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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS 1

On High-Order Capacity Statistics of Spectrum


Aggregation Systems Over - and -
Shadowed Fading Channels
Jiayi Zhang, Member, IEEE, Xiaoyu Chen, Kostas P. Peppas, Senior Member, IEEE, Xu Li, and Ying Liu
1 Abstract The frequency scarcity imposed by fast growing band or in different frequency bands [2]. In order to achieve a 37
2 demand for mobile data service requires promising spectrum successful spectrum aggregation, the maximum dispersion in 38
3 aggregation systems. The so-called higher order statistics (HOS) the channel capacity should be calibrated to leverage a reliable 39
4 of the channel capacity is a suitable metric on the system perfor-
5 mance. While prior relevant works have improved our knowledge transmission [3]. 40

of
6 on the HOS characterization of spectrum aggregation systems, In this context, the typical metric for performance evaluation 41

7 an analytical framework encompassing generalized fading models has been the higher-order statistics (HOS) of the channel 42
8 of interest is not yet available. In this paper, we pursue a detailed capacity, which can fully explore the reliability of the signal 43
9 HOS analysis of - and - shadowed fading channels by transmission in spectrum aggregation systems. As an useful 44
10 deriving novel and exact expressions. Furthermore, the simplified
11 HOS expressions for the asymptotically low and high signal-to- tool, the HOS can effectively describe the channel capac- 45

12 noise regimes are derived. Several important statistical measures, ity dispersion induced by the heterogeneity that inherently 46

13 such as amount of fading, amount of dispersion, reliability, exists in spectrum aggregation systems [4]. Moreover, fruitful 47

ro
14 skewness, and kurtosis, are obtained by using the HOS results. insights into the implications of the spectrum aggregation on 48
15 More importantly, the useful implications of system and fading the transmission reliability can be extracted by deriving HOS 49
16 parameters on spectrum aggregation systems are investigated for
17 channel selection. Finally, all derived expressions are validated of the channel capacity. Despite its importance, however, the 50

18 via Monte Carlo simulations. HOS of the channel capacity received relatively little attention 51

in the literature, due in part to the intractability of its analysis. 52


19 Index Terms Spectrum aggregation, higher-order statistics,
20 -, - shadowed. A number of prior works have investigated the HOS of the 53

channel capacity of different wireless systems over several flat 54

fading channels [3], [5][7]. For example, a generic framework


EP
55
21 I. I NTRODUCTION
for the asymptotic HOS of the channel capacity over inde- 56
22

23

24
W ITH the constantly growing mobile data demand
for future wireless communication systems, i.e., 5th
Generation (5G), it becomes more and more difficult to
pendent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Nakagami-m fading
channels was provided in [5]. Yilmaz et al. [3] investigated the
HOS of the channel capacity for amplify-and-forward (AF)
57

58

59
25 allocate a wide and contiguous frequency band to each user multihop systems over gamma and generalized gamma fading 60
26 equipment (UE) and base station (BS). This has brought about channels. In addition, an MGF-based approach for the HOS 61
27 increasing scarcity in available radio spectrum. To address of the channel capacity for L-branch MRC receivers has been 62
28 these issues, the promising spectrum aggregation technique proposed in [6] with an example application of correlated 63
29 has been received much attention recently [1], [2]. Spec- Nakagami-m fading channels. Finally, [7] presented the HOS 64
30 trum aggregation refers to obtaining larger amounts of radio of the channel capacity for several diversity receivers taking 65
IEE

31 resource by aggregating possible spectrum resources that lie into account the effects of independent and non-identically 66
32 in non-adjacent frequency bands. As a successful application distributed (i.n.i.d.) Nakagami-m fading channels. 67
33 of the spectrum aggregation, the carrier aggregation (CA) The common characteristic of the above mentioned 68
34 technology has been proposed in Long-Term-Evolution works [3], [5][7], however, is that they adopt the assumption 69
35 Advanced (LTE-A) standard, increasing the usable spectrum of homogeneous fading channels. It has been proved that the 70
36 by aggregating resource blocks (RBs) either within a given homogeneous fading is often unrealistic since the surfaces are 71

spatially correlated in practical propagation environments [8]. 72


Manuscript received July 19, 2016; revised October 24, 2016; accepted
December 4, 2016. This work was supported in part by the National Yet, very few results on the HOS of the channel capacity 73

Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61601020 and in non-homogeneous and composite fading conditions are 74
61371068), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities available. Only recently, the HOS of the channel capacity for 75
(Grant Nos. 2016RC013, 2016JBZ003, and 2014JBZ002). The associate
editor coordinating the review of this paper and approving it for publication dispersed spectrum cognitive radio (CR) systems over i.n.i.d. 76

was M. Uysal. - fading channels was obtained in [9]. While these prior 77
J. Zhang, X. Chen, X. Li, and Y. Liu are with the School of Electronics and works have significantly improved our knowledge on the HOS 78
Information Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China
(e-mail: jiayizhang@bjtu.edu.cn). of the channel capacity, a general analytic framework of spec- 79

K. P. Peppas is with the Department of Informatics and Telecommunications, trum aggregation systems which will account for more realistic 80
University of Peloponnese, 22100 Tripoli, Greece (e-mail: peppas@uop.gr). fading models seems to be missing from the open literature. 81
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available
online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. To address such non-homogeneous and composite fading 82

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TCOMM.2016.2637926 environments, the generalized - and - shadowed fading 83

0090-6778 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission.
See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
2 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS

84 channels are recently introduced in [8], [10], and [11], respec-


85 tively. Compared with classic homogeneous fading models, the
86 - and - shadowed fading models exhibit excellent agree-
87 ment with measured land-mobile satellite, underwater acoustic,
88 and body communications fading channels [11]. Moreover,
89 the - fading channel includes the Rayleigh, Rician, and
90 Nakagami-m fading channels as special cases by setting the
91 parameters and to specific real positive values [12], while
92 the - shadowed fading channel includes One-side Gaussian,
Fig. 1. Spectrum aggregation systems over generalized fading channels.
93 Rayleigh, Rician, Nakagami-m, Hoyt, -, -, and Rician
94 shadowed fading channels as special cases [13].
noncontinuous band. By assuming M available frequency 141
On the other hand, recent wireless applications become
diversity bands, the end-to-end SNR, 
95
, at the output of 142
increasingly complex and require more realistic channel mod- M
each UEs receiver is given by = i=1 i . Moreover,
96

of
143
97 els for performance evaluation purposes [14][16]. Because
each frequency diversity channel is assumed to be slow and 144
of the fact that the adopted fading models can describe a
frequency non-selective. Note that the end-to-end SNR has
98
145
99 plethora of realistic fading propagation scenarios, they can
a similar form of the SNR at the output of an MRC combiner. 146
100 serve as useful tools to this end. Motivated by these important
101 observations, we herein analytically investigate the HOS of the
102 channel capacity for spectrum aggregation systems over - A. - Fading Channels 147

103 and - shadowed fading channels. In particular, the main The - distribution can be regarded as a generalization 148

104

105

106

107

108

109

110
contributions of this paper can be summarized as:

ro
We first derive exact analytical expressions for the HOS
of the channel capacity for spectrum aggregation systems
over i.i.d., i.n.i.d - and i.i.d., correlated - shad-
owed fading channels, respectively. In contrast to exsiting
works on second order statistics, the analysis of the HOS
is still limited. It is worth noting that although the sta-
tistical characteristics of general fading models are very
of the classic Rician fading model for line-of-sight (LoS)
scenarios, and has been extensively used in spatially non-
homogeneous propagation environments. The - fading sig-
nal is a composition of clusters of multipath waves with
scattered waves of identical power with a dominant component
of arbitrary power found within each cluster. Furthermore, the
parameter represents the ratio between the total power of
the dominant components and the total power of the scattered
149

150

151

152

153

154

155
EP
111 156

112 complicated, our derived results can be readily evaluated waves, while is the number of clusters. The probability 157

113 and efficiently programmed in most standard software density function (PDF) of the sum of M i.i.d. squared - 158

114 packages (e.g., MATLAB and MATHEMATICA). random variables (RVs) is given by [8, eq. (10)] 159

115 Furthermore, the asymptotically high- and low-SNR M+1 


M1 
expressions for the HOS of the channel capacity are also M(1 + ) 2 2 (1 + )
116
f i.i.d ( ) = M1 M+1
exp 160
117 presented to get additional insights into the impact of eM 2 (M) 2 
118 system parameters, such as fading parameters and number   
(1 + ) M
119 of aggregating frequency bands. More importantly, some IM1 2 (1) 161

120 of asymptotic expressions are given in terms of simple 


elementary functions. M+1 M1  
121
M(1 + ) 2 2 (1 + )
IEE

122 With the help of the HOS of the channel capacity, we also = M1 M+1
exp 162

eM 2 (M) 2 
provided useful performance metrics in terms of ergodic
 M+2i1
123

124 capacity, amount of fading (AOF), amount of disper-  1 (1+ ) M
sion (AOD), skewness, and kurtosis. Moreover, numerical , 163
i ! (M + i) 
125

126 results are provided to verify our analysis. Note that the i=0
127 presented analysis is very meaningful for communication (2) 164

128 systems to aggregate best available frequency bands in


where  denotes the average SNR of each - RV, Iv () is 165
129 future spectrum-limited wireless networks.
the modified Bessel function of first kind [17, eq. (8.406.1)], 166
130 This paper is organized as follows. The spectrum aggrega- and () denotes the Gamma function [17, eq. (8.31)]. From 167
131 tion system and generalized - and - shadowed fading (1) to (2), we have used the identity of [17, eq. (8.445)] and 168
132 models are introduced in Section II. In Section III, we present
carried out some algebraic manipulations. 169
133 the derivation of the HOS of the channel capacity and other The PDF of the sum of M i.n.i.d. squared - RVs is given 170
134 important metrics. In Section IV, numerical results are shown by [18, eq. (4)] 171
135 to verify our present results. Finally, Section V concludes the

2  
136 paper and summarizes the key findings. e U 1  k!ck (U 1) U
fi.n.i.d ( ) = L 172
137 II. S YSTEM AND C HANNEL M ODEL (2)U  (U ) k=0 (U )k k 2
As illustrated in Fig. 1, the spectrum aggregation system
 
e 2   (k)q q+U 1 U q
138 k
139 exploits the benefits of frequency diversity by combining the = ck , (3) 173

140 instantaneous signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), i , from each (2)U k=0 q=0 q! (U + q) 2
ZHANG et al.: HIGH-ORDER CAPACITY STATISTICS OF SPECTRUM AGGREGATION SYSTEMS 3

174 where (a) b denotes the Pochhammer symbol [17], where only elementary functions appear. Thus, (10) can facil- 208
M
175 U = i=1 i , and the series representation of itate the calculation involved the PDF expression of - 209

176 generalized Laguerre polynomial L vk () has been used as shadowed fading channels. 210

177 [19, eq. (05.08.02.0001.01)] Furthermore, the PDF of the sum of M correlated squared 211


k - shadowed RVs is given by [21. eq. (16)] 212
 (v + k + 1) (k)q y q  U
L vk (y) = . (4)
178
k! q! (v + q + 1) f cor ( ) = A U 1 e
q=0 213

Moreover, the coefficients ck in (3) can be obtained as
 
179

Dk 1 F1 m M + k, U ; , (11)
1
k1 214

180 ck = c j dk j , k  1 (5) k=0


1 + 1
 M
m
k
j =0
  j +1 where denotes the average SNR, A  i=1 i ,  215

jU  M
M

dj  i ai ( ai ) j 1 i=1 i (1 + i ), and

of
181 216
2 + ai (U )
(m M+k)
i=1 k
M  j Dk = m M+k 1 + 1 , (12) 217
1 ai /  (U )
182 + i , j 1 (6) k+1 M  
1 + (ai /) (U/ 1) m  q
i=1
 U   k+1 = 1 k+1i , (13) 218

U 1  i ai (U )
M k +1 i
q=1 i=1
183 c0  exp
2 + am (U ) 0 = 1. (14) 219
i=1

184

185

186

187

M 

i=1
ai
1 + (U/ 1)

i
,

where i  2i i and ai  i /2i (1 + i ). In order to


guarantee the uniform convergence of (3), the parameters
and should be chosen appropriately [20].
ro (7)
Moreover,  min (1 , 2 , , M ) is the

C .

..
1
21

12
1
.
..

. ..


 minimum

1M

value of the matrix DC with D = diag mi i represents a
diagonal matrix and C denotes the M M positive definite
matrix given by

2M

.. ,
.
eigen-

(15)
220

221

222

223

224
EP
188 B. - Shadowed Fading Channels
M1 1
189 Similar to the the same multipath/shadowing scheme used
190 in the Rician shadowed model, a natural generalization of the where 0 pq 1, 1 p, q M denotes the correlation 225

191 - distribution can be obtained by an LoS shadow fading coefficient of the dominating components of - shadowed 226

192 model. Unlike the - distribution, the - shadowed model RVs. With the help of (9), we can rewrite (11) as 227

assumes that all the dominant components are subject to  U 



193

194 the same common fluctuation due to shadowing. With the f cor ( ) = A U 1 e Dk 228

assumption of shadowing components are correlated, while


195 k=0

 q
196 multipath components are uncorrelated, the PDF of the sum  (m M + k)q
197 of M i.i.d. squared - shadowed RVs is given by [21] , (16) 229
(U )q q! 1 + 1
IEE

   m M M1
M (1 + ) M
q=0
m
198 fi.i.d. ( ) =
m +  (M)
 2 (1 + )  III. H IGHER -O RDER C APACITY S TATISTICS 230
M(1+) M

199 e
1 F1 m M, M; In this section, we present the statistical analysis for the
( + m) 231

200 (8) derivation of the HOS of the channel capacity for spectrum 232

aggregation systems. Without loss of generality, the HOS of 233

201 where m denotes the shaping parameter of shadow- the channel capacity can be defined as [6], [9] 234

202 ing, and 1 F1 () is the confluent hypergeometric function


203 [17, eq. (9.210.1)]. By utilizing the following identity n = E logn2 (1 + ) , (17) 235


 (a)q x q where n N is the order of the capacity statistics, and 236

204 1 F1 (a, b; x) = , (9) E () denotes the expectation operator. Note that the first-order
(b)q q!
237

q=0 statistics of channel capacity is well-known as the ergodic 238

205 we can rewrite (8) in an alternative form as capacity. Without loss of generality, the HOS of the channel 239

   m M M(1+) capacity for the spectrum aggregation systems with M non- 240
M (1 + ) M m e
adjacent frequency bands is given by
fi.i.d. ( ) = 241

 
206
m +  (M)   

2 q M
M (1+) M+q1 n = logn 1 + i
 (m M)
q (+m) 242

207 , (10) 0 0 0 i=1


(M)q q! f (1 , 2 , M ) d1 d2 d M , (18)
q=0 243
4 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS

244 where f (1 , 2 , M ) represents the joint pdf of the instan- This integral can be evaluated numerically in an efficient 285

245 taneous SNRs of each band. Unfortunately, it is very tedious manner by employing a N-point Gauss-Chebyshev quadrature 286

246 and computationally cumbersome to obtain the joint pdf even rule as 287

247 for the simple i.i.d. case. One possible way to solve this  
2 
15
problem is to use the moment generating function (MGF) tk2 2+1
248
K (, , a) = +1 wk ln 1 + t (23) 288
249 based method proposed in [6]. However, the HOS of the a a k
k=1
250 channel capacity is given in terms of a single-integral expres-
251 sion, which makes it difficult to be mathematically employed. where wk and tk are the weights and abscissae given in [22]. 289

252 Therefore, in the following, we derive the HOS of the channel Note that we only need 15 terms in (23) to converge ade- 290

253 capacity for spectrum aggregation systems over generalized quately. 291

254 fading channels by utilizing the pdf of the total SNR . It By taking n = 1 in (19), we can obtain the first-order 292

255 is worthy to mention that all our derived results are given in statistics of the channel capacity, which is the well-known 293

256 analytical form, which is easy to show the key impacts of ergodic capacity as 294

of
257 system performance. (1+)
e  M  ( M)i
1 = 295
lnn 2 i ! (M + i)
i=0
258 A. - Fading Channels
 
259 We first consider the higher-order capacity statistics of  
M+i1 
(1 + ) M+ik1 M + i 1

spectrum aggregation systems over i.i.d. - fading channels
296
260  k
k=0
261 as follows.   

262

263

264

265
be expressed as

n = M n
e
1


ln 2

J M + i,


i=0
( M)i
i ! (M + i )
(1 + )

,n ,




(1 + ) M+i
ro
Theorem 1: The higher-order capacity statistics of spec-
trum aggregation systems over i.i.d. - fading channels can

(19)
where
 
a
b
= b!(ab)!
a!

G-function [17, eq. (9.301)].


3,0 (1 + ) 
G 2,3


1, 1
 0, 0, 1 + k

, and G() denotes the Meijers

Lemma 1: For the high- and low-SNR regimes, the higher-


order capacity statistics of spectrum aggregation systems
, (24) 297

298

299

300
EP
266 301

over i.i.d. - fading channels can be respectively expressed 302

267 where the auxiliary function J () is given by (47) in the as 303

Appendix A.   
(1 + ) M+i
268
1 ( M)i
269 Proof: Substituting (2) into (17), we can derive n = M n 304
e ln 2 i ! (M + i ) 
M+1 i=0
M(1 + ) 2  
270 n = (1 + )
M1
eM 2 (M) 2 lnn 2
M+1
Q M + i 1, ,n , (25) 305

  M+2i1 

1 (1 + ) M
 n
0 n! Sk+n  (k + n + M)
n =
271
i ! (M + i)  M
306
n
(k + n)!  (M)
IEE

i=0
 e ln 2
k=0
(1+)
lnn (1 + ) M+i1 e  d . (20)  n+k

272
0 1 F1 (k + n + M; M; M) , 307
(1 + )
273 To the best of the authors knowledge, the integral in (20) is
274 not included in tables of classical reference books such as [17]. (26) 308

275 Nervertheless, as shown in Appendix A, it can be computed


276 in closed form thus completing the proof. where Smn is the Stirling number of the first kind 309

277 Note that the auxiliary function J () requires is restricted [17, eq. (9.740)], and the auxiliary function Q() is given 310

278 to integer values, which assumes finite numbers of multipath by (49) in the Appendix. B. 311

279 clusters. In the most general case of real , integrals of the Proof: By taking large values of in (17) and using (2), 312

280 form the higher-order capacity is given by 313

 M+1
M(1 + )  1
ln (1 + x) exp(ax)x dx
2
281 K (, , a) = (21)
n = M1 M+1
314
0 eM 2 (M) 2 lnn 2 i ! (M + i)
i=0
282 should be evaluated. By performing the change of variables   M+2i1
ax = y 2 , (21) can be expressed as (1 + ) M
283
315
   
2 y2 
K (, , a) = +1 ln 1 + exp(y 2 )y 2+1 dy. (1+)
a 0 a lnn ( ) M+i1 e  d . (27) 316
284 (22) 0
ZHANG et al.: HIGH-ORDER CAPACITY STATISTICS OF SPECTRUM AGGREGATION SYSTEMS 5

317 With the aid of [23, eq. (2.5.1.7)], the integral in (27) can be i.n.i.d. - fading channels can be expressed as 353

318 calculated as
 k  
1 (k)q U q
M(1 + )
M+1
n = c k 354
(2)U lnn 2 k=0 q=0 q! (U + q) 2
2
319
n = M1 M+1
eM 2(M) lnn 2
2  
  M+2i1 1
 Q q + U 1, ,n , (33) 355
1 (1 + ) M 2
320  q
i ! (M + i) 
n!  
k
(k)q U
i=0 0
  n = n ck 356
dn  (a + 1) ln 2 q! (U + q)
321 n . (28) k=0 q=0
da ( (1 + ) /)a+1 a=M+i1
 S p+n  (U
n
+ q + p + n)
. (34) 357
322 Then, the high-SNR HOS (25) can be derived by using (49)
p=0
( p + n)!(2)( p+n)
323 and after some algebraic manipulation.

of
324 Moreover, the low-SNR HOS can be obtained by taking Proof: With the help of [17, eq. (3.351.3)], the proof can 358

325 0, and using the well-known expansion of the logarithm be completed by following similar steps in Lemma 1. 359

326 function as [17, eq. (9.741.2)] Note that the low-SNR HOS of the channel capacity (34) 360

is given in terms of simple elementary functions. Therefore, 361


 z k+n
327
n
ln (1 + z) = n! n
Sk+n , z0 (29) we can obtain the implication that the HOS is an increasing 362

(k + n)! function in U . 363


k=0

Substituting (29) into (17), and with the aid of (2) and (17),

ro
328

329 we derive the low-SNR HOS as B. - Shadowed Fading Channels 364

M+1 Now, we move on to consider the higher-order capacity 365


M(1 + ) n!  n
Sk+n
330
0
n =
2
statistics for - shadowed fading channels. As a first step, 366
M1 M+1
eM 2 (M) 2 lnn 2 k=0 (k + n)! the case of i.i.d. - shadowed fading channel is investigated. 367
   Theorem 3: The higher-order capacity statistics of spec-
M1 (1 + ) 368

331 k+n+ 2 exp trum aggregation systems over i.i.d. - shadowed fading

369
0
   channels can be expressed as 370
EP
(1 + ) M    m M
332 IM1 2

d . (30) M (1 + ) M m 1
n = 371
m +  (M)lnn 2
To evaluate the integral in (30), we can utilize the following
2 q
333
(m M) M (1+)
identity [24, eq. (3.15.2.5)]  q (+m)
334
372
 (M)q q!
q=0
x q exp ( px) Iv a x d x  
M (1 + )
335
0
  J q + M, ,n . (35) 373
 (q +v/2+1) (a/2)v v a2
336 = 1 F1 q + +1; v +1; . (31)
 (v + 1) pq+v/2+1 2 4p Proof: This result is a direct consequence of taking (10) 374

into (17), and using (47). 375


IEE

337 Finally, we arrive at the desired result in (26) after some basic
338 algebra. Lemma 3: For the high- and low-SNR regimes, the higher- 376

339 Note that the auxiliary function Q() can apply for arbitrary order capacity statistics of spectrum aggregation systems 377

340 positive real values of , so the asymptotical results are over i.i.d. - shadowed fading channels can be expressed 378

generalized. It is easy to see from (25) and (26) that the HOS as 379
   m M
341

342 of the channel capacity is an increasing function in the average M (1 + ) M m 1


SNR  and M. n = 380
343
m +  (M)lnn 2
Theorem 2: The higher-order capacity statistics of spec-
2 q
344
(m M) M (1+)
345 trum aggregation systems over i.n.i.d. - fading channels  q (+m)
381
346 can be expressed as (M)q q!
q=0
   
1  
k
(k)q U q M (1 + )
n = ck Q q + M 1, ,n , (36) 382
347
(2)U lnn 2 k=0 q=0 q! (U + q) 2
 m M
  0 m n!
1 n =
J q + U, ,n .
383
348 (32) m +  (M)
2
 n
Sk+n  (k + n + M)
349 Proof: The proof is readily completed by taking (3) 384
(k + n)! (M (1 + ) / )k+n
350 into (17), and using (47). k=0
 
351 Lemma 2: For the high- and low-SNR regime, the higher-
2 F1 m M, k + n + M; M; . (37) 385
352 order capacity statistics of spectrum aggregation systems over + m
6 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS

386 Proof: We can obtain (36) by following similar steps in TABLE I


387 Theorem 3. While for the case of the low-SNR regime, the N UMBER OF R EQUIRED T ERMS FOR C ONVERGENCE OF THE HOS OF THE
C HANNEL C APACITY FOR S PECTRUM A GGREGATION S YSTEMS OVER
388 integral identity [24, eq. (3.35.1.2)] i.i.d. - FADING C HANNELS W ITH Pe 105 , AND M = 3
  
q px  (q +1)
389 x e 1 F1 (a, b; x) d x = 2 F1 a, q +1; b;
0 pq+1 p
390 (38)
391 should be invoked. Note that condition on the arguments
392 of (38), p > 0, p > , and q > 1, is satisfied.
393 Considering the case where the frequency bands are corre-
394 lated, we present the following theorem.
395 Theorem 4: The higher-order capacity statistics of spec-
396 trum aggregation systems over correlated - shadowed fad- to describe how far the channel capacity lies from the ergodic 430

of
397 ing channels can be expressed as capacity. Its normalization with respect to the ergodic capacity, 431

 U 
 q 2
A  (m M + k)q AoD = 2 1 1 , is called the amount of dispersion (AoD). 432
398 n = n Dk Furthermore, we can define the reliability percentage of the
ln 2 (U )q q!
1 + 1 433


k=0

q=0 signal throughput as R = 100(1 AoD). For good channel 434

quality, AoD approaches to zero and R 100. In addition, 435


399 J q + U, , n . (39)
the skewness is a metric of the degree of asymmetry for the 436
3
distribution of the channel capacity as S =  3 1 3 . For

ro
400 Proof: The proof can be completed by following similar 437
2 21
401 steps in Theorem 1. symmetric distributions, S = 0, while S < 0 denotes the 438
402 We note from (39) that the HOS of the channel capacity distribution is skewed to the left. In addition, the kurtosis cor- 439
403 is an increasing function in the number of frequency bands responds to the degree of peakedness of the channel capacity 440
404 M and shadowing parameter m and as such it obtains its 4
maximum value for m . around the ergodic capacity as K = 4 21 2 . Within this 441
405 2 1
406 Lemma 4: For the high- and low-SNR regimes, the higher- context, it is worth mentioning that these important statistical 442

407 order capacity statistics of spectrum aggregation systems over metrics of the channel capacity can be also efficiently and 443
EP
408 correlated - shadowed fading channels can be expressed accurately computed by using the HOS expressions. 444

409 as
 U 
 q IV. N UMERICAL R ESULTS 445
A  (m M +k)q

410 n = n Dk In this section, we present various performance evaluation 446
ln 2 (U )q q! 1+1 results using the HOS of the channel capacity expressions 447
k=0 q=0
  presented in Sections III for spectrum aggregation systems
448

411 Q q + U 1, , n , (40) operating over - and - shadowed fading channels,



449

 respectively. To validate the accuracy of the aforementioned 450

0
 S np+n Dk  ( p + n + M)
412 n = An! expressions, comparisons with complementary Monte-Carlo 451

( p + n)! (/ ) p+n simulated results with 106 realizations of random variables are 452
k=0 p=0
 
IEE

also included in these figures. We use the approaches presented 453


1
413 2 F1 m M + k, U + p + n; , U ; . (41) in [18] and [25] to generate random variables from the squared 454
1 + 1 - and - shadowed distributions, respectively. The impact 455

414 Proof: The proof concludes by following a similar line of of system and fading parameters on the HOS performance of 456

415 reasoning as in Lemma 3. spectrum aggregation systems are discussed in detailed. 457

416 According to Lemma 4, a higher increases the HOS of


417 the channel capacity. This is anticipated, since larger values A. Convergence of Derived Results 458

418 of reduce the correlation between frequency bands, making Since the derived results are given in sum of infinite series, 459
419 receiver signal more stronger. we prove the convergence of the derived results by truncating 460

the appropriate series expressions to achieve an accuracy 461


C. Practical Implementation of HOS
up to the fifth-significant digit (e.g., Pe 105 ). Table I
420
462
421 To evaluate the performance of spectrum aggregation sys- investigates the impact of the number of moments and fading 463
422 tems, several important measures will in discussed by using the parameters and on the convergence of the HOS of the 464
423 HOS of the channel capacity presented above. These measures channel capacity for M = 3. It can be seen from Table I that all 465
424 can also serve as useful tools for the design of practical infinite series rapidly converged with the speed of convergence 466
425 dispersed spectrum cognitive radio (DS-CR) systems. First of for the scenarios of interest. Moreover, the number of terms 467
426 all, the amount of fading (AoF) of the channel capacity or increases with increasing , and average SNR , while 468
427 the so called fading figure is defined as the ratio of variance has a noticeable impact on the convergence. For high-SNR
to the square ergodic capacity as AoF =
469
428
2
2
1 [7]. The regimes, the required number of terms for ergodic capacity 470
1
429 variance of the channel capacity is denoted by var = 2 21 (n = 1) is less than the case of the 4-th statistical moment. 471
ZHANG et al.: HIGH-ORDER CAPACITY STATISTICS OF SPECTRUM AGGREGATION SYSTEMS 7

TABLE II
N UMBER OF R EQUIRED T ERMS FOR C ONVERGENCE OF THE HOS OF THE
C HANNEL C APACITY FOR S PECTRUM A GGREGATION S YSTEMS OVER
C ORRELATED - S HADOWED FADING C HANNELS W ITH Pe
103 , M = 2, 1 = 1, 2 = 5, 1 = 1, 2 = 2, AND m = 1

of
Fig. 3. Amount of dispersion of the channel capacity against the average SNR
for spectrum aggregation systems over i.n.i.d. - fading channels (2 =
3 = 1 dB, 1 = 2.5, 2 = 3.5, 3 = 4.75, and 1 = 1, 2 = 1, 3 = 2).

the high-SNR approximation is more accurate for low order 500

Fig. 2. ro
Simulated, analytical, and asymptotic HOS of the channel
capacity against the average SNR for spectrum aggregation systems over
i.i.d. - fading channels ( = 1, = 1, and M = 3).
statistics (e.g., ergodic capacity). It is also clear from Fig. 2
that the HOS curves get closer to each other almost around
6 dB, which determines the boundary of the high- and low-
SNR regimes. Base on the interesting finding of n = 1 at
around 6 dB, we can simply model the HOS of the channel
capacity as n n1 . Due to the nth power of the ergodic
capacity, the behavior of the HOS of capacity is different in
the high- and low-SNR regimes, respectively. Furthermore, the
501

502

503

504

505

506

507
EP
508

crossing point will be shifted toward left, and therefore, the 509
472 However, only a relatively small number of terms is required ergodic capacity increasing if increasing the values of fading 510
473 for the desired accuracy. For the worst case of n = 4, parameters (e.g., and ) of each frequency band. 511
474  = 10 dB, = 1, and = 2, the maximum number of The effect of the number of frequency bands M on the AoD 512
475 terms is 23. performance of spectrum aggregation systems over i.n.i.d. 513
476 For correlated - shadowed fading channels, the effect of - fading channels is shown in Fig. 3. One can notice that 514
477 correlation coefficient on the convergence has been studied the AoD appears to increase for low and moderate SNRs, 515
478 in Table II. It is clear that the derived results are rapidly con- while it begins to decrease for the high-SNR regime for all 516
479 verged with less than 40 terms of infinite series. Note that as cases. Furthermore, it can be seen from the Fig. 3 that the 517
480 reduces, the required number of terms decreases. Furthermore, AoD plot becomes peaky at around 9 dB for M = 3, while 518
the computation time of derived analytical results is much less
IEE

481
the AoD reaches its highest value around 6 dB for M = 1. 519
482 than the one of simulations. For example, we spend less than With respect to the reliability percentage of the spectrum 520
483 20 seconds to calculate (19) by using MATHEMATICA, while aggregation system, the transmit SNR should be chosen greater 521
484 the simulation costs more than 230 seconds to derive the same than the SNR for which the AoD peaks. For example, for 522
485 result. Note that other cases have similar fact of converging the case of M = 3, the maximum AoD is 0.1919 and the 523
486 steadily and rapidly, and requiring little computational effort, reliability percentage is 90.81%, which means that the average 524
487 which are validated by our conducted numerical experiments. SNR must be chosen equal to or greater than 9 dB in order to 525

reach at least 90.81% reliable transmission. Moreover, the gap 526

488 B. Performance Analysis between different number of bands M decreases at high SNRs 527

489 For spectrum aggregation systems over i.i.d. - fading which implies that the fading effect becomes less pronounced 528

490 channels, the simulated, analytical (19), and asymptotic (25), as anticipated. 529

491 (26) HOS of the channel capacity are plotted against the Figure 4 depicts the AoF of the channel capacity for 530

492 average SNR  in Fig. 2. As seen, the analytical results spectrum aggregation systems over i.i.d. - shadowed fading 531

493 perfectly match the Monte-Carlo simulations. Clearly, the channels as a function of average SNR per band for 532

494 high-SNR approximations are sufficiently tight and become different sets of frequency bands M. It is clear that the AoF 533

495 exact even at moderate SNR values, while a precise agreement decreases drastically as the value of increases. At low SNRs, 534

496 between the exact and low-SNR results can be observed. This the AoF performance of the spectrum aggregation system is 535

497 implies that they can efficiently predict the HOS of the channel significantly improved with increasing the value of frequency 536

498 capacity over a wide SNR range. Moreover, the gap between bands and M. For example, the AoF is 0.665 for the case of 537

499 the corresponding curves increases as n increases which means M = 1 at 10 dB, while it reduces to 0.148 for M = 3. 538
8 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS

of
Fig. 4. Amount of fading of the channel capacity against the average SNR Fig. 6. Skewness of the channel capacity against the average SNR for
for spectrum aggregation systems over i.i.d. - shadowed fading channels spectrum aggregation systems over correlated - shadowed fading channels
( = = 2 and m = 1). (M = 3, i = 1, i = 2, and m = 1).

ro
EP
Fig. 5. Amount of fading of the channel capacity against the average SNR Fig. 7. Kurtosis of the channel capacity against the average SNR for spectrum
for spectrum aggregation systems over i.i.d. - shadowed fading channels aggregation systems over correlated - shadowed fading channels (M = 3,
(M = 2). i = 1, i = 2, and m = 1).

539 Therefore, we can use more frequency bands to combat the correlation models pq = | pq| , where = 0.1, 0.5, 0.9. 560
IEE

540 low SNRs of fading channels. It is clear to see from Figs. 6 and 7 that the skewness and 561

541 The effect of fading parameters , and m on the AoF of the kurtosis increases as average SNR of each frequency 562

542 the channel capacity for spectrum aggregation systems over band  increases and/or decreases, showing that the pdf 563

543 i.i.d. - shadowed fading channels are further investigated of the channel capacity becomes more spiky with heavy 564

544 in Fig. 5. As indicated by analysis in Section III, the AoF tails and asymmetric. More importantly, the gap between the 565

545 decreases with a smaller value of (more power of LoS corresponding curves decreases as decreases which implies 566

546 components) and a higher value of (more power of clusters), that its effect becomes less pronounced. 567

547 where the fading channel becomes less deterministic. This


548 finding reveals that more scattered waves are beneficial for V. C ONCLUSION 568

549 improved AoF. One can also notice the increase of the AoF In this paper, we investigate the performance of spectrum 569

550 can be obtained for decreasing the shadowing parameter m, aggregation systems over generalized fading channels. In par- 570

551 especially for low SNRs. For example, the value of AoF ticular, we consider two recently proposed generalized fading 571

552 is 0.275 for the case of m = 1, = 1, = 2 and = 10 dB, models, namely - and - shadowed, which can model 572

553 while it reduces to 0.228 for the case of m = 2, = 1, propagation phenomena involving LoS and composite fading 573

554 = 2 and = 10 dB. The impact of fading appears to environments, respectively. Novel and exact expressions for 574

555 be particularly critical for low SNRs, while in the high-SNR the HOS of the channel capacity of spectrum aggregation 575

556 regime its impact is relatively reduced. systems are derived. Our derived expressions can extend 576

557 In Figs. 6 and 7, Skewness and Kurtosis statistics are plotted and complement existing results on classical fading models. 577

558 against the average SNR , respectively. We consider corre- Furthermore, we deduce simple HOS expressions for the 578

559 lated - shadowed fading channels with three exponential asymptotically low- and high-SNR regimes. Note that all 579
ZHANG et al.: HIGH-ORDER CAPACITY STATISTICS OF SPECTRUM AGGREGATION SYSTEMS 9

580 infinite series can be computationally efficient, accurate, and By substituting = 1 into (45), we can derive the auxiliary 616

581 requires only a relative small number of terms for yield- function J (a, b, n) as 617

582 ing accurate results. Important performance metrics, such as


J (a, b, n) 618
583 ergodic capacity, variance, AoF, AoD, skewness, and kur-
584 tosis, are also derived to show the effects of system and
  
a1
ak1 a 1
fading parameters on spectrum aggregation systems. Finally, = n!e b b1k
(1)
585
619
586 extensive Monte-Carlo simulations verify the accuracy of the k
k=0
587 analytical expressions and the tightness of the high- and
 n+1 1 s

588 low-SNR bounds. The proposed analysis is useful for the 
 ! "# $
589 spectrum aggregation system design engineer for performance  1, 1, , 1
n+2,0
G n+1,n+2 b  . (47)
590 evaluation purposes.  0, 0, , 0, 1 + k 620
 # $! "
 
n+1 0 s
591 A PPENDIX

of
592 A. A Useful Integral Identity B. High-Order Differentiation 621

593 Let us consider an integral in the form of With the help of Leibnizs rule [17], the nth differentiation 622

 of the product of the gamma function and the power functions 623

594  (a, b) = (1 + x) x a1 ebx d x, (42) can be expressed as 624


0  
d n  (a + 1)
where a N, b > 0, and C. With the help of [26, eq. (39)], Q (a, b, n) = 625
da n ba+1

ro
595

596 (42) can be also expressed as  


 n (1)nk lnnk (b) d k  (a + 1)
n
= . (48) 626
597  (a, b) =  (a) U (a, a + + 1; b) k ba+1 da k
k=0
a1 
 
a 1 (1)ak1 Utilizing the high-order differentiation of the gamma function
=e b
 ( + k + 1, b)
627
598
k b+k+1 [5, eq. (10)], we can derive 628
k=0
599 (43) Q (a, b, n) 629
n  
EP
 n (1)nk lnnk (b) k!
600 where U () denotes the Tricomi hypergeometric function = 630
k ba+1
601 [27, eq. (13.1.3)], and (, ) is the upper complementary k=0

602 incomplete gamma function [17, eq. (8.350.2)]. By using  k+1 1 s
 ! "# $
603 Leibnizs rule [17], the nth order derivative of (43) can be k+2,0  1, 1, , 1
604 evaluated as 
G k+1,k+2 1  1 + a, 0, 0, , 0 631

  # $! "
d n  (a, b)  
k+1 0 s
605
 
d n =+k+1  k+1 1 s
 ! "# $
a1 
   1, 1, , 1
a 1 (1)ak1 + (1)k G 1,k+1 
= eb k+1,k+2 1  1 + a, 0, 0, , 0 . (49) 632

606
k b+k+1 # $! "
IEE

k=0 
    n   
k+1 0 s
n
d  (, b) 
n n p 1
ln (44)
d n =+k+1
607
p b R EFERENCES 633
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715 Ph.D. degrees in communication engineering from
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720 2015, he was a Humboldt Research Fellow with Jilin University, China, in 1985 and 2001, respec- 766
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722 ErlangenNuermberg, Germany. From 2014 to 2016, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, 768
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724 the Department of Electronic Engineering, Tsinghua the Vice Dean of School of Electronic and Infor- 770
725 University, China. Since 2016, he has been a Professor with the School mation Engineering. Her research interest includes 771
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729 Exemplary Reviewer of the IEEE C OMMUNICATIONS L ETTERS in 2015.
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS 1

On High-Order Capacity Statistics of Spectrum


Aggregation Systems Over - and -
Shadowed Fading Channels
Jiayi Zhang, Member, IEEE, Xiaoyu Chen, Kostas P. Peppas, Senior Member, IEEE, Xu Li, and Ying Liu
1 Abstract The frequency scarcity imposed by fast growing band or in different frequency bands [2]. In order to achieve a 37
2 demand for mobile data service requires promising spectrum successful spectrum aggregation, the maximum dispersion in 38
3 aggregation systems. The so-called higher order statistics (HOS) the channel capacity should be calibrated to leverage a reliable 39
4 of the channel capacity is a suitable metric on the system perfor-
5 mance. While prior relevant works have improved our knowledge transmission [3]. 40

of
6 on the HOS characterization of spectrum aggregation systems, In this context, the typical metric for performance evaluation 41

7 an analytical framework encompassing generalized fading models has been the higher-order statistics (HOS) of the channel 42
8 of interest is not yet available. In this paper, we pursue a detailed capacity, which can fully explore the reliability of the signal 43
9 HOS analysis of - and - shadowed fading channels by transmission in spectrum aggregation systems. As an useful 44
10 deriving novel and exact expressions. Furthermore, the simplified
11 HOS expressions for the asymptotically low and high signal-to- tool, the HOS can effectively describe the channel capac- 45

12 noise regimes are derived. Several important statistical measures, ity dispersion induced by the heterogeneity that inherently 46

13 such as amount of fading, amount of dispersion, reliability, exists in spectrum aggregation systems [4]. Moreover, fruitful 47

ro
14 skewness, and kurtosis, are obtained by using the HOS results. insights into the implications of the spectrum aggregation on 48
15 More importantly, the useful implications of system and fading the transmission reliability can be extracted by deriving HOS 49
16 parameters on spectrum aggregation systems are investigated for
17 channel selection. Finally, all derived expressions are validated of the channel capacity. Despite its importance, however, the 50

18 via Monte Carlo simulations. HOS of the channel capacity received relatively little attention 51

in the literature, due in part to the intractability of its analysis. 52


19 Index Terms Spectrum aggregation, higher-order statistics,
20 -, - shadowed. A number of prior works have investigated the HOS of the 53

channel capacity of different wireless systems over several flat 54

fading channels [3], [5][7]. For example, a generic framework


EP
55
21 I. I NTRODUCTION
for the asymptotic HOS of the channel capacity over inde- 56
22

23

24
W ITH the constantly growing mobile data demand
for future wireless communication systems, i.e., 5th
Generation (5G), it becomes more and more difficult to
pendent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Nakagami-m fading
channels was provided in [5]. Yilmaz et al. [3] investigated the
HOS of the channel capacity for amplify-and-forward (AF)
57

58

59
25 allocate a wide and contiguous frequency band to each user multihop systems over gamma and generalized gamma fading 60
26 equipment (UE) and base station (BS). This has brought about channels. In addition, an MGF-based approach for the HOS 61
27 increasing scarcity in available radio spectrum. To address of the channel capacity for L-branch MRC receivers has been 62
28 these issues, the promising spectrum aggregation technique proposed in [6] with an example application of correlated 63
29 has been received much attention recently [1], [2]. Spec- Nakagami-m fading channels. Finally, [7] presented the HOS 64
30 trum aggregation refers to obtaining larger amounts of radio of the channel capacity for several diversity receivers taking 65
IEE

31 resource by aggregating possible spectrum resources that lie into account the effects of independent and non-identically 66
32 in non-adjacent frequency bands. As a successful application distributed (i.n.i.d.) Nakagami-m fading channels. 67
33 of the spectrum aggregation, the carrier aggregation (CA) The common characteristic of the above mentioned 68
34 technology has been proposed in Long-Term-Evolution works [3], [5][7], however, is that they adopt the assumption 69
35 Advanced (LTE-A) standard, increasing the usable spectrum of homogeneous fading channels. It has been proved that the 70
36 by aggregating resource blocks (RBs) either within a given homogeneous fading is often unrealistic since the surfaces are 71

spatially correlated in practical propagation environments [8]. 72


Manuscript received July 19, 2016; revised October 24, 2016; accepted
December 4, 2016. This work was supported in part by the National Yet, very few results on the HOS of the channel capacity 73

Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61601020 and in non-homogeneous and composite fading conditions are 74
61371068), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities available. Only recently, the HOS of the channel capacity for 75
(Grant Nos. 2016RC013, 2016JBZ003, and 2014JBZ002). The associate
editor coordinating the review of this paper and approving it for publication dispersed spectrum cognitive radio (CR) systems over i.n.i.d. 76

was M. Uysal. - fading channels was obtained in [9]. While these prior 77
J. Zhang, X. Chen, X. Li, and Y. Liu are with the School of Electronics and works have significantly improved our knowledge on the HOS 78
Information Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China
(e-mail: jiayizhang@bjtu.edu.cn). of the channel capacity, a general analytic framework of spec- 79

K. P. Peppas is with the Department of Informatics and Telecommunications, trum aggregation systems which will account for more realistic 80
University of Peloponnese, 22100 Tripoli, Greece (e-mail: peppas@uop.gr). fading models seems to be missing from the open literature. 81
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available
online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. To address such non-homogeneous and composite fading 82

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TCOMM.2016.2637926 environments, the generalized - and - shadowed fading 83

0090-6778 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission.
See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
2 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS

84 channels are recently introduced in [8], [10], and [11], respec-


85 tively. Compared with classic homogeneous fading models, the
86 - and - shadowed fading models exhibit excellent agree-
87 ment with measured land-mobile satellite, underwater acoustic,
88 and body communications fading channels [11]. Moreover,
89 the - fading channel includes the Rayleigh, Rician, and
90 Nakagami-m fading channels as special cases by setting the
91 parameters and to specific real positive values [12], while
92 the - shadowed fading channel includes One-side Gaussian,
Fig. 1. Spectrum aggregation systems over generalized fading channels.
93 Rayleigh, Rician, Nakagami-m, Hoyt, -, -, and Rician
94 shadowed fading channels as special cases [13].
noncontinuous band. By assuming M available frequency 141
On the other hand, recent wireless applications become
diversity bands, the end-to-end SNR, 
95
, at the output of 142
increasingly complex and require more realistic channel mod- M
each UEs receiver is given by = i=1 i . Moreover,
96

of
143
97 els for performance evaluation purposes [14][16]. Because
each frequency diversity channel is assumed to be slow and 144
of the fact that the adopted fading models can describe a
frequency non-selective. Note that the end-to-end SNR has
98
145
99 plethora of realistic fading propagation scenarios, they can
a similar form of the SNR at the output of an MRC combiner. 146
100 serve as useful tools to this end. Motivated by these important
101 observations, we herein analytically investigate the HOS of the
102 channel capacity for spectrum aggregation systems over - A. - Fading Channels 147

103 and - shadowed fading channels. In particular, the main The - distribution can be regarded as a generalization 148

104

105

106

107

108

109

110
contributions of this paper can be summarized as:

ro
We first derive exact analytical expressions for the HOS
of the channel capacity for spectrum aggregation systems
over i.i.d., i.n.i.d - and i.i.d., correlated - shad-
owed fading channels, respectively. In contrast to exsiting
works on second order statistics, the analysis of the HOS
is still limited. It is worth noting that although the sta-
tistical characteristics of general fading models are very
of the classic Rician fading model for line-of-sight (LoS)
scenarios, and has been extensively used in spatially non-
homogeneous propagation environments. The - fading sig-
nal is a composition of clusters of multipath waves with
scattered waves of identical power with a dominant component
of arbitrary power found within each cluster. Furthermore, the
parameter represents the ratio between the total power of
the dominant components and the total power of the scattered
149

150

151

152

153

154

155
EP
111 156

112 complicated, our derived results can be readily evaluated waves, while is the number of clusters. The probability 157

113 and efficiently programmed in most standard software density function (PDF) of the sum of M i.i.d. squared - 158

114 packages (e.g., MATLAB and MATHEMATICA). random variables (RVs) is given by [8, eq. (10)] 159

115 Furthermore, the asymptotically high- and low-SNR M+1  M1 


expressions for the HOS of the channel capacity are also M(1 + ) 2 (1 + )
2
116
f i.i.d ( ) = M1 M+1
exp 160
117 presented to get additional insights into the impact of eM 2 (M) 2 
118 system parameters, such as fading parameters and number   
(1 + ) M
119 of aggregating frequency bands. More importantly, some IM1 2 (1) 161

120 of asymptotic expressions are given in terms of simple 


elementary functions. M+1 M1  
121
M(1 + ) 2 2 (1 + )
IEE

122 With the help of the HOS of the channel capacity, we also = M1 M+1
exp 162

eM 2 (M) 2 
provided useful performance metrics in terms of ergodic
 M+2i1
123

124 capacity, amount of fading (AOF), amount of disper-  1 (1+ ) M
sion (AOD), skewness, and kurtosis. Moreover, numerical , 163
i ! (M + i) 
125

126 results are provided to verify our analysis. Note that the i=0
127 presented analysis is very meaningful for communication (2) 164

128 systems to aggregate best available frequency bands in


where  denotes the average SNR of each - RV, Iv () is 165
129 future spectrum-limited wireless networks.
the modified Bessel function of first kind [17, eq. (8.406.1)], 166
130 This paper is organized as follows. The spectrum aggrega- and () denotes the Gamma function [17, eq. (8.31)]. From 167
131 tion system and generalized - and - shadowed fading (1) to (2), we have used the identity of [17, eq. (8.445)] and 168
132 models are introduced in Section II. In Section III, we present
carried out some algebraic manipulations. 169
133 the derivation of the HOS of the channel capacity and other The PDF of the sum of M i.n.i.d. squared - RVs is given 170
134 important metrics. In Section IV, numerical results are shown by [18, eq. (4)] 171
135 to verify our present results. Finally, Section V concludes the

2  
136 paper and summarizes the key findings. e U 1  k!ck (U 1) U
fi.n.i.d ( ) = L 172
137 II. S YSTEM AND C HANNEL M ODEL (2)U  (U ) (U )k k 2
k=0
As illustrated in Fig. 1, the spectrum aggregation system
 
e 2   (k)q q+U 1 U q
138 k
139 exploits the benefits of frequency diversity by combining the = ck , (3) 173

instantaneous signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), i , from each (2)U q! (U + q) 2


140 k=0 q=0
ZHANG et al.: HIGH-ORDER CAPACITY STATISTICS OF SPECTRUM AGGREGATION SYSTEMS 3

174 where (a) b denotes the Pochhammer symbol [17], where only elementary functions appear. Thus, (10) can facil- 208
M
175 U = i=1 i , and the series representation of itate the calculation involved the PDF expression of - 209

176 generalized Laguerre polynomial L vk () has been used as shadowed fading channels. 210

177 [19, eq. (05.08.02.0001.01)] Furthermore, the PDF of the sum of M correlated squared 211

- shadowed RVs is given by [21. eq. (16)]


 (v + k + 1) 
k 212
(k)q y q  U
L vk (y) = . (4)
178
k! q! (v + q + 1) f cor ( ) = A U 1 e
q=0 213

Moreover, the coefficients ck in (3) can be obtained as
 
179

Dk 1 F1 m M + k, U ; , (11)
1
k1 214

180 ck = c j dk j , k  1 (5) k=0


1 + 1
 M
m
k
j =0
  j +1 where denotes the average SNR, A  i=1 i ,  215

jU  M
M

dj  i ai ( ai ) j 1 i=1 i (1 + i ), and

of
181 216
2 + ai (U )
(m M+k)
i=1 k
M  j Dk = m M+k 1 + 1 , (12) 217
1 ai /  (U )
182 + i , j 1 (6) k+1 M  
1 + (ai /) (U/ 1) m  q
i=1
 U   k+1 = 1 k+1i , (13) 218

U 1  i ai (U )
M k +1 i
q=1 i=1
183 c0  exp
2 + am (U ) 0 = 1. (14) 219
i=1

184

185

186

187

M 
ai
1 + (U/ 1)
i=1

i
,

where i  2i i and ai  i /2i (1 + i ). In order to


guarantee the uniform convergence of (3), the parameters
and should be chosen appropriately [20].
ro
(7)
Moreover,  min (1 , 2 , , M ) is the

C .

..
1
21

12
1
.
..

. ..


 minimum

1M

value of the matrix DC with D = diag mi i represents a
diagonal matrix and C denotes the M M positive definite
matrix given by

2M

.. ,
eigen-

(15)
220

221

222

223

224
EP
B. - Shadowed Fading Channels .
188

M1 1
189 Similar to the the same multipath/shadowing scheme used
190 in the Rician shadowed model, a natural generalization of the where 0 pq 1, 1 p, q M denotes the correlation 225

191 - distribution can be obtained by an LoS shadow fading coefficient of the dominating components of - shadowed 226

192 model. Unlike the - distribution, the - shadowed model RVs. With the help of (9), we can rewrite (11) as 227

assumes that all the dominant components are subject to  U 



193

194 the same common fluctuation due to shadowing. With the f cor ( ) = A U 1 e Dk 228

assumption of shadowing components are correlated, while


195 k=0

 q
196 multipath components are uncorrelated, the PDF of the sum  (m M + k)q
197 of M i.i.d. squared - shadowed RVs is given by [21] , (16) 229
(U )q q! 1 + 1
IEE

   m M M1
M (1 + ) M
q=0
m
198 fi.i.d. ( ) =
m +  (M)
 2 (1 + )  III. H IGHER -O RDER C APACITY S TATISTICS 230
M(1+) M

199 e
1 F1 m M, M; In this section, we present the statistical analysis for the
( + m) 231

200 (8) derivation of the HOS of the channel capacity for spectrum 232

aggregation systems. Without loss of generality, the HOS of 233

201 where m denotes the shaping parameter of shadow- the channel capacity can be defined as [6], [9] 234

202 ing, and 1 F1 () is the confluent hypergeometric function


203 [17, eq. (9.210.1)]. By utilizing the following identity n = E logn2 (1 + ) , (17) 235


 (a)q x q where n N is the order of the capacity statistics, and 236

204 1 F1 (a, b; x) = , (9) E () denotes the expectation operator. Note that the first-order
(b)q q!
237

q=0 statistics of channel capacity is well-known as the ergodic 238

205 we can rewrite (8) in an alternative form as capacity. Without loss of generality, the HOS of the channel 239

   m M M(1+) capacity for the spectrum aggregation systems with M non- 240
M (1 + ) M m e
adjacent frequency bands is given by
fi.i.d. ( ) = 241

 
206
m +  (M)   

2 q M
M (1+) M+q1 n = logn 1 + i
 (m M)
q (+m) 242

207 , (10) 0 0 0 i=1


(M)q q! f (1 , 2 , M ) d1 d2 d M , (18)
q=0 243
4 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS

244 where f (1 , 2 , M ) represents the joint pdf of the instan- This integral can be evaluated numerically in an efficient 285

245 taneous SNRs of each band. Unfortunately, it is very tedious manner by employing a N-point Gauss-Chebyshev quadrature 286

246 and computationally cumbersome to obtain the joint pdf even rule as 287

247 for the simple i.i.d. case. One possible way to solve this  
2 
15
problem is to use the moment generating function (MGF) tk2 2+1
248
K (, , a) = +1 wk ln 1 + t (23) 288
249 based method proposed in [6]. However, the HOS of the a a k
k=1
250 channel capacity is given in terms of a single-integral expres-
251 sion, which makes it difficult to be mathematically employed. where wk and tk are the weights and abscissae given in [22]. 289

252 Therefore, in the following, we derive the HOS of the channel Note that we only need 15 terms in (23) to converge ade- 290

253 capacity for spectrum aggregation systems over generalized quately. 291

254 fading channels by utilizing the pdf of the total SNR . It By taking n = 1 in (19), we can obtain the first-order 292

255 is worthy to mention that all our derived results are given in statistics of the channel capacity, which is the well-known 293

256 analytical form, which is easy to show the key impacts of ergodic capacity as 294

of
257 system performance. (1+)
e  M  ( M)i
1 = 295
lnn 2 i ! (M + i)
i=0
258 A. - Fading Channels
 
259 We first consider the higher-order capacity statistics of  
M+i1 
(1 + ) M+ik1 M + i 1

spectrum aggregation systems over i.i.d. - fading channels
296
260  k
k=0
261 as follows.   
(1 + ) 
262

263

264

265
be expressed as

n = M n
e
1


ln 2

J M + i,


i=0
( M)i
i ! (M + i )
(1 + )

,n ,




(1 + ) M+i
ro
Theorem 1: The higher-order capacity statistics of spec-
trum aggregation systems over i.i.d. - fading channels can

(19)
where
 
a
b
= b!(ab)!
a!
G 3,0

G-function [17, eq. (9.301)].


2,3


1, 1
 0, 0, 1 + k

, and G() denotes the Meijers

Lemma 1: For the high- and low-SNR regimes, the higher-


order capacity statistics of spectrum aggregation systems
, (24) 297

298

299

300
EP
266 301

over i.i.d. - fading channels can be respectively expressed 302

267 where the auxiliary function J () is given by (47) in the as 303

Appendix A.   
(1 + ) M+i
268
1 ( M)i
269 Proof: Substituting (2) into (17), we can derive n = M n 304
e ln 2 i ! (M + i ) 
M+1 i=0
M(1 + ) 2  
270 n = (1 + )
M1
eM 2 (M) 2 lnn 2
M+1
Q M + i 1, ,n , (25) 305

  M+2i1 

1 (1 + ) M
 n
0 n! Sk+n  (k + n + M)
n =
271
i ! (M + i)  M
306
n
(k + n)!  (M)
IEE

i=0
 e ln 2
k=0
(1+)
lnn (1 + ) M+i1 e  d . (20)  n+k

272
0 1 F1 (k + n + M; M; M) , 307
(1 + )
273 To the best of the authors knowledge, the integral in (20) is
274 not included in tables of classical reference books such as [17]. (26) 308

275 Nervertheless, as shown in Appendix A, it can be computed


276 in closed form thus completing the proof. where Smn is the Stirling number of the first kind 309

277 Note that the auxiliary function J () requires is restricted [17, eq. (9.740)], and the auxiliary function Q() is given 310

278 to integer values, which assumes finite numbers of multipath by (49) in the Appendix. B. 311

279 clusters. In the most general case of real , integrals of the Proof: By taking large values of in (17) and using (2), 312

280 form the higher-order capacity is given by 313

 M+1
M(1 + )  1
ln (1 + x) exp(ax)x dx
2
281 K (, , a) = (21)
n = M1 M+1
314
0 eM 2 (M) 2 lnn 2 i ! (M + i)
i=0
282 should be evaluated. By performing the change of variables   M+2i1
ax = y 2 , (21) can be expressed as (1 + ) M
283
315
   
2 y2 
K (, , a) = +1 ln 1 + exp(y 2 )y 2+1 dy. (1+)
a 0 a lnn ( ) M+i1 e  d . (27) 316
284 (22) 0
ZHANG et al.: HIGH-ORDER CAPACITY STATISTICS OF SPECTRUM AGGREGATION SYSTEMS 5

317 With the aid of [23, eq. (2.5.1.7)], the integral in (27) can be i.n.i.d. - fading channels can be expressed as 353

318 calculated as
 k  
1 (k)q U q
M(1 + )
M+1
n = c k 354
(2)U lnn 2 k=0 q=0 q! (U + q) 2
2
319
n = M1 M+1
eM 2 (M) 2 lnn 2  
  M+2i1 1
 Q q + U 1, ,n , (33) 355
1 (1 + ) M 2
320  q
i ! (M + i) 
n!  
k
(k)q U
i=0 0
  n = n ck 356
dn  (a + 1) ln 2 q! (U + q)
321 n . (28) k=0 q=0
da ( (1 + ) /)a+1 a=M+i1
 S p+n  (U
n
+ q + p + n)
. (34) 357
322 Then, the high-SNR HOS (25) can be derived by using (49)
p=0
( p + n)!(2)( p+n)
323 and after some algebraic manipulation.

of
324 Moreover, the low-SNR HOS can be obtained by taking Proof: With the help of [17, eq. (3.351.3)], the proof can 358

325 0, and using the well-known expansion of the logarithm be completed by following similar steps in Lemma 1. 359

326 function as [17, eq. (9.741.2)] Note that the low-SNR HOS of the channel capacity (34) 360

is given in terms of simple elementary functions. Therefore, 361


 z k+n
327
n
ln (1 + z) = n! n
Sk+n , z0 (29) we can obtain the implication that the HOS is an increasing 362

(k + n)! function in U . 363


k=0

Substituting (29) into (17), and with the aid of (2) and (17),

ro
328

329 we derive the low-SNR HOS as B. - Shadowed Fading Channels 364

M+1 Now, we move on to consider the higher-order capacity 365


M(1 + ) n!  n
Sk+n
330
0
n =
2
statistics for - shadowed fading channels. As a first step, 366
M1 M+1
eM 2 (M) 2 lnn 2 k=0 (k + n)! the case of i.i.d. - shadowed fading channel is investigated. 367
   Theorem 3: The higher-order capacity statistics of spec-
M1 (1 + ) 368

331 k+n+ 2 exp trum aggregation systems over i.i.d. - shadowed fading

369
0
   channels can be expressed as 370
EP
(1 + ) M    m M
332 IM1 2

d . (30) M (1 + ) M m 1
n = 371
m +  (M)lnn 2
To evaluate the integral in (30), we can utilize the following
2 q
333
(m M) M (1+)
identity [24, eq. (3.15.2.5)]  q (+m)
334
372
 (M)q q!
q=0
x q exp ( px) Iv a x d x  
M (1 + )
335
0
  J q + M, ,n . (35) 373
 (q +v/2+1) (a/2)v v a2
336 = 1 F1 q + +1; v +1; . (31)
 (v + 1) pq+v/2+1 2 4p Proof: This result is a direct consequence of taking (10) 374

into (17), and using (47). 375


IEE

337 Finally, we arrive at the desired result in (26) after some basic
338 algebra. Lemma 3: For the high- and low-SNR regimes, the higher- 376

339 Note that the auxiliary function Q() can apply for arbitrary order capacity statistics of spectrum aggregation systems 377

340 positive real values of , so the asymptotical results are over i.i.d. - shadowed fading channels can be expressed 378

generalized. It is easy to see from (25) and (26) that the HOS as 379
   m M
341

342 of the channel capacity is an increasing function in the average M (1 + ) M m 1


SNR  and M. n = 380
343
m +  (M)lnn 2
Theorem 2: The higher-order capacity statistics of spec-
2 q
344
(m M) M (1+)
345 trum aggregation systems over i.n.i.d. - fading channels  q (+m)
381
346 can be expressed as (M)q q!
q=0
   
1  
k
(k)q U q M (1 + )
n = ck Q q + M 1, ,n , (36) 382
347
(2)U lnn 2 k=0 q=0 q! (U + q) 2
 m M
  0 m n!
1 n =
J q + U, ,n .
383
348 (32) m +  (M)
2
 n
Sk+n  (k + n + M)
349 Proof: The proof is readily completed by taking (3) 384
(k + n)! (M (1 + ) / )k+n
350 into (17), and using (47). k=0
 
351 Lemma 2: For the high- and low-SNR regime, the higher-
2 F1 m M, k + n + M; M; . (37) 385
352 order capacity statistics of spectrum aggregation systems over + m
6 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS

386 Proof: We can obtain (36) by following similar steps in TABLE I


387 Theorem 3. While for the case of the low-SNR regime, the N UMBER OF R EQUIRED T ERMS FOR C ONVERGENCE OF THE HOS OF THE
C HANNEL C APACITY FOR S PECTRUM A GGREGATION S YSTEMS OVER
388 integral identity [24, eq. (3.35.1.2)] i.i.d. - FADING C HANNELS W ITH Pe 105 , AND M = 3
  
q px  (q +1)
389 x e 1 F1 (a, b; x) d x = 2 F1 a, q +1; b;
0 pq+1 p
390 (38)
391 should be invoked. Note that condition on the arguments
392 of (38), p > 0, p > , and q > 1, is satisfied.
393 Considering the case where the frequency bands are corre-
394 lated, we present the following theorem.
395 Theorem 4: The higher-order capacity statistics of spec-
396 trum aggregation systems over correlated - shadowed fad- to describe how far the channel capacity lies from the ergodic 430

of
397 ing channels can be expressed as capacity. Its normalization with respect to the ergodic capacity, 431

 U 
 q 2
A  (m M + k)q AoD = 2 1 1 , is called the amount of dispersion (AoD). 432
398 n = n Dk Furthermore, we can define the reliability percentage of the
ln 2 (U )q q! 1 + 1
433


k=0

q=0 signal throughput as R = 100(1 AoD). For good channel 434

quality, AoD approaches to zero and R 100. In addition, 435


399 J q + U, , n . (39)
the skewness is a metric of the degree of asymmetry for the 436
3
distribution of the channel capacity as S =  3 1 3 . For

ro
400 Proof: The proof can be completed by following similar 437
2 21
401 steps in Theorem 1. symmetric distributions, S = 0, while S < 0 denotes the 438
402 We note from (39) that the HOS of the channel capacity distribution is skewed to the left. In addition, the kurtosis cor- 439
403 is an increasing function in the number of frequency bands responds to the degree of peakedness of the channel capacity 440
404 M and shadowing parameter m and as such it obtains its 4
maximum value for m . around the ergodic capacity as K = 4 21 2 . Within this 441
405 2 1
406 Lemma 4: For the high- and low-SNR regimes, the higher- context, it is worth mentioning that these important statistical 442

407 order capacity statistics of spectrum aggregation systems over metrics of the channel capacity can be also efficiently and 443
EP
408 correlated - shadowed fading channels can be expressed accurately computed by using the HOS expressions. 444

409 as
 U 
 q IV. N UMERICAL R ESULTS 445
A  (m M +k)q

410 n = n Dk In this section, we present various performance evaluation 446
ln 2 (U )q q! 1+1 results using the HOS of the channel capacity expressions 447
k=0 q=0
  presented in Sections III for spectrum aggregation systems
448

411 Q q + U 1, , n , (40) operating over - and - shadowed fading channels,



449

 respectively. To validate the accuracy of the aforementioned 450

0
 S np+n Dk  ( p + n + M)
412 n = An! expressions, comparisons with complementary Monte-Carlo 451

( p + n)! (/ ) p+n simulated results with 106 realizations of random variables are 452
k=0 p=0
 
IEE

also included in these figures. We use the approaches presented 453


1
413 2 F1 m M + k, U + p + n; , U ; . (41) in [18] and [25] to generate random variables from the squared 454
1 + 1 - and - shadowed distributions, respectively. The impact 455

414 Proof: The proof concludes by following a similar line of of system and fading parameters on the HOS performance of 456

415 reasoning as in Lemma 3. spectrum aggregation systems are discussed in detailed. 457

416 According to Lemma 4, a higher increases the HOS of


417 the channel capacity. This is anticipated, since larger values A. Convergence of Derived Results 458

418 of reduce the correlation between frequency bands, making Since the derived results are given in sum of infinite series, 459
419 receiver signal more stronger. we prove the convergence of the derived results by truncating 460

the appropriate series expressions to achieve an accuracy 461


C. Practical Implementation of HOS
up to the fifth-significant digit (e.g., Pe 105 ). Table I
420
462
421 To evaluate the performance of spectrum aggregation sys- investigates the impact of the number of moments and fading 463
422 tems, several important measures will in discussed by using the parameters and on the convergence of the HOS of the 464
423 HOS of the channel capacity presented above. These measures channel capacity for M = 3. It can be seen from Table I that all 465
424 can also serve as useful tools for the design of practical infinite series rapidly converged with the speed of convergence 466
425 dispersed spectrum cognitive radio (DS-CR) systems. First of for the scenarios of interest. Moreover, the number of terms 467
426 all, the amount of fading (AoF) of the channel capacity or increases with increasing , and average SNR , while 468
427 the so called fading figure is defined as the ratio of variance has a noticeable impact on the convergence. For high-SNR
to the square ergodic capacity as AoF =
469
428
2
2
1 [7]. The regimes, the required number of terms for ergodic capacity 470
1
429 variance of the channel capacity is denoted by var = 2 21 (n = 1) is less than the case of the 4-th statistical moment. 471
ZHANG et al.: HIGH-ORDER CAPACITY STATISTICS OF SPECTRUM AGGREGATION SYSTEMS 7

TABLE II
N UMBER OF R EQUIRED T ERMS FOR C ONVERGENCE OF THE HOS OF THE
C HANNEL C APACITY FOR S PECTRUM A GGREGATION S YSTEMS OVER
C ORRELATED - S HADOWED FADING C HANNELS W ITH Pe
103 , M = 2, 1 = 1, 2 = 5, 1 = 1, 2 = 2, AND m = 1

of
Fig. 3. Amount of dispersion of the channel capacity against the average SNR
for spectrum aggregation systems over i.n.i.d. - fading channels (2 =
3 = 1 dB, 1 = 2.5, 2 = 3.5, 3 = 4.75, and 1 = 1, 2 = 1, 3 = 2).

the high-SNR approximation is more accurate for low order 500

Fig. 2. ro
Simulated, analytical, and asymptotic HOS of the channel
capacity against the average SNR for spectrum aggregation systems over
i.i.d. - fading channels ( = 1, = 1, and M = 3).
statistics (e.g., ergodic capacity). It is also clear from Fig. 2
that the HOS curves get closer to each other almost around
6 dB, which determines the boundary of the high- and low-
SNR regimes. Base on the interesting finding of n = 1 at
around 6 dB, we can simply model the HOS of the channel
capacity as n n1 . Due to the nth power of the ergodic
capacity, the behavior of the HOS of capacity is different in
the high- and low-SNR regimes, respectively. Furthermore, the
501

502

503

504

505

506

507
EP
508

crossing point will be shifted toward left, and therefore, the 509
472 However, only a relatively small number of terms is required ergodic capacity increasing if increasing the values of fading 510
473 for the desired accuracy. For the worst case of n = 4, parameters (e.g., and ) of each frequency band. 511
474  = 10 dB, = 1, and = 2, the maximum number of The effect of the number of frequency bands M on the AoD 512
475 terms is 23. performance of spectrum aggregation systems over i.n.i.d. 513
476 For correlated - shadowed fading channels, the effect of - fading channels is shown in Fig. 3. One can notice that 514
477 correlation coefficient on the convergence has been studied the AoD appears to increase for low and moderate SNRs, 515
478 in Table II. It is clear that the derived results are rapidly con- while it begins to decrease for the high-SNR regime for all 516
479 verged with less than 40 terms of infinite series. Note that as cases. Furthermore, it can be seen from the Fig. 3 that the 517
480 reduces, the required number of terms decreases. Furthermore, AoD plot becomes peaky at around 9 dB for M = 3, while 518
the computation time of derived analytical results is much less
IEE

481
the AoD reaches its highest value around 6 dB for M = 1. 519
482 than the one of simulations. For example, we spend less than With respect to the reliability percentage of the spectrum 520
483 20 seconds to calculate (19) by using MATHEMATICA, while aggregation system, the transmit SNR should be chosen greater 521
484 the simulation costs more than 230 seconds to derive the same than the SNR for which the AoD peaks. For example, for 522
485 result. Note that other cases have similar fact of converging the case of M = 3, the maximum AoD is 0.1919 and the 523
486 steadily and rapidly, and requiring little computational effort, reliability percentage is 90.81%, which means that the average 524
487 which are validated by our conducted numerical experiments. SNR must be chosen equal to or greater than 9 dB in order to 525

reach at least 90.81% reliable transmission. Moreover, the gap 526

488 B. Performance Analysis between different number of bands M decreases at high SNRs 527

489 For spectrum aggregation systems over i.i.d. - fading which implies that the fading effect becomes less pronounced 528

490 channels, the simulated, analytical (19), and asymptotic (25), as anticipated. 529

491 (26) HOS of the channel capacity are plotted against the Figure 4 depicts the AoF of the channel capacity for 530

492 average SNR  in Fig. 2. As seen, the analytical results spectrum aggregation systems over i.i.d. - shadowed fading 531

493 perfectly match the Monte-Carlo simulations. Clearly, the channels as a function of average SNR per band for 532

494 high-SNR approximations are sufficiently tight and become different sets of frequency bands M. It is clear that the AoF 533

495 exact even at moderate SNR values, while a precise agreement decreases drastically as the value of increases. At low SNRs, 534

496 between the exact and low-SNR results can be observed. This the AoF performance of the spectrum aggregation system is 535

497 implies that they can efficiently predict the HOS of the channel significantly improved with increasing the value of frequency 536

498 capacity over a wide SNR range. Moreover, the gap between bands and M. For example, the AoF is 0.665 for the case of 537

499 the corresponding curves increases as n increases which means M = 1 at 10 dB, while it reduces to 0.148 for M = 3. 538
8 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS

of
Fig. 4. Amount of fading of the channel capacity against the average SNR Fig. 6. Skewness of the channel capacity against the average SNR for
for spectrum aggregation systems over i.i.d. - shadowed fading channels spectrum aggregation systems over correlated - shadowed fading channels
( = = 2 and m = 1). (M = 3, i = 1, i = 2, and m = 1).

ro
EP
Fig. 5. Amount of fading of the channel capacity against the average SNR Fig. 7. Kurtosis of the channel capacity against the average SNR for spectrum
for spectrum aggregation systems over i.i.d. - shadowed fading channels aggregation systems over correlated - shadowed fading channels (M = 3,
(M = 2). i = 1, i = 2, and m = 1).

539 Therefore, we can use more frequency bands to combat the correlation models pq = | pq| , where = 0.1, 0.5, 0.9. 560
IEE

540 low SNRs of fading channels. It is clear to see from Figs. 6 and 7 that the skewness and 561

541 The effect of fading parameters , and m on the AoF of the kurtosis increases as average SNR of each frequency 562

542 the channel capacity for spectrum aggregation systems over band  increases and/or decreases, showing that the pdf 563

543 i.i.d. - shadowed fading channels are further investigated of the channel capacity becomes more spiky with heavy 564

544 in Fig. 5. As indicated by analysis in Section III, the AoF tails and asymmetric. More importantly, the gap between the 565

545 decreases with a smaller value of (more power of LoS corresponding curves decreases as decreases which implies 566

546 components) and a higher value of (more power of clusters), that its effect becomes less pronounced. 567

547 where the fading channel becomes less deterministic. This


548 finding reveals that more scattered waves are beneficial for V. C ONCLUSION 568

549 improved AoF. One can also notice the increase of the AoF In this paper, we investigate the performance of spectrum 569

550 can be obtained for decreasing the shadowing parameter m, aggregation systems over generalized fading channels. In par- 570

551 especially for low SNRs. For example, the value of AoF ticular, we consider two recently proposed generalized fading 571

552 is 0.275 for the case of m = 1, = 1, = 2 and = 10 dB, models, namely - and - shadowed, which can model 572

553 while it reduces to 0.228 for the case of m = 2, = 1, propagation phenomena involving LoS and composite fading 573

554 = 2 and = 10 dB. The impact of fading appears to environments, respectively. Novel and exact expressions for 574

555 be particularly critical for low SNRs, while in the high-SNR the HOS of the channel capacity of spectrum aggregation 575

556 regime its impact is relatively reduced. systems are derived. Our derived expressions can extend 576

557 In Figs. 6 and 7, Skewness and Kurtosis statistics are plotted and complement existing results on classical fading models. 577

558 against the average SNR , respectively. We consider corre- Furthermore, we deduce simple HOS expressions for the 578

559 lated - shadowed fading channels with three exponential asymptotically low- and high-SNR regimes. Note that all 579
ZHANG et al.: HIGH-ORDER CAPACITY STATISTICS OF SPECTRUM AGGREGATION SYSTEMS 9

580 infinite series can be computationally efficient, accurate, and By substituting = 1 into (45), we can derive the auxiliary 616

581 requires only a relative small number of terms for yield- function J (a, b, n) as 617

582 ing accurate results. Important performance metrics, such as


J (a, b, n) 618
583 ergodic capacity, variance, AoF, AoD, skewness, and kur-
584 tosis, are also derived to show the effects of system and
  
a1
ak1 a 1
fading parameters on spectrum aggregation systems. Finally, = n!e b b1k
(1)
585
619
586 extensive Monte-Carlo simulations verify the accuracy of the k
k=0
587 analytical expressions and the tightness of the high- and
 n+1 1 s

588 low-SNR bounds. The proposed analysis is useful for the 
 ! "# $
589 spectrum aggregation system design engineer for performance  1, 1, , 1
G n+2,0  .
590 evaluation purposes. n+1,n+2 b  0, 0, , 0, 1 + k (47) 620
 # $! "
 
n+1 0 s
591 A PPENDIX

of
592 A. A Useful Integral Identity B. High-Order Differentiation 621

593 Let us consider an integral in the form of With the help of Leibnizs rule [17], the nth differentiation 622

 of the product of the gamma function and the power functions 623

594  (a, b) = (1 + x) x a1 ebx d x, (42) can be expressed as 624


0  
d n  (a + 1)
where a N, b > 0, and C. With the help of [26, eq. (39)], Q (a, b, n) = 625
da n ba+1

ro
595

596 (42) can be also expressed as  


 n (1)nk lnnk (b) d k  (a + 1)
n
= . (48) 626
597  (a, b) =  (a) U (a, a + + 1; b) k ba+1 da k
k=0
a1 
 
a 1 (1)ak1 Utilizing the high-order differentiation of the gamma function
=e b
 ( + k + 1, b)
627
598
k b+k+1 [5, eq. (10)], we can derive 628
k=0
599 (43) Q (a, b, n) 629
n  
EP
 n (1)nk lnnk (b) k!
600 where U () denotes the Tricomi hypergeometric function = 630
k ba+1
601 [27, eq. (13.1.3)], and (, ) is the upper complementary k=0

602 incomplete gamma function [17, eq. (8.350.2)]. By using  k+1 1 s
 ! "# $
603 Leibnizs rule [17], the nth order derivative of (43) can be k+2,0  1, 1, , 1
604 evaluated as 
G k+1,k+2 1  1 + a, 0, 0, , 0 631

  # $! "
d n  (a, b)  
k+1 0 s
605
 
d n =+k+1  k+1 1 s
 ! "# $
a1 
   1, 1, , 1
a 1 (1)ak1 + (1)k G 1,k+1 
= eb k+1,k+2 1  1 + a, 0, 0, , 0 . (49) 632

606
k b+k+1 # $! "
IEE

k=0 
    n   
k+1 0 s
n
d  (, b) 
n n p 1
ln (44)
d n =+k+1
607
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and Technology, University of Peloponnese, where he is currently a Lecturer.
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714 Jiayi Zhang (S08M14) received the B.Sc. and


715 Ph.D. degrees in communication engineering from
716 Beijing Jiaotong University, China, in 2007 and
717 2014, respectively. From 2012 to 2013, he was
718 a visiting Ph.D. student with the Wireless Group,
719 University of Southampton, U.K. From 2014 to Ying Liu received the B.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees from 765
720 2015, he was a Humboldt Research Fellow with Jilin University, China, in 1985 and 2001, respec- 766
721 Institute for Digital Communications, University of tively. Since 2005, she has been a Professor with the 767
722 ErlangenNuermberg, Germany. From 2014 to 2016, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, 768
723 he was a Post-Doctoral Research Associate with Beijing Jiaotong University, China, where she is 769
724 the Department of Electronic Engineering, Tsinghua the Vice Dean of School of Electronic and Infor- 770
725 University, China. Since 2016, he has been a Professor with the School mation Engineering. Her research interest includes 771
726 of Electronic and Information Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University. His wireless self-organized communications, sensor net- 772
727 current research interests include massive MIMO, unmanned aerial vehicle works, and wireless localization systems. 773
728 systems, and performance analysis of generalized fading channels. He was an
729 Exemplary Reviewer of the IEEE C OMMUNICATIONS L ETTERS in 2015.