ph101 lt answers

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ph101 lt answers

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27 Jan 2017

Modus Tollens: [q & (pq)] -p

Hypothetical Syllogism

A1

(i) If Mozart (a) was Austrian (Px) and a genius (Qx), then there

are some Austrian geniuses.

1. Pa ^ Qa A

2. Vx (Px -Qx) A

3. Pa TI,1

4. Pa-Qa US,2

5. Qa TI,3,4

6. Qa TI,1

7. Vx(Px-Qx)(Qa^-Qa) CP2-6

8. Vx(Px-Qx) TI,7

9. (Pa^Qa)-Vx(Px-Qx) CP1-8

Conclude that it is true.

(iii) Mozart was Austrian and a genius, but there are no Austrian

geniuses.

(Pa^Qa)&Vx(Px-Qx) A

Vx(Px-Qx)

P

Q TI,1

Vx(Px) Ex(Px) A

Vx(Px) A (Cannot assume the whole thing, just

the first part)

Pa US,2

Ex(Px) EG,3

[For a if then statement, assume the first part and do a conditional proof

the latter part. For this statement, which isnt an if then, use reduction

ad absurdium]

Vx(Px)&-Ex(-Px&Qx)

1. VxPx&Ex(-Px&Qx) A

2. VxPx TI,1

3. Pa US,2

4. Ex(-Pa&Qa) TI,1

5. Pa ES,4

6. Pa&-Pa ES,4

7. [VxPx&Ex(-Px&Qx)}(Pa^-Pa) CP1-6

8. [VxPx&Ex(-Px&Qx)] Ti,7 (Reductio ad absurdium)

Logically false

A2:

Why if a sentence entails something that is false validly, then the

sentence must be false.

True premises and a false conclusion means that it is invalid.

inconsistent iff the single sentence s1 & s2 & ...& sn is logically false.

formalising them in the language of predicate logic and then producing an

appropriate proof. (Use method 1 for the first example, and method 2 for

the other two.)

(ii) {If all logicians are smart then no logician is slow (Rx); Some logicians

are slow but there are no non-smart logicians}

non-smart logicians mean that if you are a logician you are smart for the

highlighted bits below: Trying to get a contradiction so trying to force it

look the same, which is why you must change the highlighted bits.

(VxPxQx)

1. Vx(PxQx) -Ex(Px&Rx) A

2. Ex(Px&Rx)& (VxPxQx) A

3. Ex(Px&Rx) TI,2

4. Ex(Px&Rx)-Vx(PxQx) TI,1

5. Vx(PxQx) TI,4

6. Vx(PxQx) TI,2

7. (Vx(PxQx))&-(Vx(PxQx)) 5,6

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