13
117 AGEING, 37 ARYL ARYL KETONE, 13
ACID SCAVENGER, 76 AGGREGATE, 2 ASCORBIC ACID, 138
ACRYLAMIDE COPOLYMER, 8 AGRICULTURAL APPLICATION, ATOM TRANSFER RADICAL
78 153 22 70 76 81 84 98 103 148 POLYMERISATION, 160
ACRYLATE, 12 207 AGROCHEMICAL, 40 71 ATOMIC ABSORPTION
ACRYLATE COPOLYMER, 27 AIR BARRIER, 44 SPECTROSCOPY, 206
ACRYLATE POLYMER, 202 AIR POLLUTION, 195 AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION,
ACRYLIC, 66 105 152 166 183 AIRCRAFT, 183 22 61 72 76 92 93 102 119 123
198 ALKENE POLYMER, 3 9 16 22 43 133 156 157 180 183
ACRYLIC ACID COPOLYMER, 59 60 76 86 89 102 112 135 148 AZO COMPOUND, 8
160 156 183 187 188 196
ACRYLIC COPOLYMER, 15 16 ALKYD RESIN, 63
164 ALKYL HYDROXIDE, 12 B
ACRYLIC ELASTOMER, 32 84 ALKYLPHENOL, 32
142 BACTERIA, 54 155 203
ALLOY, 183
ACRYLIC ESTER, 12 207 BACTERICIDE, 167 183 198
ALPHA-OLEFIN POLYMER, 156
ACRYLIC ESTER COPOLYMER, ALTERNATING COPOLYMER, BAG, 12 26 31 71 98 135 148 188
27 54 189
ACRYLIC ESTER POLYMER, 202 ALTERNATING BAG-IN-BOX, 35
ACRYLIC POLYMER, 14 27 42 60 COPOLYMERISATION, 54 BAKERY APPLICATION, 19
106 120 143 ALTERNATING POLYMER, 54 BAR CODE, 136
ACRYLIC RESIN, 14 143 ALTERNATING BARRIER COATING, 150
ACRYLIC RUBBER, 32 84 142 POLYMERIZATION, 54 BARRIER FILM, 136 158 159
ACRYLONITRILE POLYMER, 82 ALUMINIUM, 73 100 157 BARRIER LAYER, 129 136
ACRYLONITRILE-BUTADIENE ALUMINIUM FOIL, 35 BARRIER PROPERTIES, 12 25 34
COPOLYMER, 142 ALUMINOSILICATE, 128 38 39 40 44 47 49 50 51 52 53
ACRYLONITRILE-BUTADIENE- AMIDE POLYMER, 3 16 35 45 59 70 73 81 91 100 122 149 150
STYRENE TERPOLYMER, 3 64 66 73 82 103 104 144 171 158 170 171 181 183 184 190
16 22 74 175 183 188 198 197 202
ACRYLOYLOXY GROUP, 27 AMINE, 32 35 84 187 210 BARRIER RESIN, 104
ACTIVATED CARBON, 6 ANTI-BLOCKING AGENT, 26 BATCH POLYMERISATION, 75
ACTIVATION ENERGY, 181 133, 145 BEADS, 77 137
ACTIVE PACKAGING, 29 39 ANTI-FOAMING AGENT, 14 BEER, 167 211
ACTIVE POLYMER MATERIAL, ANTI-SCORCH AGENT, 195 BEER BOTTLE, 73 150 158
161 167 179 ANTIBLOCKING AGENT, 26 133 BELTING, 32
ADDITIVE, 3 15 22 26 29 30 31 ANTIDEGRADANT, 32 84 BELTS, 19 32 203
32 33 39 40 61 63 65 67 73 74 ANTIFOULING AGENT, 41 BENZALDEHYDE, 214
82 84 87 88 95 107 118 133 134 ANTIFREEZE, 178 BENZENE, 214
141 144 148 154 164 168 179 ANTIFUNGAL, 131 BENZOPHENONE, 27 39 193
183 187 188 191 196 200 212 ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY, 54 BENZOPHENONE POLYMER,
215 218 113 198 193
ADHESION, 27 35 100 101 110 ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT, 124 BENZOTRIAZOLE, 118 146
114 121 122 147 168 204 131 133 154 155 161 192 BENZOTRIAZOLYLBISMETHYL

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 109


Subject Index

PHENYLETHYLPHENOL, 118 49 50 51 52 53 59 73 82 96 135 CARBOXYL-TERMINATED, 218


BENZOTRIAZOLYLPHENOL 136 137 139 150 158 181 164 CARCINOGEN, 30
COMPOUND, 118 181 190 CARCINOGENICITY, 75
BENZYL ALCOHOL, 210 BOVINE SERUM ALBUMIN, 2 CARDBOARD, 73 216
BEVERAGE, 38 99 108 189 BREAKING STRAIN, 92 93 CARTON, 11 35 202
BIAXIAL ORIENTATION, 12 22 BREAKING STRESS, 92 93 CAST FILM, 12 68 103 104 189
38 60 66 99 103 104 187 BREWING APPLICATION, 84 CASTING, 24 71 183
BINDER, 12 33 85 192 198 204 BRIGHTNESS, 182 CATALYSIS, 69 111 145 189
BIOABSORPTION, 77 BRITTLENESS, 12 CATALYST, 19 21 22 23 30 31 32
BIOCATALYST, 160 BUILDING APPLICATION, 16 41 43 56 64 68 91 95 102 104
BIOCIDE, 30 41 131 133 161 168 119 122 133 156 164 169 183 109 112 123 156 160 170 176
BIOCOMPATIBILITY, 15 16 BUTADIENE-ACRYLONITRILE CATALYST SUPPORT, 129
BIODEGRADABILITY, 12 16 48 COPOLYMER, 32 84 142 218 CAULK, 88
56 71 78 81 96 105 116 124 133 BUTADIENE-STYRENE CAVITATION, 69
166 COPOLYMER, 16 164 CAVITY, 26
BIODETERIORATION, 12 16 48 BUTENE, 26 CELL MIGRATION, 31
56 71 78 81 82 96 105 116 124 BUTYL RUBBER, 32 84 142 CELLULAR MATERIAL, 16 82
133 166 BUTYLENE, 26 116 122 133 201
BIOLOGICAL ATTACK, 203 BUTYLTIN, 164 CELLULOSE, 28 71 179 212
BIOLOGICAL DEGRADATION, CELLULOSE NITRATE, 204
128 CERAMIC, 28 140 179
BIOMASS, 81 C CERAMIC POWDER, 136
BIOMATERIAL, 2 CABLE, 76 CERIC ION, 8 78 153
BIOPOLYMER, 12 16 81 116 160 CAFFEINE, 83 CHAIN CONFORMATION, 38
166 CALCIUM CARBONATE, 26 216 CHAIN EXTENDER, 16 35
BIORIENTATION, 181 CALCIUM PHOSPHATE, 15 CHAIN FLEXIBILITY, 15
BIOSENSOR, 136 160 CALCIUM SILICATE, 61 CHALK, 26
BIOTECHNOLOGY, 166 CALCIUM STEARATE, 126 CHAR, 6
BIREFRINGENCE, 38 CALCULATION, 29 218 CHARACTERISATION, 2 24 38
BISHYDROXYMETHACRYLOX CALENDERING, 32 164 168 54 78 108 117 131 168 218
YPROPOXYPHENYLPROPA CALIBRATION, 4 88 95 CHARPY, 92 93
NE COPOLYMER, 15 CALORIMETRY, 54 CHARRING, 3
BISPHENOL A, 17 139 173 210 CAMPUS DATASHEET, 92 93 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, 12
211 215 CAN COATING, 46 173 200 209 26 216
BISPHENOL A DIGLYCIDYL 211 CHEMICAL IONISATION MASS
ETHER, 34 35 39 200 CANS, 26 32 73 86 167 200 211 SPECTROSCOPY, 138
BISPHENOL DIGLYCIDYL CAP, 189 CHEMICAL MODIFICATION, 4
ETHER, 34 35 39 200 CAPACITY, 7 12 22 23 26 61 63 32 40 110 160
BLEND, 22 23 43 73 76 116 117 66 73 76 81 99 102 103 104 114 CHEMICAL PROPERTIES, 19 22
123 145 164 175 184 187 122 123 145 150 156 166 176 25 42 55 72 120 149 183 210
BLISTER PACKAGING, 116 129 178 184 CHEMICAL REACTION, 32
161 184 CAPACITY EXPANSION, 12 26 CHEMICAL RESISTANCE, 19 22
BLOCK COPOLYMER, 160 102 25 42 48 55 72 120 149 183 210
BLOW MOULDING, 12 16 73 116 CAPACITY UTILISATION, 63 176 CHEMICAL SENSOR, 136
137 164 168 CAPROLACTAM, 130 CHEMICAL STRUCTURE, 8 12
BLOWING AGENT, 31 133 168 CAPROLACTAM POLYMER, 25 13 15 24 26 38 54 56 68 106 182
195 36 130 136 CHEMICAL TREATMENT, 114
BLOWN FILM, 12 26 68 102 111 CAPROLACTONE POLYMER, CHEMICALS, 166
161 189 2 48 CHINA CLAY, 128
BOIL-IN-THE-BAG, 35 CAPRYLLACTAM, 130 CHITOSAN, 160 192
BOILING WATER RESISTANCE, CARBON, 12 73 CHLOROBENZENE, 9
55 CARBON BLACK, 6 29 169 CHLOROPRENE POLYMER, 32
BOND STRENGTH, 100 CARBON DIOXIDE, 12 73 84
BONDING, 101 107 121 175 183 CARBON FIBRE-REINFORCED CHROMATOGRAPHY, 4 10 11 17
186 PLASTIC, 122 29 35 37 59 62 82 84 88 90 94
BONDING AGENT, 27 168 CARBONATE POLYMER, 3 16 25 108 118 130 138 142 146 173
BORON NITRIDE, 56 35 139 175 183 190 194 174 193 195 197 200 206 207
BOTTLES, 189 7 16 23 31 32 35 CARBONATED BEVERAGE, 108 209 212 213

110 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


Subject Index

CHROME-FREE, 119 12 22 26 66 74 92 93 103 158 CROSSLINK, 217


CHROMIUM COMPOUND, 141 162 163 165 166 178 187 CROSSLINKING, 24 56 90 159
CHROMOGEN, 1 COMMODITY POLYMER, 102 168 189 195 210 215
CHROMOPHORE, 1 COMONOMER, 68 69 76 91 CROSSLINKING AGENT, 35 76
CIS-1,4-POLYISOPRENE, 84 COMPACTION, 107 105
CLARIFYING AGENT, 16 21 30 COMPATIBILISER, 32 76 117 133 CRUDE OIL, 12
133 COMPATIBILITY, 65 86 107 110 CRYSTALLINITY, 21 36 38 164
CLARITY, 12 21 25 61 73 97 102 119 135 148 185 188 201 CRYSTALLISATION RATE, 21
111 164 171 184 COMPOSITE, 15 16 36 67 92 93 CRYSTALLISATION
CLAY, 48 61 73 136 158 96 117 122 125 183 195 TEMPERATURE, 21 68
CLEARCOAT, 131 COMPOSITION, 112 CUP, 11 31 65 86 116
CLING-TYPE FILM, 4 COMPOSTING, 12 81 99 124 CURE TIME, 57 217
CLOSURE, 7 65 86 137 149 175 COMPOUNDER, 144 CURING, 11 13 19 27 32 33 35 42
189 COMPOUNDING, 12 26 85 168 45 46 55 56 57 60 105 110 115
CLOTHING, 26 41 169 COMPOUNDING INGREDIENT, 147 152 159 172 174 180 186
CO-COMBUSTION, 6 29 32 107 189 197 201 202 205 207 213
CO-INJECTION MOULDING, 73 COMPRESSION, 188 215 218
COAT HANGER, 164 175 COMPRESSION MOULDING, 19 CURING AGENT, 32 35 37 55 76
COATED FILM, 196 198 COMPRESSION PROPERTIES, 84 105 215 217
COATED METAL, 173 211 107 CURING LAMP, 110
COATED PAPER, 35 46 192 COMPUTER CONTROL, 3 CURING RATE, 172
COATHANGERS, 164 175 CONCRETE, 98 169 CUSHIONING, 16
COATING WEIGHT, 152 159 197 CONCURRENT ENGINEERING, CUTLERY, 12 166
198 3 CYCLE TIME, 16 65 73 102 111
COCONUT OIL, 118 146 CONDENSATION 116
COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION, 36 POLYMERISATION, 150 CYCLODEXTRINS, 56
204 CONFORMABILITY, 99 CYCLOOLEFIN COPOLYMER,
COEXTRUSION, 35 43 102 104 CONSTRUCTION, 183 184
114 164 179 183 184 CONTACT AREA, 32 84
COEXTRUSION COAT, 47 CONTACT TIME, 8 32 84
COHESION, 35 CONTAINER, 4 11 12 32 35 40 56 D
COHESIVE ENERGY DENSITY, 69 73 82 102 148 164 165 188 DAIRY APPLICATION, 70 84
40 193 194 DAMPING, 88
COHESIVE STRENGTH, 147 CONTAMINANT, 9 59 62 128 181 DART IMPACT, 26
COINJECTION MOULDING, 73 CONTAMINATION, 29 31 33 DEBOTTLENECKING, 12 178
COLD-CURING, 217 CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE, DECOMPOSITION, 195
COLD-SEAL, 34 104 152 38 82 167 DECOMPOSITION PRODUCT, 37
COLORANT, 2 3 6 8 12 26 30 33 CONVERTING, 26 28 31 35 68 DECOMPOSITION RATE, 98
67 74 107 137 179 182 188 195 110 125 163 164 DECORATION, 58
COLORATION, 58 157 CONVEYOR BELT, 19 203 DEFATTING, 130
COLORIMETRY, 34 35 74 COOKWARE, 17 39 214 DEFECT, 14 164
COLOUR, 3 29 49 50 51 52 53 58 COOLANT, 178 DEFLECTION TEMPERATURE
67 73 74 107 127 131 158 164 COPOLYESTER, 72 160 183 UNDER LOAD, 92 93
175 182 183 187 188 COPOLYETHER, 14 106 DEFOAMING AGENT, 14
COLOUR BLEEDING, 182 COPOLYMER, 26 DEFORMATION, 12
COLOUR CHANGE, 158, 161 167 COPOLYMER COMPOSITION, DEFORMATION
COLOUR COMPOUNDING, 85 47 79 TEMPERATURE, 102
COLOUR CONCENTRATE, 85 COPOLYMERISATION, 54 DEGASSING, 75 190
COLOUR CONTRAST, 3 CORN STARCH, 12 DEGRADATION, 12 16 31 33 37
COLOUR DENSITY, 107 CORONA TREATMENT, 26 147 48 56 71 81 96 105 107 108 116
COLOUR FASTNESS, 164 172 124 127 133 148 160 166 171
COLOUR MATCHING, 74 85 188 COSTS, 3 7 26 68 73 74 96 99 144 195 205 209
COLOUR MEASUREMENT, 107 150 151 159 161 172 177 180 DEGRADATION PRODUCT, 13
COLOUR RETENTION, 85 182 187 59
COLOUR SHADING, 85 COUPLING AGENT, 32 133 DEGREE OF CONVERSION, 15
COLOUR STABILITY, 22 76 CRACKING, 12 DEGREE OF CRYSTALLINITY,
COLOUR STRENGTH, 86 CRATERING, 14 21
COMMERCIAL INFORMATION, CROSS-FRACTIONATION, 68 DEGREE OF GRAFTING, 78

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 111


Subject Index

DEGREE OF POLYMERISATION, DISTORTION RESISTANCE, 107 ELECTRON SCANNING


15 137 MICROSCOPY, 36 78 112 117
DEHYDROABIETIC ACID, 94 DOMESTIC APPLIANCE, 155 183 153
DELAMINATION, 73 DOMESTIC EQUIPMENT, 16 155 ELECTRONIC APPLICATION, 16
DELIVERY SYSTEM, 85 183 188 214 57 71 136 156 183
DENTAL APPLICATION, 15 DOMESTIC REFUSE, 49 50 ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY, 158
DEPOLYMERISATION, 214 DOSE RATE, 8 16 21 45 76 86 89 ELECTRONIC NOSE, 10
DESIGN, 43 49 50 51 52 53 83 96 137 139 185 ELECTROSPRAY IONISATION,
164 183 187 189 DOSIMETRY, 45 90 173
DESIGN FOR RECYCLING, 49 DRAINAGE PIPE, 182 ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS, 54
50 51 52 53 DRINKING VESSEL, 11 31 65 86 ELONGATION, 116 147
DESORPTION, 40 82 91 206 116 ELONGATION AT BREAK, 12
DETERGENT, 71 DRINKING WATER, 19 23 109 92 93
DIAGNOSTIC APPLICATION, 210 ELUTION, 5
109 177 DRUG CARRIER, 160 EMBOSSING, 101
DIAMINE, 215 DRUG PACKAGING, 103 EMISSION CONTROL, 128
DIATOMACEOUS EARTH, 26 DRUM, 175 EMPLOYEE, 165
DICHLOROMETHANE, 138 DRY BLENDING, 168 EMULSION, 105 162 163 187
DIESEL FUEL, 25 DRY BONDING, 35 152 EMULSION POLYMERISATION,
DIETHYLENETRIAMINE, 217 DRY FILM, 137 22
DIETHYLTHIOXANTHONE, 11 DRYING, 12 33 80 92 93 ENCAPSULATION, 77
DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING DRYING TIME, 92 93 ENDOCRINE DISRUPTER, 194
CALORIMETRY, 38 54 78 112 DUAL CURING, 110 ENERGY CONSERVATION, 26
117 153 181 DUAL INJECTION MOULDING, ENERGY CONSUMPTION, 150
DIFFERENTIAL THERMAL 73 169
ANALYSIS, 38 54 78 112 117 DUAL REACTOR, 69 ENERGY RECOVERY, 6 152 168
153 DURABILITY, 76 205 ENERGY SAVING, 111
DIFFRACTION, 24 36 112 153 DUST, 26 148 188 195 ENGINEERING APPLICATION,
DIFFRACTION PATTERN, 24 DWELL TIME, 12 72 107 122 185
DIFFUSION, 4 9 18 40 79 82 91 DYE, 2 8 77 107 171 177 182 ENGINEERING PLASTIC, 22 72
112 146 181 215 DYNAMIC STABILITY, 164 107 122 185 188
DIFFUSION BARRIER AGENT, ENGINEERING
158 THERMOPLASTIC, 22 122
DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT, 9 18 E 188
48 91 118 181 191 198 ECOLOGY, 141 ENVIRONMENT, 49 50 51 52 53
DIGLYCIDYL ETHER, 173 215 EFFLUENT, 8 75 82 96 141 194
DIGLYCIDYL ETHER EFFLUENT TREATMENT, 6 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT, 12
BISPHENOL A, 209 EJECTION, 65 57 128 152
DIISOCYANATE 216 ELASTIC PROPERTIES, 88 ENVIRONMENTAL
DIMENSIONAL STABILITY, 69 ELASTICITY, 19 156 LEGISLATION, 73 84 107 128
102 183 ELASTOMER, 3 6 16 19 28 32 34 ENVIRONMENTAL
DIMETHACRYLATE 37 42 57 67 72 76 84 85 108 PROTECTION, 12 109 128 168
COPOLYMER, 15 121 123 137 138 142 145 148 ENVIRONMENTALLY
DIMETHYL SILOXANE 156 164 175 179 194 195 200 FRIENDLY, 12 187
POLYMER, 14 88 201 203 212 213 ENZYMAIC SYNTHESIS, 160
DIOL 216 ELECTRIC CABLE, 76 EPICHLOROHYDRIN, 17
DIPHENYLMETHANE ELECTRIC KETTLE, 59 EPICHLOROHYDRIN
DIISOCYANATE, 35 ELECTRICAL APPLICATION, 16 POLYMER, 160
DIRECTIVE, 18 29 31 32 34 39 119 133 EPICHLOROHYDRIN RUBBER,
125 144 179 200 212 ELECTRICAL CABLE, 76 142
DISCOLORATION, 70 ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY, EPOXIDE POLYMER, 34 173 179
DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS, 4 136 160 169 216
8 11 ELECTRON BEAM, 197 EPOXIDE RESIN, 34 173 179 194
DISEASE, 203 ELECTRON BEAM CURING, 35 200 209 210 211 215
DISINFECTANT, 203 42 45 46 57 147 159 172 174 EPOXIDISED OIL, 126
DISPERSIBILITY, 188 180 202 EPOXIDISED SUNFLOWER OIL,
DISPERSION, 26 42 65 85 131 137 ELECTRON MICROSCOPY, 36 126
DISSOLUTION, 40 138 78 112 117 153 EPOXY ACRYLATE, 197

112 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


Subject Index

EPOXY ACRYLATE POLYMER, EXPOSURE LEVEL, 25 30 FLEXOGRAPHIC PRINTING, 14


110 EXPOSURE LIMIT, 18 23 41 FLEXURAL MODULUS, 21 102
EPOXY OLIGOMER, 197 EXPOSURE TIME, 12 FLEXURAL PROPERTIES, 21 38
EPOXY RESIN, 34 173 179 194 EXTRACTION, 1 4 5 17 29 34 35 68 69 72 102 111 122 129 184
200 209 210 211 215 217 218 37 39 62 82 83 90 130 138 142 FLOCCULANT, 8
ESTER COPOLYMER, 72 160 183 144 174 191 211 216 FLOORING, 41 55
ESTERIFICATION, 160 EXTRUDER, 12 26 FLOW, 26 148 188
ETCHING, 5 58 183 EXTRUSION, 12 16 19 25 32 35 FLOW LINE, 157 185
ETHANOL, 10 90 94 108 118 130 68 71 137 150 161 164 168 175 FLOW PROPERTIES, 57 65
146 166 181 185 189 FLUORESCEIN
ETHENE, 12 EXTRUSION BLOW ISOTHIOCYANATE, 2
ETHENE COPOLYMER, 47 79 MOULDING, 164 168 FLUORESCENCE LIFETIME
ETHER COPOLYMER, 14 106 EXTRUSION COATING, 47 102 SPECTROSCOPY, 2
ETHYL ACETATE, 10 FLUORESCENCE OPTICAL
ETHYL ALCOHOL, 10 90 94 108 MICROSCOPY, 29
118 130 146 166 181 F FLUORESCENCE
ETHYL HEXANOIC ACID FABRIC, 169 170 SPECTROSCOPY, 2 95
BISPHENOL A, 39 FABRICATION, 68 FLUOROCARBON RUBBER, 32
ETHYL LACTATE, 7 FACTOR ANALYSIS, 10 84 142
ETHYLBENZENE, 214 FAN SHROUD, 93 FLUOROELASTOMER, 32 84 142
ETHYLENE, 12 FAST-CURING, 55 152 172 FLUORORUBBER, 32 84 142
ETHYLENE BUTENE FATIGUE RESISTANCE, 72 FLUX, 140
COPOLYMER, 69 FEEDSTOCK, 12 29 166 FOAM,3 16 82 116 122 133 201
ETHYLENE COPOLYMER, 47 79 FENCING, 164 FOAMING AGENT, 31 133 168
ETHYLENE GLYCOL FERMENTATION, 12 195
DIMETHACRYLATE FIBRE, 5 12 22 76 107 148 166 FOIL, 101 104
COPOLYMER, 15 187 FOOD ADDITIVE, 29 30 63 82 87
ETHYLENE POLYMER, 7 9 10 12 FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTIC, 88 196
16 26 31 35 40 43 49 50 51 52 122 133 FOOD APPLICATION, 54 67 75
53 61 64 65 68 69 74 91 95 96 FICKS SECOND LAW, 198 83 108 140
99 103 104 111 113 114 129 133 FILAMENT, 5 12 FOOD INDUSTRY, 6 19 28 32 84
143 144 161 172 176 179 184 FILLER, 6 15 26 32 36 49 50 51 52 200
185 187 188 189 190 192 53 84 168 169 183 195 FOOD SIMULANT, 1 17 18 29 32
ETHYLENE THIOUREA, 138 FILLER CONTENT, 16 33 35 59 94 108 118 181 198
ETHYLENE-BUTENE FILMS, 1 4 10 11 12 20 22 25 26 200 207 209 211
COPOLYMER, 69 38 43 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 FOOD STORAGE, 32
ETHYLENE-BUTYLENE 50 51 52 53 60 61 64 66 67 68 FOODSTUFF, 146 148 149 181
COPOLYMER, 69 70 71 73 76 79 86 91 98 99 101 FOOTWEAR, 163 175
ETHYLENE-HEXENE 102 103 104 106 110 113 114 FORM-FILL-SEAL, 71
COPOLYMER, 69 116 121 123 129 135 136 137 FORMULATION, 14 32 74 84 107
ETHYLENE-OCTENE 148 149 151 156 157 158 159 110 131 144 147 164 168 188
COPOLYMER, 69 161 164 166 171 172 176 181 201 205 210
ETHYLENE-PROPYLENE 183 187 188 190 196 198 202 FOURIER TRANSFORM
COPOLYMER, 32 38 84 204 212 215 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY,
ETHYLENE-PROPYLENE FILTRATION, 138 169 8 24 40 54 78 79 126 153
RUBBER, 32 84 FIRE RESISTANCE, 6 FRACTIONATION, 68
ETHYLENE-PROPYLENE- FISH-EYE, 14 FRACTURE ENERGY, 218
DIENE TERPOLYMER, 16 156 FLAKE, 12 FRACTURE MORPHOLOGY, 5
ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE FLAME PROOFING, 16 67 95 122 68 153
COPOLYMER, 35 43 192 198 133 168 FRAGRANCE, 190
ETHYLENE-VINYL ALCOHOL FLAME RETARDANCE, 16 67 95 FRAGRANCE ADDITIVE, 40
COPOLYMER, 35 64 66 104 122 133 168 FREE RADICAL
112 150 FLAME RETARDANT, 16 67 95 COPOLYMERISATION, 8
ETHYLENIMINE POLYMER, 54 122 133 168 FREE RADICAL
EXCLUSION FLAMMABILITY, 6 16 61 76 POLYMERISATION, 8 54
CHROMATOGRAPHY, 214 FLAVOUR, 10 40 47 190 FREE VOLUME, 9 215
EXPORTS, 7 63 103 178 FLEXIBILITY, 12 35 42 47 156 FREE-RADICAL GENERATOR, 1
EXPOSURE, 195 164 188 FREEZE-THAW STABILITY, 102

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 113


Subject Index

FRICTION, 65 78 HEAVY METAL, 188


FRICTION COEFFICIENT, 36 204 GRAFT POLYMERISATION, 153 HELICAL CONFIGURATION, 160
FRUIT JUICE, 70 GRAFT YIELD, 78 HEPTANE, 94
FUEL, 6 GRAFTING, 78 110 189 HERMETIC SEAL, 149
FUEL TANK, 40 122 GRANITE LIKE, 137 HEXANE, 4 130 140
FUNCTIONAL BARRIER, 34 181 GRANULATION, 12 HEXENE, 26
197 202 GRANULE, 148 188 HIGH DENSITY
FUNCTIONAL GROUP, 121 GRAPHIC ART APPLICATION, POLYETHYLENE, 7 9 26 31
FUNCTIONAL MONOMER, 83 122 180 35 40 49 50 61 65 74 91 96 99
FUNCTIONALITY, 110 GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS, 3 24 104 129 179 187 188 189
FUNGICIDE, 183 54 78 91 HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT, 34
GRAVURE COAT, 44 HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID
GREASE RESISTANCE, 72 CHROMATOGRAPHY, 11 108
G GREEN STRENGTH, 152 118 138 173 217
GAS ABSORPTION, 113 GREENHOUSE, 76 148 HIGH TEMPERATURE, 22
GAS BARRIER, 38 98 136 GRIP, 72 HINDERED AMINE, 135 148
GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY, 4 10 GROUP IV A METAL HINGE, 164
17 29 35 37 59 62 82 84 90 108 COMPOUND, 4 41 HISTORY, 13 168
142 193 206 207 214 HOMOPOLYMER, 38 102 168
GAS LIQUID HOPPER, 12
CHROMATOGRAPHY, 39
H HORTICULTURAL
GAS PERMEABILITY, 19 44 47 HARDNESS, 26 72 112 APPLICATION, 183
48 60 79 112 113 HARMONISATION, 19 84 HOSE, 32
GAS PHASE POLYMERISATION, HAZARDOUS MATERIAL, 144 HOT CURING, 19
68 129 HAZE, 21 26 97 131 164 HOT FILLING, 12 158
GAS SENSOR, 167 HEADSPACE ANALYSIS, 37 HOT MELT, 162
GAS TRANSMISSION, 44 HEADSPACE HOT MELT ADHESIVE, 34 163
GAS TRANSPORT, 38 CHROMATOGRAPHY, 214 HOUSEHOLD WASTE, 49 50 51
GASES, 12 149 195 HEALTH HAZARD, 13 29 30 31 52 53
GASKET, 39 175 33 41 46 56 75 80 82 94 108 HOUSEWARES, 16 155 183 188
GASOLINE, 25 128 139 141 168 178 195 199 HOUSING, 25
GAUGE, 26 208 216 217 HUE, 107
GEL COAT, 125 183 HEAT BUILD-UP, 119 HUMIDITY, 79
GEL CONTENT, 129 HEAT CURING, 19 HUMIDITY ABSORPTION, 92
GEL FORMATION, 110 HEAT DEFLECTION HUMIDITY SENSOR, 177
GEL PERMEATION TEMPERATURE, 92 93 HYALURONIC ACID, 166
CHROMATOGRAPHY, 88 HEAT DEGRADATION, 3 12 HYDROGEN, 73
GELATION, 164 168 218 HEAT DISTORTION HYDROGEN ABSTRACTION, 27
GELLING, 164 168 218 TEMPERATURE, 102 HYDROGEN BOND, 79
GELLING AGENT, 160 HEAT EXCHANGER, 32 HYDROGEN BONDING, 107
GENETIC ENGINEERING, 81 HEAT INSULATION, 101 HYDROLYSIS, 200
GLASS, 73 HEAT RESISTANCE, 12 47 48 65 HYDROLYSIS RESISTANCE, 22
GLASS FIBRE-REINFORCED, 93 76 102 120 129 137 156 164 HYDROPHILICITY, 140 198
122 125 182 187 188 HYDROPHOBICITY, 140
GLASS FIBRE-REINFORCED HEAT SEAL, 34 HYDROXYALKANOATE
PLASTICS, 16 93 122 125 178 HEAT SEALABILITY, 68 COPOLYMER, 48
183 HEAT SEALABLE, 102 114 HYDROXYBENZENE, 173
GLASS TRANSITION HEAT SEALING, 104 123 145 HYDROXYETHYL
TEMPERATURE, 184 199 215 HEAT SENSITIVE, 20 METHACRYLATE
218 HEAT STABILISER, 4 76 133 164 COPOLYMER, 15
GLOSS, 14 85 122 131 159 183 168 HYDROXYVALERATE
201 205 HEAT STABILITY, 85 92 93 107 COPOLYMER, 48
GLOVE, 32 119 HYGIENE, 26 121 203
GLYCEROL COPOLYMER, 160 HEAT TRANSFER, 26 88
GOGGLES, 25 HEAT TREATMENT, 100
GRAFT, 78 110 189 HEAT WELDING, 175
I
GRAFT COPOLYMER, 8 153 182 HEATER BLANKET, 169 ICE CUBE MAKER, 19
GRAFT COPOLYMERISATION, HEATING, 12 121 169 IDENTIFICATION, 17 50 51 52 53

114 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


Subject Index

96 173 183 INTRINSIC VISCOSITY, 54 LETDOWN RATIO, 137


IDENTIFICATION TAG, 136 INVERSE CHROMATOGRAPHY, LIDS, 39 69 149
IMAGING, 2 82 LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS, 96 128
IMPACT MODIFIED, 92 INVISIBLE MARKING, 143 LIGHT ABSORPTION, 3 161
IMPACT MODIFIER, 133 156 164 ION EXCHANGE RESIN, 28 90 LIGHT AGEING, 127
IMPACT PROPERTIES, 25 55 68 109 LIGHT DEGRADATION, 25 70 86
92 93 102 116 156 164 183 IRRADIATION, 146 148 107 127 175 182
IMPACT RESISTANCE, 25 55 68 IRRADIATION CURING, 201 205 LIGHT EXPOSURE, 131
102 116 156 164 183 216 LIGHT FASTNESS, 86 107 127
IMPACT STRENGTH, 92 93 ISOCYANATE, 34 35 42 LIGHT INTENSITY, 70
IMPLANT, 2 88 ISOCYANATE CONTENT, 110 LIGHT RESISTANCE, 182
IMPORTS, 26 63 104 176 ISOCYANATE POLYMER, 55 LIGHT SOURCE, 85
IMPURITIES, 31 59 ISOOCTANE, 118 146 LIGHT STABILISER, 76 134 135
IN-MOULD COATING, 16 ISOPROPYLTHIOXANTHONE, 148 168
IN-MOULD DECORATING, 137 11 39 LIGHT STABILITY, 182
157 ISOTHERM, 79 LIGHT TRANSMISSION, 12 70
INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION, LIMESTONE, 26
189 LIMONENE, 48 91
INDUSTRIAL HAZARD, 75 K LINE SPEED, 44 116 152 159 180
INFRAED REFLECTION, 16 KAOLIN, 128 LINEAR LOW-DENSITY
INFRARED SPECTRA, 40 54 78 KETONE, 13 POLYETHYLENE, 26 64 68
79 126 153 KETTLE, 59 69 91 104 129 176 179 184 185
INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY, 40 KINETICS, 9 79 198 189 190
54 78 79 126 153 209 210 215 217 LINER, 26 73 189
INITIATOR, 1 8 11 13 15 18 27 39 KITCHENWARE, 19 LIQUID ADDITIVE, 22
40 54 78 79 110 113 115 117 KNIFE, 12 LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY,
126 147 153 172 180 193 207 11 17 84 90 94 108 118 130 138
213 146 173 174 197 209 217
INJECTION MOULDABLE, 92 93 L LIQUID CRYSTAL POLYMER,
INJECTION MOULDING, 12 16 LABEL, 39 71 99 161 167 185
19 21 22 25 65 69 73 86 89 92 LABELLING, 34 39 82 183 LIQUID POLYMER, 123
93 102 111 116 129 137 148 157 LABORATORY APPARATUS, 45 LIQUID RUBBER, 19
161 164 168 175 187 188 LACQUER, 143 159 209 LOW-DENSITY
INJECTION MOULDING LACTIC ACID, 12 POLYETHYLENE, 10 12 31 35
MACHINE, 73 LAMINATED, 35 59 149 49 61 91 104 161 176 179 184
INJECTION STRETCH BLOW LAMINATED FILM, 104 124 147 192
MOULDING, 102 152 172 LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT, 32
INK, 6 11 13 14 28 33 39 40 45 46 LAMINATING, 49 96 100 121 184 34 108
60 66 71 80 81 99 103 104 106 LAMINATION, 12 34 35 39 47 57 LOW TEMPERATURE
110 114 115 124 136 137 143 105 147 159 186 202 PROPERTIES, 102 155
144 158 159 166 172 174 177 LANDFILL, 128 168 LOW VISCOSITY, 122
179 197 199 202 204 205 207 LANGEVIN EQUATION, 110 191 LOW VOLTAGE, 202
INK JET PRINTING, 177 198 LUBRICANT, 63 65 88 95 133 168
INORGANIC PIGMENT, 85 LANGMUIR SORPTION, 79 LUBRICATION, 164
INPUT-OUTPUT MODEL, 128 LASER, 58 183 LUMINESCENCE, 20 143 177
INSERT MOULD, 73 175 LASER ETCHING, 58
INSULATION, 101 LASER INDUCED
INTELLIGENT MATERIAL, 28 29 BREAKDOWN
M
113 136 161 179 SPECTROSCOPY, 2 8 MACHINERY, 12 26 32 73 121
INTENSIVE MIXING, 69 LASER IRRADIATION, 77 152 202
INTERFACIAL ADHESION, 44 LASER MARKING, 3 58 MACROPOROUS, 90
INTERLAMINAR, 100 LAUNDRY, 71 98 MALEIC ANHYDRIDE, 63
INTERMOLECULAR BONDING, LAUROLACTAM POLYMER, 3 MALEIC ANHYDRIDE
107 LEAKAGE, 195 COPOLYMER, 54 117 182
INTERNAL LUBRICANT, 65 133 LEGISLATION, 29 31 32 34 39 49 MANUAL SORTING, 7
INTERNAL MOULD RELEASE, 73 81 82 84 95 105 107 125 128 MANUFACTURER, 26 31 73 144
16 65 133 134 171 196 208 212 165 187
INTERNAL STANDARD, 130 LEISURE APPLICATION, 183 MANUFACTURING, 128 148 164

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 115


Subject Index

MARBLE, 26 METALLISED FILM, 44 70 104 MOLECULAR


MARINE APPLICATION, 122 172 CONFORMATION, 38
MARK-HOUWINK CONSTANT, METALLOCENE, 21 43 68 91 104 MOLECULAR IMPRINTING, 5
88 112 123 145 156 170 176 83
MARKET ANALYSIS, 6 73 102 METAMERISM, 74 85 MOLECULAR MASS, 13 18 26 32
MARKET GROWTH, 26 43 73 METHACRYLATE COPOLYMER, 34 88 106 107 108 110 129 140
MARKET RESEARCH, 73 15 142 168 181
MARKET SHARE, 22 23 61 64 METHACRYLIC ACID MOLECULAR MOBILITY, 15 18
66 71 103 104 105 120 133 136 POLYMER, 5 MOLECULAR MODELLING, 83
166 176 180 METHACRYLIC ESTER MOLECULAR SIZE, 110
MARKET SIZE, 6 68 102 168 COPOLYMER, 15 MOLECULAR STRUCTURE, 8
MARKET SURVEY, 73 METHANOL, 90 12 13 15 24 26 38 54 56 68 106
MARKET TREND, 68 102 METHYL ALCOHOL, 90 182
MASS SELECTIVE DETECTOR, METHYL CHLOROFORM, 9 MOLECULAR WEIGHT, 13 18 26
197 METHYL METHACRYLATE 32 34 68 69 88 106 107 108 110
MASS SPECTRA, 37 90 94 108 POLYMER, 175 129 140 142 168 170 181 208
142 173 174 207 METHYLBENZENE, 9 10 39 MOLECULAR WEIGHT
MASS SPECTROSCOPY, 4 17 29 MICA, 44 DISTRIBUTION, 68 69 129
35 37 39 59 62 84 90 94 108 MICHAEL REACTION, 1 170
130 138 142 173 174 193 197 MICROBEAD, 137 MONOLAYER, 73 144 181
207 MICROEXTRACTION, 5 MONOMER, 12 25 29 30 31 32 39
MASS TRANSFER, 31 MICROGRANULE, 188 84 195 200 212
MASS TRANSPORT, 18 MICROHARDNESS, 112 MONOMER RATIO, 147
MASTERBATCH, 16 61 67 73 85 MICROMETER, 198 MONTMORILLONITE, 36
144 161 169 MICROORGANISM, 203 MORPHOLOGICAL
MATERIAL REPLACEMENT, 12 MICROPARTICLE, 56 PROPERTIES, 5 68 153 218
61 68 90 102 116 183 194 199 MICROSCOPY, 29 36 117 MORPHOLOGY, 5 68 153 218
MATERIALS SELECTION, 42 47 MICROSPHERE, 188 MOULD, 164
85 107 110 MICROSTRUCTURE, 9 68 MOULD FILLING, 69 111
MATERIALS SUBSTITUTION, 12 MICROWAVE, 82 206 MOULD FLOW, 102
61 68 90 102 116 183 194 199 MICROWAVEABLE, 161 MOULD RELEASE, 164
MATHEMATICAL MODEL, 18 29 MIGRATION RESISTANCE, 76 MOULD RELEASE AGENT, 65
33 113 191 107 108 133
MATT FINISH, 85 137 MILK, 139 148 MOULD SHRINKAGE, 92 93
MEAT, 84 MILK BOTTLE, 135 MOULD TEMPERATURE, 21 92
MEAT PACKAGING, 32 70 MINERAL, 26 183 93
MEDICAL APPLICATION, 6 16 MINERAL FILLED, 92 93 MOULDING, 12 16 19 21 22 25
21 25 27 41 44 54 75 109 122 MINERAL WATER, 108 56 65 67 69 73 86 89 92 93 102
133 168 169 183 199 MINERALISATION, 206 111 116 122 129 137 148 168
MEDICAL EQUIPMENT, 25 MIXING, 12 32 69 73 185
MEDIUM-DENSITY MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE, 35 MOULDING COMPOUND, 65
POLYETHYLENE, 68 129 113 177 125
MELT BLOWN, 170 MODIFIER, 12 123 145 168 199 MULTILAYER, 33 34 35 39 73 144
MELT FLOW, 65 218 150 183 184
MELT FLOW INDEX, 68 MODULATED DIFFERENTIAL MULTILAYER FILM, 64 99 113
MELT FLOW RATE, 102 170 SCANNING CALORIMETRY, 129
MELT INDEX, 68 181 MULTIMODAL, 102
MELT VISCOSITY INDEX, 68 MODULUS, 38 184
MELTING, 26 48 56 72 164 MOISTURE ABSORPTION, 72
MELTING POINT, 12 92 93 92 177 N
MELTING TEMPERATURE, 38 MOISTURE BARRIER, 184 NANOCLAY, 136
92 93 MOISTURE RESISTANCE, 12 60 NANOCOMPOSITE, 36 48 61 73
MELTS, 26 56 72 164 72 79 183 122 133 136 158 160
MEMBRANE, 24 112 140 168 MOISTURE SENSITIVE, 71 171 NANOCRYSTALLINE, 156
MERCAPTIDE, 164 MOLECULAR BONDING, 110 NANOFIBRE, 136
METAL, 100 164 183 206 MOLECULAR CHAIN, 12 NANOFILLER, 48 61 102 133 136
METAL ADHESION, 110 122 MOLECULAR 158 171
METALLISED, 35 101 114 CONFIGURATION, 38 NANOPARTICLE, 71 73 160

116 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


Subject Index

NANOSTRUCTURE, 123 158 ODOUR, 10 67 76 115 124 129 183 PACKAGING WASTE, 49 50 51
NANOTECHNOLOGY, 81 136 158 190 197 202 216 52 53
NANOTUBE, 136 158 ODOURLESS, 55 PAD PRINTING, 3
NAPPY, 41 OFFICE EQUIPMENT, 164 PAINTING, 102 122
NATURAL FIBRE, 166 OFFSET PRINTING, 110 PAINTS, 40 131 162 163
NATURAL FIBRE-REINFORCED OIL RESISTANCE, 72 120 PALLET, 43
PLASTIC, 16 133 OILS, 25 PALMITIC ACID, 214
NATURAL POLYMER, 12 OLEFIN POLYMER, 3 9 16 22 43 PAN, 82
NATURAL RUBBER, 16 32 84 59 60 76 86 89 102 112 135 148 PAPAIN, 160
NEAR-INFRARED 156 183 187 188 196 PAPER, 35 46 94 104 124 183 192
SPECTROSCOPY, 15 OLIGOACRYLATE, 1 PAPER COATING, 176 196 198
NEOPRENE, 32 84 OLIGOMER, 30 31 32 108 191 PAPER STRENGTH AGENT, 160
NETTING, 32 OLIVE OIL, 108 PAPERBOARD, 94
NEUTRALISING AGENT, 22 OPACITY, 107 167 PARTICLE, 56
NICKEL COMPOUND, 141 OPTICAL APPLICATION, 156 PARTICLE SIZE, 62 107 131 136
NILE RED, 2 OPTICAL DENSITY, 45 137 168 169 185
NIPPLE, 32 108 OPTICAL MICROSCOPY, 29 36 PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION,
NITRIC ACID, 8 OPTICAL PROPERTIES, 2 11 12 107
NITRILE RUBBER, 32 84 142 21 25 68 69 70 76 97 102 107 PARTITION COEFFICIENT, 82
NITROCELLULOSE, 204 127 129 131 149 156 160 164 190
NITROSAMINE, 32 84 179 165 173 183 209 PARTITIONING, 18 181
NITROSOAMINE, 32 84 179 ORGANIC PIGMENT, 85 PASSENGER TIRE, 74
NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING, ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTIES, PASSENGER TYRE, 74
143 19 29 31 32 33 111 190 PASTE, 168
NON-HYGROSCOPIC, 122 ORGANOPOLYSILOXANE, 14 PASTEURISATION, 73
NON-SLIP, 72 29 88 PATENT, 205
NON-STAINING, 87 ORGANOSILICON POLYMER, PEARLESCENCE, 137
NON-STICK, 19 164 14 28 29 88 202 PECTIN, 160
NON-WOVEN, 12 170 ORGANOSILICONE POLYMER, PEEL STRENGTH, 27 147
NON-YELLOWING, 80 14 28 29 88 202 PELLET, 12 22 73 92 93
NORRISH-TYPE MECHANISM, ORGANOSILOXANE POLYMER, PELLETISATION, 26
110 14 28 29 88 202 PERMEABILITY, 12 19 24 38 40
NOTCHED IMPACT STRENGTH, ORGANOTIN COMPOUND, 41 44 47 48 60 79 112 113 150 167
92 93 OVERMOULDING, 73 175 190 193
NUCLEAR MAGNETIC OXIDATION, 31 70 108 171 209 PERMEABILITY COEFFICIENT,
RESONANCE SPECTRA, 54 83 OXIDATIVE DEGRADATION, 31 40
NUCLEAR MAGNETIC 108 171 209 PERMEATION, 140
RESONANCE OXIDISATION, 31 108 171 PEROXIDE, 32
SPECTROSCOPY, 54 83 193 OXYGEN, 24 44 47 60 73 79 149 PERSONAL CARE PRODUCT, 99
206 OXYGEN BARRIER, 44 PESTICIDE, 41 63
NUCLEATING AGENT, 16 61 OXYGEN PERMEABILITY, 24 38 PETROCHEMICAL, 12
NUCLEATION, 102 48 161 PETROLEUM, 12
NUMERICAL ANALYSIS, 29 OXYGEN SCAVENGER, 70 73 PHARMACEUTICAL
NURSERY APPLICATION, 19 113 133 161 167 171 177 190 APPLICATION, 75 103 109
NYLON, 3 16 35 45 59 64 66 73 82 OXYGEN SENSOR, 158 177 164
103 104 144 158 171 188 198 PHASE CHANGE, 161
NYLON-11, 3 PHENOL, 173
NYLON-12, 3 P PHENOLIC ANTIOXIDANT, 187
NYLON-12T, 3 PACKAGING ADHESIVE, 42 186 PHENOLIC COMPOUND, 187
NYLON-4,6, 3 PACKAGING APPLICATION, 12 PHOSPHITE, 187
NYLON-6, 25 36 130 136 25 26 46 47 56 73 101 144 145 PHOTOCHEMICAL
NYLON-6,6, 25 92 93 148 149 157 164 165 183 189 DEGRADATION, 127
PACKAGING CONTAINER, 11 35 PHOTOCHEMICAL STABILITY,
40 69 82 102 194 202 127
O PACKAGING FILM, 10 11 42 43 PHOTODECOMPOSITION, 127
OCTANE, 9 44 45 47 48 60 61 64 66 71 79 PHOTOINITIATOR, 1 11 13 15 18
OCTENE, 26 69 86 98 99 103 104 114 135 151 27 39 110 113 115 147 172 180
OCTYLTIN COMPOUND, 4 159 161 171 202 193 207 213

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 117


Subject Index

PHOTOLABILE, 1 HYDROCARBON, 84 POLYMERIC PHOTOINITIATOR,


PHOTOLYSIS, 115 213 POLYBENZOPHENONE, 193 13
PHOTOOXIDATION, 70 POLYBUTYLENE POLYMERIC PLASTICISER, 204
PHOTOPOLYMERISATION, 15 TEREPHTHALATE, 3 122 175 POLYMERIC RELEASE AGENT,
PHOTOREACTIVE POLYMER, POLYCAPROAMIDE, 25 36 130 65 133
180 136 POLYMERIC SURFACE ACTIVE
PHOTOSENSITIVE, 171 POLYCAPROLACTAM, 25 36 130 AGENT, 106
PHTHALATE, 17 39 61 80 188 136 POLYMERIC SURFACTANT, 106
PHTHALATE ESTER, 199 POLYCAPROLACTONE, 2 48 POLYMERISATION, 5 15 22 54
PHTHALOCYANINE, 127 188 POLYCARBONATE, 3 16 25 35 68 75 102 110 129 150 160 179
PHTHALOCYANINE GREEN, 139 175 183 190 194 POLYMERISATION CATALYSTS,
132 POLYCHLOROPRENE, 32 84 32 43 68 91 102
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, 12 14 POLYCONDENSATION, 150 POLYMERISATION INITIATOR,
31 60 69 92 93 106 POLYDIMETHYL SILOXANE, 14 153
PIGMENT, 2 3 6 8 12 16 26 49 50 29 88 201 POLYMERISATION KINETICS
51 52 53 61 65 67 70 71 74 85 POLYDIMETHYLSILOXANE, 14 216
86 87 89 95 96 97 98 107 119 29 88 201 POLYMERISATION
122 127 128 132 133 134 135 POLYEPICHLOROHYDRIN, 160 MECHANISM, 153
137 141 148 150 157 168 182 POLYEPOXIDE, 34 173 179 194 POLYMERISATION RATE, 21
185 188 216 200 209 210 211 216 POLYMERISATION TIME, 5
PIGMENTED, 131 POLYEPOXY ACRYLATE, 110 POLYMETHACRYLIC ACID, 5
PIPE, 4 19 22 32 76 102 125 164 POLYESTER POLYOL, 35 POLYMETHYL
182 189 POLYESTER RESIN, 214 METHACRYLATE, 175
PLANT CONSTRUCTION, 22 26 POLYETHER POLYOL, 35 POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE,
61 63 76 122 156 176 178 POLYETHER SULFONE, 17 140 175
PLASMA TREATMENT, 172 POLYETHYLENE, 7 9 10 12 16 26 POLYOL, 34 35 42 55
PLASTICISATION, 36 181 31 35 40 43 49 50 51 52 53 61 POLYOLEFIN, 3 9 16 22 43 59 60
PLASTICISER, 32 39 61 80 84 117 64 65 68 69 74 91 95 96 99 103 76 86 89 102 112 135 148 156
133 168 178 195 199 204 104 111 113 114 129 133 143 183 187 188 196
PLASTICS WASTE, 181 144 161 172 176 179 184 185 POLYOLEFIN ELASTOMER, 3 156
PLASTISOL, 168 187 188 189 190 192 198 POLYORGANOSILOXANE, 14 28
PLASTOMER, 184 POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 29 88 201 202
PLUG ASSIST, 122 DIMETHACRYLATE, 5 POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE, 3
POLLUTANT, 181 POLYETHYLENE IMINE, 54 POLYPROPENE, 16 21 22 31 35
POLLUTION, 7 195 POLYETHYLENE 38 39 40 53 60 61 64 65 66 70
POLY-EPSILON- NAPHTHALATE, 73 190 74 76 96 97 99 102 103 104 110
CAPROLACTAM, 25 36 130 POLYETHYLENE 114 123 129 133 144 145 156
136 TEREPHTHALATE, 7 12 16 22 159 170 172 175 179 182 184
POLYACETAL, 3 23 31 35 44 48 49 50 62 64 66 187 190
POLYACRYLATE, 202 70 73 76 82 96 100 101 103 104 POLYPROPYLENE, 16 21 22 31
POLYACRYLONITRILE, 82 114 118 137 144 146 149 150 35 38 39 40 53 60 61 64 65 66
POLYALKENE, 3 9 16 22 43 59 60 161 172 181 190 70 74 76 96 97 99 102 103 104
76 86 89 102 112 135 148 156 POLYETHYLENEIMINE, 54 110 114 123 129 133 144 145
183 187 188 196 POLYETHYLENIMINE, 54 156 159 170 172 175 179 182
POLYALPHA-OLEFIN, 156 POLYFLUOROETHYLENE, 17 184 187 190
POLYAMIDE, 3 16 35 45 59 64 66 POLYGLYCOLIC ACID, 12 POLYSACCHARIDE, 2 78 160
73 82 103 104 144 158 171 188 POLYHYDROXYALKANOATE, POLYSILICONE, 14 28 29 88 202
198 81 116 166 POLYSILOXANE, 14 28 29 88 201
POLYAMIDE-11, 3 POLYHYDROXYBUTYRATE, 12 202
POLYAMIDE-12, 3 POLYISOCYANATE, 55 POLYSTYRENE, 3 16 25 31 52 66
POLYAMIDE-12T, 3 POLYLACTIC ACID, 12 16 48 56 82 90 96 144 164 165 175 179 188
POLYAMIDE-4,6, 3 81 99 116 117 124 166 POLYSULFONE, 140
POLYAMIDE-6, 25 36 130 136 POLYLAUROLACTAM, 3 POLYTETRAFLUORO-
POLYAMIDE-6,6, 92 93 POLYLAURYLLACTAM, 3 ETHYLENE, 17
POLYAMINE, 217 POLYMER BEAD, 77 POLYTETRAMETHYLENE
POLYAMINOPOLYAMIDE, 160 POLYMER CEMENT, 55 ADIPAMIDE, 3
POLYANILINE, 160 POLYMERIC CATALYST, 109 POLYTRIMETHYLENE
POLYAROMATIC POLYMERIC MODIFIER, 199 NAPHTHALATE, 73

118 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


Subject Index

POLYTRIMETHYLENE 38 42 43 44 45 47 56 60 73 91 144 151 206


TEREPHTHALATE, 12 92 93 101 107 125 157 164 168 QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS, 17
POLYURETHANE, 3 16 34 35 42 182 187 188 189 95 173
66 76 105 110 131 133 143 151 PROCESSING AID, 16 22 29 30 QUENCHING, 100
169 172 175 186 202 31 32 65 164 196
POLYVINYL ACETATE, 66 149 PROCESSING CONDITIONS, 92
POLYVINYL ALCOHOL, 12 24 93 182 R
71 98 PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT, 20 RADIATION CURING, 105 197
POLYVINYL CHLORIDE, 3 4 31 64 122 124 166 173 177 180 RADICAL POLYMERISATION,
41 51 61 66 74 75 76 82 96 102 PRODUCTION, 12 144 164 168 54 160
104 116 126 133 144 164 168 PRODUCTION CAPACITY, 7 22 RADICAL SCAVENGER, 135
179 182 184 187 188 199 23 26 61 63 66 76 81 99 102 RANDOM COPOLYMER, 102
POLYVINYL CYANIDE, 82 103 104 114 122 123 150 156 RATE CONSTANT, 210 215
POLYVINYL HALIDE, 3 31 51 166 176 178 184 RATE OF POLYMERISATION, 21
116 126 133 144 PRODUCTION COST, 85 99 150 RAW MATERIAL, 28 29 63 128
POLYVINYLBENZENE, 3 31 52 PRODUCTIVITY, 26 152 180 197 178 197
144 179 PROFILE, 164 REACTION CONDITIONS, 78
POLYVINYLCHLORIDE, 3 4 31 PROPANEDIAMINE, 215 REACTION INJECTION
41 51 61 66 74 75 76 82 96 102 PROPANEDIOL, 12 MOULDING, 16
104 116 126 133 144 164 168 PROPAZINE, 5 REACTION MECHANISM, 54
179 182 184 187 188 199 PROPENE, 145 110
POLYVINYLIDENE CHLORIDE, PROPENE COPOLYMER, 182 REACTION MOULDING, 16
35 42 66 104 149 184 PROPENE POLYMER, 31 35 39 REACTION PRODUCT, 37 191
POST CURING, 15 53 96 110 114 123 129 133 144 REACTIVE ADHESIVE, 34 162
POTABLE WATER, 19 23 109 210 145 156 163
POTATO, 12 PROPERTY MODIFIER, 168 REACTIVE POLYMER, 180
POUCH, 31 64 103 114 120 184 PROPYLENE, 145 REACTIVITY, 5 147 216
POWDER, 85 157 PROPYLENE COPOLYMER, 182 REACTOR, 68
POWDER COATING, 122 131 180 PROPYLENE GLYCOL, 178 RECORDING MEDIA, 114
PRE-GELLING, 110 PROPYLENE POLYMER, 31 35 RECOVERY, 6 7 9 96
PRE-TREATMENT, 140 39 53 96 110 114 123 129 133 RECYCLATE, 16 62 73 181
PREFORM, 73 144 145 156 RECYCLED, 16 62 73 181
PRESSURE, 24 26 121 PROPYLENE THIOUREA, 138 RECYCLED CONTENT, 150
PRESSURE SENSITIVE TAPE, 99 PROPYLENE-ETHYLENE RECYCLING, 6 7 9 16 39 49 50 51
PRESSURE-SENSITIVE COPOLYMER, 38 52 53 62 73 82 94 96 119 133
ADHESIVE, 27 34 57 147 196 PROTEASE, 160 150 168 179 181 212
202 PROTECTIVE FILM, 156 RECYCLING RATE, 7
PRETREATMENT, 140 216 PROTECTIVE PACKAGING, 31 REDOX INITIATOR, 8
PRIMER, 44 80 172 PROTEIN, 160 REFLECTIVITY, 137
PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS PROTEIN ADSORPTION, 2 REFRACTIVE INDEX, 38 88 107
ANALYSIS, 10 PROTON MAGNETIC REFRIGERATOR, 155
PRINTED CIRCUIT, 136 RESONANCE, 206 REFUSE BAG, 26
PRINTED WIRING BOARD, 136 PROTOTYPE, 20 REGENERATED CELLULOSE,
PRINTING, 3 14 18 26 33 60 99 PUNCTURE RESISTANCE, 26 72 28 179
103 110 159 177 186 102 129 REGIOSELECTIVITY, 160
PRINTING INK, 14 28 33 39 46 80 PURGING, 26 REGRANULATION, 12
106 110 115 136 172 205 207 PURIFICATION, 6 109 REGRIND, 12
PROBE, 91 PURITY, 7 23 29 46 157 REINFORCED PLASTICS, 16 36
PROBLEM PREVENTION, 201 PYROLYSIS, 6 67 93 122 125 133 183 195
PROCESS, 9 13 19 27 28 32 38 42 PYROMELLITIC GLYCEROL RELATIVE HUMIDITY, 79
43 44 45 47 56 60 73 91 92 93 DIMETHACRYLATE RELEASE AGENT, 65 133
101 107 125 157 164 168 182 COPOLYMER, 15 RELEASE COATING, 202
187 188 189 RELEASE FILM, 71
PROCESS CAPABILITY, 58 RELEASE LINER, 169
PROCESS CONTROL, 75 202
Q RENEWABLE RESOURCE, 7 12
PROCESSIBILITY, 47 68 69 76 86 QUALITY ASSURANCE, 6 28 144 81 96 120 128 166 182
102 119 127 148 175 189 151 RESEARCH, 32 37 56 84 120 158
PROCESSING, 9 13 19 27 28 32 QUALITY CONTROL, 6 26 28 RESIDENCE TIME, 12

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 119


Subject Index

RESIDUAL ADDITIVE, 29 112 117 153 SILICONE POLYMER, 14 28 29


RESIDUAL MONOMER, 75 110 SCRAP, 6 96 88 201 202
130 139 191 216 217 SCRAP POLYMER, 7 12 SILICONE RUBBER, 19 32 84 108
RESIDUAL SOLVENT, 10 66 151 SCRAP REDUCTION, 137 SILOXANE COPOLYMER, 14 106
152 SCRAP TYRES, 6 SILOXANE ELASTOMER, 19
RESIDUAL STYRENE, 125 SCRATCH RESISTANCE, 65 102 SILOXANE OLIGOMER, 108
RESIN, 1 12 25 26 72 73 74 144 156 159 201 SILOXANE POLYMER, 201
145 183 189 SCREENING FACTOR, 29 SILOXANE RUBBER, 19
RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS, SCUFF RESISTANCE, 65 159 SILVER, 101 155 157
161 SEAL, 32 39 81 96 149 SILVER ION, 131
RETORT POUCH, 100 129 SEALANT, 149 SINGLE SITE CATALYSIS, 69
RETORT RESISTANCE, 48 SEALING, 26 129 156 111 189
REVIEW, 6 28 29 31 32 35 39 58 SECANT MODULUS, 93 SIZE EXCLUSION
84 109 115 168 179 186 212 SELF-ADHESIVE, 27 34 CHROMATOGRAPHY, 214
216 SELF-COOLING, 167 SKID RESISTANCE, 72
RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES, SELF-DRYING, 12 33 80 92 93 SLIP AGENT, 133
18 26 44 54 78 92 93 111 147 SELF-HEALING, 20 SLIP PROPERTIES, 201
164 192 198 SEMI-SOLID, 88 SMALL ANGLE X-RAY
RHEOLOGY, 44 92 93 111 147 164 SENSOR, 10 158 167 177 SCATTERING, 68 112
RIGIDITY, 12 69 102 164 188 SERVICE LIFE, 85 SMART MATERIAL, 160
RING-OPENING SERVICE TEMPERATURE, 86 SODIUM CARBONATE, 128 138
POLYMERISATION, 160 SHEAR MODULUS, 218 SODIUM SULFATE, 138
RISK ASSESSMENT, 13 29 30 41 SHEAR PROPERTIES, 27 SODIUM
141 179 SHEAR STRENGTH, 27 TETRAETHYLBORATE, 4
RISK MANAGEMENT, 30 SHEET, 12 124 164 165 169 183 SOFT DRINK BOTTLE, 73 189
ROLL COATING, 44 SHEET MOULDING SOFT-TOUCH, 72 137
ROSIN, 94 COMPOUND, 125 SOFTENING POINT, 204
ROTATIONAL MOULDING, 111 SHEETING, 125 SOFTWARE, 74 95 144
122 129 SHELF LIFE, 35 70 73 81 82 98 SOIL REMEDIATION, 6
ROTOMOLDING, 111 122 129 113 149 150 158 161 171 177 SOLID PHASE, 5
ROTOMOULDING, 111 122 129 190 SOLID STATE, 38 68 150
RUBBER, 3 6 16 19 28 32 34 37 SHIPMENT, 104 SOLIDIFICATION, 56
42 57 67 72 84 85 108 121 123 SHORE HARDNESS, 72 SOLIDS CONTENT, 57 180 192
137 138 142 145 148 156 175 SHORT CHAIN BRANCHING, 68 198
179 194 195 200 201 203 212 SHRINK, 176 SOLUBILITY, 12 71 78 98 107 153
213 218 SHRINK FILM, 66 159 189 160 181 188
RUBBER-MODIFIED, 218 SHRINK HOOD, 43 SOLUTION CASTING, 71
RUTILE, 141 SHRINKAGE, 12 68 92 93 102 107 SOLVENT, 4 5 9 10 25 33 39 59
110 111 66 72 83 88 94 118 120 130 138
SIDE CHAIN, 15 139 140 146 149 151 152 173
S SIDING, 164 178 181 195 215
SACCHARIDE COPOLYMER, 8 SILANE, 189 SOLVENT EMISSION, 152
153 SILICA, 5 26 160 SOLVENT EVAPORATION, 24
SAFETY, 13 30 31 32 33 34 35 75 SILICON COPOLYMER, 14 106 138
82 84 90 121 128 157 161 179 SILICON DIOXIDE, 5 26 160 SOLVENT EXTRACTION, 17 37
196 205 206 208 SILICON ELASTOMER, 19 32 84 62 82 90 130 191 214 217
SAFETY GOGGLES, 25 108 SOLVENT PERMEABILITY, 40
SAGGING, 12 SILICON POLYMER, 14 28 29 88 SOLVENT RECOVERY, 7 152
SANITARY APPLICATION, 71 202 SOLVENT RELEASE, 169
SATURATED POLYESTER, 12 16 SILICON RUBBER, 19 32 84 108 SOLVENT RESISTANCE, 48
20 27 44 48 101 118 149 166 SILICON-CONTAINING SOLVENT RETENTION, 204
175 183 COPOLYMER, 14 106 SOLVENT WASHING, 7
SCAFFOLD POLYMER, 160 SILICON-CONTAINING SOLVENT-BASED, 34 42 66 100
SCANNING ELECTRON POLYMER, 14 28 29 88 202 162 163
MICROGRAPH, 36 78 112 117 SILICONE, 201 SOLVENT-BASED ADHESIVE,
153 SILICONE COPOLYMER, 14 106 186
SCANNING ELECTRON SILICONE ELASTOMER, 19 32 SOLVENT-BORNE, 27
MICROSCOPY, 15 36 68 78 84 108 SOLVENT-FREE, 149 186 187

120 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


Subject Index

SOLVENTLESS, 35 55 100 121 STYRENE-BUTADIENE TENSILE STRENGTH, 12 26 60


151 159 172 COPOLYMER, 164 92 93
SOYABEAN OIL, 39 STYRENE-DIVINYL BENZENE TENSILE YIELD, 26
SOYBEAN OIL, 39 COPOLYMER, 90 TEREPHTHALIC ACID, 12
SPECIAL EFFECTS, 16 137 175 STYRENE-DIVINYLBENZENE TERMONOMER, 25 29 30 31 32
SPECIFIC GRAVITY, 26 COPOLYMER, 90 TEST EQUIPMENT, 32 88 95 108
SPECTACLES, 25 SUGAR, 166 146 197
SPECTROPHOTOMETER, 74 85 SULFONE POLYMER, 140 TEST METHOD, 18 29 30 31 32
131 SULFUR, 128 33 34 35 38 39 40 65 69 73 82
SPECTROSCOPY, 2 8 24 37 40 54 SUNFLOWER OIL, 126 83 84 88 92 93 95 108 125 131
78 79 90 94 95 108 126 142 153 SUNGLASSES, 25 143 144 146 168 179 181 191
173 174 182 206 207 SURFACE ACTIVE AGENT, 39 195 197 200 202 211 212
SPORTS SHOE, 175 106 TESTING, 18 29 30 31 32 33 34 35
SPORTS STADIUM, 73 SURFACE AREA, 34 90 38 39 40 65 69 73 82 83 84 88
SPORTS SURFACE, 169 SURFACE COATING, 32 84 179 92 93 95 108 125 131 143 144
SPORTS UTILITY VEHICLE, 183 SURFACE FINISH, 16 85 116 137 146 168 179 181 191 195 197
SPRAY DRYING, 12 33 80 92 93 201 200 202 211 212 217
STABILISER, 4 16 22 31 37 39 41 SURFACE MODIFICATION, 32 TETRAETHOXYSILANE, 24
61 67 70 76 95 118 126 133 146 168 TETRAFLUOROETHYLENE
164 168 187 195 SURFACE PROPERTIES, 65 POLYMER, 17
STABILITY, 26 47 48 65 76 102 SURFACE TENSION, 40 99 110 TEXTILE, 162
120 129 137 156 164 182 187 140 TEXTILE APPLICATION, 8
188 SURFACE TREATMENT, 26 32 40 THERMAL ANALYSIS, 78 112
STAMPING, 101 44 60 99 110 168 172 117 153
STANDARD, 19 31 33 92 93 95 SURFACTANT, 39 106 THERMAL DEGRADATION, 3
130 164 212 SURGICAL APPLICATION, 6 12 214
STARCH, 2 56 116 117 160 166 SURGICAL GOWN, 6 THERMAL GRAVIMETRIC
STARCH POLYMER, 81 SUSPENSION ANALYSIS, 3 24 54 78 91
STATIC DISSIPATION, 183 POLYMERISATION, 75 THERMAL HISTORY, 97
STEARIC ACID, 214 SUSTAINABILITY, 81 128 166 THERMAL INSULATION, 101
STEEL FIBRE 22 SYNTHETIC FIBRE, 107 THERMAL MECHANICAL
STEERING WHEEL, 169 SYNTHETIC RUBBER, 121 123 ANALYSIS, 181
STERILISABILITY, 102 137 138 142 145 148 156 THERMAL PROPERTIES, 72 92
STERILISATION, 155 SYRINGE, 184 93
STIFFNESS, 21 38 68 69 102 111 THERMAL RESISTANCE, 12 74
122 129 184 127 149 188
STORAGE, 14 145 209 T THERMAL STABILITY, 47 48 65
STORAGE CONTAINER, 32 T-PEEL, 147 76 102 120 129 137 156 164
STORAGE STABILITY, 209 TABLEWARE, 116 166 185 182 187 188
STORAGE TIME, 190 TACK, 27 THERMODYNAMIC
STRAIN, 92 93 TAINT, 115 PROPERTIES, 60
STRENGTH, 98 121 127 129 188 TAPE, 27 148 THERMOFORMING, 12 16 116
STRESS-STRAIN PROPERTIES, TARGET, 5 25 73 74 101 164 122 137 149 164 168 184
38 93 TASTE, 70 THERMOGRAVIMETRIC
STRETCH, 12 TATTOO, 77 ANALYSIS, 3 24 54 78 91
STRETCH BLOW MOULDING, TEAR RESISTANCE, 26 68 69 72 THERMOMECHANICAL
12 73 TEAR STRENGTH, 26 68 69 72 ANALYSIS, 181
STRETCH FILM, 43 68 176 189 TEAT, 32 108 THERMOPLASTIC
STRETCH HOOD, 43 TEMPERATURE CONTROL, 169 ELASTOMER, 32 72 76 84 123
STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE, 164 175
RELATIONSHIP, 30 9 60 92 93 THERMOPLASTIC RUBBER, 32
STRUCTURE-PROPERTY TEMPERATURE RESISTANCE, 72 76 84 123 164 175
RELATIONSHIP, 38 19 THIN FILM, 45 158 190
STYRENE, 125 214 TEMPERATURE SENSITIVITY, THIOESTER, 187
STYRENE DIVINYLBENZENE 161 THIOUREA, 138
COPOLYMER, 90 TENSILE MODULUS, 12 92 93 THIOXANTHONE, 13
STYRENE POLYMER, 3 31 52 82 TENSILE PROPERTIES, 12 26 60 THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE, 30
96 144 179 92 93 117 149 THRESHOLD VALUE, 30 196

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 121


Subject Index

TIE LAYER, 34 35 ULTRAMARINE BLUE, 128 VINYL CHLORIDE


TIE MOLECULE, 38 ULTRASONIC, 217 COPOLYMER, 168
TIME-TEMPERATURE ULTRAVIOLET CURING, 11 13 VINYL CHLORIDE POLYMER, 3
INDICATOR, 167 177 27 42 46 57 60 110 147 172 174 31 51 82 116 126 133 144
TIN, 164 180 201 202 205 207 VINYL CHLORIDE
TIN COMPOUND, 4 41 ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIATION, 1 TERPOLYMER, 168
TIN OXIDE, 3 101 146 148 173 203 VINYL HALIDE, 75 168 179
TIN PLATE, 173 ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT, 146 148 VINYL HALIDE POLYMER, 3 31
TISSUE ENGINEERING, 2 ULTRAVIOLET 51 116 126 133 144
TITANATE FIBRE, 22 SPECTROSCOPY, 2 VINYL PYRROLIDINONE
TITANIA, 141 UNDERGROUND PIPE, 182 COPOLYMER, 54
TITANIUM DIOXIDE, 141 UNIVERSAL CALIBRATION, 88 VINYL PYRROLIDONE
TITANIUM OXIDE, 26 UNSATURATED POLYESTER, 12 COPOLYMER, 54
TITRATION, 83 63 125 178 183 214 VINYLIDENE CHLORIDE
TOILET SEAT, 61 URETHANE POLYMER, 42 149
TOLUENE, 9 10 39 DIMETHACRYLATE VINYLPYRROLIDONE
TOOLING, 73 COPOLYMER, 15 COPOLYMER, 54
TOPCOAT, 164 URETHANE POLYMER, 3 34 35 VIRGIN POLYMER, 26 181
TORQUE, 65 110 131 133 143 151 186 VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES,
TORSION PENDULUM, 218 UV COATING, 1 88
TORSIONAL BRAID ANALYSIS, UV CURING, 11 13 27 34 35 3942 VISCOMETRY, 88
218 46 57 60 110 147 172 174 180 VISCOSITY, 18 26 54 78 111 147
TOXICITY, 13 30 46 56 82 94 128 201 202 205 207 213 216 192 198
139 141 195 199 208 217 UV DEGRADATION, 60 VISCOSITY MODIFIER, 168
TOXICOLOGY, 29 30 134 179 200 UV LIGHT, 146 148 173 203 VISIBLE SPECTRA, 182
TOYS, 16 61 164 175 199 UV POLYMERISATION, 110 VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY, 182
TRACEABILITY, 28 39 UV RADIATION, 101 146 148 VOC-FREE, 80 202
TRANSFER MOULDING, 19 UV RESISTANCE, 70 85 148 183 VOLATILE CONTENT, 39
TRANSISTOR, 136 UV SCREENING, 76 VOLATILE ORGANIC
TRANSLUCENCY, 12 74 137 UV SPECTROSCOPY, 2 182 COMPOUND, 10 57 76 120
TRANSMISSION ELECTRON UV SPECTRUM, 2 180 201
MICROSCOPY, 36 68 78 112 UV STABILISER, 16 22 70 76 118 VOLATILE REMOVAL, 29
117 153 133 146 158 187 VOLATILITY, 90 199 206
TRANSPARENCY, 12 21 25 70 UV STABILITY, 25 127 175 182 VULCANISATE, 32
76 97 102 107 149 156 164 165 UV VIS SPECTROSCOPY, 182 VULCANISATION, 195
175 183 VULCANISATION TIME, 57
TRANSPORT PROPERTIES, 79
TRANSPORTATION, 128 145 183 V
TRIAZINE, 5 VACUUM PACKAGING, 35 64
W
TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES, 36 VAPOUR, 12 195 WALL COVERING, 41
TRICHLOROETHANE, 9 VAPOUR DEPOSITION, 73 WALL THICKNESS, 102 122
TRIETHYLENE GLYCOL VARNISH, 14 28 33 101 106 216 WARPAGE, 61 86 107 111 188
DIMETHACRYLATE VEGETABLE OIL, 209 WASHING, 7
COPOLYMER, 15 VEHICLE EXTERIOR, 157 WASTE, 49 50 51 52 53 96 161
TRIETHYLENETETRAMINE, 217 VEHICLE WIRING, 76 181
TRIMMING, 12 VIBRATION DAMPING, 88 WASTE DISPOSAL, 12 107 128
TROPOLONE, 4 VIBRATIONAL 179
TROUBLESHOOTING, 201 SPECTROSCOPY, 40 54 78 79 WASTE MANAGEMENT, 6 81
TRUCK, 175 126 153 128 152 168
TUBING, 199 VIDEO TAPE, 114 WASTE SORTING, 7
TURBINE, 122 VINYL ACETATE POLYMER, 149 WASTE WATER, 8
TYRE, 6 74 VINYL ACETATE-ETHYLENE WATER, 4 12 36 73 79 90 94 118
TYRE DERIVED FUEL, 6 COPOLYMER, 35 130 138 140 146 148 149 181
VINYL ALCOHOL COPOLYMER, 189
47 79 WATER ABSORPTION, 36 76 79
U VINYL ALCOHOL POLYMER, 92 117
ULTRA LOW-DENSITY 12 24 WATER CONSUMPTION, 7
POLYETHYLENE, 190 VINYL CHLORIDE, 75 168 179 WATER PERMEABILITY, 48 79

122 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


Subject Index

WATER PIPE, 4 19 22 125 182 WET-OUT, 26 X-RAY SCATTERING, 24 36 48


WATER REMOVAL, 76 WETTABILITY, 110 68 112 153
WATER RESISTANCE, 55 WETTING, 40 67 X-RAY SPECTRA, 95
WATER SOLUBLE, 71 78 98 160 WHEEL COVER, 92 X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY, 95
WATER TREATMENT, 6 75 109 WIDE ANGLE, 6
WATER VAPOUR WIDE TYRE, 6
TRANSMISSION, 98 184 WIND TURBINE, 122 Y
WAX, 28 29 WINDOW, 164
WINE, 108 YELLOW DYE, 107
WEAR, 26 YELLOWING, 73 175
WIRE, 158
WEAR RESISTANCE, 36 175 183
WOLLASTONITE, 61 YTTRIUUM ALUMINUM
WEATHER RESISTANCE, 16 74
WOOD FIBRE-REINFORCED GARNET, 3
107 127 PLASTIC, 16 133
WEATHERABILITY, 76 119 164 WOOD FIBRE 22
183 WOOD FINISH, 180 Z
WEATHERING, 16 74 107 127 WOODWORKING, 162 163
WEATHERING RESISTANCE, 16 ZIEGLER CATALYST, 38 68 69
WORK FORCE, 165
74 107 127 129 145
WORLD WIDE WEB, 74 144
WEATHEROMETER, 131 ZIEGLER-NATTA CATALYST, 38
WEBSITE, 74 144 68 69 129 145
WEIGHT LOSS, 29 X ZINC STEARATE, 126
WEIGHT REDUCTION, 16 66 102 X-RAY DIFFRACTION, 24 36 48 ZIRCONIA, 15 140
WELDABILITY, 25 68 112 153 ZIRCONIUM OXIDE, 15 140
WELDING, 175 183 X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ZIRCONYL DIMETHACRYLATE
WET BONDING, 35 SPECTROSCOPY, 95 COPOLYMER, 15

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 123


Subject Index

124 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


Company Index

Company Index

A C E
ACCO BRANDS CORP., 101 CARGILL, 12 EASTMAN CHEMICAL CO., 12
ADEKA CORP., 21 55 CASE WESTERN RESERVE ECO2, 7
ADVANCED PLASTICS UNIVERSITY, 38 EDLON MACHINERY LTD., 159
TECHNOLOGIES, 73 CASTELLON,UNIVERSITY, 48 ENERGY SCIENCES INC., 45 159
AGROTECHNOLOGY & FOOD CEFIC, 125 EUROPEAN COMMISSION, 209
INNOVATIONS BV, 182 CEREPLAST INC., 12 EUROPEAN PLASTICS
ALGIERS,ECOLE NATIONALE CHEMICAL MARKET CONVERTERS ASSN., 28
POLYTECHNIQUE, 126 ASSOCIATES INC., 26 EVAL AMERICAS (USA), 47
AMCOR PET PACKAGING, 73 CIBA SPECIALTY CHEMICALS, EX-TECH PLASTICS INC., 12
150 74 107 118 131 187 188 EXCEL POLYMERS LLC, 85
AMERICAN PLASTICS COCA-COLA CO., 73 EXXONMOBIL CHEMICAL CO.,
COUNCIL, 91 COLORMATRIX CORP., 73 43 149 170
AMPACET CORP., 26 CONAIR, 12
ANHEUSER-BUSCH, 73
ANSON PACKAGING, 12
COOP BOX, 12 F
COORS BREWING CO., 73
APME, 125 COUNCIL OF EUROPE, 106 FABES GMBH, 118 144
ARCHER DANIELS MIDLAND CRODA POLYMER ADDITIVES, FABRI-KAL CORP., 12
CO., 12 65 FAR WEST TECHNOLOGIES, 45
ASAHI KASEI CORP., 165 CROMPTON CORP., 187 FORMOSA PLASTICS GROUP,
ASAHI KASEI LIFE & LIVING 26
CSIC, 48 79
CORP., 165 FOROYA BJOR, 73
CYCLICS CORP., 122
ASHLAND, 1 FREEDOM-2, 77
CYTEC, 57
ATHENS,GENERAL FREISING,FRAUNHOFER
CZECHOSLOVAK ACADEMY
CHEMISTRY STATE INSTITUT
OF SCIENCES, 215
LABORATORY, 4 VERFAHRENSTECHNIK &
ATHENS,NATIONAL VERPACKUNG IVV, 18
TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, 9 D FRIENDS OF THE EARTH, 194
ATHENS,UNIVERSITY, 4 FROST & SULLIVAN, 64
ATOFINA CHEMICALS INC., 164 DAINICHISEIKA COLOR & FULLER H.B., 162 163
CHEMICALS MFG.CO., 124 FUTURA POLYESTERS, 73
DAINIPPON INK & CHEMICALS
B INC., 165
BASELL, 129 DEGUSSA AG, 216 G
BASF, 12 86 89 127 132 135 141 DENMARK-VETERINARY & GAIRESA, 210
148 157 188 FOOD ADMINISTRATION, GALACTIC SA, 12
BATTENFELD GLOUCESTER 206 GBC FILMS GROUP EUROPE,
ENGINEERING CO., 26 DEUTSCHER VERBAND DER 101
BAYER AG, 188 INERALFARBENINDUSTRIE, GE SPECIALTY CHEMICALS,
BAYSHORE INDUSTRIAL INC., 141 187
26 DEVTECH LABS, 73 GERMANY,INSTITUTE OF
BCC RESEARCH, 12 DOW CHEMICAL, 12 38 91 PLASTICS PROCESSING, 73
BIOBAG, 12 DOW CORNING LTD., 14 106 GEROSA, 152
BLACK CLAWSON DRESDEN,TECHNISCHE GRAHAM PACKAGING, 73
CONVERTING MACHINERY UNIVERSITAT, 173 GREAT LAKES CHEMICAL
INC., 44 DUBLIN,CITY UNIVERSITY, 83 CORP., 187
BLOOM PACKAGING PVT.LTD., DUNDEE,UNIVERSITY, 143
40 DUPONT, 12
BOOTS CO.PLC, 194 DUPONT ENGINEERING H
BOREALIS 102 189 POLYMERS, 92 93 HACETTEPE,UNIVERSITY, 54
BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT DUPONT TITANIUM HAMBURG,UNIVERSITY, 173
ASSOCIATES, 73 TECHNOLOGIES, 74 HENKEL KGAA, 186

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 125


Company Index

HERITAGE BAG, 26
HERITAGE PLASTICS INC., 26
KEURINGDIENTS VAN WAREN,
206
O
HILEX POLY CO., 26 KIEFEL INC., 26 OMYA INC., 26
HITE BREWERY CO., 73 KINGS COLLEGE, 2 ORIENTAL BREWING, 73
HOLLIDAY PIGMENTS LTD., KOREA,UNIVERSITY, 192 OSAKA,CITY INSTITUTE
128 KORTEC INC., 73 OF PUBLIC HEALTH
HONEYWELL PERFORMANCE KOSA, 73 AND ENVIRONMENTAL
PRODUCTS, 73 KYUNGNAM,UNIVERSITY, 192 SCIENCES, 94
HONEYWELL SPECIALTY 198 OVIEDO,UNIVERSITY, 140
POLYMERS, 73
HOSOKAWA ALPINE AMERICA,
26 L P
HUHTAMAKI, 12 LANXESS CORP., 188 PANALYTICAL BV, 95
HUSKY INJECTION MOLDING LASER INSTALLATIONS LTD., PARIS II,UNIVERSITE, 206
SYSTEMS LTD., 73 143 PARKINSON TECHNOLOGIES
HYOSONG CORP., 73 LEEDS,UNIVERSITY, 214 INC., 12
LIMERICK,UNIVERSITY, 83 PIRA INTERNATIONAL, 31 70
125 105 144 212
I PISA,UNIVERSITY, 20
IATA, 48 M PLANTIC TECHNOLOGIES
IMERYS PERFORMANCE LTD., 12
M AND G POLYMERS, 73
MINERALS, 26 PLASTIC ENGINEERING
MARSHALL & WILLIAMS, 12 ASSOCIATES INC., 12
INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MARTENS, 73 PLASTIC SUPPLIERS INC., 12
TECHNOLOGY, 36 MATCHMYCOLOR.COM, 74 PLASTICS TOUCHPOINT
INDIAN PETROCHEMICAL METABOLIX, 12 GROUP INC., 26
CORP.LTD., 113 MICA CORP., 44 POLYMER LABORATORIES
INDITHERM, 169 MICHIGAN,STATE LTD., 88
INGENIA POLYMERS GROUP, UNIVERSITY, 10 POLYMER PROCESS
26 MINHO,UNIVERSIDADE, 2 COMMUNICATIONS, 12
INRA, 87 MITSUBISHI CHEMICAL, 165 POLYONE, 97
INSTITUT NATIONAL MITSUBISHI GAS CHEMICAL POLYVAL PLC, 98
DE LA RECHERCHE AMERICA INC., 73 PORTUGAL,INSTITUTE FOR
AGRONOMIQUE, 191 206 MITSUI CHEMICALS, 12, 123 BIOTECHNOLOGY AND
INSTITUTO DE CIENCIA 145 156 BIOENGINEERING, 2
Y TECNOLOGIA DE MOMENTIVE PERFORMANCE PRINCETON,UNIVERSITY, 218
POLIMEROS, 112 MATERIALS INC., 19 PROBOS SA, 162 163
INTEPLAST GROUP, 26
PURAC AMERICA, 12
INTERTECH-PIRA, 12
INVISTA, 73 N
NAKAMOTO PACKS CO.LTD., R
J 121 RADTECH FOOD PACKAGING
NANOBIOMATTERS LTD., 48 ALLIANCE, 46
JAUME I,UNIVERSITAT, 79 NANOCOR INC., 73 RADTECH INTERNATIONAL
JUNIPER, 6 NATUREWORKS LLC, 12 NORTH AMERICA, 46 57
NELLI RODI TRENDLAB, 74 RAHN USA CORP., 147
NESTLE WATERS, 96
K NEXANT CHEM SYSTEMS, 176
RAPRA TECHNOLOGY LTD., 32
35 37 39 84 90 108 133 142
KANEKA, 12 NISSEI CHEMICAL CO.LTD., 121 RECKITT BENCKISER, 49 50 51
KANPUR,CHHATRAPATI NORWEGIAN FOOD SAFETY 52 53 96
SHAHU JI MAHARAJ AUTHORITY, 59 REIFENHAUSER INC., 26
UNIVERSITY, 8 78 153 NORWEGIAN INSTITUTE OF REIMS,INSTITUT NATIONAL
KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY, PUBLIC HEALTH, 59 DE LA RECHERCHES
117 NOVA CHEMICALS, 111 AGRONOMIQUES, 181
KARNATAK UNIVERSITY, 24 NOVAMONT NORTH AMERICA REIMS,UNIVERSITY, 206
KCL FINLAND, 33 INC., 12 REXAM, 73
KELLER & HECKMAN LLP, 46 NYLON CORP.OF AMERICA ROCHESTER,INSTITUTE OF
154 196 211 INC., 25 TECHNOLOGY, 60

126 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


Company Index

ROHM & HAAS CO., 42 100 120 SUN CHEMICAL LTD., 115 US,NATIONAL INSTITUTE
152 SURFACE SPECIALTIES, 46 OF STANDARDS &
ROHM & HAAS FRANCE SAS, SWINBURNE,UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, 15
109 TECHNOLOGY, 62
SZCZECIN,UNIVERSITY OF
TECHNOLOGY, 27 V
S VALENCIA,POLYTECHNICAL
SABERT CORP., 12 UNIVERSITY, 140
SABREEN GROUP INC., 3 58
T VALSPAR CORP., 73
SAFEPHARM LABORATORIES TATE AND LYLE VISY TECHNICAL CENTRE, 62
LTD., 179 BIOPOLYMERS, 12
SAINSBURY, 12 TICONA, 72
SANITIZED AG, 155 TNO NUTRITION & FOOD W
SBA-CCI WORLDPET, 73 RESEARCH, 37 200 203 WACKER SILICONES CORP.,
SCHOENWALD CONSULTING, TNO QUALITY OF LIFE, 29 201
73 TOKYO,INSTITUTE OF WACKER-CHEMIE GMBH, 201
SCHOTT HICOTEC, 73 TECHNOLOGY, 56 WAL-MART, 12
SEALED AIR CORP., 28 TORAY PLASTICS (AMERICA) WASHINGTON,EARTH POLICY
SHELL CHEMICAL, 73 INC., 114 INSTITUTE, 12
SHEPHERD COLOR CO., 119 185 TREOFAN GROUP, 12 WASTE & RESOURCES ACTION
SHIMADZU CHEMICAL, 12 TURKU REGIONAL INSTITUTE PROGRAMME, 6
SICPA, 110 OF OCCUPATIONAL WELLMAN INC., 73
SICPA PRINTING INKS, 207 HEALTH, 217 WENTUS, 12
SIDEL INC., 73 WILD OATS MARKETS, 12
SIG CORPOPLAST, 73
SINGAPORE,AGRI-FOOD AND
U WILKINSON INDUSTRIES INC.,
12
VETERINARY AUTHORITY, UK,CENTRAL SCIENCE WROCLAW,ACADEMY OF
139 LABORATORY, 34 138 ECONOMICS, 109
SIPA INC., 73 UK,DEPT.FOR THE
SOVEREIGN SPECIALTY ENVIRONMENT,FOOD &
CHEMICALS INC., 174 197 RURAL AFFAIRS, 17 34 130 X
202 143 193 X-RITE, 74
SPAIN,INSTITUTO NACIONAL UK,FOOD STANDARDS XALOY INC., 12
DE INVESTIGACION Y AGENCY, 37
TECNOLOGIA AGRARIA Y, 5 UNION CARBIDE CORP., 213
SPARTECH CORP., 12 183 UNIVATION TECHNOLOGIES, Z
SPECIALCHEM, 74 144 68
SPI, 96 211 US,ENVIRONMENTAL ZURICH CANTON,OFFICIAL
SPLIT,UNIVERSITY, 75 PROTECTION AGENCY, 139 FOOD CONTROL
SRI CONSULTING, 12 US,FOOD & DRUG AUTHORITY, 208
STANELCO PLC, 12 ADMINISTRATION, 30 46 72
STARNA INDUSTRIES, 80 73 91 106 118 127 139 146 148
STUTTGART,CHEMISCHES 174
UND VETERINARUNTERSU US,NATIONAL FOOD
CHUNGSAMT, 11 PROCESSORS ASSN., 211

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology 127


Company Index

128 Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology


DOCUMENTS DIRECT
(Document Delivery Service)
The Polymer Library (www.polymerlibrary.com) is the worlds most comprehensive collection of information on
the rubber, plastics, composites and adhesives industries. The fully searchable database covers approximately 500
regular journals as well as conference proceedings, reports, books, company brochures and data sheets.

Almost all the articles selected for the database can be ordered in full text through our document delivery department.
Non-patent requests are usually despatched within 24 hours of receipt (Monday to Friday).

We have a large collection of literature directly related to the industries we serve and can offer a personal service
with minimal bureaucracy, based on detailed knowledge of our stock.

Many of the documents held at Smithers Rapra are not available via other services. This is particularly the case
for our extensive and unique collection of company literature and data sheets.

We offer a fast turnaround service (within one working day) combined with a range of delivery options. Some
full text documents are available as PDF files which can be downloaded immediately

SPEED OF DELIVERY
Non-patent documents are despatched from Smithers Rapra within 24 hours of receipt (Monday - Friday) of request
using first class mail within the UK, and airmail for the rest of the world. If you request e-mail or fax service, delivery
will be within hours anywhere in the world.

HOW TO ORDER
Orders can be made by post, fax, telephone, e-mail, on-line via the website database (http://www.polymerlibrary.
com), or through an online host.

When ordering please include your full company details and which documents you require, quoting one of the
following:

1. Accession Number or Copyquest number or,


2. Full Bibliographic Details

Please include which payment method you wish to use and how you wish to receive the article (i.e. e-mail,
post, fax, etc.)

Documents can be ordered from Smithers Rapra online using the appropriate command of your online host. In this
case we will issue you with an invoice and statement every three months.

For further information, please see www.rapra.net/absdocs/copyquest.htm or contact Sheila Cheese or Jackie McCarthy
on +44 (0)1939 250383 or e-mail documents@rapra.net.