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LANGUAGE IN INDIA

Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow

Volume 4 : 8 August 2004


Editor: M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D.
Associate Editors: B. Mallikarjun, Ph.D.
Sam Mohanlal, Ph.D.
B. A. Sharada, Ph.D.

HOME BOOKS FOR YOU TO REFERENCE BACK CONTACT


PAGE  READ AND DOWNLOAD MATERIALS   ISSUES  EDITOR


A LINGUISTIC STUDY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE CURRICULUM


AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL IN BANGLADESH -
A COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
Md. Kamrul Hasan, Ph.D.

Contents

PREFACE 

LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS USED 

LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES 

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION 

CHAPTER 2
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION AND PROFICIENCY IN ENGLISH 

CHAPTER 3
LANGUAGE TEACHING THEORIES AND THEIR IMPLICATION
A REVIEW OF ENGLISH CURRICULUM IN BANGLADESH 

CHAPTER 4
LANGUAGE TEACHING THEORIES AND THEIR IMPLICATION
A REVIEW OF ENGLISH TEACHING MATERIALS IN BANGLADESH
CHAPTER 5
LANGUAGE TEACHING THEORIES AND THEIR IMPLICATION
A REVIEW OF ELT CLASSROOM STRATEGIES IN BANGLADESH 

CHAPTER 6
REVIEW OF TESTING SCHEME AND EVALUATION POLICY OF
ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING (ELT) IN BANGLADESH 

CHAPTER 7
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 

APPENDIX A
SYLLABUS AND DISTRIBUTION OF MARKS 

APPENDIX B
QUESTION PAPERS 

APPENDIX C
QUESTIONNAIRES 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

DETAILED LIST OF CONTENTS 

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LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS USED

Symbols/ abbreviations Expressions


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#"!"!.1/>


LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES

Table No.  Page No.


2.1 Student¶s proficiency levels as viewed by students  19
2.2 Student¶s proficiency levels in four basic skills as viewed by 20
students 
2.3 Students proficiency levels as viewed by teachers 21
2.4 Extent of use of English in classroom discussion as view by 23
students
2.5 Extent of students' participation in pair/group work as viewed by 23
students 
2.6 Extent of practising four skills as viewed by students 24
2.7 Students' use of English in real life as viewed by students 25
2.8 Extent of students' use of English as viewed by teacher 26
2.9 Teachers' proficiency levels as viewed by teachers  31
2.10 Extent of teachers' use of English as perceived by teachers  32
3.1 Grammatical syllabus  41
3.2 Collaborative balanced syllabus  45
3.3 Extract from NCTB syllabus for class 10 67
3.4 Number of new vocabulary to be introduced in different classes  68
5.1 Students' perception of EL needs  128
5.2 Students' EL needs as viewed by teachers  130
5.3 Students' perception of needs of language skills 133
5.4 Extent of practising four skills as viewed by students  134
5.5 Extent of use of English in classroom discussion as viewed by 135
students
5.6 Extent of students' participation in pair/group work as viewed by 136
students
5.7 Students' view of how they learn more 137
5.8 Teachers' knowledge of different methods 138
5.9 Teachers' arrangement of use of language for communication  140
5.10 Students' participation in pair/group work as viewed by teachers  141
5.11 Teachers' preference of different aspects of language 142
learning/teaching 
6.1 Techniques of testing language skills 149-150

LIST OF FIGURES USED

Fig. No.  Page No.


3.1  Product and process Syllabuses 40
3.2  Components of communicative task  47
3.3 Language acquisition device (LAD) 53
3.4  The input/out system in language development  54
5.1 Teaching language as communication  109
5.2  Teaching language as discourse 110
5.3 Colour chart  111
5.4 Mariam's family  112
5.5  Imperative symbols  113
5.6 Story telling activity  120
7.1  Integration of four levels of curriculum development  170

#"!"!.1/>

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 World English

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1.3.1 ELT needs in Bangladesh

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#"!"!.1/>

CHAPTER 2
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION AND PROFICIENCY IN ENGLISH IN
BANGLADESH
2.1 Social variables in Bangladesh

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2.2.1 Urban versus rural

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Options  Urban Urban Rural Rural


school (100) madrasah school (100) madrasah
(50) (50)

Very good None none None None

Good  34 11 23 8


Average  27 11 20 14

Weak  12 11 14 6

Did not respond 27 17 43 22

Table 2.1: Students' proficiency level as viewed by students

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urban schools urban rural schools rural
(100) madrasahs (100) madrasahs
(50) (50)

 L S R W L S R W L S R W L S R W
Very good 12 7 12 8 2 ² 5 5 10 ² 17 5 ² ² ² ²

Good  35 37 40 40 15 17 30 27 35 38 38 31 13 13 19 17
Average  28 31 40 42 23 20 13 14 31 37 41 39 16 9 16 17

Weak  25 25 8 10 10 13 2 4 24 25 4 25 31 28 15 16

Table 2.2: Students proficiency in four basic skills as viewed by students

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teachers who
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Urban schools 35 28

Rural schools 35 11

Urban madrasahs  15 5

Rural madrasahs 15 Nil

Table 2.3: Students proficiency levels as viewed by teachers

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2.3.2.1 Extent of students' use of English as viewed by the students

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Table 2.4: Extent of use of English in classroom discussion as viewed by students

 S t u d e n t s a m p l e s ( 3 0 0 ) 

Options  Urban  Ru ral

School (100) Madrasah School (100) Madrasah


(50) (50)

Always  13 ² ² ²

Sometimes  81 40 86 37


Rarely  6 8 10 13

Never  ² ² 4 ²

Did not ² 2 ² ²
answer

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Table 2.5: Extent of students' participation is pair/group work/discussion as viewed by


students

 S t u d e n t s a m p l e s ( 3 0 0 ) 
Options  Urban  Ru ral

School (100) Madrasah School (100) Madrasah


(50) (50)

Always  11 ² ² ²

Very often 11  8 7


Sometimes  72 40 78 30
Rarely  6 8 8 10

Never  ² ² 4 3

Did not ² 2 ² ²
answer

Table 2.6: Extent of practising four skills as viewed by students

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Use of English  School Madrasah 

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(50)
Use English in family 22 13 10 6
environment
Listen to TV news in 53 34 14 6
English and see English
TV programmes 
Speak in English with 59 41 19 14
teachers and other
students in the English
class (sometimes)

Read English 37 7 5 Nil 


newspapers

Read English books 37 10 5 5

Write letters in English  3 Nil  Nil  Nil 

Table 2.7: Students' use of English in real life as viewed by students

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news, see
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programmes 

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English with
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class
(sometimes)

Read Nil nil 22 25 3 nil nil nil 23 27
English
newspapers

Read Nil nil 12 32 6 nil nil  24 26


English
books

Write letters Nil nil Nil 16 34 nil nil 10 9 31
in English 

Table 2.8: Extent of students' use of English as viewed by teachers

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Table 2.9: Teachers' proficiency levels as perceived by teachers


(Note: *One urban teacher ticked two options.)

 T e a c h e r s a m p l e s ( 1 0 0 ) 
 Urban school (35) Rural school (35) Urban madrasah Rural madrasah
 (15) (15)
S V Go Me W Ve V Go Me W Ve V Go Me W Ve V Go Me W Ve

ki er od diu e ry er od diu e ry er od diu e ry er od diu e ry


   
lls  y m a we y m a we y m a we y m a we
       
go k ak go k ak go k ak go k ak
       
od od od od
   
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ding 
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ting

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 School Madrasah 

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and TV news and
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programs

Speak in English 27 22 9 5


with colleagues
and others

Read English 5 Nil  Nil  Nil 


books for pleasure

Read English 24 14 5 Nil 


newspapers

Table 2.10: Extent of teachers' use of English as perceived by teachers

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#"!"!.1/>

CHAPTER 3
LANGUAGE TEACHING THEORIES AND THEIR IMPLICATION: A
REVIEW OF ENGLISH CURRICULUM IN BANGLADESH

3.1 Curriculum and its definition

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3.3.4 Syllabus specification

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Figure 3.1: Product and process syllabuses

3.3.4.1 Product oriented syllabus


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3.3.4.4 An eclectic approach: A collaborative balanced syllabus

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CHAPTER 4
LANGUAGE TEACHING THEORIES AND THEIR IMPLICATION: A
REVIEW OF ENGLISH TEACHING MATERIALS IN BANGLADESH

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#"!"!.1/>

CHAPTER 5
LANGUAGE TEACHING THEORIES AND THEIR IMPLICATION: A
REVIEW OF ELT CLASSROOM STRATEGIES IN BANGLADESH

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The first man-made fibre

NYLON (a) ______ (invent) in the early 1930s by an American chemist, Julian Hill. Other
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(introduce) to the world. It was cheap and immediately (d) ________ (become) successful,
especially in the making of ladies¶ stockings.

During the Second World War, the best present for many women was a pair nylon
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Today, nylon (f) _______ (find) in many things: carpets, ropes, sit-belts, furniture,
computers, and even spare parts of human body.

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Occupation:  Occupation:  Occupation: Engineer

Hobbies: Hobbies: Reading Hobbies: Reading

Birth: 10 Nov, 1957 Birth:  Birth: 10 Dec, 1956

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lecture

Use English with others 29 27 19 13

Read English books and 37 00 5 00


newspapers
Get good jobs 79 51 21 20

Use internet 13 00 02 00

Watch TV programs 26 19 3 3

Write letters 4 2 2 0

Table 5.1: Students¶ perception of their EL needs 

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Table 5.3: Students¶ perception of needs of language skills

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Table 5.5: Extent of use of English in classroom discussion as viewed by students

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Table 5.6: Extent of students¶ participation is pair/group work/discussion as


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CHAPTER 6
A REVIEW OF TESTING SCHEME AND EVALUATION POLICY OF
ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING (ELT) IN BANGLADESH

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For Madrasahs and Madrasah Education Board

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APPENDIX A
SYLLABUS AND DISTRIBUTION OF MARKS
(Prescribed by the NCTB for the secondary and higher secondary education
boards.)
English - Class 9 -10

1. Introduction

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2. The structures previously introduced in the Junior Secondary syllabus should be revised.
These should include the following:

a) Use of have to  Example: To maintain your health,


you have to do certain things
Function: for obligation/necessity.
b) Use of (in order) to Example: To do well, Tareq worked
very hard. 
Function: expressing purpose
c)  1st conditional: if + present tense + Example: If you learn to type, you
will. will have a useful skill.

With the function of specifying


future conditions and consequences.
d) 2nd conditional: If + past tense + Example: 1. If I had a lot of money,
would/could/might. I would/could/might buy a lot of
books. 2. What would you do if you
With the function of speculating
had a lot of money.
about imaginary improbable future
conditions.
e) The passive mode Example: 1. Tareq's air ticket was
bought for him.
Function: to describe actions done
to something (particularly when not 2. The Wears Towers were built by
wishing to specify the agent). a famous Bangladeshi architect.
f) Use of 'it' Example: It is true that Tareq went
to New York.
With the function of 'empty'
subject.
g) Use of must/mustn't Example: Students must always
work hard. They mustn't be lazy.
Function: expressing obligation.
h) Present Continuous Example: Tareq is returning to
Bangladesh from New York next
With the function of talking about week.
future events.

! 
   
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1 Use of present perfect with Example: 1. After Tareq has landed


after/when, with the function of in New York, he will meet his
predicting a cause & effect sequence friends.
of events in the future.
2. When you have passed the SSC,
you will be happy.
2 Use of the past perfect tense + with Example: 1. Tareq's father had
+ before/after. worked in Jamalpur for ten years
before he was transferred to
Sonapur.

2. When I met him, he has worked


in Sonapur for three years.
3 Use of -ing clause + by /without Example: 1. You cannot learn a
foreign language without practising
With the function of defining cause
it regularly.
& effect relations.
2. By smoking cigarettes, you can
spoil your health.
4 Use of -ing/-ed within a clause. Example: 1. Sunlight falling on the
pond can heat the brine.
With the function of qualifying the
subject. 2. Heat absorbed from the sunlight
is trapped in the bottom layer.
5 Use of can could + Example: 1. Tareq couldn't see any
see/hear/understand. rickshaws in New York.

With the function of describing 2. Tareq's friends could understand


ability. American English very easily.
6 Further uses of Example: 1. You might like to learn
may/might/should & ought to. French.

With the function of expressing 2. If you do, you ought to buy a


possibility or obligation. good dictionary.
7 Use of though/although + clause. Example: 1. Although the sea is
calm, it might become rough.
With the function of talking about
contrasting, but related 2. Even though the sea was calm,
circumstances. nobody wanted to swim in it.
8 Use of question tags: can/can't they? Example: 1. Tareq can't fly a plane,
do they/don't they? can he?

With the function of checking or 2. You do want to eat spaghetti,


confirming. don't you?
9 Use of be + adj. +phrase. Example: 1. Shanti is good at
swimming.
With the function of describing
capabilities and characteristics. 2. Abdul is afraid of spiders.
10 Use of be + adj. + to + verb. Example: 1. Tareq was happy to see
his friend in New York. 
With the function of describing
feelings in relation to circumstances. 2. He was surprised to see such high
buildings there.
11 Use of NP + verb + NP + infinitive. Example: 1. The headmaster
wanted the students to visit
With the function of expressing
different offices.
desires/making polite requests.
2. He was surprised to see such high
building there.
12 Use of NP + verb + NP + adj./adv.  Example: 1. Tareq ate his breakfast
With function of describing manner. quickly.

2. Teacher should make their


lessons interesting.
13 Use of verb + object + -ing. Example: 1. Tareq saw Samira
talking to the other students.
With the function of describing
present events.  2. The students saw the train
coming.
14 Use of when/after/while + future Example: 1. When Tareq arrives in
clause.  New York, he will see his friends.

With the function of describing a 2. While Traeq is in New York, he


future event in the future. will eat many different kinds of
food.
15 Use of verb with how to. Example: Tareq's friends showed
him how to eat spaghetti because he
With the function of expressing
didn't know how to eat it.
manner.
16 Use of the phrases: the place where/ Example: 1. The place where the
the time when. students lived was called Malahati.

With the function of indicating 2. The time when the students


either place or time. returned to their hostel was past
midnight.

3. Topics/Themes

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APPENDIX B
QUESTION PAPERS

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APPENDIX C
QUESTIONNAIRES

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Breen, M. 1987. Learner contributions to task design. In Candlin, C. and D.


Murphy. 1987. in   
. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Perntice-Hall
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DETAILED LIST OF CONTENTS

Chapters  Page no.


Preface  v
List of symbols and abbreviations  vii
List of tables  viii
List of figures  ix
Contents x
Chapter - 1 Introduction 1
1.1 World English 1

ELT in Bangladesh: A historical sketch


1.2 1
Pre-colonial period
1.2.1 2
Colonial period 
1.2.2 2
Post colonial period 
1.2.3 5
The present state
1.2.4 6
English the in curriculum of Bangladesh
1.3 7
ELT policy in Bangladesh

1.4 The existing curriculum 7


1.5 The national curriculum  8

1.5.1 Place of English in the national curriculum  9

1.5.1.1 The scope of study 10

1.6 10
Chapter - 2 Social stratification and proficiency in English in  14

Bangladesh 
2.1 Social variables in Bangladesh  14

2.2 Social strata and students¶ proficiency levels  15

2.2.1 Urban versus rural 15

2.2.2 Rich versus poor 15

Male versus female 


2.2.3 16

Different types of schools and different levels of proficiency


2.3 17
Information by and from the learners and the teachers 
2.3.1 18
Students' proficiency levels as viewed by students
2.3.1.1 18
Students' proficiency levels as viewed by teachers 
2.3.1.2 20
Extent of students' use of English 
2.3.2 21
Extent of students' use of English as viewed by students
2.3.2.1 21
Extent of students' use of English as viewed by teachers
2.3.2.2 26
Different types of teaching materials 
2.4 28
2.5 Teachers' proficiency levels  29

2.5.1 Teachers' proficiency levels as viewed by teachers 30

2.5.2 Extent of teachers¶ use of English  32

2.5.3 Teacher training  33

2.6 Conclusion  34


Chapter - 3 Language teaching theories and their implication: A  35

review of the English curriculum in Bangladesh


3.1 Curriculum and its definition 35

Relations of curriculum, syllabus and methodology


3.2 36

Stages in curriculum development 


3.3 37

Needs analysis 
3.3.1 38

Policy making 
3.3.2 39

Setting objectives 
3.3.3 39

Syllabus specification 
3.3.4 40

Product oriented syllabus 


3.3.4.1 40

Structural/grammatical syllabus
3.3.4.1.1 40

Notional - functional syllabus 


3.3.4.1.2 42

Process oriented syllabus 


3.3.4.2 42

Communicative syllabus
3.3.4.3 43
3.3.4.4 An eclectic approach: A collaborative balanced syllabus  44

3.3.5 Syllabus layout  45

3.3.5.1 Selection and grading in communicative syllabus  46

3.3.5.1.1 Selection and grading of structures  46

3.3.5.1.2 Selection and grading of language functions  46

3.3.5.1.3 Ordering structures within functions  46

3.3.5.1.4 Selection and grading of topics  47

3.3.5.1.5 Designing and grading tasks 47

3.4 Different approaches 48

3.4.1 Behaviourist approach  50

3.4.2 Mentalistic approach  52

3.4.3 Cognitive approach  54

3.4.4 Communicative approaches  55

3.4.4.1 Proficiency in a second or foreign language 55

3.5 The NCTB curriculum of English (secondary levels) 58

3.5.1 Syllabus checklist 60

3.5.1.1 Objectives set out 60

3.5.1.2 Class-wise competencies in terms of four skills 61


3.5.1.2.1 Speaking skill 61

3.5.1.2.2 Listening skill 62

3.5.1.2.3 Reading skill 63

3.5.1.2.4 Writing skill 64

3.5.1.2.5 Integration of the four skills 65

3.5.1.3 Syllabus contents 66

3.5.1.3.1 Structures and functions  66

3.5.1.3.2 Topics/themes 68

3.5.1.3.3 Vocabulary 68

3.5.1.3.4 Handwriting  69

3.5.1.3.5 Poetry 69

3.5.1.3.6 Dialogues and drama 69

3.5.1.3.7 Values 70

3.5.1.4 Textbooks and teaching aids 70

3.5.1.5 Teaching methodology 71

3.5.1.6 Other components of the curriculum  71

3.5.2 Syllabus of Madrasah Education Board  71

3.6 Conclusion  73


Chapter - 4 Language teaching theories and their implication: A  74

review of English teaching materials used in Bangladesh 


4.1 Introduction  74

4.2 The case of textbooks of ELT/L in Bangladesh 74

4.3 ELT/L materials of Bangladesh  77

4.3.1 Materials used in general education sub-system  77

4.3.2 Materials used in madrasah education sub-system 77

4.4 Setting yardsticks to evaluate a communicative textbook 78

4.4.1 Review of 


# series  78

4.4.2 Case of supplementary books  94

4.4.3 Review of textbooks of Madrasah Education Board  97

4.5 Conclusion  99


Chapter - 5 Language teaching theories and their implication: A  100

review of ELT classroom strategies adopted in Bangladesh 


5.1 Introduction  100

5.2 Different methods 100

5.2.1 The grammar translation method (GTM) 101

5.2.2 Direct method 101

5.2.3 The audio-lingual method 104


5.2.4 Further development  107

5.2.5 Communicative method 108

5.2.6 Communicative methodology  108

5.3 Designing an appropriate methodology for Bangladesh 110


situation 
5.3.1 111
Presenting new language 
5.3.2 115
Presenting functions 
5.3.3 116
Controlled practice of language 
5.3.4 119
Practising language functions
5.3.5 121
Language games as practice activities 
5.3.6 122
Free production stage
5.4 124
Linguistic assessment of methodology adopted in schools and
 
madrasahs 

5.4.1 125
The physical facilities and the infra-structure of the
institutions 
5.4.1.1 125

The infra-structure 
5.4.1.2 126

Materials and aids used in language class


5.4.1.3 127

Materials used in schools and madrasahs of Bangladesh


5.4.2 128

Students' perception of EL needs 


5.4.3 129
5.4.4 Teachers' attitudes towards English  131

5.4.5 Teacher training and teacher development scheme  133

5.4.5.1 What happens in the classroom 133

5.4.5.2 Students' response  137

5.4.6 Teachers' response  142

5.5 The role of tutors 143

Conclusion 
Chapter - 6 A review of testing scheme and evaluation policy of English  144

Language Teaching (ELT) in Bangladesh


6.1 Introduction 144

6.1.1 Traditional examination and modern views of testing  144

6.1.1.1 The purpose of testing  144

6.1.1.2 The format of testing 144

6.1.1.2.1 Continuous assessment 145

6.1.1.2.2 Terminal or annual examination 145

6.1.2 Types of tests 145

6.1.3 What to test 146

6.1.3.1 Testing language elements and language skills 146

6.1.3.2 Testing communicative competence  147


6.1.4 Characteristics of a good test  147

6.1.5 Test layout 148

6.1.6 Techniques to be adopted in communicative competence test 148

6.2 Evaluation in the NCTB curriculum  151

6.2.1 Continuous assessment  151

6.2.2 Internal examination 151

6.2.2.1 Test objectives 152

6.2.3 S.S.C. examination  152

6.2.4 Textbook contents and examinations  152

6.2.5 Layout of question paper for S.S.C. and internal 152


examination
6.3 153
Assessment and evaluation policy of general education
6.4 154
boards

6.5 155
Assessment and evaluation policy of madrasah education
board 
6.5.1 155

Evaluation in schools 
6.5.2 155

Monthly assessment 
6.5.2.1 155

Internal examination
6.5.2.1.1 155

Format of examination
6.5.3.1.2 160
6.6 Question format of ACED school 160

6.6.1 Question format of Bogra Cantonment Public School 160

6.6.2 Evaluation in madrasahs 160

6.7 Monthly test 162

 Internal examination 

6.8 Public examination vis-a- vis the learning outcomes as spelt 164
out in the national curriculum

Conclusion
Chapter - 7 Summary and Conclusions  165
7.1 7.1- Summary 165

7.2 7.2- Conclusions 167

7.4 7.4- Pedagogical suggestions  169


 Appendix a : Syllabus and distribution of marks 177
 Appendix b : Question papers 184
 Appendix c : Questionnaires 221
 Bibliography  331

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