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5Gll provide faster data speeds and more reliable service.

Users can download a

high-definition film in under a second (a task that could take 10 minutes on 4G LTE).
It will boost the development of other new technologies, too, such as autonomous
vehicles, virtual reality, and the Internet of Things. 5G must handle far more traffic at
much higher speeds than the base stations that make up todays cellular networks.
peak download speeds of 20 gigabits per second (compared to 1 Gb/s on 4G) to users.
The front-runners include millimeter waves, small cells, massive MIMO, full duplex,
and beamforming. Providers are experimenting with broadcasting on millimeter
waves, which use higher frequencies than the radio waves that have long been used
for mobile phones. Millimeter waves are broadcast at frequencies between 30 and 300
gigahertz, compared to the bands below 6 GHz that were used for mobile devices in
the past. Now, some cellular providers have begun to use them to send data between
stationary points, such as two base stations. There is one major drawback to
millimeter waves, thoughthey cant easily travel through buildings or obstacles and
they can be absorbed by foliage and rain. Thats why 5G networks will likely augment
traditional cellular towers with another new technology, called small cells. There is a
problem, thoughthe sheer number of small cells required to build a 5G network may
make it hard to set up in rural areas. In addition to broadcasting over millimeter
waves, 5G base stations will also have many more antennas than the base stations of
todays cellular networksto take advantage of another new technology: massive
MIMO. Todays 4G base stations have a dozen ports for antennas that handle all
cellular traffic: eight for transmitters and four for receivers. But 5G base stations can
support about a hundred ports, which means many more antennas can fit on a single
array. That capability means a base station could send and receive signals from many
more users at once, increasing the capacity of mobile networks by a factor of 22 or
greater. MIMO describes wireless systems that use two or more transmitters and
receivers to send and receive more data at once. Massive MIMO takes this concept to
a new level by featuring dozens of antennas on a single array. installing so many more
antennas to handle cellular traffic also causes more interference if those signals
cross. Thats why 5G stations must incorporate beamforming. Cellular signals are
easily blocked by objects and tend to weaken over long distances. In this case,
beamforming can help by focusing a signal in a concentrated beam that points only in
the direction of a user, rather than broadcasting in many directions at once. This
approach can strengthen the signals chances of arriving intact and reduce interference
for everyone else. Besides boosting data rates by broadcasting over millimeter waves
and beefing up spectrum efficiency with massive MIMO, wireless engineers are also
trying to achieve the high throughput and low latency required for 5G through a
technology called full duplex, which modifies the way antennas deliver and receive
data. With 5G, a transceiver will be able to transmit and receive data at the same time,
on the same frequency. This technology is known as full duplex, and it could double
the capacity of wireless networks at their most fundamental physical layer. One
drawback to full duplex is that it also creates more signal interference, through a
pesky echo. Expecting an antenna to both speak and listen at the same time is possible
only with special echo-canceling technology.
Thus, the Next Generation Mobile Networks Alliance defines the following
requirements that a 5G standard should fulfil:

Data rates of tens of megabits per second for tens of thousands of users

Data rates of 100 megabits per second for metropolitan areas

1 Gb per second simultaneously to many workers on the same office floor

Several hundreds of thousands of simultaneous connections for wireless


Spectral efficiency significantly enhanced compared to 4G

Coverage improved

Signaling efficiency enhanced

Latency reduced significantly compared to LTE

The following key features can be observed in all suggested 4G technologies:

Physical layer transmission techniques are as follows:

MIMO: To attain ultra high spectral efficiency by means of spatial

processing including multi-antenna and multi-user MIMO

Frequency-domain-equalization, for example multi-carrier

modulation (OFDM) in the downlink or single-carrier frequency-domain-
equalization (SC-FDE) in the uplink: To exploit the frequency selective
channel property without complex equalization

Frequency-domain statistical multiplexing, for example (OFDMA) or

(single-carrier FDMA) (SC-FDMA, a.k.a. linearly precoded OFDMA, LP-
OFDMA) in the uplink: Variable bit rate by assigning different sub-channels to
different users based on the channel conditions

Turbo principle error-correcting codes: To minimize the required SNR at

the reception side

Channel-dependent scheduling: To use the time-varying channel

Link adaptation: Adaptive modulation and error-correcting codes

Mobile IP utilized for mobility

IP-based femtocells (home nodes connected to fixed Internet broadband
As opposed to earlier generations, 4G systems do not support circuit switched