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ITB VOL. 8, No, 2, 1g74i

a -. +;

Ilans J. Wospakrlk


li Dalan tuli'san di,ktntnkart personacrl

rtf, Sehn\dinger ke dalan IRu dati suatu partikel
I berrnntan dnlan potensial Coulomb, AuLg di.per'
l oleh sebagai approksinasi dari pada persanaqrl
i: Klein-Gorldon d;Ldn TRUdengan anggapan balnsa
; dmt potensialnya l<eeil sekali
enengi, kinetik;dingktn terhadap energi dia me2, Poten-

f eiaL gnai"titasi-Naitin rmncul di dalon foymlal

k' si in7 sebagaimarta diharapkan dnlan bentuk
F non-reLatiuistifurya.
F Dituniukkan pula disini baln'sa pe"sonanry
radialnga memiliki- titik ? = o sebagai titik

tl singulan Aang non-easensiaL' - !,anQmara mem-

ht ber,Tksn elfsistensi' solusi'nya dalan pengarai,an
F, f,- deret sekitav' r = o. Solusi appnoksinasi de-
( ngan mempergwtakanteot"i Perturbasi ternyata
{. mbrmmculkan- beberapa diuergenei Vang masih
F: belurn terpeeahkan,dalatn tulisart ini..

Sehn6din4et' equat'ion i'n GR for a eltatged
* is presented,
i partiele in Coulontb potential
deriued fz'om the fortralation of KLein-Gordon
equation in mt asswnpti'on that the ki.'
netie and potential energA ane sryaLL in eon-
parison uith the nest energy mco. The tetqn
Neutonim, potentiaL appeaz'ed direetly aa ee-
Department, Bandung Instltute of Technology'

t 4t



pected f?on the non-z.eLatiuistie Schz'\dinger

equation in the Neutonian grattitational field.
It ie shoum that its radial equation pos-
seses a non-essential singular point at r = o:
therefore it has a pouer sez,ies soluti,on about
T = o. Pertutbation theont is used to find
its appnoximation soLution", encountered sore
diuergences that z,emainedunsoLued.

I. Introduetion

Schriidlnger equatlon that was glven here ls not a covarL-

ant eguaEion as requLred ln GR but Just an approxlmation of a
covariant Klein-Gordon equatlon in GR. ApproxLmatl.on of a
covariant Kleln-Gordon equation to Schrcidinger equation in SR
is given ln Chapter II, by taklng on lts interaction with EM-
Rewrltting the Klein-Gordon equatlon in SR into a tensor
form equation, its generalizatlon to a covariant form Ln Rle-
mannian space of the solution of Elnsteln-Maxwell equation ln
GR is obtained in Chapter III, for which the problem is spe-
clalized to it6 interactlon with Coulomb potential. Schrij-
dinger equation in GR is obtalned ln Chapter IV, by making
used of the method given in Chapter II.
Flnally, Lt ts shown in Chapter V that its radial equa-
tion posseses a non-essential sLngular point at r = o, there-
fore its solution could be expand as potrer series about r = o.
It rnust be noted that there appeared no Schwarzschild sLngu-
larlty if the ratio of charged to the mass of particle that
generate the field is greater than the square root of gravita-
tlonal constant. Approximation with Perturbatlon theory en-
countered some divergences in its third and fourth power of
1/r, that remained unsolved ln thls paper.

TT Sehr,\dtnger equation as an approaimation of Klein-Gordon

equation in SR

Sghriidinger equatLon that incl-uded EM potential t(?, t)

0(r, t),

"# U ( ? ,t ) = v * ( i * t ) ' * e o t r ! ( ?t ,)


i-s a non-relativistic wave equation sl.nce it is not covariant

under Lorentz transformatlon of SR.
This is the maln obstacle for derl,ving it dlrectly tn GR.
However, this obstacle could be over cone wlth the condltlon
that schr6dinger equatl.on (rr.1) is Just an approxl-matlon of
the relatlvistic Klein-Gordon equation which for the kinetl.c
and potential energy are snall in comparison wlth the rest
energy mc..
Klein-Gordon equatlon that included Elr rs de-
rived from the relativlstic relation between energy-momentum
and EM-potential,

( E - e o ) z= c " i - . i 1 2 + ^ 2 " 4 (rr.2)

wlth the substitutlon of energy and momentumoperator,

E=lh51;p =-lnv ( r r .3)

to (II.2) and operated it ro the wave function rl(i, t) tfren

the resul-t ist

(- h2 aft - i"r,#, * "262yrp1i,t'y=

G n2"2i2+ + rehc(drvi) + + ,2c4)0(i, t)

ttre assumption.that the total^energy E = Et^+,mc2, were pf,

)f <<
0 mc', gives (E - e0\z.o 2mc2(E' - e0) +,2"4 th"r, substl.-
tuted to (rr.2) where mZc4 term cancel-ed and then divtde with
2rncz, the Schriidinger equation tn EM-field is obtained,,

E'rf.,(i,t) = r- * ci - ifi ir2 + eOlU ( ?, t) (rr.5)


the rlght slde ln the bracket ls the non-relatl-vlstLc llamil-

tonian operator of the charge particle ln the EM-fteld. Sub-
stltution of energy operator in the left side gives Schrdding-
er equation (II.l-). The reader should be realized that the
wave-functlon r!(?, t) ln (1I.4) and (II.5) are not ldentical.
Thts ls the rnethod that should be applted to derive the
Schriidlnger equatLon ln GR.

nI. Xlein-Gordon equation in GR

KLein-Gordon equatLon (II.4) woul-d be slmplified in ten-

sor form and then generalized lt to the GR. MathematLcal-ly,
thls ls Just to transfer physLcal equatlon ln Minkoqrsky four
dimenslonal spacetime whLch characterized by the metrlc dsz =
lpy dxUdxv (where luv,i" Lorentzian metric tensor with noo-=
-hif ='t1ZZ= -n:: E-t and nru = 0 lf U * v and xU(U = 0l-1,
2, 3) is the spacetfige coordl-nate where the l-ndex 0 denoted
time coordlnate xo = ct), into Riemannlan four dirnensional
spacetime, ds2 = gpydxUdxv (where guv = Spv(xp) the general-
metric tensor). We'have used the notition that the repeated
indices denoted summatlon over them.
Lntroducing the four*vector potentl-al of EM-fleld, 0U
where-Oi 3) = [ a n d 0o = -$r we obtaLn rhe tensot
!1 .:_1:.2,
equatlon of (II.4).

n V,uv-- a;
21e ^1.1,,, - ,t, -
lt mr )
-UV,,, a'V,u- ti e ^a",u*
l.l - @t
+ (-n
0'0uV )-U= 0

where the conrnafs after a quantity denoted partial derivative.

It 1s generallzed to covarlant derlvative ln Riemannian space
which denoted withtt;ttmark after a quantlty, which is identi-
cal wi,th partial derivatLve for a scalar function. The opera-
tion OP.u is the divergence operation in Minkorvsky spacetime
that was'generalized in Rtemannian space as,

au,u = f; fl-e tur,u g = det(Buv). o

Furthermore, the operation nuv{,yv is (crad)2rl operation ln


Minkowsky space where its generalization to Riemannian space

is given by,

UV, 1
c qr..,., {/-e euv,ll'u)
, [rv v-g ,u

Therefore, the generalizatlon of Klein-Gordon equatLon (II.4)

to Ehe Riemannian spacetlme is,

7n (/-e eruv,p),v- * tu*,, - #
(/-e ou),u+

+ cpl',t,= o
ououo (rrr.2)

The generalized Lorentz conditlon for EM potential 0,,,


0 u .,,-- (rrr. 3)

reduced the above equation to,

mo 2
- 2 i e ^ U - , - -il*tu,J,
Buu,t,,r),u e- ^rl = o (rrr.4)
+ (!l=h)'U
hrr-t ?uV,u

Since we discussed the Kl-ein-Gordon equatlon which inter-

act rdith the EM-field, the Rlemannian spacetlme rhat should be
used here is the solution of ELnstein-MaxweLl field equation,

*uu - %tuu*= (q9,a E.,.,

F +F +F = (rrr.5)
uv;p vp;u p u ;v

u i)

where G is the gravl.tational constant,

,uu = {an)-l{ruorf - keuuroo rPo)

ls the momentum - energy densf.ty tensor of the EM-field and

Fuv = Ou;v - Ov;U is the EM-fteld tenaor. Rry and R are re-
slrecttvbly contracted tensors of the Riemannian Curvature
tensorR =ft oandR=guvR
ouVr -
uv uv

n. Selwodinger equation uith Coulonb potential in GR

Furthermore, the problem ls speeiallzed to the case ln

which 0i = 0 and 0o = -0G) whLch is spherical symmetry and
statlc that is the Coulomb potential. Thls condltlon sinpLi-
fled the solutlon of Einstein-Maxwell equation (III.3), whlch
lts solutLon is glven by the Scwarzschild metric,

d"2 = -(1 - + Lrl-la t2 - t2 (ae2*

f "tn2oa/z)

+(1-|*Lrl" 2aJ ( r v .1 )

2ct4 - co2
A=-; b=-

where M and q ale mass and charge of the particle that gener-
ate the fteLd respectively. It seem that Schwarzschfld singu-
larlty does not exist ln thls solution, lf (q/y) > 6-2.
SubstLtutf.on of the metrlc tensor (Iv.l) into (III.4)
and replacLng the tLme differentiation wlth the oPerator E'
(III.4) reduced to the forn of Kleln-Gordon equatlon with Cou-
lonb potential in GR'

+ n'J fo t"c,
(, - * + lt-lcr - eo(r))2,1, r-f-)
A B.
f$r +
tt r

,, t
. +i- fuc"t"2e
z. Sr
. h-c' - m c q2/ =4u,
-a---U ( r v.2)
r s]-nu /stn'e a0'

By multiplying the both side wlrh (1 * * L2), Itu""


(E - e0(r)'rt, * (, - l 2a..2 a
: : + :_) t, 2 A. L r3-U.,
r 2' [t2(r - r 2'3rr
t r r


Bu further substitution to the total- energy E wtth the same

assumption before in Chapter II and apply the same method, we
obtain the Schrodinger equati,on Coulomb i,nteraetion i.n
GF, given by

E'v=- *,t - 4+b4fur"c. - A+uz,#,.

* --T]- S<"i.,
efur + a=$t - r$r,r,+
rtsing r san u du

*%u+ e 0 ( r ) U ,
r , t (rv.4)
^-- Gmq- ^ umq
u -2
c c

Newtonian gravit.ational potential (-GmM/r) that appeared ln

(IV.4) is just the consequence of the approximatlon that we
used above. If we neglect all the terms with A, Brand C slnce
all of them are srna11 values, we get the non - relatlvistic
Schriidinger equation with Coulomb potential in Newtonian grav-
itational potentlal.

V. SaLution of Sehrodinger equation in GR

Solution of (IV.4) is constructed by the method of the

separation of the variables U(r, 0, 0) = R(r) H (0)0(6) which

glves that the angular equations H (0) and 0(0) tate the same
form ln QM, but its radial- equation are modifled bv the GR to
the form,

(r - Ar+ -B/ .21e ; t dr (. 2i -, ' - A,

r t,ii,* t$tn'- eo(r)
*T *
rr rn
- (t-++lrltn=0, I=[(1,+1), L=o,Lr2,..
r tt


By furthdr slnpllf on (1 - A - +\
lcation of dlfferentlation
t 12'
term, eq. (V.1) reduced to the radial Schriidlnger equation and
the rest term ls the perturbatlon terms, that is

E'R=*2#,,'#.,+eo(r)n.5-$rrt* +
-i)dR r---
- AB, ,zB-A2 -
, - -T)-- + - $-r - tcflln +
2o, u2r a2n e;
* =7, (v.z)

The questton arises whether eq. (V.2) has a regular solutlon

about the origLn.
Let us nultiply the both slde wlth r4 and divided with
the cofactor of then rearrangement to t h e F u c h r s t y p e
form, we get, t'

a2n I zr4 + ar3 r (zn-nj).2 - ngt dR *


r E-

- cr| -
E"6 + ourlrr5 * olr3 - s^rZ
1 "160(r) #.4 R=0
r ra+(2s-a')t'-2ABr+s2
(v. 3)

4. L. 1 p (r ' ) 9 8o+r L 2 Q ( r ) n= o (v.4)


where P(r) and Q(r) are respectively given in the above equa-
It is clear that P(r) and Q(r) are both analytLc functlon
at r = o, therefore according to Tuchrs Theoreo eq. (V.2), the
radial equation of Schrijdinger equation in GR has a regular
solution at r = o, hence could be developed as a power series
about r = o
The exact solution with polrer series sol-utlon about the
origin ls more compl-icated, however by remembering that A, B
and C are srnal-l values, we take the approximatl-on solution
with the method of the Perturbation theory.
In accordance to the Perturbation theory, the non-per-
turbation Hamiltonian ls,

rlo=-*r'+e0(r) (v.s)

and the llamlltonlan Perturbation is glven by (IV.6), that ls

uf = - E2 tr (rA
2B-Az- -AB,a + pB-Az -- 2AB*
l}r.,T -il-
- 4,,r' .,-
fr rrrrrrdt
3 -.

Al Bl, GmM C
+. J - - 4 J - * (v.5)
, 2

Which glves the GR correction to the non-pbrturbed energy lev;

el of the system. Unfortunately, that the tern 1/rr arrd L/rq
in (V.6) encountered some divergences ln its llaniltonian per-
turbation matriir, that remain unsol-ved ln this case. Although
one couJl obtain its exact regular equation ab been shown

Cornnentarg to reference 2

It had been shown by Cal_laway J. in phys. Rev. ILZ, ZgO

(1958), that the ratlial equatLon of Klein-Gordon and Dirac
equation ln GR had not posses a regular solutLon about r = 0.
Alternatively, lf one apply the algebraic form of metrlc ten-
sor i.e, non-exponential forn, and do the same algebraic
arrangement as mentioned ln chapter v, 1t seems to Fuchts the-
orem that those equatLons posseses a regular solution about
r = o.


In conclusslon, I am glad to express my thanks to prof.

M. Barnawi for hls rnany helpful discussion of the above prob-
l-em and thanks to Dr. The Houw Liong whom I first made a
contact to dlscuss thls material. I also thanks to Dr. p. Si-
laban for hls klndness to lend me the famous book of Joseph
weber entLtl-ed, ttGeneral-RelativLty and GravitatLonal *".ru"tt
where the Schwarzschild sol_ution (IV. l_) is clearly glven.

Notes on abbreui.a,tions
General Relatlvlty, SR: Special Relativlty, BI: Electro-
magnettc fteld, QM: Quahtum Mechanics, TRU: Theory Relatlvi-
tas Umum.


1. Bergmann P.G.: Introduction to the Theory of Relativity,

Japan Pub1. Trad. Co., trd., (1960).

2. Callaway J.: Klein - Gordon and Dirac equation Ln General

Relativlty, Phys. Rev. II2, 290 (1958).

3. Inche E.L.: Ordinary DLfferentlal equations, Dover publ.,

NewYork (lsr ed.).

4. Landau L. and Llfshltz E.: The Classlcal Ttreory of fiel_ds,

Addison lJesley Press, Inc., (tgSt).

5. Schiff L.I.: QuantumMechanics, Mc. Graw Hill Book Co.,

Inc., (L955), (2nd ed.).

6. Tolman R.C.: Relativity, Thermodynamics and Cosmology,

Oxford at the Clarendon Press, (1938).

7. Weber J.; General Rel-attvity and Gravltational waves, New

York, Intersciirnce, (1951).

Geeeiued gth ootobnt, 1973)

:,* *