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WCDMA Call Drop


Problem Analysis

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Foreword: Causes of Call Drop in GSM & UMTS

GSM UMTS
No response
Neighbor cell after T3103
problem expiry

Interference Interference
problem problem

Coverage Coverage
problem problem

Improper
Handoff parameter
problem setting

Interactive Equipment
process problem

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Objectives

Upon completion of this course, you will be able to understand:

 Definition of the call drop

 Process for handling the call drop problem

 Various methods to analyze call drop data

 Solutions to call drop problems

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Contents

1. Definition and classification

2. Causes and handling process

3. Solutions

4. Case analysis

5. Concerns in various network optimization phases


Training.huawei.com

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1 Definition and Classification

 1.1 Normal release procedure

 1.2 Call drop over the Um interface

 1.3 Call drop measurement - CS

 1.4 Call drop measurement - PS

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Normal Release Procedure
 Procedure of CS service normal release

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Normal Release Procedure

 CS Normal Release Procedure


1. The UE sends the RRC_UL_DIR_TRANSF message to the RNC. If the nas message carried in this
message is 0325, it indicates that the message is the disconnect message of the call control sublayer.
2. The RNC sends the RANAP_DIRECT_TRANSFER message to the CN. If the nas pdu carried in this
message is 0325, it indicates that the message is the disconnect message of the call control sublayer.
3. The CN sends the RANAP_DIRECT_TRANSFER message to the RNC. If the nas pdu carried in this
message is 832d, it indicates that the message is the release message of the call control sublayer.
4. The RNC sends the RRC_DL_DIRECT_TRANSF message to the UE. If the nas message carried in
this message is 832d, it indicates that the message is the release message of the call control sublayer.
5. The UE sends the RRC_UL_DIR_TRANSF message to the RNC. If the nas message carried in this
message is 032a, it indicates that the message is the release complete message of the call control
sublayer.
6. The RNC sends the RANAP_DIRECT_TRANSFER message to the RNC. If the nas pdu carried in
this message is 032a, it indicates that the message is the release complete message of the call control
sublayer.

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Normal Release Procedure
7. The CN sends the RANAP_IU_RELEASE_COMMAND message to the RNC to release
resources of the Iu interface, including resources of the RANAP layer and the ALCAP layer.
8. The RNC sends the RANAP_IU_RELEASE_COMPLETE message to the CN.
9. The RNC sends the RRC_RRC_CONN_REL message to the UE to release the RRC
connection.
10. The UE sends the RRC_RRC_CONN_REL_CMP message to the RNC.
11. The RNC sends the NBAP_RL_DEL_REQ message to the NodeB to release resources
of the Iu interface, including resources of the NBAP layer and the ALCAP layer.
12. The NodeB sends the NBAP_RL_DEL_RSP message to the RNC. Then, the release
procedure is complete.

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Normal Release Procedure
 Procedure of PS service normal release

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Normal Release Procedure
 Procedure of PS service normal release
1. The UE sends the RRC_UL_DIR_TRANSF message to the RNC. The nas message
carried in the message is 0a46, indicating that the message is the deactivate PDP context
request message of the session management sublayer.

2. The RNC sends the RANAP_DIRECT_TRANSFER message to the CN. The nas pdu
carried in the message is 0a46, indicating that the message is the deactivate PDP context
request message of the session management sublayer.

3. The CN sends the RANAP_DIRECT_TRANSFER message to the RNC. The nas pdu
carried in the message is 8a47, indicating that the message is the deactivate PDP context
accept message of the session management sublayer.
4. The CN sends the RNC the RANAP_RAB_ASSIGNMENT_REQ message carrying the
RAB list (to be released) with RAB IDs to be released.
5. The RNC sends the RRC_DL_DIRECT_TRANSF message to the UE. The nas message
carried in the message is 8a47, indicating that the message is the deactivate PDP context
accept message of the session management sublayer.
6. The RNC sends the NBAP_RL_RECFG_PREP message to the NodeB.

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Normal Release Procedure
7. The NodeB sends the NBAP_RL_RECFG_READY message to the RNC.
8. The RNC sends the RRC_RB_REL message to the UE to release the radio
bearer of the service.
9. The NodeB sends the NBAP_RL_RECFG_COMMIT message to the RNC.
10. The UE sends the RRC_RB_REL_CMP message to notify the RNC that the
radio bearer of the service is released.
11. The RNC sends the RANAP_RAB_ASSIGNMENT_RESP message to notify
the CN that the radio access bearer is released.

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1 Definition and Classification

 1.1 Normal release procedure

 1.2 Call drop over the Um interface

 1.3 Call drop measurement - CS

 1.4 Call drop measurement - PS

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Call Drop over the Um Interface
 Definition of call drop over the Um interface

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Call Drop over the Um Interface
 Call drop defined by field tests
According to the Um interface signaling recorded on the UE side, if messages of the
Um interface meet one of the following conditions during the conversation (in the connection
state), you can infer that a call is dropped.
(1) The RRC Release message is not received. The UE changes from the CELL_DCH
state to the IDLE state.
(2) The RRC Release message is received in which the release cause value is not
Normal.
(3) The CC Disconnect message, CC Release Complete message, or CC Release
message is received in which the release cause value is not Normal Clearing, Normal
Unspecified, user busy, user alerting no answer, call rejected or destination out of
order.
 Call drop defined by traffic statistics
According to the signaling recorded by the RNC, if the RNC sends the Iu Release
Request or the RAB Release Request to the CN over the Iu interface, you can infer
that a call is dropped (excluding certain special causes).

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1 Definition and Classification

 1.1 Normal release procedure

 1.2 Call drop over the Um interface

 1.3 Call drop measurement - CS

 1.4 Call drop measurement - PS

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Definition of Measurement

Summary of measurement classification


Call drop defined by the measurement
CS call drop
Object-oriented statistics: RNC, cell
Service-oriented statistics: AMR, VP service

PS call drop
Object-oriented statistics: RNC, cell
Service-oriented statistics: PS service, HSDPA, HSUPA

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Call Drop Measurement - CS
CS Service Drop Ratio

KPI Name CS Service Drop Ratio

Measurement Cell
Scope
Formula CSRABAbnor mal Re lease
CS _ CDR = 100%
CSRAB Re lease

Notes The RNC level KPIs can be calculated by aggregating all the cell counters and Iur counters.

CSRABAbnormalRelease (cell) VS.RAB.Loss.CS.Abnorm+ VS.RAB.Loss.CS.Abnorm: Numbers of abnormally


VS.RAB.Loss.CS.RF released RABs except RF causes in a cell

VS.RAB.Loss.CS.RF: Number of Released RABs


Triggered by RNC due to RF Reason

CSRABRelease (cell) VS.RAB.Loss.CS.RF + VS.RAB.Loss.CS.Norm: Numbers of Released


VS.RAB.Loss.CS.Abnorm + RABs Triggered by RNC due to CS Normal Cause in
VS.RAB.Loss.CS.Norm a cell

This measurement helps evaluate the call drop rate of CS services in a RNC or cluster. This counter is
measured when the RNC initiates the abnormal release procedure through the RAB RELEASE
REQUEST and IU RELEASE REQUEST messages.

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Call Drop Measurement - CS
 AMR Call Drop Ratio

KPI Name AMR Call Drop Ratio

Measurement Cell
Scope
Formula
AMRRABAbno rmal Re lease
AMR _ CDR = 100%
AMRRAB Re lease

Notes The RNC level KPIs can be calculated by aggregating all the cell counters and Iur
counters.

AMRRABAbnromalRelease (cell) VS.RAB.Loss.CS.AMR Number of released CS AMR service RABs


triggered by RNC in a cell

AMRRABRelease VS.RAB.Loss.CS.AMR + VS.RAB.Loss.CS.Norm.AMR: Numbers of


VS.RAB.Loss.CS.Norm.AMR Released RABs Triggered by RNC due to
CS Normal Cause in a cell(AMR)

This measurement helps evaluate the call drop rate of AMR services in a RNC or cluster. This counter is
measured when the RNC initiates the abnormal release procedure through the RAB RELEASE
REQUEST and IU RELEASE REQUEST messages.

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Call Drop Measurement - CS
 VP Call Drop Ratio

KPI Name VP Call Drop Ratio

Measurement Cell
Scope

Formula VPRABAbnor mal Re lease


VP _ CDR = 100%
VPRAB Re lease

Notes The RNC level KPIs can be calculated by aggregating all the cell counters and Iur
counters.

VPRABAbnormalRelease VS.RAB.Loss.CS.Conv64K Number of released CS 64 k service


(cell) RABs triggered by RNC in a cell

VPRABRelease (cell) VS.Norm.Rel.CS.Conv.RB.64 + Numbers of VP Service RABs


VS.RAB.Loss.CS.Conv64K released

This measurement helps evaluate the call drop rate of VP services in a RNC or cluster. This counter is
measured when the RNC initiates the abnormal release procedure through the RAB RELEASE
REQUEST and IU RELEASE REQUEST messages.

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1 Definition and Classification

 1.1 Normal release procedure

 1.2 Call drop over the Um interface

 1.3 Call drop measurement - CS

 1.4 Call drop measurement - PS

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Call Drop Measurement - PS
 PS Service Drop Ratio

KPI Name PS Service Drop Ratio

Measurement Cell
Scope

PSRABAbnormal Re lease
Formula PS _ CDR = 100%
PSRAB Re lease
Notes The RNC level KPIs can be calculated by aggregating all the cell counters and Iur
counters.

PSRABAbnormalRelease VS.RAB.Loss.PS.RF + VS.RAB.Loss.PS.RF:


(cell) VS.RAB.Loss.PS.Abnorm Numbers of abnormally released RABs except RF causes in a cell

VS.RAB.Loss.PS.Abnorm: Number of released RABs triggered


by RNC due to RF reason
PSRABRelease (cell) VS.RAB.Loss.PS.RF + VS.RAB.Loss.PS.Norm: Numbers of released RABs triggered by
VS.RAB.Loss.PS.Abnorm + RNC due to PS normal causes in a cell
VS.RAB.Loss.PS.Norm

This measurement helps evaluate the call drop rate of PS services in a RNC or cluster. This counter is
measured when the RNC initiates the abnormal release procedure through the RAB RELEASE
REQUEST and IU RELEASE REQUEST messages.
Note: The cell level counter calculates only the RAB releases on the SRNC, whereas the result of the
above formula includes the R99 call drop and HSPA call drop.

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Call Drop Measurement - PS
 HSDPA Service Drop Ratio

KPI Name HSDPA Service Drop Ratio

Measurement Cell
Scope

Formula HSDPA _ RBAbnormal Re lease


HSDPA _ CDR = 100%
HSDPA _ RB Re lease

Notes 1. The RNC level KPIs can be calculated by aggregating all the cell
counters.
2. The normal transition from HS-DSCH to FACH/DCH is considered as
normal HS-DSCH release
( including transitions due to mobility).

This measurement helps evaluate the call drop rate of PS services carried by the HSDPA in a RNC or
cluster. This counter is measured when the RNC initiates the abnormal release procedure through the
RAB RELEASE REQUEST and IU RELEASE REQUEST messages.

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Call Drop Measurement - PS
 HSDPA Service Drop Ratio
HSDPA_RBAbnormalRele VS.HSDPA.RAB.Loss.Abnorm.No VS.HSDPA.RAB.Loss.Abnorm.NonRF: Number of
ase nRF + VS.HSDPA.RAB.Loss.RF released PS service RABs carried by HSDPA triggered by
RNC in a cell. The cause is not RF.
VS.HSDPA.RAB.Loss.RF:
Number of released PS service RABs carried by HSDPA
triggered by RNC in a cell. The cause is RF.
HSDPA_RBNormalRelease VS.HSDPA.RAB.Loss.Norm + VS.HSDPA.RAB.Loss.Norm: Number of released PS
VS.HSDPA.RAB.Loss.InActivity service RABs carried by HSDPA triggered. The cause is
+ normal.
VS.HSDPA.ChR.HSDSCHtoDCH
VS.HSDPA.RAB.Loss.InActivity: Number of released PS
+
service RABs carried by HSDPA triggered. The cause is
VS.HSDPA.ChR.HSDSCHtoFAC
User Inactivity.
H+
VS.HSDPA.HHO.H2D.SuccOutInt VS.HSDPA.ChR.HSDSCHtoDCH: Number of successful
raFreq + channel handovers from the HS-DSCH to the DCH in the
VS.HSDPA.HHO.H2D.SuccOutInt same cell
erFreq
VS.HSDPA.ChR.HSDSCHtoFACH: Number of successful
channel handovers from the HS-DSCH to the FACH in the
same cell
VS.HSDPA.HHO.H2D.SuccOutIntraFreq:
Number of successful intra-frequency hard handovers from
the HS-DSCH to the DCH between two cells
VS.HSDPA.HHO.H2D.SuccOutInterFreq:
Number of successful inter-frequency hard handovers from
the HS-DSCH to the DCH between two cells

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Call Drop Measurement - PS
 HSUPA Service Drop Ratio

KPI Name HSUPA Service Drop Ratio


Measurement Cell
Scope
Formula HSUPA _ RBAbnormal Re lease
HSUPA _ CDR = 100%
HSUPA _ RB Re lease
Notes 1. The RNC level KPIs can be calculated by aggregating all the cell
counters.
2. The normal transition from E-DCH to FACH/DCH is considered as
normal E-DCH release
( including transitions due to mobility).

This measurement helps evaluate the call drop rate of PS services carried by the HSUPA in a RNC or
cluster. This counter is measured when the RNC initiates the abnormal release procedure through the
RAB RELEASE REQUEST and IU RELEASE REQUEST messages.

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Call Drop Measurement - PS
 HSUPA Service Drop Ratio
HSUPA_RBAbnormalReleasego back VS.HSUPA.RAB.Loss.Abnorm VS.HSUPA.RAB.Loss.Abnorm: Number of
abnormal released PS service RABs carried by
HSUPA triggered by RNC in a cell

HSUPA_RBNormalRelease VS.HSUPA.RAB.Loss.Norm + VS.HSUPA.RAB.Loss.Norm: Number of released


VS.HSUPA.ChR.IntraCell.EDCHtoDCH.Succ + PS service RABs carried by HSUPA triggered. The
VS.HSUPA.ChR.IntraFreq.EDCHtoDCH.Succ + cause is normal.
VS.HSUPA.ChR.InterFreq.EDCHtoDCH.Succ +
VS.HSUPA.ChR.EDCHtoFACH.Succ VS.HSUPA.ChR.IntraCell.EDCHtoDCH.Succ:
Number of successful attempts to switch the
channel type from EDCH to DCH in the same cell
of the RNC
VS.HSUPA.ChR.IntraFreq.EDCHtoDCH.Succ:
Number of successful attempts to switch the
channel type from EDCH to DCH due to intra-
frequency hard handover between two cells.
VS.HSUPA.ChR.InterFreq.EDCHtoDCH.Succ:
Number of successful attempts to switch the
channel type from EDCH to DCH due to inter-
frequency hard handover between two cells.
VS.HSUPA.ChR.EDCHtoFACH.Succ:
Number of successful attempts to switch the
channel type from EDCH to FACH in the same cell
of the RNC

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Contents

1. Definition and classification

2. Causes and handling process

3. Solutions

4. Case analysis

5. Concerns in various network optimization phases


Training.huawei.com

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2 Causes and Handling Process

 2.1 Common reasons for call drop

 2.2 Drive test data analysis procedure

 2.3 Measurement data analysis procedure

 2.4 Signaling tracing data analysis procedure

 2.5 User complaint data analysis procedure

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Common Reasons for Call Drop
 Neighbor Cell Missing

Generally, the call drop is caused by neighbor cell missing during the early phase of
optimization. For the intra-frequency neighbor cells, you can use the following methods to
determine whether the call drop is caused by intra-frequency neighbor cell missing.
Method 1: Check the EcIo information about cells in the active set recorded by the UE and
the Best Server EcIo information recorded by the Scanner. If the EcIo recorded by the UE
is poor and the Best Server EcIo recorded by the Scanner is good, check whether the Best
Server scrambling code recorded by the Scanner is included in the intra-frequency
measurement control. If the scrambling code is not included, you can infer that the call drop
is caused by the neighbor cell missing.
Method 2: If the UE reconnects to the network immediately after the call drop and the cell
scrambling code used during the reconnection of the UE is inconsistent with that used
during the call drop, the call drop may be caused by the neighbor cell missing. You can
confirm the cause through the measurement control. The neighbor cell missing, including
the inter-frequency neighbor cell missing and the inter-RAT neighbor cell missing can result
in call drop.
Method 3: Adopt the Nastar neighbor cell analysis function to check whether the neighbor
cell missing problem exists.
Method 4: Enable the measurement analysis detection set (RNC detection set) to report 1A
event.

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Common Reasons for Call Drop
 Coverage Problem

Generally, poor coverage implies that both the RSCP and EcIo are poor. You
can confirm the coverage problem by checking the transmit power of
uplink/downlink special channels through the following methods:
If the uplink transmit power reaches the maximum value before the call drop
and the uplink BLER is poor or the single user tracing recorded by the RNC
suggests that Node B reports RL failure, you may infer that the call drop is
caused by poor uplink coverage. If the downlink transmit power reaches the
maximum value before the call drop and the downlink BLER is poor, you may
infer that the call drop is caused by poor downlink coverage.
You can also confirm the coverage problem through the following simple and
direct method:
Check the data collected by the Scanner. If both the RSCP and EcNo of the
best cell are poor, you can determine that the poor coverage results in the call
drop.

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Common Reasons for Call Drop
 Handoff Problem
There are two reasons for the call drop caused by the soft handoff/inter-frequency, that is, it
is too late to perform the handoff or ping-pong handoff. In terms of the signaling process,
for the CS service, the UE does not receive the active set update command; for the PS
service, the TRB is reset before the handoff of the UE.
In terms of signal, there are two scenarios in which it is too late for the handoff:
(1) Corner: The EcIo of the source cell has a sudden sharp drop, and the EcNo of the
target cell has an unexpected dramatic increase.
(2) Pinpoint: The EcIo of the source cell increases after a period of time in rapid fall. The
EcIo of the target cell has a sudden increase in a short time period.
The ping-pong handoff involves the following cases:
(1) The primary cell changes rapidly: Two or more cells take turns to be the primary cell.
The primary cell has better RSCP and EcIo and exists in a short period of time.
(2) There are multiple secondary cells: The RSCP is normal, and there is slight difference
between RSCPs of cells. The EcIo in each cell is poor.

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Common Reasons for Call Drop
 Interference Problem

For the downlink, if the CPICH RSCP is greater than -85 dB and the EcIo is smaller than -
13 dB, the call drop tends to occur. This may be caused by downlink interference.
For the uplink, if the RTWP is 10 dB greater than the normal value (-104 to -105), there
may be a call drop. This is caused by pilot pollution.

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Common Reasons for Call Drop
 Interaction Process Problem
Processes, such as AMR control, enabling or disabling the DCCC, compression mode, and
UE state transition may fail due to reasons relating to the signal, UE capability, or the
interaction between the equipment in the RAN and UE, which finally results in call drop.
There is no common method to solve these problems. The method varies depending on the
specific process or UE.

 Other Abnormal Problems


If the preceding causes are excluded, the call drop may be caused by equipment problems.
You need to perform further cause analysis by checking logs and alarms of the equipment.
For example:
The synchronization failure causes repeated addition or deletion of links.
The UE does not report the la measurement report, which results in the call drop.

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2 Causes and Handling Process

 2.1 Common reasons for call drop

 2.2 Drive test data analysis procedure

 2.3 Measurement data analysis procedure

 2.4 Signaling tracing data analysis procedure

 2.5 User complaint data analysis procedure

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Drive Test Data Analysis Procedure
Drive Test Data Analysis Procedure 1. Prepare data.

2. Obtain call drop location


and time

3. Analyze signal changes of


the primary cell of the
Scanner

Are signals of the Frequently changed


primary cell stable?

stable

4 RSCP and EcIO of the best


cell of the Scanner

4.1 Both the RSCP 4.3 Both the RSCP 4.2 The RSCP is
and the EcIo are and the EcIo are normal, and the EcIo
poor. normal. is poor.

Inconsistent
Compare the best
cell of the UE and
that of the Scanner

Consistent

Check whether Uplink N


the call drop is interference or
caused by the
neighbor cell
N not

Ymissing. Y

Coverage Neighbor cell Untimely Uplink Abnormal call Pilot frequency Ping-pong
problem missing handoff interference drop interference handoff problem
problem problem

4. Perform the drive Is the problem


test again. solved?

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Drive Test Data Analysis Procedure
1. Prepare the following data:
Data files collected by the drive test software
Single user tracing data recorded by the RNC
CDL recorded by the RNC
2. Obtain the call drop location.
Adopt the drive test software, such as the Analyzer to obtain the call drop time
and location, pilot frequency data collected by the Scanner before and after
the call drop, information about the active set and monitored set collected by
the UE, and signaling process.
3. Analyze changes of the primary cell of the Scanner.
If the primary cell is relatively stable, perform further analysis on the RSCP
and EcIo.
If the primary cell changes frequently, analyze causes. If there is no primary
cell, perform the cause analysis on the call drop occurring during the ping-pong
handoff.

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Drive Test Data Analysis Procedure
4. Analyze the RSCP and EcIo of the primary cell of the Scanner.
Check the RSCP and EcNo of the best cell of the Scanner and take appropriate
measures accordingly.
4.1 If both the RSCP and EcNo are poor, the coverage problem leads to the call drop.
4.2 If the RSCP is normal, and the EcNo is poor, the call drop is caused by the pilot
frequency interference problem rather than untimely handoff and inter-frequency
neighbor cell.
4.3 If both the RSCP and the EcNo are normal and the cell of the active set of the UE are
inconsistent with the best cell of the Scanner, the call drop may be caused by the
neighbor cell missing or untimely handoff. If the cell of the active set of the UE is
consistent with the best cell of the Scanner, the uplink interference may result in call
drop or an abnormal call drop occurs.
5. Carry out the drive test repeatedly.
A drive test may not collect all the information required by call drop location. Therefore,
you need to carry out the drive test for several times to collect data and check whether
the call drop location is random or fixed. Generally, take related measures to eliminate
call drops occurring on the fixed location and check whether to eliminate call drops
occurring on random locations based on the occurrence probability.

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2 Causes and Handling Process

 2.1 Common reasons for call Drop

 2.2 Drive test data analysis procedure

 2.3 Measurement data analysis procedure

 2.4 Signaling tracing data analysis procedure

 2.5 User complaint data analysis procedure

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Measurement Data Analysis Procedure
Measurement Data Analysis Procedure
1. Analyze the call drop rate of the RNC.

2. Analyze the call drop rate index of the


cell.

Y
3. Check whether the
equipment in the cell is 3.1 Solve the equipment problem.
normal.

4. Analyze call drop reasons.

Y
4.1The signaling RB reset or
service RB reset causes the Solve the coverage problem.
call drop.

N
Y
4.2 Check whether the call
drop is caused by the Solve the call drop problem arising from
handoff? the handoff.

4.3 Check whether the call Y


drop is caused by the Solve the interference problem.
interference?

5. Carry out the drive test to find out the


call drop reasons.

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Measurement Data Analysis Procedure

1. Analyze call drop rate indexes of the RNC.


Check whether the call drop rate index is normal based on the overall call drop rate
index of the RNC.
2. Analyze call drop rate indexes of the cells such as AMR call drop rate, VP call drop rate,
PS call drop rate, hard handoff call drop rate, inter-RAT handoff call drop rate and
sort all of these cells according to the indexes. Analyze causes of call drops
occurring in the cells with worse or worst indexes.
3. Check whether the cell is normal.
Check alarms relating to cells and exclude causes of abnormal cells.

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Measurement Data Analysis Procedure

4. Analyze call drop causes.


If the call drop is not caused by aa12 abnormality of the Iu interface or the GTPU
abnormality, check whether the reset of signaling RLC or service RLC is the call
drop cause. Analyze related handoff indexes (incoming handoff success rate and
outgoing handoff success rate) related to the cell to check whether the call drop is
caused by the handoff failure. Analyze the measurement relating to the overall
bandwidth receiving power to check whether related uplink interference indexes are
high during the period of the high call drop rate. Then, you can determine whether
the call drop is caused by uplink interference.
5. Carry out the drive test to make call drop problems reoccur.
If the call drop problem persists after the analysis of measurement data, carry out
drive tests in the cell to trace the signaling process on the UE side and the RNC. For
detailed analysis method, see the drive test analysis procedure.

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2 Causes and Handling Process

 2.1 Common reasons for call drop

 2.2 Drive test data analysis procedure

 2.3 Measurement data analysis procedure

 2.4 Signaling tracing data analysis procedure

 2.5 User complaint data analysis procedure

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Signaling Tracing Data Analysis Procedure
Signaling tracing data analysis procedure

1. Obtain the single user tracing


message

2. Obtain information about the call


drop location.

3. Check whether the call 3.1 Solve call drop problems arising
drop occurs on the on the signaling plane.
signaling plane.

4 . Check whether the call 4.1 Solve call drop problems arising
drop occurs on the user on the user plane.
plane.

5.1 Solve abnormal call drop


5. Check whether
problems.
abnormal call drop occurs.
N

Check whether call drop


problems are solved.

6. Carry out drive tests to make call


drop problems reoccur

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HUAWEI Confidential Page 42


Signaling Tracing Data Analysis Procedure
1. Obtain single user tracing messages.
Trace the single user on the RNC or M2000 before recording related single user
tracing messages. Generally, the messages recorded during the IMSI-based tracing
is sufficient for the analysis of the call drop problems.
2. Obtain information about the call drop location.
Single user tracing messages suggest that the cause of a call drop on the user plane
is that the RNC actively sends the RANAP_RAB_RELEASE_REQ message to
release the RAB and the cause of a call drop on the signaling plane is that the RNC
actively sends the RANAP_IU_RELEASE_REQ message to release the Iu interface.
By checking the two messages, you can obtain the call drop time and signaling
messages before the call drop and perform further analysis.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HUAWEI Confidential Page 43


Signaling Tracing Data Analysis Procedure
3. Analyze the call drop on the signaling plane.
If a call drop occurs on the signaling plane, the UE or the RNC cannot receive the
confirmation message, which leads to the SRB reset and connection release. The
SRN reset can be caused by uplink messages such as the measurement control
message, active set update message, physical channel reconfiguration message,
transmission channel reconfiguration message, RB reconfiguration message, and
command for the handoff from 3G networks to 2G networks. You need to check
messages traced on the UE side to determine whether the UE receives these
commands. The SRN reset can also be caused by downlink messages such as the
measure report, active set update completion message, physical channel
reconfiguration completion message, transmission channel reconfiguration
completion message, and RB reconfiguration completion message. You need to
check messages traced on the RNC side to determine whether these tracing
messages are received.

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Signaling Tracing Data Analysis Procedure

4. Analyze the call drop on the user plane.


If the call drop occurs on the user plane, the TRB resets. The TRB resetting occurs
during a PS call rather than a Voice or VP call.
If there is only one link in the active set, the RL failure may cause the RNC to initiate
the Iu release procedure. The lost synchronization of the uplink causes the RL
failure. The lost synchronization of the downlink causes the UE to shut down the
transmitter, which results in lost synchronization of the uplink. To check whether the
lost synchronization of the uplink or lost synchronization of the downlink causes the
release process, you need to analyze the transmit power of the UE and the
monitored code transmit power of the downlink before the call drop. Poor downlink
coverage, strong downlink interference, or uplink interference may lead to TRB reset.
If the number of retransmission times of data services is set improperly, the TRB
reset occurs before the SRB reset when it is too late for handoff. You must take this
case into account.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HUAWEI Confidential Page 45


Signaling Tracing Data Analysis Procedure

5. Analyze abnormal call drops.


The abnormal call drop is caused by abnormalities occurs on the equipment or the
UE (for example, the transmission is interrupted, the base station equipment is
abnormal, and the UE crashes abruptly) rather than the coverage problem,
interference problem, or causes of the call drop occurs on the user plane or the
signaling plane. If the call drop is caused by the abrupt transmission interruption,
you can analyze the CDL or alarms to locate the cause of the call drop; if the call
drop is caused by the abnormalities of the base station equipment, you can check
the status of the base station; if the call drop is caused by abnormalities of the UE,
you can analyze the data recorded by the UE.
6. Carry out drive tests to make the call drop problem reoccur.
If the existing data is not sufficient to locate the call drop problem, trace more
detailed data. The best way is to carry out drive tests on the call drop location and
perform further analysis.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HUAWEI Confidential Page 46


2 Causes and Handling Process

 2.1 Common reasons for call drop

 2.2 Drive test data analysis procedure

 2.3 Measurement data analysis procedure

 2.4 Signaling tracing data analysis procedure

 2.5 User complaint data analysis procedure

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HUAWEI Confidential Page 47


User Complaint Data Analysis Procedure
1. Understand user complaint.
When a user complaint is received, record when and where the problem occurs and
describe the problem in detail.
2. Check the measurement.
Analyze the related measurement to determine whether the complaint is a specific
problem of the user or a general network problem. For a general network problem,
perform further analysis on the complaint by referring to the analysis on the
measurement.
3. Check alarms.
According to the complaint time, check the CN, RNC or check whether the alarm of
the base station on the location where the problem occurs can result in call drop. If
such alarm exists, clear the alarm.
4. Check the CDL.
The CDL records the signaling used by the user or the user status when the
abnormality occurs. By analyzing the CDL, you can learn about the details about the
complaints.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HUAWEI Confidential Page 48


User Complaint Data Analysis Procedure
5. Perform the dialing test on the complained location to make the problem
reoccur.
If the problem persists after you analyze the related measurement, alarm,
and CDL, perform the dialing test to solve the problem. Record the data
generated during the dialing test by using the same method for recording
the data generated in the drive test. If it is inconvenient to record the
information on the UE side in certain scenarios, use the RNC to record
various information, in particular, record and collect the reported
information about the EcIo and RSCP to solve the call drop problem
caused by the poor coverage. In the case of special locations where it is
impossible to perform the dialing test, obtain the IMSI according to the
mobile phone number and trace the call on the RNC to locate causes of
the call drop.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HUAWEI Confidential Page 49


Contents

1. Definition and classification

2. Causes and handling process

3. Solutions

4. Case analysis

5. Concerns in various network optimization phases


Training.huawei.com

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HUAWEI Confidential Page 50


3 Solutions

 3.1 Engineering parameter


adjustment

 3.2 Cell parameter adjustment

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Engineering Parameter Adjustment
The engineering parameter adjustments are limited. Basically, you can adjust the
height, down tilt, lobe width, gain, and deflection angle of the antenna.

1. For the call drop caused by the uplink or downlink coverage problem
Adjust the height and the down tilt of the antenna or replace with the antenna
providing more gain or increase the TMA.

2. For the pinpoint or corner effect


An effective way is to adjust the antenna. The pinpoint or corner effect occurs on the
corner of the street or the junction of the two streets. In this case, you can make a
certain angel between the antenna and the street by adjusting the deflection angle.
Note that this action should not greatly affect the signal coverage of nearby shops
on the street.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HUAWEI Confidential Page 52


Adjustment of Engineering Parameters
3. For the coverage problem caused by the pilot frequency
You can adjust engineering parameters of a certain antenna to make the
interfered location a primary cell. You can also adjust engineering
parameters of other antennas to weaken signals of these cells to
decrease the number of pilot frequencies. If permitted, use two base
stations to cover the area. If the interference is from two sectors of a base
station, incorporate the two sectors.
You must consider the adjustment effect of the entire cell when adjusting
engineering parameters. Ensure that the measures taken to solve the
problem does not bring about new problems in other areas.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HUAWEI Confidential Page 53


3 Solutions

 3.1 Engineering parameter


adjustment

 3.2 Cell parameter adjustment

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Cell Parameter Adjustment
1. Cell individual offset (CIO)
The sum of the CIO and the actual measured value is used to determine whether
the intra-frequency handoff is to be performed in the event evaluation process of the
UE. In addition, the sum can serve as the mobile cell boundary. If the value is larger,
the soft handoff is easier and more UEs are in the soft handoff state. In this case,
the forward resources are occupied. If the value is smaller, the soft handoff is more
difficult and the quality of received signals may be affected. For the pinpoint or
corner effect, the better method is to configure the CIO as about 5 dB.
2. Time to trigger the delay related to the soft handoff
The delay triggering time refers to the time to trigger 1A, 1B, 1C, or 1D event. The
triggering time may affect the promptness of the handoff. Generally, the default
triggering time can meet requirements of most scenarios. Set handoff-related
parameters according to the environment and adjust the configuration of related
parameter for each cell. You can limit the impact of the parameter modifications to
certain cells, which reduces the impact on the system.

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Cell Parameter Adjustment
3. FilterCoef
The layer 3 filter tries to filter out the random impingement samples to enable the
filtered measured values to reflect the main change trend of actual measured values.
The measured values input in the layer 3 filter are filtered by the layer 1 filter.
Therefore, the impacts of fast fading are removed, and the layer 3 filter performs the
smooth filtering on shadow fading and few fast fading burrs to provide higher quality
measurement data.
The filter with greater filtering coefficient has stronger ability to smooth burrs but
weaker ability to trace signals.
Typical values are set as follows:
a. If signals in the handoff area change slowly, the intra-frequency filtering coefficient is
set to 7.
b. If signals in the handoff area change at a moderate speed, the intra-frequency filtering
coefficient is set to 6.
c. If signals in the handoff area change rapidly, the intra-frequency filtering coefficient is
set to 3.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HUAWEI Confidential Page 56


Cell Parameter Adjustment
4. Threshold for enabling or disabling the compression mode
The compression mode is enabled before the inter-frequency or inter-RBT handoff.
You can use the compression mode to check the quality of inter-frequency or inter-
RBT cells. The compression mode is enabled only when the RSCP or EcIo of the
CPICH meet requirements. In actual applications, the common triggering condition is
that the RSCP must meet requirements.
Generally, the compression mode requires to measure the quality of the target cell
(inter-frequency or inter-RAT cell) to obtain related information. Movements of the
UE deteriorate the quality of the current cell. Therefore, the requirement for setting
the threshold for enabling the compression mode is to measure that the target cell
completes the handoff before the quality deterioration of the current cell leads to the
call drop; the requirement for setting the threshold for disabling the compression
mode is to avoid the compression mode being enabled or disabled frequently.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HUAWEI Confidential Page 57


Cell Parameter Adjustment
5. RLMaxDLPwr (Maximum Downlink Transmit Power of Radio Links)
The high transmit power of special links is favorable for solving call drop problems
caused by the poor coverage but causing the interference problem. In this case, the
single user consumes high power at the edge of the cell, which impacts on other
users and reduces the downlink capacity of the system. Generally, the downlink
transmit power is determined by the link budget with a variation of 1-2dB. If the drive
test is carried out for once, it is difficult to measure the impact of the high power on
the call drop. The measurement, however, reveals the impacts. If the poor coverage
causes a higher call drop rate in certain cells, you can raise the maximum transmit
power of special links. If the overload results in a higher access failure rate, you can
consider to reduce the maximum transmit power.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HUAWEI Confidential Page 58


Cell Parameter Adjustment
6. Number of signaling/service retransmission times
If the number of retransmission times of the signaling over links with higher block
error rate reaches the maximum value, the signaling is reset, which causes the call
drop. If the number of retransmission times of the service transmitted in AM mode
reaches the maximum value, the signaling is reset. If the number of the reset times
reaches the configured maximum value, the system releases the service, which
causes the call drop. The default configuration only ensures that the unexpected
error blocks do not cause a call drop. In certain scenarios with poorer coverage,
however, the signaling reset results in the call drop and causes the resources
occupied by the service to be released. In certain scenarios with more burst
interference or remarkable pinpoint effect, the block error rate may reach 100%. If
the call drop rate is required to be not too high in such scenarios, you can
appropriately increase the number of retransmission times to weaken the impact of
the burst interference. This parameter is configured on the RNC.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HUAWEI Confidential Page 59


Cell Parameter Adjustment
7. RSCP (Inter-RAT Hard Handoff Threshold)
After the inter-frequency measurement is started, the UE starts measuring the inter-
frequency cells. If the signal quality of the inter-frequency cells is higher than the
threshold, the RNC initiates the inter-frequency handoff. You can configure the
parameter based on the threshold for enabling or disabling the compression mode. If
the parameter value is smaller, the handoff is triggered earlier. If the parameter value is
greater, the triggering of the hard handoff is delayed. In this way, you can control the
handoff area or reduce the call drop rate.

8. GsmRSSICSThd and GsmRSSIPSThd


GsmRSSICSThd and GsmRSSIPSThd specify the inter-system handoff thresholds of
the CS service and the PS service respectively. The method for setting the two
parameters is the same as that for setting the inter-frequency hard handoff threshold.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HUAWEI Confidential Page 60


Contents

1. Definition and classification

2. Causes and handling process

3. Solutions

4. Case analysis

5. Concerns in various network optimization phases


Training.huawei.com

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HUAWEI Confidential Page 61


4 Case analysis

 4.1 Cases of call drop caused by


poor coverage

 4.2 Cases of call drop caused by


interference

 4.3 Cases of call drop caused by


handoff

 4.4 Cases of call drop caused by


other reasons

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HUAWEI Confidential Page 62


Cases of Call Drop Caused by Poor Coverage
To analyze cases of the call drop caused by poor coverage, you must take the following
issues into account:
 Pilot frequency coverage and service coverage
 Uplink coverage and downlink coverage
 Measurement results recorded by the Scanner and UE
 EcIo, RSCP, and SC of the CPICH

Call drop
location

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HUAWEI Confidential Page 63


Cases of Call Drop Caused by Poor Coverage

The call drop occurs on the SC314 cell, the coverage edge of the 3G network. Before the call drop, the
UE measurement suggests that the No.314 cell is only included in the active set rather than the
monitored set; the RSSI is low; the SIR is negative; the transmit power of the UE reaches the maximum.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HUAWEI Confidential Page 64


Cases of Call Drop Caused by Poor Coverage

The Ec/Io measured by the UE and that measured by the scanner shows the same
degradation trend.
The RSCP measured by the UE and that measured by the scanner shows the same
degradation trend.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HUAWEI Confidential Page 65


4 Case analysis

 4.1 Cases of call drop caused by


poor coverage

 4.2 Cases of call drop caused by


interference

 4.3 Cases of call drop caused by


handoff

 4.4 Cases of call drop caused by


other reasons

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HUAWEI Confidential Page 66


Cases of Call Drop Caused by Interference

 Cases of call drop caused by interference

The interference is subdivided into uplink interference and downlink


interference.

Materials are not available.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HUAWEI Confidential Page 67


4 Case analysis

 4.1 Cases of call drop caused by


poor coverage

 4.2 Cases of call drop caused by


interference

 4.3 Cases of call drop caused by


handoff

 4.4 Cases of call drop caused by


other reasons

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HUAWEI Confidential Page 68


Cases of Call Drop Caused by Handoff

As shown in this figure, the call drop does not occur at the edge of the 3G
network coverage area.

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Cases of Call Drop Caused by Handoff

The call drop occurs in the area where the best cell changes rapidly.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HUAWEI Confidential Page 70


Cases of Call Drop Caused by Handoff

Before the call drop, the Ec/Io measured by the UE is decreased to lower than
-21 dB, whereas the Ec/Io measured by the scanner is still above -11 dB.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HUAWEI Confidential Page 71


Cases of Call Drop Caused by Handoff

Before the call drop, the best cell measured by the UE is the SC009 cell, whereas the best
cell measured by the scanner is the SC018 cell. After the call drop, the UE camps on the
SC018 cell rapidly.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HUAWEI Confidential Page 72


Cases of Call Drop Caused by Handoff

Before the call drop, the SC018 cell is not measured in the monitored set of the UE. The
neighbor relation is found to be defined in the neighbor list. Therefore, the possible call
drop cause is that the best cell changes rapidly from the SC009 cell to the SC011 cell and
SC018 cell, and thus the UE fails to perform the soft handoff timely.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HUAWEI Confidential Page 73


Cases of Call Drop Caused by Handoff

The SC018 cell is not the best cell here. Serious cross coverage exists in the SC018 cell.
Upon the call drop, the RSCP is over -75 dBm. Therefore, you must increase the down tilt
of the SC018 cell, control the coverage, and optimize the primary cell of the call drop
location.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HUAWEI Confidential Page 74


4 Case analysis

 4.1 Cases of call drop caused by


poor coverage

 4.2 Cases of call drop caused by


interference

 4.3 Cases of call drop caused by


handoff

 4.4 Cases of call drop caused by


other reasons

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HUAWEI Confidential Page 75


Cases of Call Drop Caused by Other Reasons

 The material is not available.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HUAWEI Confidential Page 76


Contents

1. Definition and classification

2. Causes and handling process

3. Solutions

4. Case analysis

5. Concerns in various network optimization phases

Training.huawei.com

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HUAWEI Confidential Page 77


5 Concerns in Various Network Optimization Phases

 5.1 Concerns in various


network optimization phases

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Concerns in Various Network Optimization Phases
Network optimization procedure

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Concerns in Various Network Optimization Phases

The entire network optimization process consists of the following phases:


 Sign the project contract
 Optimize the network
 Generate the network optimization report
Here, we focus on the causes of the call drop in phases from the single site test phase
to the subsequent acceptance phase.
1. Single site test phase
In the single site test phase, analyze the equipment problem to locate the abnormal
call drop cause. If the call drop occurs during the drive test, check whether the call
drop is caused by the poor coverage.

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Concerns in Each Phase

2. RF optimization phase
 Evaluation before the optimization
During the evaluation phase, check the drive test results for call drop rate indexes and
learn about the call drop rate of the entire network according to the measurement
analysis.
In this phase, emphasize on and differentiate call drops caused by poor coverage,
interference, or untimely handoff. In addition, the call drops caused by the untimely
handoff should be taken into account.
 RF optimization
The emphasis of this phase is to check whether call drops are caused by the poor
coverage or strong interference. Check whether such call drop problems can be
solved by adjusting engineering parameters of the antenna. In addition, call drops
caused by the untimely handoff should be taken into account. Check whether the
corner or pinpoint effect can be avoided by adjustment of the antenna.

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Concerns in Each Phase
3. Parameter optimization phase
If certain call drops cannot be avoided by RF optimization or the RF optimization
cannot be performed in some scenarios, optimize parameters to solve these problems
after the RF optimization. In this phase, lay special stress on call drops caused by the
handoff, inter-frequency handoff, and inter-RAT handoff. Generally, call drops due to
latter causes occur in indoor area or subway. In this case, carry out the walking dialing
test accordingly and trace messages of the single user on the RNC for data analysis.
4. Acceptance phase
To evaluate the optimization effect, collect drive test indexes and measurements
related to the call drop rate during the optimization and acceptance phases. Not all
these call drop problems are required to be solved, but you are advised to analyze the
detailed causes of each call drop and put forward further suggestions on the future
optimization.

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Thanks!
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