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# MATHEMATICS 3 : STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY

TUTORIAL 3 : PROBABILITY

1. How many 7-digit numbers can be formed from the digits 1, 1, 2, 2, 4, 4 and 5 if
repetition is not allowed. If one of these numbers is chosen at random, find the
probability that it is

(a) greater than 4,000,000
(b) even number and greater than 4,000,000

2. Six children, Ani , Ana , Anita, Faiz, Fahmi and Farid stand in a line. How many
different arrangements are possible ?
They stand in random order. Find the probability that :

(a) the three girls are next to each other
(b) Ani and Fahmi are next to each other
(c) Ana and Faiz are not next to each other
(d) the three boys stand in alternate order

3. A bag of fruits contains 8 apples, 3 pears and 5 oranges. Three fruits are chosen at
random and without replacement. Find the probability that :

(a) no oranges are chosen
(b) all the chosen fruits are different
(c) exactly one orange is chosen
(d) two apples and one pear are chosen.

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4. Given A and B are two events where P(A) = , P(B’) = and P(A  B ) =
2 3 4
Find
(a) P( A  B ) (b) P(A | B )
(c) P( B’ | A’) (d) P( A’| B )

3 2
5. Given P( A ) = and P( B ) =
4 3
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(a) if P (A  B) = , determine whether A and B are mutually
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exclusive or independent events or neither.
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(b) if P (A  B) = , find P( A B ' )
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6. The probability of each of three events P, Q and R is
1 3 2
, and respectively
5 10 5
(a) Given that P , Q and R are mutually exclusive, find the probability that
none of them occurs
(b) Given that P, Q and R are independent, find the probability that exactly
one of them occurs.

7. Four cards are selected at random without replacement from nine cards which are
numbered from 1 to 9. Find the probability that

(a) the greatest number on the cards is 7
(b) cards with number 2 and 8 are chosen
(c) at least two of cards are even numbers
(d) the product of the four numbers on the cards is divisible by 9

8. There are 6 marbles in a box where four of them are green and two are blue. Three
marbles are taken one by one from the box without replacement. Find the
probability that

(a) the first marble is green, the second is blue and the third is green
(b) the second marble is green
(c) the green marbles are more than the blue marbles
(d) at least one blue marble is taken

9. In a study of genetics, a class used a sample of 100 people to obtain the following
information

Male Female Total
Color Blind 4 1 5
Not Color Blind 40 55 95
Total 44 56 100

What is the probability that a person is

(a) color blind , given that the person is female
(b) color blind and female
(c) not color blind given that the person is male
(d) is female given that the person is not color blind

10. A survey of 1000 people in London revealed the following voting intentions .

Women Men Total
Conservative 153 130 283
Labour 220 194 414
Liberal Democrat 157 146 303
Total 530 470 1000

A person is chosen at random from the sample.
Find the probability that the person chosen :

(a) intends to vote Conservative
(b) is a woman intending to vote Labour
(c) is either a woman or intends to vote Conservative or both
(d) is neither a man nor intends to vote Liberal Democrat
(e) is a man and intends to vote either Liberal Democrat or Labour

11. A safety system has three major component A, B and C, all of which are subject
to failure and need to replaced by a service engineer from time to time. The
components are such that each only fit into it’s correct socket. A service engineer
has a box of twenty assorted components, five of which are replacements for A,
nine for B and six for C.When a component is required the engineer makes a
random selection from the box without replacement. Find the probability that the
engineer selects:

(a) replacement for component B at the first selection
(b) no replacement for component A in the first two selections
(c) at least one replacement for component A in the first two selections

12. For married couples the probability that the husband has passed his driving test is
0.7 and the probability that the wife has passed her driving test is 0.5. The
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probability that the husband has passed, given that the wife has passed is
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find the probability that, for a randomly chosen married couple , the driving test
will have been passed by

(a) both of them
(b) only one of them
(c) neither of them

13. An employee wants to go home early at the end of the working day. To do so,
permission must be sought from the supervisor on duty. Only Hidayah or Erna is
on duty and Hidayah is on duty for three-fifths of the time. The probability
Hidayah gives permission is 0.1 and for Erna is 0.05.

(a) Find the probability that the employee is given permission to go home
early.
(b) If the employee is given permission to go home early,what is the
probability that Hidayah is on duty

14. The staff employed by a college are classified as academic, administrative or
support. The table below shows the numbers employed in these catogories and
their sex.
Male Female
Support 26 9

A member of staff is selected at random. Find the probability that the person
selected is

(a) a female
(b) a female and also an academic staff
(c) a female or not an administrative staff
(d) a male given that the person is an administrative staff