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You are on page 1of 38

A PowerPoint Presentation by

Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics

Southern Polytechnic State University

2007

Chapter 13. Elasticity

BUNGEE jumping

utilizes a long elastic

strap which stretches

until it reaches a

maximum length that

is proportional to the

weight of the jumper.

The elasticity of the

strap determines the

amplitude of the

resulting vibrations. If

the elastic limit for

the strap is

Photo Vol. 10 exceeded, the rope

will break.

PhotoDisk/Getty

Objectives: After completion of this

module, you should be able to:

Demonstrate your understanding of

elasticity, elastic limit, stress, strain, and

ultimate strength.

Write and apply formulas for calculating

Youngs modulus, shear modulus, and

bulk modulus.

Solve problems involving each of the

parameters in the above objectives.

Elastic Properties of Matter

An

An elastic

elastic body

body isis one

one that

that returns

returns to

to its

its original

original

shape

shape after

after aa deformation.

deformation.

Elastic Properties of Matter

An

An inelastic

inelastic body

body isis one

one that

that does

does not

not return

return to

to its

its

original

original shape

shape after

after aa deformation.

deformation.

Elastic or Inelastic?

no energy. The deform- energy is lost and the

ation on collision is fully deformation may be

restored. permanent. (Click it.)

An Elastic Spring

A spring is an example of an elastic body that

can be deformed by stretching.

AArestoring

restoringforce,

force,F,

F, acts

acts

in

inthe

thedirection

directionopposite

opposite

the

thedisplacement

displacementof ofthe

the

F oscillating

oscillatingbody.

body.

x

FF == -kx

-kx

Hookes Law

When a spring is stretched, there is a restoring

force that is proportional to the displacement.

FF =

= -kx

-kx

x

The spring constant F

F k is a property of the k

m spring given by: x

The

The spring

spring constant

constant kk isis aa measure

measure

of

of the elasticity of

the elasticity of the

the spring.

spring.

Stress and Strain

Stress refers to the cause of a deformation, and

strain refers to the effect of the deformation.

causes the displacement x.

x

the strain is the elongation.

Types of Stress

F

A tensile stress occurs when

equal and opposite forces are W

directed away from each other.

Tension

when equal and opposite

forces are directed toward F

each other. Compression

Summary of Definitions

Stress is the ratio of an applied force F to the

area A over which it acts:

F N lb

Stress Units : Pa 2 or

A m in.2

Strain is the relative change in the dimensions or

shape of a body as the result of an applied stress:

Examples:

Examples: Change

Change in

in length

length per

per unit

unit length;

length;

change

change in

in volume

volume perper unit

unit volume.

volume.

Longitudinal Stress and Strain

For wires, rods, and bars,

there is a longitudinal

L A stress F/A that produces a

F

A change in length per unit

L

length. In such cases:

F L

Stress Strain

A L

Example 1. A steel wire 10 m long and

2 mm in diameter is attached to the

ceiling and a 200-N weight is attached

to the end. What is the applied stress?

First find area of wire:

D (0.002 m)

2 2

L A A

F 4 4

A

A = 3.14 x 10-6 m2

L

Stress

F 200 N

Stress 6.37 x 107 Pa

A 3.14 x 10-6 m 2

Example 1 (Cont.) A 10 m steel wire

stretches 3.08 mm due to the 200 N

load. What is the longitudinal strain?

Given: L = 10 m; L = 3.08 mm

L 0.00308 m

L Srain

L 10 m

L Longitudinal Strain

3.08 x 10-4

The Elastic Limit

The elastic limit is the maximum stress a body can

experience without becoming permanently deformed.

2m F 2m

Okay

W Beyond limit

F W

Stress

A W

If the stress exceeds the elastic limit, the final

length will be longer than the original 2 m.

The Ultimate Strength

The ultimate strength is the greatest stress a body can

experience without breaking or rupturing.

2m F

W

F W W

Stress

A W W

If the stress exceeds the ultimate strength,

the string breaks!

Example 2. The elastic limit for steel is

2.48 x 108 Pa. What is the maximum

weight that can be supported without

exceeding the elastic limit?

Recall: A = 3.14 x 10-6 m2

F

L A Stress 2.48 x 108 Pa

F A

A

L F = (2.48 x 108 Pa) A

779 N

N

Example 2(Cont.) The ultimate strength

for steel is 4089 x 108 Pa. What is the

maxi- mum weight that can be

supported without breaking the wire?

Recall: A = 3.14 x 10-6 m2

F

L A Stress 4.89 x 108 Pa

F A

A

L F = (4.89 x 108 Pa) A

1536 N

N

The Modulus of Elasticity

Provided that the elastic limit is not exceeded,

an elastic deformation (strain) is directly

proportional to the magnitude of the applied

force per unit area (stress).

stress

Modulus of Elasticity

strain

Example 3. In our previous example,

the stress applied to the steel wire was

6.37 x 107 Pa and the strain was 3.08 x 10-4.

Find the modulus of elasticity for steel.

7

Stress 6.37 x 10 Pa

Modulus -4

L Strain 3.08 x 10

L

Modulus

Modulus == 207 1099 Pa

207 xx 10 Pa

This

This longitudinal

longitudinal modulus

modulus of of elasticity

elasticity isis called

called

Youngs

Youngs Modulus

Modulus and

and isis denoted

denoted by

by the

the symbol

symbol Y. Y.

Youngs Modulus

For materials whose length is much greater than the

width or thickness, we are concerned with the

longitudinal modulus of elasticity, or Youngs

Modulus (Y).

longitudinal stress

Young ' s modulus

longitudinal strain

F/A FL lb

Y Units : Pa or

L / L A L in.2

Example 4: Youngs modulus

for brass is 8.96 x 1011Pa. A

120-N weight is attached to an 8 m

8-m length of brass wire; find

the increase in length. The

diameter is 1.5 mm. L

120 N

First find area of wire:

D 2

(0.0015 m) 2

A A = 1.77 x 10-6 m2

4 4

FL FL

Y or L

AL AY

Example 4: (Continued)

Y = 8.96 x 1011 Pa; F = 120 N;

8m

L = 8 m; A = 1.77 x 10-6 m2

F = 120 N; L = ?

L

FL FL

Y or L 120 N

AL AY

FL (120 N)(8.00 m)

L

AY (1.77 x 10-6 m 2 )(8.96 x 1011Pa)

Increase in length: L

L == 0.605

0.605 mm

mm

Shear Modulus

A shearing stress alters only the shape of the body,

leaving the volume unchanged. For example,

consider equal and opposite shearing forces F

acting on the cube below:

A d

l F

F

angle The angle is the strain and the

stress is given by F/A as before.

Calculating Shear Modulus

d A

Stress is F

F l F force per Stress

unit area: A

The strain is the angle d

Strain

expressed in radians: l

The shear modulus S is defined as the ratio of the

shearing stress F/A to the shearing strain :

The

The shear

shear modulus: F A

modulus: S

Units

Units are

are in

in Pascals.

Pascals.

Example 5. A steel stud (S = 8.27 x 1010Pa)

1 cm in diameter projects 4 cm from the

wall. A 36,000 N shearing force is applied to

the end. What is the defection d of the stud?

D (0.01 m)

2 2

l A

4 4

d

Area: A = 7.85 x 10-5 m2

F

F A F A Fl Fl

S ; d

d l Ad AS

(36, 000 N)(0.04 m)

d dd == 0.222

0.222 mm

mm

(7.85 x 10-5 m 2 )(8.27 x 1010 Pa)

Volume Elasticity

Not all deformations are linear. Sometimes an applied

stress F/A results in a decrease of volume. In such

cases, there is a bulk modulus B of elasticity.

Volume stress F A

B

Volume strain V V

The

The bulk

bulk modulus

modulus isis negative

negative

because

because of

of decrease

decrease inin V.

V.

The Bulk Modulus

Volume stress F A

B

Volume strain V V

P PV

B

V / V V

since the strain is unitless.

Example 7. A hydrostatic press contains 5

liters of oil. Find the decrease in volume of

the oil if it is subjected to a pressure of

3000 kPa. (Assume that B = 1700 MPa.)

P PV

B

V / V V

PV (3 x 10 Pa)(5 L)

6

V 9

B (1.70 x 10 Pa)

Decrease in V;

milliliters (mL): V

V == -8.82

-8.82 mL

mL

Summary: Elastic and Inelastic

An

An elastic

elastic body

body isis one

one that

that returns

returns to

to its

its original

original

shape

shape after

after aa deformation.

deformation.

An elastic collision loses no energy. The deform-

ation on collision is fully restored.

An

An inelastic

inelastic body

body isis one

one that

that does

does not

not return

return to

to its

its

original

original shape

shape after

after aa deformation.

deformation.

deformation may be permanent.

Summary

Types of Stress F

A tensile stress occurs when

equal and opposite forces are W

directed away from each other. Tension

when equal and opposite

forces are directed toward F

each other. Compression

Summary of Definitions

Stress is the ratio of an applied force F to the

area A over which it acts:

F N lb

Stress Units : Pa 2 or

A m in.2

Strain is the relative change in the dimensions or

shape of a body as the result of an applied stress:

Examples:

Examples: Change

Change in

in length

length per

per unit

unit length;

length;

change

change in

in volume

volume perper unit

unit volume.

volume.

Longitudinal Stress and Strain

For wires, rods, and bars,

there is a longitudinal

L A stress F/A that produces a

F

A change in length per unit

L

length. In such cases:

F L

Stress Strain

A L

The Elastic Limit

The elastic limit is the maximum stress a body can

experience without becoming permanently deformed.

The ultimate strength is the greatest stress a body can

experience without breaking or rupturing.

Youngs Modulus

For materials whose length is much greater than the

width or thickness, we are concerned with the

longitudinal modulus of elasticity, or Youngs

Modulus Y.

longitudinal stress

Young ' s modulus

longitudinal strain

F/A FL lb

Y Units : Pa or

L / L A L in.2

The Shear Modulus

d A

Stress is F

F l F force per Stress

unit area: A

The strain is the angle d

Strain

expressed in radians: l

The shear modulus S is defined as the ratio of the

shearing stress F/A to the shearing strain :

The

The shear

shear modulus: F A

modulus: S

Units

Units are

are in

in Pascals.

Pascals.

The Bulk Modulus

Volume stress F A

B

Volume strain V V

P PV

B

V / V V

since the strain is unitless.

CONCLUSION:

Chapter 13 - Elasticity

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