© All Rights Reserved

6 views

© All Rights Reserved

- Tecumseh Service Handbook
- Bascom Avr Theory
- 24911026 Megger Book the Complete Guide to Electrical Insulation Testing
- VQfrem 400-V6 02ang
- FICM Diagnosis & Repair
- A Novel PWM High Voltage Conversion Ratio Bi
- Mod- 5 Dccurrentnew
- PCB_LAY
- Intro to Electricity
- High Tension Transformer Protection
- Soil Moisture Sensor Introduction
- 5100W Manual Macro
- TCSC
- ANSI C93.1-1999 Coupling Capacitor Voltage
- LTpowerCAD Quick Start Guide
- Exp 3
- STbook18B
- Microchips 2ed
- Voltage vs Current in a Resistor Capacitor or Inductor
- SMB060-0273101229

You are on page 1of 13

Physics 107

Introduction

In this experiment, we will study charging a capacitor by connecting it to an emf

source through a resistor. The experiment also includes the study of discharging

phenomena of a capacitor through a resistor.

Objectives

To study charging and discharging process through capacitors.

Equipment to be Used:

Electronic design experimenter.

220 k resistor.

470 F capacitor.

Multimeter.

Stopwatch.

Connection wires.

Experiment 3 45

Theory

Charging a Capacitor:

Consider a circuit as shown in Figure 1. Capacitor C is initially uncharged, by

closing the switch S a current i is setup in the loop and the capacitor begins to

charge. Applying Kirchos loop rule, we get

Q

iR = 0, (1)

C

Where is the electromotive force (dc voltage supply), R is the resistor, Q is the

dQ

charge of the capacitor and C is the capacitance. Substituting dt for the current i,

Equation (1) becomes

dQ Q

R = 0, (2)

dt C

dQ Q

= . (3)

dt R RC

Q = C 1 et/RC , (4)

Experiment 3 46

Ce = Qo , which represents the maximum charge the capacitor can hold for a given

emf. The voltage across the capacitor Vc is given as

Q

Vc = . (5)

C

Dividing Equation (4) by C yields

Vc = 1 et/RC . (6)

At a specic value of time t = = RC (called the time constant of the R-C circuit),

Vc = 1 e1 . (7)

or

Vc = 0.63 . (8)

Therefore, by plotting Vc versus t, the time constant may be determined, and hence,

the value of C can be calculated, provided R is known.

Equation (6) shows that the growth of the capacitors voltage is not linear, but rather

grows exponentially reaching a saturation value which equals the voltage of the emf

source. The capacitor is considered to be fully charged after a period of about ve

time constants.

The current i in the circuit at a given time t is given as

dQ

i= = et/RC . (9)

dt R

where R = io represents the initial current in the circuit.

Therefore, we can write

i = io et/RC . (10)

At a time t = , i = io e1 , or

i = 0.37 io . (11)

Experiment 3 47

Power relation:

Energy considerations give us additional insight into the behavior of an R-C circuit.

While the capacitor is charging, the instantaneous rate at which the battery delivers

energy to the circuit is

P = i . (12)

PR = i2R. On the other hand the rate at which energy is stored in the capacitor

is PC = i Vc = i Q

C

. According to energy conservation principle, the power supplied

by the battery equals the sum of the power dissipated in the resistor and the power

stored in the capacitor, i.e.: P = PR + PC .

Discharging a Capacitor:

For the discharging process, consider the circuit shown in Figure 2. After closing

the switch S for a long time (compared to the circuits time constant), the capacitor

will be fully charged to a value of Q = C . As the switch is opened, the power

supply is disconnected from the circuit and the capacitor starts to discharge through

the resistor.

Experiment 3 48

Following the same procedure as for the charging analysis, the dierential equation

that characterizes the discharging process is given as

dQ Q

R = 0. (13)

dt C

The solution to Equation (13) is given as

Q = Cet/RC . (14)

Equation (14) determines the charge on the capacitor at as a function of time t.

The voltage across the capacitor Vc :

Vc = et/RC . (15)

At time t = = RC (the time constant), Vc becomes

Vc = e1 , (16)

or

Vc = 0.37. (17)

The current i in the circuit is given as

dQ

i= = et/RC , (18)

dt R

where R = io represents the initial current in the discharging circuit. Therefore, we

can write

i = io et/RC , (19)

At time t = , the current i = io e1 , or

i = 0.37 io (20)

The minus sign may be ignored and it implies that the charge is decreasing with

time. Therefore by plotting i versus t, the time constant can be determined, and

hence, the value of C can be calculated, if R is known.

time constants.

Experiment 3 49

Procedure

Part One: Charging a capacitor (Voltage vs time)

1) Connect the circuit as shown in Figure 1 (make sure that the lead of the

capacitor at the arrow head side is connected to the ground).

2) Turn on the power supply, and set the output of the power supply to 10 V.

that it is completely discharged.

7) Repeat steps above for time corresponding to the same values of Vc and record

your results as t2 in Table 1.

9) Plot a graph for Vc versus tavg from which determine and calculate C.

Experiment 3 50

Table 1.

1) Connect the circuit as shown in Figure 1 (make sure that the lead of the

capacitor at the arrow head side is connected to the ground).

2) Turn on the power supply, and set the output of the power supply to 10V.

that it is completely discharged.

Experiment 3 51

7) Repeat steps above for time corresponding to the same values of VR and record

your results as t2 in Table 2.

measured

record it in Table 2.

10) Plot a graph for i versus tavg from which determine and calculate C.

10

2

Experiment 3 52

Power relation:

1) Refer to Table 3 and the graph of Vc versus tavg obtained from the rst part

of the experiment. For each value of time t in Table 3 find the corresponding

value of Vc from the graph and record it in Table 3.

2) Similarly, Refer to Table 3 and the graph of i versus tavg obtained from the

second part of the experiment. For each value of time t in Table 3 find the

corresponding value of i from the graph and record it in Table 3.

quantities.

Table 3.

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

.......................................................................................................................

Experiment 3 53

1) Connect the circuit as shown in Figure 2 (make sure that the lead of the

capacitor at the arrow head side is connected to the ground).

3) Close the switch S. This will cause the capacitor to charge up immediately.

of the stopwatch and record the time as t1 in Table 4 and remove the pause

of the stopwatch.

7) Repeat steps above for time corresponding to the same values of Vc and record

your results as t2 in Table 4.

9) Plot a graph for Vc versus tavg from which bf determine and calculate C.

Experiment 3 54

Table 4.

10

1) Connect the circuit as shown in Figure 2 (make sure that the lead of the

capacitor at the arrow head side is connected to the ground).

3) Close the switch S. This will cause the capacitor to charge up immediately.

of the stopwatch and record the time as t1 in Table 5 and remove the pause

of the stopwatch.

Experiment 3 55

7) Repeat steps above for time corresponding to the same values of VR and record

your results as t2 in Table 5.

measured

write it in Table 5.

10) Plot a graph of i versus tavg from which determine and calculate C.

Table 5.

10

2

Experiment 3 56

Ctheoretical Cexperimental

100 = .....................................................

Ctheoretical

Conclusion:

- Tecumseh Service HandbookUploaded byOscar Rodríguez
- Bascom Avr TheoryUploaded byTariq
- 24911026 Megger Book the Complete Guide to Electrical Insulation TestingUploaded byTimmyJuri
- VQfrem 400-V6 02angUploaded byИванаЖивковић
- FICM Diagnosis & RepairUploaded byTrey
- A Novel PWM High Voltage Conversion Ratio BiUploaded byshanofa
- Mod- 5 DccurrentnewUploaded byapi-3766872
- PCB_LAYUploaded byLoredana Paun
- Intro to ElectricityUploaded byjithabhasu
- High Tension Transformer ProtectionUploaded bylokesh_045
- Soil Moisture Sensor IntroductionUploaded byAziz Khan Kakar
- 5100W Manual MacroUploaded byOlga Lucia Meza Barragan
- TCSCUploaded bysabarish0801
- ANSI C93.1-1999 Coupling Capacitor VoltageUploaded byTerefe Tadesse
- LTpowerCAD Quick Start GuideUploaded byTirla Daniel
- Exp 3Uploaded byRokr de Laza
- STbook18BUploaded bySamuel Kins
- Microchips 2edUploaded byMichelle Marzan Caranguian
- Voltage vs Current in a Resistor Capacitor or InductorUploaded bysaga2000cn
- SMB060-0273101229Uploaded byMubasher Saeed
- Square Wave ResponseUploaded byManju
- Topic 5.3 - Electric CellsUploaded byPaul Amezquita
- AV32D303M SchematicUploaded byLuis Moreno
- seminor1.pdfUploaded byAnonymous ZvUnduO4qM
- 16-17.pdfUploaded bymachevallie
- 300_Alrudainy_48_slides_modify1.pptxUploaded byHaider Alrudainy
- 20332Uploaded byshehnozmohd
- Phys 212 Sp 2013 Exam 2c KeyUploaded byEK
- Flyer CapacitivUploaded bybuturcas
- HDL ReportUploaded byAmith Prabhakar

- BODUploaded byPrem Shanker Rawat
- Basic Environmental Modelling (2014 Modified)Uploaded bySabDiazSameem
- sem4Uploaded bySabDiazSameem
- DEN438 1st sit Solutions 2017.docUploaded bySabDiazSameem
- 05 - Cap Charge-Discharge 8-14-08Uploaded bySabDiazSameem
- Conduction 1Uploaded bySabDiazSameem
- Book WodfdfdrldUploaded bySabDiazSameem

- Regeneration of ZVS Converter with Resonant InductorUploaded byeditor9891
- The FREE Nature of ENERGY (Learn How to TAP the Planet's Energy Fields to Provide for All of Your Needs)Uploaded byUse Sanchez
- PDP4206EM Service ManualUploaded byLeonel Vilchez
- DeviceCraftDCmotorController_1015BUploaded bybetortita
- LME49600Uploaded byJCM
- AC Circut AnalysisUploaded byhthaier4062
- Tuning_GuideUploaded byJoshua Diotte
- Ee0403 Power System OperationUploaded bykaren dejo
- PIC 16C52 MicrochipUploaded byAbel Perez Picaso
- Improving the Accuracy of a Crystal OscillatorUploaded byravi245
- 39644lUploaded byMalith Madushan
- Internship Report PTESU Muhammad Ali TehseenUploaded byMuhammad Ali Tehseen
- Power Systems ProtectionUploaded byTroy Keuodo
- ULTRASONIC WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION FOR MEDICAL IMPLANTABLE DEVICESUploaded bySmiyaJohnson
- 02 DiodesUploaded byemmanuel_om
- Electric Potential and Capacitors SolutionsUploaded bydayanandan1
- KF Series_1767828587Uploaded byanotherstupidregistr
- h7cf99-psoln2Uploaded byKoraKaagaz
- Service Manual Indico 100 - 740855Uploaded byManuel Perez Rodriguez
- Basciftci and HatayUploaded byLong Nguyen
- Star Hspice (2)Uploaded bysujith_jinka2009
- LME49830Uploaded byAlkanza Nadaf
- Short Ant CESmith 1947Uploaded byNestor Escala
- Bridgeless Buck Pfc Rectifier With Voltage Doubler OutputUploaded byakshaya5293
- P341_EN M_F33Uploaded byArun Kumar
- TR6102Uploaded byChir Chiric
- 7UM62xx Catalog SIP-2006 EnUploaded byprasanta_bbsr
- Parcijalna Praznjenja i TgdeltaUploaded bywizardgrt
- Xiria Technical Specifications EnUploaded bycatalincc
- 08. Appropriate Use of Hand Tools, Machine Tools and Measuring Instruments for Fabrication and Repair on BoardUploaded byPutra Saputra