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# Meccanica delle Macchine M

Dynamics Applications:
Dynamics of 1-DOF Systems
Dynamics Applications: 1-DOF Systems

## 1. Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Model, indexer, energy flow, electric motor, flywheel, lumped-parameter model,
free-body diagrams, Lagrange equation, Simulink model, numerical example.

## 2. Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

Model, position analysis, kinematic analysis differential approach,
kinematic analysis algebraic approach, kinetic energy, potential energy,
DAlembert equations, Lagrange equation, numerical example.

## 3. Dynamics of a ground vehicle in planar motion

Single-track model, vehicle kinematics, DAlembert equations, energy equation,
motor torque, numerical example.
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive
Model
Consider an intermittent-motion drive composed by:
a gearmotor, which comprises:
an induction motor, with angular position, velocity and acceleration given by:
, = , =
a gear reducer, with gear ratio:
Rotary table
= =
Gearmotor
an indexer, which transforms the
continuous motion of the output
shaft of the reducer into the
intermittent motion of a follower.
a rotary table, subject to external load Indexer
but its own inertia.
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive
Indexer
Motion law
While the driver of the indexer is supposed to move at an almost constant
speed, = , the follower must start, move in one direction and stop at
regular intervals, with a periodic motion law ( ) characterized by:
an advancement (or lift or rise) angle in a time interval ;
a dwell time ;
a period = + .
( )

( )

( )
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive
is the production time, since, as the table dwells, some production operations
are performed over the workstations located around the table.
The number of workstations determines the rise angle :
2 2
= =

## and , and thus , are typically assigned by the application at hand.

workstations

rotary table
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

## Since the advancement time is an unproductive time, there is the economical

interest in making it as small as possible, thus decreasing the period and
increasing the production frequency:
1 1
= =
+

However, as decreases, the table velocity and acceleration become larger, thus
increasing the dynamical stress on the transmission, in particular on the indexer.
The indexer motion law ( ) must be chosen so as to both meet the application
specifications and optimize the dynamic performances.
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive
The displacement of the indexer follower is only a function of the driver rotation ,
and it may thus be represented in the plane:

## The function , called displacement diagram or function, only depends on the

geometrical design of the indexer, namely on profile of the cam mounted on the
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

## The velocity of the follower is given by:

= = =

Hence, the indexer transmission ratio is:

= =

Since only depends on the geometrical design of the indexer, so does
, which is thus also called geometric velocity.
Notice that the time-velocity of the follower depends not only on the
indexer design, through , but also on the speed of the driver link
(and on its possible fluctuations).
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

= = = + = + = +

## Since only depends on the geometrical design of the indexer, so does

, which is thus called geometric acceleration:

## Notice that the time-accelerations of the follower depends on both the

indexer design, through , and the speed fluctuations of the driver link,
through and .
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

If the motor rotates with constant speed, so does the indexer driving link, and
the follower motion is unambiguously determined by the indexer geometry:

= =
= . = = .
= =

## Conversely, if the motor speed varies:

the (rigid-body) motion law of the follower is altered:

= , = +

due to the system compliance, the risk of triggering mechanical vibrations boosts,
further decreasing motion accuracy and hindering the overall performances.
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

## Coefficient of cyclic irregularity

In order to limit the problems caused by the motor-speed oscillations, the
coefficient of cyclic irregularity must be kept under a suitable threshold,
depending on the application at hand:

, ,
= =
,

where:
, + ,
,
2
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Energy flow
Energy required by the rotary tables intermittent motion
The inertia torque acting on the rotary table is:

where is the mass moment of inertia of all components that are coupled
with the indexer follower, including the shafts and the rotary table.
The corresponding power of inertia forces is:

= =
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Assuming, for the time being, that no energy loss occurs within the indexer,
the driving link must supply enough power so as to counteract the inertia torque
acting on the follower:

+ = 0 = =

( )

( )
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Since the elementary work performed by the tables inertia forces is the opposite
of the elementary variation of the table kinetic energy, namely:

= =

the energy supplied by the driving link equals the followers kinetic energy:
( ) ( )
1
= = =
2

In fact:

1
= = = = =
2
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

The maximum energy fed into the indexer matches to highest kinetic energy
attained by the table:
1
, = = = ,
2

= = , = = ,

1
1
2
2

= =
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive
Since the followers kinetic energy at the end of the cycle is zero, the net energy
supplied by the driving link over a cycle is zero too, namely:

= = + =0

=
,

,
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

If no energy dissipation occurs, the energy that the table receives while it accelerates
from a dwell to its maximum velocity is returned back when the table decelerates
from its maximum kinetic energy to the next dwell.
The system steady-state motion, then, may be sustained by any device that is able to
store energy and exchange it with the indexer, i.e.:
to receive and store energy when the table decelerates;
to give energy back to the table when it accelerates.
The aforementioned device is, typically:
an electric motor;
a flywheel (working as an kinetic spring).
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive
Eectric motor
The electric motor has several roles, namely:
it brings the system to a periodic steady-state;
it compensates energy losses;
it exchanges energy with the rotary table.

If energy losses are disregarded and only the speed oscillation of the rotary table
is considered, the power provided by the motor at the steady state equals the

MOTOR REDUCER DRIVER FOLLOWER/TABLE

## The motor torque is, thus:

= = = =
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

## The electric machine operates as an electric spring

When the table accelerates, i.e. > 0, it receives energy by the electric machine,
which operates as a motor, i.e. > 0 and > 0:

,
ACCELERATION: MOTOR FOLLOWER/TABLE = ,

When the table decelerates, i.e. < 0, it provides energy to the electric machine,
which works as a generator, i.e. < 0 and < 0:

,
DECELERATION: GENERATOR FOLLOWER/TABLE = ,
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

An ideal electric machine has a vertical mechanical characteristic ( ),
thus being able to provide any required positive or negative torque at a
constant speed .

## If the speed of the electric machine is constant: (

)
the motion law of the rotary table coincides ,
with the geometric law imposed by the
indexers cam design;

all rotors comprised between the motor and
the indexers driver have uniform motion and
,
constant kinetic energy, thus not affecting the
energy exchange between the electric machine
and the rotary table.
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive
The actual mechanical characteristic of an induction machine, however, though very
steep, is not vertical. The machine cannot vary the provided torque without changing
the rotor velocity around the synchronous speed :
the higher the positive torque, the smaller the angular speed w.r.t. ;
the smaller the negative torque, the higher the angular speed w.r.t. ;
the mechanical characteristic is approximated, around , by a straight line.

,
= ( )

, ,

,
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

## If , and , are, respectively, the maximum and minimum torque

provided by the electric machine, the minimum and maximum angular speeds
that are reached are:
,
, =
= =
,
, =

## The coefficient of cyclic irregularity is, thus:

, , , ,
=
,

where:
,
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

## Since the angular velocity of the electric machine is not constant:

the motion law of the rotary table coincides no longer with the geometric law
imposed by the indexer, thus being affected by the motor-speed oscillation;
all rotors comprised between the motor and the indexers driver vary their
kinetic energy, thus affecting the energy exchange between the electric machine
and the rotary table.

Since bigger motors have steeper mechanical characteristics, the cyclic irregularity
may be decreased by choosing more powerful actuators:

, ,

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive
Flywheel
The flywheel stores kinetic energy, thus working as a kinetic spring:
the kinetic energy of the fly-wheel is transferred to the table when the table
accelerates (as the flywheel, thus, decelerates);
when the table decelerates, its kinetic energy is transferred back to the
flywheel, which thus accelerates.

,
ACCELERATION: FLYWHEEL FOLLOWER/TABLE = , <0

,

## is the variation of the kinetic energy of the flywheel.

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

If the flywheel is mounted on the motor shaft, with mass moment of inertia , then:

, + ,
= , , = , ,
2 2

If the flywheel is the only responsible of the energy exchange with the table, then:

,
,

## The cyclic irregularity may be decreased by choosing a suitable flywheel inertia:

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

If a flywheel with mass moment of inertia is mounted on the output shaft of the
gear reducer, then:

= = , ,
2 2
Hence:
,
,

The flywheel mounted on the slow shaft of the reducer has the same effects on the
cyclic irregularity than a flywheel mounted on the motor shaft as long as:

## A flywheel mounted on the fast shaft is much smaller!

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

In practice, the motor and the flywheel work together, both exchanging energy
with the indexer.
The cyclic irregularity is mitigated both by the steepness of the motor
characteristic and by the inertia of the flywheel.
When is not constant, all rotating components of the mechanism undergo
periodic variation of their kinetic energy, besides the flywheel and the rotary table,
and the corresponding inertial effects must be taken into account.
There is energy dissipation throughout the cycle: the energy that flows from the
motor to the table in direct motion is higher than the energy that flows back in
inverse motion.
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive
Lumped-parameter model

, ,

Rotary table

Gearmotor
=

Indexer
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

## inertia block, where kinetic energy is stored:

transmission block, where speed variations and energy losses are concentrated:

,
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

, ,

Symbols:

## : moment of inertia of all masses rotating with velocity .

If a flywheel is mounted on the motor shaft, must be replaced by + .
: moment of inertia of all masses rotating with angular velocity .
If a flywheel is mounted on the reducer output shaft, must be replaced
by + .
: moment of inertia of all masses rotating with angular velocity .
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

, ,

Symbols:

: motor torque.
, : input and output torques of the gearbox.
, : input and output torques of the indexer.

, : transmission ratio and efficiency of the gearbox.

, : transmission ratio and efficiency of the indexer.
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Free-body diagrams
Moment equilibrium of the motor shaft:

=

= =

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive
Power balance of the gear reducer:

,

= =

## When dissipations are taken into account:

the power flow from the input to the output shaft is reduced by a factor equal
to the direct-motion efficiency ;
the power flow from the output to the input shaft is reduced by a factor equal
to the inverse-motion efficiency .
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive
Efficiency function:
direct motion: ( )

0 :
=
0 :

inverse motion:
<0
=
<0
0
in general:

=
where:

, if 0
=
1 , if <0
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive
Power balance of the gear reducer when dissipations are taken into account:

= = = =

## Moment equilibrium of the input shaft of the indexer:

= = =

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

## Power balance of the indexer:

= = =

where:

, if 0
=
1 , if <0

,
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

## Moment equilibrium of the rotary table:

= = = = +

= = = = +
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

, ,

Motion equation:
=

=
=

=

= +

+ + =0
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

## The non-linear differential equation of motion may be expressed in state form

and numerically integrated:

= = ( ),
+ +

where:
and are functions of ;
angles and are related so as:

= = = + .
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive
Lagrange equation
The motion equation may be obtained directly by relying on the Lagrange
equation of 1-d.o.f. systems:

1
1

= + = 2
2

where:

= + +

( ) ( )
= = 2 =2

where motion is direct or inverse depending on whether 0 or < 0,
respectively.
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive
By considering that:

= , =

=

= = ( ), = ( ),
+ +

## which may be numerically integrated by imposing an initial condition:

= ( ),

=
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive
Numerical integration of the motion equation:

( ),
= = = = ( ),
( )
+ +

= ( ), = + + ( ),

( ),

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Results
[alpha]
Efficiencies

, 1 [w]
s
Integrator tau
[w]

1 0: 2 [alpha]
s
Integrator
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive
Function ( ), = :

[etai]

[etar] Product

alpha beta2

[alpha] beta2
tau^3*J_b
From8
alpha beta1 Product8
Gain6
beta1 Product5
u2
Product10 ,
[b1] Cm
Math
Goto5 Function

## From7 Cm1 Goto7

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive
Function ( ) = + + :

Jm
J_a*tau^2
Constant5
Constant6
[etar]

From3 Product4
( ) [etai]

From4 Product1

Function1

## is computed inside function , then passed to .

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Function ( ), = :

( ),

( ),

( )
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive
Integrations:

1
omega
s
Integrator To Workspace

[w]
tau
Gain1
Goto
lightBlue

1
alpha alpha2pi alpha
s
Integrator1 [0:2pi] To Workspace3

[alpha]

Goto1
Function 0: 2 bounds such that [0,2 ].
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive
Results:
Cmot To Workspace1

## [Cm] Cr1 To Workspace4

From11

[Cr1] Goto6
[etar]
From6
Cr2 To Workspace2
Jm
1/tau
Gain2
Constant7
J_a*tau C_a To Workspace5

Gain3
[etai] [C_a] Goto8
From12
[C_a] C_b To Workspace6
From14 [b1]
From13
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive
Efficiencies:

etar

Constant
[Cr1] [etar]

1/etar1 etar
Constant1

etai

Constant3
[C_a] [etai]

## From1 Memory3 Goto3

etami
1/etai1

Constant4
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive
Block examples:
From and Go to:

[alpha] [alpha]
From8
Goto1

blocks go to and from are used to pass a signal within the model.

To workspace

alpha
To Workspace3

## it saves signal to Matlab workspace, in structure form.

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive
Gain:

tau
Gain1

## the input is multiplied by a constant value;

constant values can be provided via workspace.

## Sum and Product:

Jm + +
J_a*tau^2
Constant5
Constant6

Product4 Sum
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive
Integrator:
= , 1
s

## initial conditions must be provided inside the block.

Switch:

etar
it passes the 1st or the 3rd input through the block, depending on the value of
the 2nd input (control input);
the condition under which the first input is passed is defined inside the block
(e.g. control input > threshold).
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive
Subsystem:

## it is analogous to a Matlab subfunction, thus combining a set of blocks together;

it computes operations between inputs and returns outputs;
for example, function 0: 2 is defined via a 1 input 1 output subsystem
(floor is a rounding function):

1 1
alpha alpha2pi

= 2
2 2*pi

1/(2*pi) floor
= ( )
Rounding Function
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

## and are defined via 1 input 1 output subsystems:

[alpha]
From8

1 1
alpha beta1
Switch
f(u)
>7/8

f(u) 7/8
>1/8 & <7/8

f(u) 1/8
<1/8
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive
user-defined functions:

km*(w0-u) ( )

memory:

etar

[Cr1] [etar]

1/etar1

## it holds and delays an input by one integration step;

in order to avoid an algebraic loop, efficiency is computed by using values
from the previous integration time step.
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive
Numerical example
Application characteristics
number of workstations: =4
cycle frequency and period: 38.5 cyclesmin , = 1.56 s
workstations production time: 1 s
rotary tables moment of inertia: = 5.89 kg m
Induction motor
moment of inertia: = 6.90 10 kg m
synchronous speed: = 1500 rpm = 157.07 rad/s
torque constant: = 0.191 N m s
Gear reducer
moment of inertia (reduced to the input shaft): = 0.05 10 kg m

efficiency: = = 0.95
transmission ratio: = 139
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive
Indexer:
rise angle: =2 = 90
indexing angle: = 120 = 2 3 rad
notice that:
1
, 38.46 rpm 1.56 s

2
= = = = 1 1.56 s 1.04 s
2 2 3

## moment of inertia of the follower: = 0.014 kg m

moment of inertia of the driver: negligible

efficiency = = 0.95
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive
Indexer displacement diagram: piecewise cycloidal motion

[]
2 ( ) ( ) 100
80
1.5 ( )
60
1
40
= 90
0.5 20
0 0
7
-0.5 8 8

-1

-1.5

-2
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 []
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

## Indexer geometric velocity and acceleration:

7
1 cos 4 , 0< < ; < <
4+ 8 8
= 4 7
1 3 cos + , < <
4 + 3 3 8 8
0, >
4 7
sin 4 , 0< < ; < <
4+ 8 8
= 4 4 7
sin + , < <
4+ 3 3 8 8
0, >
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

= + = 5.904 kg m

## Mass moment of inertia of all components rotating at speed = :

case 1: no flywheel
= + = 6.95 10 kg m

## case 2: flywheel mounted on the motor shaft

= 0.03kg m
= + + = 0.0307 kg m
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

## Mass moment of inertia of all components rotating at speed :

case 1: no flywheel
=0

=0

## case 3: flywheel mounted on the output shaft of the reducer

= = = 45.6 kg m
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Results 1700
Cyclic irregularity: 1650
no flywheel
slow-shaft flywheel
no flywheel motor-shaft flywheel
1600
= 0.23

[rpm]
1550
= 1.040 s
1500
motor-shaft flywheel
= 0.10 1450

= 1.035 s 1400

## slow-shaft flywheel 1350

= 0.10
1300
= 1.035 s 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6
[s]
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

## The flywheel reduces the torque requested to the motor:

4
[N ] no flywheel
3 slow-shaft flywheel
motor-shaft flywheel
2

-1

-2

-3

-4
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 [ ]
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive
A flywheel mounted on the gearbox slow shaft reduces the torque on this shaft
too, but its inertia is bigger (!) than inertia of the rotary table:

150
[N ] no flywheel
100 slow-shaft flywheel
motor-shaft flywheel
50

-50

-100

-150

-200
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 [ ]
1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive
The inertia of the flywheel causes the mechanism to reach its steady-state
motion after a longer transient:

1800
[rpm]
1600

1400

1200

1000

800

600 no flywheel
slow-shaft flywheel
400 motor-shaft flywheel
200

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 [ ]
2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage
Model

/////

## Configuration variables: External forces and moments:

independent (actuated) variable: motor torque:
dependent variables: , resistant torque:
weights (the -axis points upward
in the vertical direction).
2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

Position analysis

+ = + =

+ = =

## Attention must be paid to picking the

**
3
2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage
Kinematic analysis
Velocity analysis
First-order kinematic coefficients (transmission ratios) of the dependent
configuration variables:

= = =

= = =

## Velocities of the dependent configuration variables:

= = , = 2,3
2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

Acceleration analysis
Second-order kinematic coefficients of the dependent configuration variables:

+
= = =

+
= = =

## Accelerations of the dependent configuration variables:

= + , = 2,3
2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

Centres of mass
Position, velocity and acceleration of the centre of mass of the th link ( = 1,2,3):
=
= =
= = +
2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

=
= = +
=

## Second-order kinematic coefficients of the centres of mass:

=
= =
=
2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

Kinetic energy
1 1
= + , = + ,
2 2
1
= + ,
2
1 1
= , = ,
2 2
1
= ,
2
2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

## Total kinetic energy of the four bar:

1 1
, = = , + + , + , = ( )
2
2

where is the total mass moment of inertia of the linkage:

= , + + , + ,

Derivative of w.r.t. the independent variable:

= =2 +2 , +2 ,
2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

Potential energy
The potential energy associated with gravitational forces is:

= = ,

= = = ,
2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage
DAlembert equations
Inertia forces

, = ,

=
,

, = ,
,

=

, = ,
2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage
Free-body diagrams
3 equilibrium equations may be written for any link, thus obtaining a system of
9 equations in 9 unknowns.
The system comprises:
the external forces applied to the linkage: , and the weights;
the inertia forces;
the 8 components of the reaction forces in the revolute joints:
= , = , = , =
The system is linear in the reaction forces and the external forces.
The 9 unknowns are:
the reaction forces and the driving torque, when solving the inverse problem;
the reaction forces and the input motion, when solving the direct problem.
The system is generally coupled.
2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage
Method of the open kinematic chain
It allows equilibrium equations to be more effectively formulated, namely in
(partial) echelon form.
Cut the kinematic chain in and replace the removed joint with the corresponding
reaction force :

,

,

2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage
Impose the moment equilibrium of (i) link 2 about , and (ii) the ensemble of links 2
+ , =

+ , , + =

, ,

2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage
This provides two scalar equations that allow the computation of the reaction force
as a function of the external torque , the weight forces and the motion variables
(no other reaction forces nor the driving torque are involved):

= + + ,

= + + + , + ,

, ,

2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage
= + + ,
= + + + , + ,

+ = ( + ) + ,
+ = + + + , + ,

=

=

2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage
Explicit computation of (not necessary if a numeric solution is attempted):

+ , =
+ , , + =

## Subtracting the former equation from the latter yields:

+ , =
+ , + =

= ( + )+ ,
= + + + ,

= ( + ) + ,
+ = + + + ,
2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage
Hence:
= ( + ) + ,
+ = + + + ,

+
=
+
=

where:
= , + + ( + )

= , + + + +
2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage
Once is known, the moment equilibrium of link 1 about allows the computation
of the driving torque as a function of the external forces and moments acting on
the linkage and the motion variables, i.e. the motion law of the linkage:

+ , =

= + + ,

,
2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

## The explicit formulation of as a function of the external torque , the weight

forces and the motion variables is (not necessary if a numeric solution is attempted):

= , + + =
+
= , + +
2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage
The force equilibrium of each link allows the computation of the other reaction forces:

,

,

2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage
Lagrange equation
The Lagrange equation is:

+ =

where:

1
= +
2

= + = +

Thus, immediately:

1
, , = + +
2
2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage
The reaction forces can be calculated by free-body diagrams, as shown in
the previous section:
moment equilibrium of links 2 and 3:
= + + ,

= + + , + ,

= + +

= +

## force equilibrium of link 3:

= + +
2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage
Numerical example
Consider the following crank-rocker four-bar linkage:
= 100 mm, = 48 mm, = 15 mm,
= 1.8 kg, , = 0.018 kg m ;
= 300 mm, = 160 mm, = 60 mm,
= 3.7 kg, , = 0.078 kg m ;
= 220 mm, = 90 mm, = 95 mm,
= 4.2 kg, , = 0.031 kg m ;
= 340 mm;
= 100 Nm
2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage
Inverse dynamics

Input motion law: = 40 rads = 382 rpm, = 0 rads .
Compute the driving torque that is necessary to operate the crank with the
assigned motion law:
[Nm]

60
40
20
3 2 1
0 1 2 3
20
40
60
80
100
120
1

## 2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

Direct dynamics
Determine the motion law of the crank if the driving torque is:

## Time law of the crank angular velocity:

50

40

30

20

10
[s]
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

## Time law of the input torque:

[Nm]
200

150

100

50
[s]
0
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
50
3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion
Single-track model
and can be used interchangeably as

the steering variable:

=
tan

, =
sin

## The vehicle velocity field may be described

by and (or and ):

=
tan
= = =

3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

## The vehicle acceleration field may be

described by and (or and ):

=
= = +

1
= =

1
= tan +
cos
3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion
Vehicle kinematics
Vehicle kinematics in the fixed frame
(see the Chapter: Kinematics of a vehicle in planar motion):
First-order kinematics:
=
sin
= + = cos + sin

= =

## = + = cos sin + sin + cos

3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion
Vehicle kinematics in the body frame:
First-order kinematics:
= =

= + = + = ( + )

3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion
Second-order kinematics:
= =

= + = + = + +

= + =
= + + + =
= ( + ) +( + )

3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion
DAlembert equations
Forces acting on the vehicle body in the xy-plane:

tractive force on the rear wheel:
= ,

## lateral constraint forces:

=
= = ( sin + cos )

inertia forces:
= = + +

, =
3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

Force equilibrium:

+ + + =

sin + =0

+ cos =0 ,

( + )
=
sin
= cos + +
3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

+ + , =

+ sin + cos =

+ cos =

cos + =0
,
3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion
Substituting for in the moment equilibrium equation yields:

+ cos + + + =0

cos + + =0

## By substituting for in the first term, one obtains:

( + )
cos = = ( + )
tan
and thus:

+ + + + =0

= + +

3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

## Finally, the vehicles motion law may be expressed as:

= + +

Since:

= , =
tan sin
tan 1
= , = tan +
cos
one also has

tan tan
= + +
cos
3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

( + ) +
= = = +
sin sin cos sin

= cos + + = +
tan

## One also has:

1
= sin + + sin
cos cos

1
= sin + + sin
cos cos
3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

## Notice that, in case of rectilinear motion, namely = 0, we have:

=
tan
tan
= = 0,

1
= tan + =
cos

3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

Hence, when = 0:

tan tan
= + + =
cos

1
= sin + + sin =
cos cos

1
= sin + + sin =
cos cos
3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion
Energy equation
Kinetic energy of the vehicle:
= + , =

1 1 1 1 1
= + = + + = ( + ) =
2 2 2 2 2

where
= +

## is the overall mass moment of inertia of the vehicle.

Notice that:

= 2
3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

## Energetic formulation of the principle of virtual work:

At the equilibrium, the power performed by the external actions and the internal
dissipative forces must equal the rate of change of the kinetic energy:

The vehicles motion law may be obtained by the energy equation as:

= = =
1 1 = +

= = + = +
2 2
3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion
Motor torque
Tricycle model
The tractive force is distributed on the two traction (rear) wheels:
= + = + =
3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion
If the mass moment of inertia of the wheel about its axis is disregarded,
the moment equilibrium of the jth traction wheel yields ( = , ):

= 0 =

where:
is the motor torque of the jth wheel;
is the tractive force of the jth wheel.

= =

## The overall motor torque is:

= + = + =
3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

The contribution of the mass moment of inertia of the wheels can be taken into
consideration, in an approximate way, as:

+4 = +4

## where is the mass moment of inertia of a single wheel.

Notice that the above formula is exact in the case of rectilinear motion.
3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion
Numerical examples
1. A vehicle travels a curve with constant turn radius.
The characteristics of the vehicle are:
= 1300 kg, = 2500 kg m , = 2.5 m, = 1.3 m, = 0.3367 m.
The characteristics of the curve are:
= 20 m, tan = = 0.125, = 7.125.
The vehicle moves along a quarter-circle trajectory, travelling a distance:
= 2 = 31.41 m
Three cases are considered, with the vehicle travelling the curve with:
i. constant velocity = 80 kmh = 22.2 ms, in time = = 1.41 s;
ii. constant velocity = 120 kmh = 33.3 ms, in time = = 0.94 s;
iii. constant acceleration = 9.82 ms , entering the curve at = 80 kmh
and leaving it at = 120 kmh, in time = 1.13 s.
3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

[m]
80 kmh
20 120 kmh
80 120 kmh
= +
cos sin
= 12,8 kN
15
= +
tan

= + +
10

0 20 kN

0 5 10 15 20 [m]
3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion
2. The same vehicle of the previous example travels a curve with:
variable steer angle: 0 = = 0, 0 = = 0, = 1.13 s,
= 4.91 sin 4 for 0, 2 , = 4.91 sin 4 for 2 , 0 ;
constant acceleration = 9.82 ms , entering the curve at = 80 kmh and
and exiting it at = 120 kmh, thus travelling a distance = = 31.41 m.

1.0
0.25
0.8
0.20 0.6

0.4
0.15
0.2
0.10 0.0
-0.2
0.05 -0.4
-0.6
0.00
-0.8
[s] -1.0 [s]
-0.05 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

[m]
20
trajectory
= + forces
cos sin constant
15
= +
tan

10
= + +

5

0 20 kN

0 5 10 15 20 [m]
3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion
16
[kN] 14

12

10

8
= +
6
=
4 = +
2

-2
[s]
-4
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
Prof. Marco Carricato
DIN
marco.carricato@unibo.it
http://grab.diem.unibo.it/
www.unibo.it/docenti/marco.carricato