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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

K-12 Classroom Teaching: A primer for new professionals/Andrea Guillaume - 3rd ed. p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references.
ISBN-13: 978-0-13-158024-4 (alk. paper)
ISBN-10: 0-13-1,58024-8
1. First Year teachers-United States. 2. Teaching-United States'
l- Qrrillaume, Andrea M.
L82844-1.N4G85 2008

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10 987654321
ISBN 13: 97A+tylffi24-4
ISBN 1O: (}rl158024-8

tFW L6 Assessrng assessmenls.

Traditional Tests Most often cognitive. Easy to collect for Usually used post-
Select items that every student. Typically not, but is
match objectives and instruction. Reteach possible with teacher
Objective items are based on results.
what was taught. most reliable. effort.
Careful to dig deeper Brief, self-graded
than facts for quizzes can be used
generalizations. during instruction.
Write special
questions for
incidental learnings.

Validity may be
affected by students, Special strength.
desire to please. However, if you won,t
use results, don,t ask
Can tap all three lf students are
domains. Find an audience to
allowed choice, can Can be a strength if
Can tap integrated, appreciate products. students are allowed
be difficult to assess
complex Think specifically
uniformly across choice.
understandings. about what to do
products. Encourage self-
Can span longer with results. evaluation of work.
Reliabitity is affected if
time periods. work was conducted
outside of class.
Can tap all three Argued as being
domains. Can profoundly Excellent potential_
highly valid because influence instruction.
Good for measuring entries are samples when author has
progress toward Time intensive. ownership.
trom many time
larger goals return. periods and different Good for
Good for long-term conditions. goal-setting.
Train raters for best
May overestimate
competence if work
is completed

Can be difficult to
A collection of entries assess Can be used at all
using a Open prompts
over time can give instructional staoes,
standard protocol include a great deal
indications of long_ Must have an
unless prompts are of student choice.
term development. audience.
very structured. Students need to be
Excellent for Time-consuming if
Journals depend able to express
assessing incidental teacher is sole themselves in
upon teachers,abilitu
learning and affective audience. writing.
to interpret studentsi
domain. written words and Students need to
symbols. value the prompts for
Discussion can journals to be useful.
protect validity.
Assessment 1,97

FICARE 7.6 Continued,

Performance- Use regularly Each student must Many teachers Allow students to
Based throughout the year be given the same obtain baseline self-assess their
Assessments to collect evidence of opportunity to information through performance and to
long-term growth. perform. performances, and evaluate your
Excellent for Validity can be then assess again instruction to suggest
psychomotor (and affected if the after instruction. the next step.
other) domains. performance situation
is uncomfortable for
the student.
Scoring procedures
need to be clearly

Teacher Excellent for affective Structured lndividual lessons Variable, depends

Observations and psychomotor observation guides can include a period upon structure of the
domains. and class lists can during which teacher observation.
help focus teachers' observes to check
attention on certain for student progress.
items for all students.

lnterviews Used primarily for Allows for great Depth of information Respectful
cognitive and depth for individual obtained can be very questioning can
psychomotor items, students. useful for instruction allow children to
but affect can Tied to verbal skills. planning. share what they
naturally arise. Requires careful know, can do, and
planning to interview find important.
all students.

Drawings and Drawing uses Allow students to Highly appropriate at Presents tasks
Diagrams psychomotor skills. describe the meaning all phases of the (drawing) that are
Cognitive and behind their works to instructional cycle. atypical for school for
affective domains ensure that you fully many students; many
can both be understand what the students enjoy the
addressed. students are trying to novelty and the
convey. nonlinear,
Some students do
not feel comfortable

student, whereas with traditional assessments, power tends to reside more with
the assessor. Traditional tests often have the benefits of efficiency and more ob-
jectivity in scoring. In contrast, alternative assessments often have the benefit of
richness because information is collected over time and in a range of contexts.
Despite their potential benefits, both kinds of measures also have their crit-
icisms. Some traditional tests, for example, are criticized for focusing on stu-
dent deficits rather than on what students can do. Some are seen as providing
little information related to realistic settings or the application of knowledge. Fi-
nally, they are also criticized as containing biases against students in nondom-
inant groups (see, for example, Murphy, 1994). Likewise, alternative
assessments are criticized as failing to provide sufficient evidence of validity
and reliability (Bateson, 1994; Ryan, 2006). They can also lack meaningful
standards, and biases against minority students also exist for alternative
assessments (Howell, Bigelow, Moore, , Eroy, 1993).