You are on page 1of 3

PH101 Logic LT WK 3 Class

27 Jan 2017

Tautology Cheat Sheet

Modus Ponens: [p & (pq)] q


Modus Tollens: [q & (pq)] -p
Hypothetical Syllogism
A1

(i) If Mozart (a) was Austrian (Px) and a genius (Qx), then there
are some Austrian geniuses.

(Pa ^ Qa) -Vx (Px -Qx)


1. Pa ^ Qa A
2. Vx (Px -Qx) A
3. Pa TI,1
4. Pa-Qa US,2
5. Qa TI,3,4
6. Qa TI,1
7. Vx(Px-Qx)(Qa^-Qa) CP2-6
8. Vx(Px-Qx) TI,7
9. (Pa^Qa)-Vx(Px-Qx) CP1-8

Started with thinking that you wanted to use proof by contradiction.


Conclude that it is true.

(iii) Mozart was Austrian and a genius, but there are no Austrian
geniuses.

(Pa^Qa)&Vx(Px-Qx) A
Vx(Px-Qx)
P
Q TI,1

(vi) If everything is physical (Px), then something is physical.

Vx(Px) Ex(Px) A
Vx(Px) A (Cannot assume the whole thing, just
the first part)
Pa US,2
Ex(Px) EG,3

(vii) Everything is physical but there are some non-physical souls

[For a if then statement, assume the first part and do a conditional proof
the latter part. For this statement, which isnt an if then, use reduction
ad absurdium]

Vx(Px)&-Ex(-Px&Qx)
1. VxPx&Ex(-Px&Qx) A
2. VxPx TI,1
3. Pa US,2
4. Ex(-Pa&Qa) TI,1
5. Pa ES,4
6. Pa&-Pa ES,4
7. [VxPx&Ex(-Px&Qx)}(Pa^-Pa) CP1-6
8. [VxPx&Ex(-Px&Qx)] Ti,7 (Reductio ad absurdium)

Logically false

A2:
Why if a sentence entails something that is false validly, then the
sentence must be false.
True premises and a false conclusion means that it is invalid.

*If the conclusion is false, premises must have been false.

For example in (vii), step 6 is a contradiction so the whole thing is false.

B1: (i) Explain carefully why a finite set of sentences S = {s1,s2,...,sn} is


inconsistent iff the single sentence s1 & s2 & ...& sn is logically false.

Short method: assume single sentences as premises within an argument

B2: Show that the following sets of sentences are inconsistent by


formalising them in the language of predicate logic and then producing an
appropriate proof. (Use method 1 for the first example, and method 2 for
the other two.)

(ii) {If all logicians are smart then no logician is slow (Rx); Some logicians
are slow but there are no non-smart logicians}

implication for ifare so

non-smart logicians mean that if you are a logician you are smart for the
highlighted bits below: Trying to get a contradiction so trying to force it
look the same, which is why you must change the highlighted bits.

Vx(PxQx) -Ex(Px&Rx), Ex(Px&Rx)&-Ex(Px&-Qx)] can be changed to


(VxPxQx)
1. Vx(PxQx) -Ex(Px&Rx) A
2. Ex(Px&Rx)& (VxPxQx) A
3. Ex(Px&Rx) TI,2
4. Ex(Px&Rx)-Vx(PxQx) TI,1
5. Vx(PxQx) TI,4
6. Vx(PxQx) TI,2
7. (Vx(PxQx))&-(Vx(PxQx)) 5,6