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1.

According to some antigovernment groups, what is the principle reason that we establish
governments?

The principle reason that we establish governments according to some anti-government
groups is to perform a narrow range of tasks, mainly protection from foreign invasion. Anti-
government groups use the philosophy of social contract theory.

2. Why does Hobbes refer to the government as a "leviathan"? Why does Hobbes think that
we are equal both physically and intellectually in the state of nature?

Hobbes refers to the government as a “leviathan” because he viewed the government as
the king, who looked over the people. He believed that human pride forces us to create a
government for protection. Hobbes thinks that we are equal both physically and
intellectually in the state of nature because we gain knowledge through experiences, as well
as believe that we can overpower challenging obstacles.

3. What are the three causes of quarrel in the state of nature? What examples does Hobbes
give to prove his gloomy description of human nature?

The three causes of quarrel in the state of nature are the desire for things that are in
limited supply, distrust of people once goods are acquired, and attacking others to preserve
reputations. Examples that Hobbes gives to prove his gloomy description of human nature
are that we take extra steps to protect ourselves even with protection from the police and
court system, as well as takings funs with us for protection when traveling.

4. What are the first three laws of nature? According to Hobbes, why can't we overthrow
governments? What are the two features of Hobbes's account of morality?

The first three laws of nature are to seek peace but also to defend ourselves if we are
unable to achieve peace, ways to achieve peace with one another, and to perform
agreements that we make. We can’t overthrow government because we must give the
government complete authority in order for them to be effective in their peacekeeping
mission. Two features of Hobbes’ account of morality are morality is only a creation of the
social contract and our moral obligations are linked with the fifteen laws of nature.

5. What is the state of nature like according to Pufendorf , Locke, and Rousseau, respectively?

According to Pufendorf that state of nature is rather miserable and we enter into a social
contract that establish political authorities to punish the ones who violate the social
contract. Locke believes the state of nature is an environment in which we all have natural
rights to life, liberty, health, and possessions. According to Rousseau, a state of nature is a
condition of individual freedom that allows individual creativity.

6. In Hobbes's attempt to scientifically redefine traditional moral vocabulary, what does he
mean when he says that the laws of nature are "immutable and eternal"?

According to Hobbes, the laws of nature are “immutable and eternal”, meaning that they
are “required for preserving life through making peace” (Fieser). Hobbes shifted his thought
of moral truths from an eternal realm to the observable realm of human nature and the
desire for survival.

7. According to Locke, when do we tacitly agree to a social contract?

According to Locke, we tactility agree to a social contract when we obtain any possession or
benefit from a government. An example of this would be relying on protection from the
local police and military.
8. According to Hume, how do governments trick us into accepting authority?

According to Hume, we are tricked into accepting authority by the government because we
are born into a condition of obedience. Earlier generations has set up a standard for the
government and we have accustomed to them having authority over us.

9. What is the "original position" for Rawls? What does Rawls's first rule of justice tell us? And,
according to Rawls's second rule of justice, what is the main rule by which we regulate the
unequal accumulation of wealth and power?

The original position for Rawls is that “we are neither at war with one another nor trying to
start a government” (Fieser). Rawls’ first rule of justice tells us that we should give one
another as much freedom as we can. The main rule by which we regulate the unequal
accumulation of wealth and power is that rich people can have an unequal amount of
money if a capitalist economic system is to everyone’s advantage.

10. Explain the difference between occurrent and dispositional mental states. What is the
difference between consenting to a social contract and being content with social reciprocity?

The difference between occurent and dispositional mental states is that occurrent mental
state occurs during a short and fixed period of time, and dispositional mental states are
long-term and persistent. The difference between consenting to a social contract and being
content with social reciprocity is that a contract involves a distinct mental act of consent
that occurs at a distinct time.