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Corporate Profile

Syarikat Bekalan Air Selangor Sdn Bhd or better known as SYABAS was incorporated on
8 July 1996 under the Malaysian Companies Act, 1965 to undertake the privatisation of
water supply services in the State of Selangor and the Federal Territories of Kuala Lumpur
and Putrajaya ('the Privatisation).
SYABAS is an entity specifically incorporated for use as an implementation vehicle in
respect to the privatization of the water supply and distribution systems in Selangor and
Federal Territories of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya.
SYABAS was appointed by the State and Federal Governments to upgrade and enhance
the water supply system and services in the State of Selangor under the Privatisation
concept in view of the previous managements financial constraint, ineffective
management, poor water quality standards and inconsistent supply of treated water.
SYABAS was granted a concession by the Federal Government and the Selangor State
Government to manage, operate and distribute quality clean water for a period of thirty
years, commencing on 1st January 2005.
As the biggest water concessionaire in Malaysia, SYABAS was developed by a visionary
entrepreneur who is backed by a team of professional, dedicated and skillful management
with a penchant for innovation in excellent customer services as well as reshaping the
landscape of the local utility industry.
The authorized share capital of SYABAS is RM100,000,000.00 comprising 93,449,999
ordinary shares of RM1.00 each, one (1) Golden Share of RM1.00 and 655,000,000
redeemable cumulative preference shares ("RPS") of RM0.01 each, while the paid-up
share capital of SYABAS is RM71,550,001.00 comprising 65,000,000 ordinary shares of
RM1.00 each, 655,000,000 RPS of RM0.01 each and one (1) Golden Share of RM1.00.
The shareholders of SYABAS are Puncak Niaga Holdings Berhad ("PNHB") holding 70%
of the total equity shareholding in SYABAS, 15% equity shareholding held by Kumpulan
Darul Ehsan Berhad ("KDEB") and the remaining 15% held by Kumpulan Perangsang
Selangor Berhad ("KPS"). The Federal Government ("Government") through the Minister
of Finance, Incorporated ("MOF") holds one (1) Golden Share in SYABAS.
It is anticipated that the State of Selangor Darul Ehsan and the Federal Territories of Kuala
Lumpur and Putrajaya will continue to be a centre of economic growth and thereby, the
water demand in the states would continue to grow steadily. The current situation also
provides opportunities for the PNHB Group to enhance the overall efficiency of the water
industry in particular to reduce the high non-revenue water losses level and uplift the
standard of service.

Water Quality Improvement Programme


Background
Before 2005, the level of water quality of the drinking water in the distribution system was not
monitored or methodically documented by the then water supply operator, PUAS. The
assessment of the water quality was only by the Ministry of Health (MOH) through its
monitoring and sampling programme and to a limited extent, by the consumers complaint of
the poor water quality encountered at their premises.

Drinking water quality has always been SYABAS top priority. Water quality results reported in
the year ended 31st December 2008 indicated that SYABAS has continued to meet the high
standards set out in the Ministry of Healths NSDWQ and its Quality Assurance Programme
(QAP). It also complies with the requirement of the Mandatory Level of Service specified
under the Concession Agreement with the Federal Government and the State Government of
Selangor.

In line with SYABAS vision To Be The Leading Water Provider Of Quality, the Management
has embarked on a massive and dedicated programme to enhance the quality of the drinking
water supplied to the valued consumers. The programme entails expanding and strengthening
the Water Quality Department which was later upgraded into a Division and the formulation
and implementation of a master plan to enhance the water quality. A major capital outlay was
also allocated for pipes and valves replacements, construction of new sampling stations, new
installation of inline and scour valves and procurement of pipe cleaning equipment and water
quality portable test kits.

Although the water distributed by SYABAS are well within Ministry Of Healths NSDWQ and
the requirements of the Mandatory Level Of Service, consumers are not satisfied and demand a
standard comparable to filtered or bottled water. In response, SYABAS in early 2007 has
formulated and implemented an integrated and holistic Water Quality Improvement Master
Plan. The Water Quality Division and Units at the districts were strengthened, equipments and
test kits were procured and more water sampling stations were installed and upgraded.

Water Quality Improvement Master Plan (WQIMP)


The objectives of WQIMP are to enhance the quality of water and to change consumer
perception on water quality. The immediate term strategies are:

To change the current public perception on water quality supplied and instils public
confidence that the water is clean and safe for consumption.
Drastically reduce violations reported by Ministry of Health;
Focus on physical characteristics namely appearance, taste and odour. Parameters
related are turbidity, colour and smell;
To reduces water quality complaints from 300 to 100 per month.

The long term strategies and targets are:

Consumers have high confidence and satisfaction on quality of the supplied water.
Installation of domestic water filters is no longer necessary.
To reduce water quality complaints to less than 50 per month

To achieve the above objectives, the following five main programmes were immediately
implemented:

Cleaning of reticulation pipelines using the Air Scouring method (Air Scouring
Programme - ASP)
Scheduled inspection and cleaning of reservoirs (RCP)
Comprehensive sampling and analyzing of water quality by in-house teams
Immediate response to consumer water quality complaints
Consumer awareness and education programme

Cleaning of Water Reticulation Pipeline Using Air Scouring Method Air


ScouringProgramme (ASP)

The conventional cheap method of cleaning the pipelines is by flushing the mains with large
quantities of clean water through unidirectional flushing. Air scouring of water mains is an
effective non-aggressive method of cleaning water mains up to 200mm in diameter, with
typical cleaning lengths ranging from 800 to 1500 metres.

Air scouring works by using filtered compressed air, injected into the mains via hydrant or air
insertion valve to propel a small volume of water at high velocity. When the valve upstream of
the air entry points is opened slightly, allowing the passage of controlled amounts of water into
the pipe section, discrete slugs of water are produced. The filtered compressed air, mixing with
the water slugs, creates a vortex that travel through the isolated section removing sediment,
bacteriological slimes or biofilm and soft mineral scale. When water exiting the line is clear,
water supply is restored to the pipe section. (Refer to following diagram)

Photographs shows air-scouring procedures being implemented by SYABAS Water Quality


Units.
Air Scouring Method: Arrangement of Equipment & Valves

The benefits of Air Scouring are:

More effective at removing loose deposits than flushing and utilise less water
Mains up to 200mm in diameter can be cleaned
Long length can be cleaned in one go
Mains excavation is not required
A mixture of air and water penetrates and dislodges material whish is unreachable by
flushing
Increase flow capacity

SYABAS Air Scouring Programme (ASP) is designed to systematically clean all the
reticulation pipes initially on a six (6) month cycle. A total of 29 air scouring machines have
been procured for this purpose - 4 nos. were procured in 2004 by PUAS, 11 nos. in December
2005, 10 nos. in September 2007, 3 nos. in April 2008 and 1 no. in July 2008.

For the year 2007, 225.52 km of reticulation pipe were scheduled to be cleaned under the air
scouring programme. In year 2008, a total of 20,356.13 km of air scouring works was
performed at all the districts, completing at least two cycles of the workable reticulation mains
system. Between the years 2009 to 2010, a total of 9,243 km or 7,874 workable zones and
9,547 km or 7,998 workable zones of reticulation pipes (diameters 200mm and below) were
cleaned under this programme respectively

As at 31st December 2011, air scouring achievement has reach up to 100.38% or 9,150 km
(7758 out of 7729 active zones). The balance of 3,063 of inactive zones in the reticulation
system could not been cleaned by the air scouring method due to the unavailability of air
insertion, isolation and scour valves in the system.

The ASP cleaning of the reticulation system had contributed to the reduction of water quality
violations and also consumers water quality complaints.

Reservoir Cleaning (RCP) & Inspection Programme (RIP)


Under this programme all the service reservoirs will be cleaned manually and thereafter
inspected every six (6) months to test water quality using depth-samplers at 3 different
levels subsequent cleaning of the reservoirs will be carried out if water quality violations are
detected.

SYABAS distribution systems have more than 1100 numbers of service reservoirs and as at
31st December 2010, there are 1039 numbers are active. All these reservoirs have either been
cleaned since 2005 or newly brought into service.

Photographs Show Cleaning Of Reservoirs In Progress.


Under the RIP programme, the water quality of those reservoirs will be inspected biyearly. As
at 2010, ninety one (91) reservoirs were manually cleaned and one hundred fifty six (156)
numbers were cleaned by scour flushing. As at September 2011, only one (1) reservoir was
cleaned manually and twenty reservoirs (20) were cleaned by open scour flushing method
based on turbidity violations occurring during reservoir Inspection in January September
2011.

Photographs Depicting Depth Sampler Procedure In Progress


SYABAS In House Monitoring Programme
From June 2006, SYABAS started an in-house Water Quality Sampling and Testing
Programme whereby water samples are taken and analysed based on the same frequency of
sampling and parameters as listed in the NSDWQ. Samples are taken by personnel from the
Water Quality Units at the districts from designated sampling stations where the physical
parameters are analyzed in-situ and samples are sent to an accredited third party accredited
laboratory for the chemical and microbiological parameters analyses. To date, there are 1084
sampling stations located throughout the water supply distribution network.

Of a total of 62,286 water quality analyses carried out by SYABAS and the Ministry of Health
as of August 2010, 98.92% complied with the National Standard for Drinking Water Quality
with zero violation in the microbiological parameters. The percentage compliance in 2009 is
99.25% and 2008 is 99.23%. Where minor non-compliances have arisen there would have
been no adverse impact on health. It should be noted that 32.24% of the non-compliance for
year 2010 is from the parameter fluoride which originates from the dosing of the chemical at
the water treatment stage. Any non-compliant to the standards is taken seriously and SYABAS
investigates them thoroughly and, where necessary, does everything possible to rectify the
faults.

Photographs shows Water Quality Personnel Taking Samples From Water Sampling Stations
Immediate Response to Consumer Complaint On Water Quality
The objective is to achieve a quick initial response time not exceeding one (1) hour on all
water quality complaints from consumers followed by resolution of the complaint. The scope
of work covers initial investigation involving in-situ testing on physical parameters and taking
necessary remedial actions. A Water Quality Consumer complaint report has also to be
submitted. Consumers normally complain on the aesthetic aspect of the drinking water, hence
field testing on physical parameters (Turbidity, Colour, Residual Chlorine and pH) using
portable test-kit is used to identify the level and nature of contaminants in the distribution
system. If the initial results obtained show no water quality violation, the consumers will be
advised to check their internal plumbing system. If violations are detected, appropriate
remedial actions will be taken and the distribution system will be retested to ensure the
contaminants has been removed from the system. If violations still occur a detailed sanitary
survey will be done to identify the source of the violation. Information that may help to make
this determination will include additional findings from the larger epidemiological
investigation, geographic distribution of exposure, recent water quality and operational data,
and reports of consumer complaints. Remedial and resolution actions will be put into place so
as to effectively scour and remove contaminants by unidirectional flushing or using the Air
Scouring methods. Re-sampling will be done to determine the effectiveness of resolution
action taken and determining if the contaminant is still present in the system.

SYABAS response time to consumer complaints has improved in meeting the target of 30
minutes response time. The achievement for 2010 was 99.11% in average. As for 2011, the
initial response time as at September 2011 is 99.26% in average.

Photographs show the Response to Water Quality Complaint Activities


Consumer Awareness & Education Programme (CAP)
This programme is to create immediate consumer awareness on water quality issues especially
the quality of water supplied to consumers is safe for consumption. It is also an education
campaign on water quality issues via promotions, event management, print and electronic
advertisement and infomercials on SYABAS water quality enhancement efforts and on internal
plumbing system which could deteriorate water quality at the consumers premises.

The programme is carried out at both the headquarters and the district levels. At the districts,
the water quality units visit at least two premises each month to carry out water quality tests
and analyses while informing the consumers on SYABAS efforts to further enhance the water
quality and to supply the drinking water with a quality as expected by them.
The events at the headquarters level are carried out jointly by the Water Quality Division,
Corporate Communication & Public Affairs Division and the Customer Service Division.

In 2010, the districts Water Quality Units had carried the Consumer Awareness Programme at
a total of 185 premises consisting of commercial and domestic consumer.

As at 30th September 2011, the districts Water Quality Units had carried the Consumer
Awareness Programme at a total of 137 premises consisting of the following numbers and
types:

Photographs Showing Events of Consumer Awareness Programme (CAP)

Kastam Di Raja Malaysia at Pulau Indah, Klang

Karnival Selangor Ria 2008 Anjuran Dewan Perdagangan Islam Malaysia Cawangan Selangor
At Padang Letak Kereta di Stadium Shah Alam Seksyen 13, Selangor
Our Customer

Syarikat Bekalan Air Selangor Sdn Bhd (SYABAS) was appointed by the State and Federal
Government to manage the water supply distribution services in the State of Selangor, Federal
Territory of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya under the Privatisation concept effective 1 January 2005.
With the privatisation, SYABAS is responsible for the distribution of water supply to over 7.5 million
people via over 1.7 million domestic accounts and all commercial and industrial premises.

Our Vision

TO BE A LEADING REGIONAL INTEGRATED WATER, WASTEWATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL


SOLUTIONS PROVIDER AND TO EMERGE AS A SIGNIFICANT PLAYER IN THE OIL & GAS
SECTOR

Our Mission

- To meet the increasing challenges in the demand for high quality water supply, wastewater and
environmental systems through the continuous implementation of high quality standards, efficient
services, human capital development, innovative technologies and operational systems.

- To share our experience and offer our expertise through Smart Business Partnerships, Public Private
Partnerships or other innovative business models.

- To actively participate in local, regional and global business opportunities with linkages to the
Company's core activities, waste water & solid waste management, environment management and oil
& gas sectors.

- To actively support and participate in programmes and activities aimed at uplifting the community's
living standards and value systems in line with the aspirations of Vision 2020.
- To address national and international concerns pertaining to the protection, conservation and
enhancement of the natural environment we live in.

WATER TREATMENT

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Our subsidiary, Puncak Niaga (M) Sdn Bhd ("PNSB") which holds five water treatment concessions
with the Selangor State Government, is the nations second largest water supply concessionaire,
operating, managing and maintaining 29 water treatment plants with a combined capacity of 1,931
million litres per day.
List of Treatment Plants:
Bernam River Head Works Water Treatment Plant

Batang Kali Water Treatment Plant

Sungai Dusun Water Treatment Plant

Sungai Selisek Water Treatment Plant

Sungai Tengi Water Treatment Plant


Kalumpang Water Treatment Plant

Kuala Kubu Bharu Water Treatment Plant

Sungai Buaya Water Treatment Plant

North Hummock Water Treatment Plant

Rantau Panjang Water Treatment Plant

Bukit Nanas Water Treatment Plant

Sungai Batu Water Treatment Plant

Ampang Intake Water Treatment Plant

Sungai Rangkap Water Treatment Plant

Gombak Water Treatment Plant

Kepong Water Treatment Plant

Sungai Rumput Water Treatment Plant

Sungai Keroh Water Treatment Plant

Cheras Mile 11 Water Treatment Plant

Sungai Serai Water Treatment Plant

Sungai Langat Water Treatment Plant

Sungai Lolo (Old) Water Treatment Plant

Bukit Tampoi Water Treatment Plant

Salak Tinggi Water Treatment Plant

Sungai Lolo (New) Water Treatment Plant

Sungai Selangor Phase 2 Water Treatment Plant

Wangsa Maju Water Treatment Plant


Service Reservoir Inspection and Cleaning
Water Quality Enhancement Programme [ Back to Main ]

I. Reservoir Inspection (RIP)

Objective : To monitor the quality of water supplied through service reservoirs and suction
tanks
Method : Sampling using sampler
Parameter Analyzed : Physical (Free Residual Chlorine, Colour, Turbidity & pH)
Water quality will be sampled using depth-samplers at 3 different levels (top, middle, bottom)
and subsequent cleaning of the reservoirs will be carried out if any water quality violations are
detected. Under this programme all service reservoirs will be cleaned by open scour flushing /
manually/ robotically and thereafter inspected every six (6) months.

SYABAS distribution system has more than 1,000 service reservoirs. All these reservoirs have
been cleaned since 2005 except those newly brought into service.

Table- Active Reservoir from Year 2010 until 2012


Year 2010 2011 2012
Active Reservoir (nos.) 1,034 1,039 1,047

Photographs Depicting Depth Sampler Operating Procedure In Progress

II. Reservoir Cleaning (RCP)

Objective : To improve the water quality and ensure compliance with MOH national
standard for drinking water
Method : Manual / Robotic cleaning and open scour method

Under the RIP programme, water quality of all reservoirs will be inspected biyearly. Following
this inspection, two (2) reservoirs were manually cleaned, nine (9) reservoirs were cleaned by
robotic and hundred and twenty (120) numbers were cleaned by scour flushing to remove
the sediments at the bottom of the reservoirs in 2012. Wherever possible, SYABAS will
minimize water supply interruption during the cleaning programme.
Table- Reservoir Cleaning from Year 2009 until 2012
Year 2010 2011 2012
Cleaning Achievement (nos.) 247 34 131

Photographs Depicting Cleaning Of Reservoirs In Progress.

Reticulation Pipe Cleaning Using Air Scouring Method


Water Quality Enhancement Programme [ Back to Main ]

The conventional cheap method of cleaning pipelines is by flushing the mains or reticulation
pipes with large quantities of clean water through unidirectional flushing. The Air Scouring
Programme (ASP) is designed to systematically clean all the reticulation pipes of diameter
200mm or less initially on a six (6) months cycle in 2008, then on a nine (9) months cycle in
2009 and twelve (12) months cycle since 2010 onwards. A total of 29 air scouring machines
have been purchased for this purpose.

Air scouring works by using filtered compressed air, injected into the mains via hydrant or air
insertion point to propel a small volume of water at a high velocity. When the valve upstream
of the air entry point is opened slightly, the filtered compressed air mixing with water creates a
vortex that travels through the isolated section removing sediments, bacteriological slimes or
biofilm and soft mineral scale through a scour point at the other end of the reticulation system.
After water exiting the line is clear, only then water supply is restored to the pipe section.

Photographs showing the conditions during and after the cleaning using air scouring method.
Before Cleaning Work After Cleaning Work

Photographs showing air-scouring procedures being implemented by SYABAS


Air Scouring Method: Arrangement of Equipment & Valves

In 2012, a total of 8,101 km (data as at 31st December 2012) of air scouring works were
performed at districts workable ASP Zones. The changes made to the cleaning time period
(cycle/frequency) from 6-month cycle in 2008 to 12-month cycle in 2011 was mainly due to
the reduction in water quality complaints. However, about 34% of the reticulation main pipe
systems could not be cleaned by the air scouring method and have been declared as non-
workable ASP Zones due to the unavailability of air insertion, isolation and scour valves in the
ASP Zones. It was projected that these valves and fittings would be installed in stages starting
from 2008 onwards depending on the available budget under CAPEX.

The ASP cleaning of the reticulation system had contributed to the reduction in water quality
violations and also consumers water quality complaints.

Table- Air Scouring Works from Year 2010 until 2012


Year 2010 2011 2012
Length of Reticulation
9,514.71 9,469.00 8,101.00
Pipes Cleaned (km)

Water Quality Monitoring


Water Quality Enhancement Programme [ Back to Main ]
I. Quality Assurance Programme by Ministry of Health (MOH)

The Concession Agreement stipulates that the quality of water supplied to consumers must
comply within the limits provided in the National Standard For Drinking Water Quality
(NSDWQ) issued by the Ministry of Health (MOH). Water quality supplied from Water
Treatment Plants into SYABAS distribution system is systematically and randomly monitored
by MOH by way of sampling and testing under its Quality Assurance Programme (QAP).
Based on performance recorded by MOH, the treated water supplied by SYABAS is well
below the QAP limits. In 2012, a monthly average of 2,696 water samples were taken and
100,522 tests or analyses were carried out by MOH. The samples were taken from designated
water sampling stations located at the various treatment plant outlets, balancing reservoir
outlets, service reservoir outlets and in the distribution system. A total of 100,522 analyses
were carried out by MOH in 2012 and in overall 100% complied with the Mandatory Level of
Service (<4% of all samples breaches).

Table- Summary of 2010,2011 & 2012 MOH Water Quality Assessment


Based on Mandatory Level of Service (MLS) Compliance
Year 2010 2011 2012
Overall Compliance (%) 100% 100% 100%

II. In-House Water Quality Assessment

From June 2006, SYABAS has started the in-house Water Quality Sampling and Testing
Programme based on the same frequency of sampling and nature of parameters as listed in the
National Standard For Drinking Water Quality. In 2012, where grab samples were collected by
personnel from Districts Water Quality Units from the designated 1,107 sampling stations to
be analyzed in-situ and sent to a third party accredited laboratory for microbiological and
chemical analysis. Based on the existing number of sampling stations and the frequency of
sampling according to the National Standard for Drinking Water Quality, a monthly average of
1,841 samples were taken and 77,746 analyses was carried out. The results also showed that
the water quality was within the requirement of the Ministry of Health and the Mandatory
Levels of Service whereby 100% of the total 77,746 analyses had complied with the
Mandatory Level of Service.

Table- Summary of 2010, 2011 & 2012 In-House Water Quality Assessment
Based on Mandatory Level of Services (MLS) Compliance
Year 2010 2011 2012
Overall Compliance (%) 100% 100% 100%

Photographs depicting Water Quality Personnel Taking Samples From Water Sampling
Stations
Consumers Complaints
Water Quality Enhancement Programme [ Back to Main ]

The objective is to achieve a quick initial response time on all water quality complaints from
consumers followed by resolution of the complaint. Beginning March 2009, the initial
response time for water quality complaints was set at half an hour from one hour previously
and as at 31st December 2012, the compliance for this half hour response time was 93.90%.

The scope of work covers initial investigation involving in-situ testing on physical parameters
and taking the necessary remedial actions. A Water Quality Consumer complaint report has
also to be submitted. Consumers normally complaint on the aesthetic aspects of the drinking
water, hence field testing on the physical parameters (Turbidity, Colour, Residual Chlorine and
pH) using portable test kits to identify the level and nature of contaminants in the distribution
system. If the initial results obtained show no water quality violation, the consumers will be
advised to check their internal plumbing system. If violations are detected, appropriate
remedial actions will be taken and the distribution system will be retested to ensure the
contaminants have been removed. Remedial and resolution actions will be put into place so as
to effectively scour and remove contaminants by unidirectional flushing or using the air
scouring methods. Re-sampling will be done to determine the effectiveness of the resolution
action taken.

All complaints received are recorded and investigated to enable improvements to be made. The
most significant area of consumer complaint is on the occasions when long-term suspended
solids or iron deposits arising from corrosion in water mains have been disturbed and caused
water to be discoloured. The total number of consumer complaints received from 1st January
2012 31st December 2012 was 2,278, of which 20.98% were due to internal plumbing
problems.

Photographs depicting the Response to Water Quality Complaint


Sanitary Survey
Water Quality Enhancement Programme [ Back to Main ]

Sanitary survey is a programme conducted to assess the general impact that human activities
have on raw water resources and their corresponding quality. It is also carried out to access the
efficiency of the plants treatment process corresponding to the raw water components as well
as the treated water quality in the distribution lines.

A cross-sectional study with MOH and the respective District Health Office of the
overall water supply chain from the catchment, treatment process and distribution
system which provides for the opportunity of auditing the whole process. It provides
the platform to analyze if the water treated and supplied to the consumer is safe for
consumption.
Determine and rectified weaknesses and deficiencies in SYABAS operations &
maintenance of water supply system's components e.g reservoirs and sampling point
box (SPA)
WTP and Distribution System Sanitary Survey

Rivers Sanitary Survey

Consumer Awareness Programmes


Water Quality Enhancement Programme [ Back to Main ]

Consumer Awareness Programme (CAP) is an education campaign that was initiated in 2007 to create
immediate consumer awareness on water quality issues and to change their perceptions on water
quality.

The dissemination of knowledge via CAP is objectively to instill consumers confidence in the water
quality provided by SYABAS and that it is clean and safe for consumption because of the stringent
water quality monitoring activities carried out by Ministry of Health (MOH) and SYABAS.

The program also educates consumers to actively play their roles and responsibilities in preserving
the quality of water supplied to their premises by inspecting and maintaining the internal plumbing
systems regularly. It also counters misconceptions about household water filters that can sometimes
lead to deterioration of water quality at consumers premises; lack of maintenance, carry over, etc.

Since year 2010, the CAPs have been carried out on a bigger scale compared to the earlier years at
both the headquarters and district levels. The knowledge to be imparted is also delivered in a more
interactive atmosphere in the form of educational talk, dialogue, exhibition and demonstration. The
programme also touches on other water supply issues such as low water pressure, pipe bursts/ leaks,
billing problems, etc. Consumers from different types of categories are targeted such as the
residential, commercial and organizations (educational and medical institutions).

Summary of CAPs organized by Headquarters and Districts from Year 2010 to 2012
Year 2010 2011 2012
CAP events organized by HQ 15 20 28
CAP events organized by Districts 185 179 285
Note: NA Not available. CAP at districts level was only introduced in 2008.

Photographs Showing Events of Consumer Awareness Programme (CAP)

Intake

A river gate at the intake consists of motorised gates that control the river level. Raw water from the river is
channeled to the floating boom and a coarse screen that traps floating debris. The water then flows through
a rotating band screen that traps smaller debris where sediments settle into sand hoppers built into the floor
of the intake channel. Accumulated sediment is pumped out regularly with sand ejectors. The raw water
then flows to the raw water pump sump.

Raw water pumps

From here, the water is pumped to the treatment plant via a raw water pipe.

Aerator

At the treatment plant, the raw water enters the aerator, which is designed to create sufficient turbulence to
achieve a dissolved oxygen content of 80% saturation at ambient temperature. Pre-lime and a primary
coagulant, poly aluminium chloride (PACI) are added.

Mixing chamber
The raw water then flows to a flash mixing chamber where a flocculent aid (polyelectrolyte) is added to
enhance floc formation for easier removal in the clarification process.

Clarifiers (shown above)

Clarifiers perform the function of floc concentration, collection and discharge. Settled water overflows into
collection channels for onward flow to the filters.

Filters

Rapid gravity sand filters perform the task of removing fine particles that have not settled in the clarification
process. Clarified water is filtered through a sand filter media to trap unsettled particles.

Fluoridation

The filtered water is collected at the filtered water channel where sodium silicofluoride is added and then
flows to a clear water tank.

Disinfection and pH correction

In the clear water tank, chlorine is added for disinfection and tests are carried out to ensure the treated
water is free from pathogenic organisms. Hydrated lime is added for pH correction.

The clear water tank

The tank provides sufficient contact time for the disinfection and conditioning chemicals to work on the
water as part of the treatment process.

Treated water pumps

These are used to pump clean and treated water from the balancing reservoir or the clear water tank to the
state water supply distribution company.

Balancing reservoir

Treated water stored here is gravitated towards smaller service reservoirs that cater to the needs of the
consumers. A custody transfer flowmeter records the volume of water supplied to the distribution company.

Water quality monitoring

Treated water quality is tested in the plant laboratory to ensure that water passing through the plant is
always clean and safe for consumption. An independent external testing laboratory is also engaged to
ensure water quality compliance.

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)


The SCADA system allows all functions of the plant to be automated and monitored from the control room.

Sludge lagoons

Sludge lagoons are provided for the storage and drying of sludge. The lagoons are used in rotation. As one
lagoon is filled, it is isolated for drying and wet sludge is channeled into an adjacent lagoon. Dried sludge is
removed for disposal as a landfillat sludge depository.