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U n it T itle Topics G ra m m a r Use o f English

1 T h e g lo b a l te e n a g e r Communication,
the environment
Present simple, present
continuous
Error correction
(Part 4)
page 8

2 V isio n s o f th e fu tu r e Science-fiction films,


space travel
Past simple, present
perfect simple and
Open cloze
(Part 2)
page 16
continuous

3 T h e tr u th is o u t th e re Mystery stories Past perfect simple and M ultiple choice


page 24 continuous, past cloze (Part 1)
continuous

R e v iew : U nits 1 -3 p a g e 32

4 S u n n y d a ys The weather and Future (1); future Open cloze


page 34 the natural world simple, going to, (Part 2)
present continuous,
present simple

Science and Future (2): future Error correction


5 T h e secrets o f science
technology perfect simple, (Part 4)
page 42
future perfect
continuous, future
continuous

6 L o o k in g g o o d , Health and fitness, Conditional (1): first Open cloze


page 50 fe e lin g g o o d food and second (Part 2)
conditionals

R eview : U nits 4 - 6 p a g e 58

7 A g o o d s to ry Story-telling Conditional (2): third M ultiple choice


page 60 conditional, wishes cloze (Part 1)
and regrets

8 W o n d e rs o f th e w o r ld Ancient history The passive Error correction


(Part 4)
page 68
V o c a b u la ry R eading Listening S peaking W ritin g

Describing movement M ultiple matching; Note-taking Pairwork task Transactional


Phrasal verbs witin summaries (Part 2) (Part 3) letter (Part 1)
on and up (Part 1)
Words often confused

Compound nouns M ultiple matching M ultiple choice Pairwork task Informal letter
Collocation (computers) (Part 4) (Part 4) (Parts 3 and 4) (Part 2)
Phrasal verbs w ith get

Parts of speech Gapped text: Note-taking Information gap Short story


Words often confused sentences (Part 3) (Part 2) (Part 2)
Phrasal verbs w ith go

Idioms (time) M ultiple choice Yes/No Photographs (Part 2) Transactional


Words often confused (Part 2) questions letter (Part 1)
(Part 4)

Prepositions (w ith M ultiple matching: M ultiple choice Pairwork task Magazine


adjectives and nouns) headings (Part 1) (Part 1) article (Part 2)
Words often confused

Word building (food) M ultiple choice M ultiple choice Photographs (Part 2) Informal letter
Phrasal verbs (food and (Part 2) (Part 4) (Part 2)
drink)

Word building M ultiple matching Yes/No Information gap Short story


Collocation (go and have) (Part 4) questions (Part 2)
Words often confused (Part 4)

Noun suffixes M ultiple matching M ultiple Planning a tourist Report (Part 2)


Phrasal verbs (Part 4) matching brochure
w ith up and down (Part 3)
I Unit Title Topics G ram m ar Use o f English

9 Star players Sport, famous


people
Reported speech Open cloze
(Part 2)
page 76

Review: Units 7 -9 page 84

10 Fun and gam es Celebrations and Gerunds and infinitives Word formation
page 86 festivals (Part 5)

11 From C olum bus to


Concorde
Travel and
transport
Comparative and
superlative adjectives
Multiple choice
cloze (Part 1)
page 94

12 M a k in g m oney,
spending m oney
Shopping and
consumerism
Relative clauses and
pronouns
Multiple choice
cloze (Part 1)
page 102

Review: Units 1 0 -1 2 page 110

13 Sm art kids Education Modal verbs (1) Open cloze


page 112 (Part 2)

14 The w o rld's best, th e The media, crime Modal verbs (2): modal Word formation
page 120 perfect (part 5)

15 W o rk and play Summer jobs Clauses of purpose and Multiple choice


page 128 reason cloze (P arti)
Error correction
(Part 4)

Review: Units 1 3 -1 5 page 136

Com m unication activities pages 139, 140


G ram m ar reference page 141
Phrasal verb dictionary page 157
V o c a b u la ry R eading Listening S peaking W ritin g

Antonyms M ultiple matching: Note-taking Information gap Magazine


Words often confused headings (Part 1) (Part 2) (Part 1) article (Part 2)
Collocation (sport)

Countable and M ultiple choice M ultiple choice Pairwork task Descriptive


uncountable nouns (Part 2) (Part 4) (Parts 3 and 4) composition
Collocation (fun and (Part 2)
games)
Words often confused

Word form ation (making Gapped text: Note-taking Photographs (Part 2) Report (Part 2)
adjectives) sentences (Part 3) (Part 2)
Words often confused
Collocation {take)

Transitive and intransitive M ultiple choice Multiple Pairwork task (Parts 3 Transactional
verbs (Part 2) matching and 4) letter (Part 1)
Phrasal verbs w ith take (Part 3)
Words often confused

Parts of speech Gapped text: True/False Pairwork task Opinion


Collocation missing questions (Parts 3 and 4) composition
{make and do) paragraphs (Part 4) (Part 2)
Collocation (exams) (Part 3)

Word form ation (noun Gapped text: M ultiple Telling a story using Argumentative
suffixes) missing matching picture prompts composition
Phrasal verbs w ith break paragraphs (Part 3) (Part 2)
Collocation (law and (Part 3)
order)

Word form ation (suffixes) M ultiple matching M ultiple choice Photographs (Part 2) Letter o f
Words often confused (Part 4) (Part 1) application
Collocation and idioms (Part 2)
(jobs)
The Cambridge First Certificate Examination has five papers, each of which tests
a different area of your ability in English. Each paper is worth 20% of the total.

Paper 1 Reading (1 h o u r 15 m in u te s)
The reading paper has fo u r parts, each o f w hich consists o f a te x t and a comprehension task
o f some kind. The types o f te x t used include magazine and newspaper articles, reports, guides,
advertisements and stories. There is a to ta l o f 35 questions.

Part Questions ' Tasl< .....


1 Multiple matching 6 or 7 You have to match headings or summary sentences to their
appropriate paragraphs.
2 Multiple, choice 7 or 8 You have to choose the correct answer or end of a sentence
from a choice of four.
3 Gapped text 6 or 7 You are given sentences or paragraphs which have been
removed from the text and have to decide where they should
go in the text.
4 Multiple matching 13-15 The text is divided into different sections. You are given sentences
and have to decide which section each one refers to.

Paper 2 W ritin g (1 h o u r 30 m inutes)


The w ritin g paper has tw o parts. Part 1 is compulsory and consists o f a transactional letter. In Part 2,
you can choose to answer one o f five tasks. One o f these tasks is always a question on a set book.

Part Questions Task


1 Transactional letter 1 You have to write a letter that has a specific purpose
(eg to ask for information or to complain). You are given
information that you have to include in your letter.
2 Article/composition/ Choose I of 5 You have to write a text based on a 'real life' context
report/letter/story/ (eg writing an article for a school magazine).
book report

Paper 3 Use o f English (1 h o u r 15 m inutes)


This paper has five parts and tests your know ledge o f gram mar and vocabulary.
There is a to ta l o f 65 questions.

P art Q u e s tio n s T ask


ll . i fe
1 Multiple choice cloze 15 You are given a text with 15 gaps and have to choose the
correct answer for each gap from a choice of four.
2 Open cloze 15 You are given a text with 15 gaps and have to fill each gap
with an appropriate word.
Introduction to the Cambrid-':ie Fi_E

Pa p er 3 con tinu ed

3 Key word 10 You are given a complete sentence followed by a gapped


transformations sentence. You have to complete the gapped sentence using
a given word so th at it means the same as the first sentence.
4 Error correction 15 You are given a text of 15 lines, some of w hich contain
unnecessary words. You have to decide which lines are
correct, and w hich contain an unnecessary word.
5 Word formation 10 You are given a text with ten gaps. You have to fill each
gap using the appropriate form of the word stems given.

P aper 4 L is te n in g (a b o u t 40 m in u te s )
The liste n in g pa per has fo u r parts, each o f w h ic h consists o f a liste n in g te x t and a com p re h en sio n task
o f some kin d. The types o f liste n in g te x t used in clu d e in te rvie w s, conversations, news reports, ta lks and
pho ne messages. A v a rie ty o f accents are used, and you w ill hear each lis te n in g te x t tw ic e . There is a to ta l
o f 30 questions.

P a rt Q u e stio n s Ta sk

1 Multiple choice 8 You will hear eight short, unconnected extracts. You have
to answer a multiple choice question about each one.
2 Note taking/ 10 You will hear a m onologue or conversation. You have
blank filling to complete notes or sentences.
3 Multiple matching 5 You will hear five short extracts w hich are related in some way.
You have to m atch each extract w ith a given sentence.
4 Selecting from two or 7 You will hear a m onologue or conversation. You have to
three possible answers answer questions which involve choosing betw een two or three
possible answers (Yes/No, True/False, multiple choice, which
speaker said w hat).

P aper 5 S p e a k in g (a b o u t 15 m in u te s )
In th e speaking paper th e re are usually tw o candidates and tw o exam iners. One o f th e exam iners
in te rvie w s th e candidates; th e o th e r e xa m in e r listens and assesses th e candidates, b u t does n o t jo in
in th e in te rvie w .

P art T im e T ask

1 Interview 3 minutes The exam iner will ask you and the other candidate to talk about
yourselves (eg w here you come from, etc).
2 Talking about 4 minutes The exam iner will give you and the other candidate two photographs
photographs each. In turn, you have to talk about your photographs for about
two minutes.
3 Pairwork task 3 minutes The exam iner will give you and the other candidate a visual prom pt
(eg a photo, a map, a diagram) and will set you a task to do.
The task may involve planning something, solving a problem or
reaching a decision.
4 Discussion 4 minutes The exam iner will ask you and the other candidate general
opinion questions about the topic of the pairwork task.
R e a d in g
^ W o rk w ith a partner. Look at the photograph and discuss
these questions.
W hat are these young people w earing?
How do they spend their free tim e? W hat m usic do they
listen to?
W hat languages do they speak? W here do they learn English?
W hich satellite TV channels do they w atch? Do th ey use the
Internet?
Read the te x t and check y o u r answers.

Teenagers of the
world unite!
Will teenagers be the force of the future?
Carol Packer looks at the rise of the global teenager.

The popularity of th e satellite TV ch an n el MTV is


0A evidence of this: th eir pop videos play in every
20
W hile th e population of Europe an d A m erica is corner of th e planet, from Stockholm to Sofia,
grow ing older, those in developing countries are from A thens to A tlanta, and since m ost of th e
becom ing younger. In th e n o n -w estern w orld, songs are in English, kids from all over the w orld
particularly India, China and Brazil, th ere is an learn to sing in English too.
influential generation of teenagers grow ing up.
These young people's tastes influence th e design
of clothes and cars; w hole industries are appearing 25 Kids these days can chat online w ith friends
to help teenagers spend their free tim e - an d their th o u san d s of miles away. In fact, a teenager in
m oney. India m ay feel th ey have m ore in com m on w ith
an In tern et friend in Brazil th a n w ith o th er young
1 people in th eir ow n country. Young people aro u n d
10 English plays an im portant p art in a teenager's 30 th e globe are beginning to han g aro u n d together
w orld; it is th e dom inant language in y o u th style o n the In tern et as th ey used to on th e street.
an d is one w ay in w hich teenagers across the
w orld can com m unicate w ith each other an d share
a com m on culture. The existence of graffiti w ritten There m ay be a greater readiness to learn language
15 in English in so m any countries is one exam ple of on th e streets of cyberspace th a n in th e classroom.
this. M ore and m ore people are learning Enghsh from
35 th eir friends on th e In tern et and it is n o t always
the same as th e English th ey learn in the
The strongest force in intern atio n al y o u th culture classroom.
today is pop music. JVIusic has universal appeal.
The global teenager

FCE practice: Part 1


^ Choose from the list A - H the sentence which
best summarizes each part 1 -6 o f the article.
There is one extra sentence which you do not
need to use.There is an example at the
beginning (0).
A A n ew generation appears on th e w orld scene.
B C om puters create a n ew k in d of
neighbourhood.
C N ew w ays of learning English have appeared.
D Teenagers also have language in com m on.
E A tu n efu l language th a t everyone understands.
F Teenagers like to be different too.
G E ducation is changing to m eet th e needs of
m o d e rn teenagers.
H The m a n w h o first th o u g h t of th e Web.

(Q l W o rk w ith a partner and give yo u r own


answers to the questions in exercise I .
I am wearing a tracksuit and trainers.
I like listening to music and rollerblading.

Q Find w ords in the te x t th a t have a similar


meaning to the follow ing.The firs t le tte r o f each
w o rd is given to help you.
Tim Berners-Lee, th e British inventor of the 1 the n u m b e r of people w h o live in a to w n or
W orld Wide Web, im agines th e effect of the country p________
In tern et on a teenage boy: his search engine
people of th e same age group g_
shows h im a random selection of th e 643,768
people aro u n d th e w orld w hose preferences in th e effect som ething or som eone has i____
reading are sim ilar to his ow n. He know s th a t
the w ork and the processes involved in the
he m ay live in a small to w n in th e N etherlands
production of goods, especially in factories
b u t h e is right in th e centre of th e m ain trend,
he feels he is exactly in tu n e w ith all his
u n seen friends. 5 w riting an d pictures d raw n on th e walls of
buildings g________
6 som eone w h o designs or m akes n ew things
But com panies like B enetton say they are
also trying to create a y o u th agenda to unite
teenagers of th e w orld. This agenda includes 7 a fashion t_
an aw areness of th e global en v iro n m en t and
8 to behave in th e expected w ay c________
h u m a n rights. The B enetton m essage says
teenagers do n o t always conform to the same 9 to do som ething special because som ething
style. Thus, those w ho w ear th e 'united good has h ap p en ed c________
colours of B enetton' are encouraged to
celebrate together their individual and
cultural difference.
^ ) The glo bal teenager

G ra m m a r a n d Use o f E n g lis h
Present sim ple, present continuous

Q W e use the present simple to do the Q W e use the present continuous to do the
follow ing things: follow ing things:
a to talk about general scientific tru th s a to talk about things h appening now
b to describe p resent actions, eg in b to talk about changing situations
com m entaries c to talk about irritating things w hich often happen
c to talk about ho w often w e do things
Match the uses above w ith these examples.
Match the uses above w ith these examples. 1 You're always dropping things!
1 They go to th e office every day. 2 It's stopped raining - th e su n 's shining.
2 The earth goes ro u n d the sun. 3 W hat are you doing u n d er th e bed?
3 Rom ario passes th e ball; h e shoots.
See grammar reference page 141.

C om plete these sentences using the c o rre c t Q C om plete these sentences to make questions
form (present simple) o f the w ords below. in the second person fo r each o f the sentences
in exercise I .
W here com e from ?
shine a lot in y o u r country?
live?
W hich _ ______ speak?
W h a t__ _____ y o u r favourite school
subject?
_ any In tern et friends?
often do you use th e In ternet?

^ N o w w rite sentences about yourself and yo u r


c o u n try using the verbs above.
I come from ...

Q Choose the present simple o r present


com e shine use speak live have be continuous in these sentences.
1 I work/am working eight hours a day at the
1 I ________ from a country in Latin America. m om ent, and it starts/is starting to get very tiring.
2 In m y country th e s u n ________ a lot.
2 I am only w orking/only w ork in the com puter
3 I _________ in a new city w hich is high above d ep artm en t till M eg gets back from holiday.
th e sea. Usually, I w ork/am working in the toy
4 W e ________ a language w hich is like Italian departm ent.
and French.
3 Look it'5 snowing/snows outside. It never snows/is
5 My favourite school su b je c t________ m aths. never snowing in November.
6 I ________ an in te rn et friend from E ngland
4 I live/am living in London, as I have done all m y
called Sarah.
life, b ut at the m o m en t I'm staying/stay in M adrid
7 I ________ th e In tern et everyday to talk to her! because w e've just opened a n ew office there.

10
The glo bal teenager
5 \'m doing/do a three-w eek com puter course and
I learn/am learning w ord processing and how to
use th e Internet.
6 The kettle boils/is boiling. Can you m ake the
tea? I talk/am talking to uncle George on the
phone.
7 It takes/is taking m e about half an h o u r to get
to w ork b u t som etim es it is taking/takes longer
w h en th e traffic is bad.

^ Decide which o f these sentences have mistakes.


Then co rre ct the mistakes w ith a partner.
1 am hating m aths lessons.
I hate m aths lessons.
1 I suffer a lot from hay fever in th e sum m er.
2 Ronaldo is taking a shot at goal, an d is missing.
3 She is usually going to bed before m idnight.
4 The earth spins ro u n d th e sun.
5 She stays in G erm any this w eek.
6 You are always com plaining about your job.
I'm sick of listening!
7 They are cycling to school everyday.

FCE practice: Part 4


^ Read the follow ing te xt. W h a t does John collect?
H ow is he different from o th e r boys his age?

A teenage bedroom
/ 0 Look at this bedroom . How tidy! The bed's m ade an d even his
they 00 clothes th ey are folded, and its like this all the tim e, w ith no nagging
1 from M um ! I bet there a re n 't m any boys like this. B ut to be fair
2 to John, he probably doesn 't spend enough tim e in his bedroom
3 to m ake m u ch of mess. Besides, th e TV's n o t w orking, and h e does
4 like w atching TV, so at th e m om ent h e s spending m ore tim e at
5 his frien d s house for w atching in his frien d s room instead of his ow n.
He h a s n t got any favourite things except of his n ea t display of classic
m odel cars in th e corner of his room , w hich h e 's b ee n h ad for quite
a long tim e; 'I used to get th e m as presents,' h e says. He also has an
u n u su al collection of crystal anim als - u n u su al because of it's n o t the
10 sort of thing boys usually collect. B ut th e n this boy is different from the
11 others, because h e's not k een on th e sports an d n ev er w atches football
12 on TV like m ost of his friends. In fact, h e s th e academ ic type w ho
13 is likes listening to classical music. Do you see th e pile of books, and
14 notice th e Picasso poster on th e wall by his bed?

For questions 1-14, read the te x t again and lo o k carefully at each line.
Some o f the lines are correct, and some have a w o rd th a t should n o t be
there. If a line is correct, put a ( / ) . If a line has a w o rd w hich should n o t
be there, w rite the w o rd . T here are tw o examples (0) (00) at the beginning.

11
The glo bal teenager _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

V o c a b u la ry
Describing m ovem ent
^ Match the verbs in list A w ith th e ir meanings in C om plete these sentences using the co rre ct
list B. fo rm o f one o f the phrasal verbsTn exercise 3.
A B 1 Can you j u s t ____ . w hile I call the m anager?
1 hold to take som ething suddenly in 2 The police are searching for the tw o m e n w ho
your hands th e bank.
2 catch to have som ething in your hands 3 Fast food w as started in America b u t it quickly
or arm s in o th er countries.
3 craw l to get hold of som ething in your
4 I h ad to ru n to w ith Peter - h e h ad
hands as it is m oving th ro u g h the air
left five m inutes before me..
4 carry to hold som ething in your hands
I find it difficult t o ____ w orking w h en I'm
an d take it from one place to an o th er
tired.
5 creep to m ove on your hands an d knees
6 grab to m ove carefully and quietly W ords o fte n confused
so th a t n o-one will notice you
^ C om plete these sentences using the co rre ct
fo rm o f one o f the verbs below.
C om plete these sentences using the co rre ct
form o f one o f the verbs in exercise I . g ro w g ro w up b rin g up

1 She into the room on tip-toe in order 1 T h e y ________ th eir children to be


n o t to w ake anybody up. hard-w orking an d respectful.
The p o lic e m a n ________ th e thief as he tried to 2 Proteins help c h ild re n ________ strong.
creep away.
3 The giraffe is th e tallest anim al in th e w orld
Peter m et M ary at the station so th a t h e could a n d ________ to a height of 5.5 m etres.
help h e r ________ h er luggage.
4 W h at do you |51an to do w h en
T h e y ________ into their tents to get o u t of the y o u ________ ?
rain.
5 T h e y ________ th eir ow n
. m y h an d so you d o n 't get lost in the
crowd.
6 She reached out to th e ball b u t
it was too high for her.

Phrasal verbs w ith on and up


O Match the phrasal verbs in list A w ith
th e ir meanings in list B.
A B
1 hold up continue doing som ething
2 carry on -^something becom es popular
3 hold on- reach som eone by
w alking faster yourself ^
4 catch on ask som eone to w ait
for a short tim e
5 catch up th rea ten som eone
in order to get f-
m oney from th e m 3
12
The glo bal teenager

L is te n in g a n d s p e a k in g
^ Look at the picture o f the rainforest and find O W h a t can we do to help the people o f the
the things below. W h ic h o f them would you rainforests?
use to survive in a tropical rainforest and how?

bee m e d ic in a l plan ts tu r tle m o n k e y FCE practice: Part 3


bo w and a rro w grubs b lo w p ip e (0 1 W o rk w ith a partner and do the task
below.
^ Before you do the next section, check w ith You and y o u r p artn e r w ere in a plane th at
y o u r teacher the meaning o f these words. crashed in th e rainforest an d it m ay be some
tim e before you are rescued. O n board, you
p re s c rip tio n s ta rv e canopy b a rric a d e
find th e articles below. Discuss w ith your
d a rt p artn e r h o w you could use these articles to
survive, using th e w ords in the box below
[S ] Listen and compare yo u r answers in to help you. T hen agree on th e th ree m ost
exercise I w ith the listening text. im p o rtan t articles an d rep o rt back to th e class.

FCE practice: Part 2


^ [H] Listen again and com plete the notes.
1 In o r d e r _____________
_____________ in a tropical
rainforest w e w ould have to know w hich
plants to eat and w hich t o ______________
2 The people of th e rainforest:
use m edicinal plants t o ____
can follow bees to their nests to

can lay traps to .


use blow pipes t o _______ in the
trees.
use poison an d spears to

[S ] Before you listen to the second p a rt o f


the talk, predict the answers to these questions
w ith a partner. Listen and check y o u r answers.
A h u n d re d years ago th ere w ere 230 tribes in
Brazil. How m any are th ere today?
The P enan tribe live in th e rainforests of
Borneo. H ow do th ey get food?
Foreign com panies are destroying th e forest. tablets whisky matches
W hy? string newspaper penknife
The native tribes cannot prove th e land is magnifying glass radio
theirs. W hy?
The police arrest m em bers of th e tribe. W hy?
W hat will h ap p en to these tribes in a few
years?

13
^ The global teenager

W ritin g
A friend has given you the address of
FCE practice: Transactional letter Greenpeace, and you are interested in the
possibility of joining. You have decided to write
^ Read the task and the advertisement below. them a letter to find out more about the
organization.
Where does work take place? Any experience necessary? Age of volunteers?

- call for volunteers

Greenpeace exists to defend the environm ent


w herever it is threatened
Greenpeace tries to come up w ith solutions
to environm ental problems
Greenpeace takes action so th a t those solutions
are adopted
Greenpeace uses members' m oney to make
sure there is a fu ture fo r all o f us
Greenpeace w ill always do everything it can
to protect our w o rld and th e creatures w e Write to us now for more information:
share it w ith
Greenpeace
Greenpeace needs volunteers to help its fig h t Canonbury Villas
to save our planet London N1 2PN.

What kind of work?


I would also like to know where the work will take place. I would like to work in my
is summer work available? own area if possible. I believe there are a lot of ecological problems In my town.
Yours faithfully,
^ The following reply I look forward to hearing from you,
to the advertisement
I would be grateful If you could tell me what kind of work is involved and whether I
is in the wrong
would need any special qualifications. Also, how old do volunteers need to beP I am
order. Number the
sixteen years old and I live in Hull. I do not have much experience of environmental
paragraphs a-h in
work but I like going for walks. I recently started birdwatching as a hobby.
the correct order.
Finally, could you tell me when the work would be as I would prefer summer work.
I go to school but I have a lot of free time in the holidays.
Dear Sir or Madam,
If there is anything else I need to know please let me know.
I am writing to ask for more information in connection with your 'call for
volunteers' to help fireenpeace. I am not a member of Greenpeace but I
would like to know more about how I can help.
14
The global teenager I^
^ Label the letter using the following features ^ Match the descriptions of the following
of a letter: organizations to the logos below.
1 salutation 1 A group which helps developing countries.
2 reason for writing 2 A hum an rights group.
3 closing remarks 3 A group which protects endangered wildlife.
4 personal information 4 An environm ental group.
5 signing off

C orrect these mistakes from a students letter.


1 I w ant more informations.
2 I write to ask for details.
3 I have fifteen years and I am going to school.
4 Tell me w hat kind of work do you do.
5 I am not having m uch experience.
6 At last, I would like to ask for the membership.
7 I am look forward to hear from you.
8 I have read your leaflet in a magazine recently.
A M N ESTY
INTERNATIONAL
UNITED KINGDOM V m E N D S o f the

for the planet for people

War on Want
CAMPAIGN AGAINST WORLD POVERTY

N ow it's your tu rn .W rite your letter to any of


the organizations above using the model and
these questions to help you.W rite between
120 and 180 words.
Is there a branch in my country?
How m uch does it cost to join?
W hat kind of activities do they get
involved in?
Is it an independent organization?
W hat do members receive?

Information you need to include:


why you are writing.
who you are and w hat you do.

15
Visions of the future
Past sim ple, present perfect simp
present perfect continuous

R e adin g
^ W o rk w ith a partner. Look at the
photographs and answer these questions.
1 Do you kn o w w hich films th ey are from ?
2 W hat do they have in com m on?
^ Read the texts quickly and match each te x t
w ith one o f the photographs.

S t a r m o i f i e s

I The mission hasnt made any headlines,


and everything has gone perfectly. After
three days in space, three A pollo
astronauts Including Jim Lovell (Tom On board the Starship the crew included 60 boy w ho w ould one day become Darth
5 Hanks) have nearly reached the Moon. m any varieties of , hum an and non Vader. In Episode I, we saw him as a
Back in H ouston, astron au t Ken human individuals. In com m and of the hopeful nine-year-old, dream ing of a
M a ttin g ly considered him self the 35 Starship was Captain James I Kirk, bright future. The Jedi knights Qui-Gon
un lu ckiest man on earth. Two dayS' follow ed by his half-Vulcan firs t officer, Jinn and Obi Wan Kenobi were sent on a
before launch, he was left out of the Spock. Those early years of S tar Trek 65 secret m issio n to A n a kin s planet,
10 A pollo crew fo r medical reasons. And gave the w orld a phenom enon w hich has Tatooine, and Qui-Gon Jinn began to
so M attingly was in M ission Control yet to be matched by any other single suspect that Anakin m ight be a Jedi.
when Jim Lovell sent th is te rrify in g 40 television series; It has been sold all Darth Maul, one of the m ysterious and
m e s s a g e :,H ouston ... w eve got a around the w o rld and has inspired evil Sith, arrived to fig h t a deadly battle
problem . Som ething has gone horribly m illions of fans. From that firs t series 70 ag a in stth e Jedi Knights.
15 wrong. P o ye r and guidance system s are has sprung an incredible num ber of
dow n, and the supply of oxygen is s p in -o ffs : an anim ated series, three
rapidly running out . . . The crew now 45 te levision series, num erous feature
faced a h o rrify in g reality - th e ir film s , and hundreds of novels and Bladerunner, which first appeared in
spaceship, stranded m iles away in consum er products. 1982, was inspired by the novel Do
2 0 space, m ight never return to earth. W ith A n d ro id s Dream o f E le ctric Sheep?
tim e running o u t; tfffe crew made a w ritte n by P hillip K. Dick. The film
daring attem pt to guide the spaceship to 75 describes a 21st century where nuclear
earth. For three days, the w orld watched S tar W a r s E p is o d e I: T h e P h a n to m w ar has made the earth an unsafe place
in anxious silence, not know ing w hether M e n a c e , took us to the beginning of the to live. The governm ent encouraged
25 the men of A pollo 75 w ould come home 50 S ta r W a rs story. The original Star Wars people to go and live on other planets by
alive. trilo g y follow ed the adventures of Luke offering them non-hum an w orkers called
Skyw alker, a young fa rm boy w ho 80 replicants to serve them . Some of these
became a Jedi knight, fighting Darth replicants then killed their masters and
Vader and the evil Empire. In the last escaped back to earth, w here they
There have been many S t a r T re k film s , but 55 episode, Vader finally revealed to Luke pretended to be human in order not to be
it all began w ith a TV series. The classic the terrible news that he was the young discovered. Deckard (Harrison Ford) was
Star rre/f featured the adventures of the Jedis father. The latest Star W ars trilog y 85 em ployed to find and destroy these
30 crew of the Starship Enterprise on its w ent back in tim e a generation to tell the replicants. Things became d iffic u lt fo r
five-year m ission to explore outer space. story of Anakin Skywalker, the innocent him when he fell in love w ith a replicant
called Rachel.
16
V isions of the future

FCE practice: Part 4


Read the texts again. For questions l- IO choose from
the texts A - D . Some o f the texts may be chosen m ore
than once. W h e n m ore than one answer is required,
these may be given in any order. T h e re is an example
(0) at the beginning.
W hich of th e films:
0 is about a jo u rn ey to th e m oon? A

1 shows th e heroes facing death? ___


2 began as a television program m e? ___
3 is about a starship looking for n ew w orlds in
space? ___
4 began as a book? ___
5 w as th e first of its kind? ___
6 is p art of a series? ___/ ___
7 is about a race against tim e? ___
8 describes people w h o choose to live o n different
planets? ___
9 shows a spaceship unable to com e back to earth? ___
10 describes th e childhood of th e m ain characters? ___

Discuss th e se questions.
1 Have you seen any of these films or any others?
2 W hen did you see it?
3 W hat did you th in k of it?
4 W hich of th e films sounds m ost interesting?

C om plete th e se sentences using w ords from th e tex t.


T he first le tte r of each w ord is given to help you.
1 Their m ________ w as to land on th e m oon.
2 We have nearly r________ Victoria station an d will be
arriving in te n m inutes.
%
3 How w ould you spend th e tim e if you w ere s________
alone on a desert island?
4 I can't w ait to see th e n ex t e________ of Star Wars; I've
seen all th e previous ones.
5 W hat i________ th e director to m ake th e film? Was it
based on real events?
6 W ould you rath e r see th e film or read the n ________ on
w hich it is based?
7 British farm ers h ad to d_ m an y sick cows to stop
th e disease from spreading.

17
C'v-:- --V fyture

. - d s e Ol
Past simple, present perfect simple, present perfect continous

Past simple, present perfect simple ^ Choose the correct tense in these sentences.
1 I haven't had/didn't have time to talk to him yet.
Q Look at these sentences and decide which use
2 You have worked/worked for a bank since 1985,
the past simple and which use the present
haven't you?
perfect simple.
3 Have you ever visited/Did you ever visit Paris?
1 I have never seen a Star Wars film.
4 She has been deciding/has decided to learn
2 Neil Armstrong landed on the Moon in 1969. photography this year.
My father took me to the cinema every week 5 Did you finish/Have you finished eating yet?
w hen I was a child. 6 I felt/have been feeling ill since last night.
We've got a problem. Something has gone 7 W hen the traffic lights turned red, he has
horribly wrong. stopped/stopped the car.

N ow match the sentences to one of these ^ Complete these sentences using the words o r
uses. phrases below.

a finished event in the past ever still before a few days ago
events which form part of our life experience last year y et in 1895 never
a past event w ith present importance
Wells wrote The Time Machine .
habits in the past
The nightmare Wells predicted h a s ________
See grammar reference page 142. not come about.
People have not colonized other planets
_____ _, but perhaps they will one day.
li I finished the book and gave it back
to John this morning.
Do you think aliens have - visited
Earth?
______ read a science fiction book before;
this is my first one.
Have.you ever seen a film like this
I saw a science fiction film
but I can't remember : :i
anything about it. ;
Present perfect continuous
Answer these questions.
0 Explain the difference in meaning between
1 What's the most interesting country yc
these pairs of sentences. ever visited?
a I've been living in Oxford during m y English 2 When did you last go to a restaurant? W.
course. did you go?
b I've lived in Oxford all my life. 3 How many science fiction films ha ve you 5i
Which sentence describes a temporary action? 4 How long have you been learning English?
Which sentence describes a more permanent Compare your answers with a partner. Do yo,
situation? have anything in common?
c She's written a novel.
d She's been writing a novel. FCE practice: Part 2
W hich sentence em phasizes the dmation of
Answer these questions.
the action?
In w hich sentence is the action complete? 1 What do you know
about this man?
e Sorry Tm late - I've been to the doctor.
2 Can you guess his job?
f I've been going to the doctor.
3 Was he a good student
Which sentence suggests I visited the doctor
at school?
several times?
4 Is he rich or poor?
Which sentence suggests I visited the doctor
Is he famous?
recently? j

See grammar reference page 143. Read the text and check your answers.

Mr Microsoft
Complete this text using the correct form William Henry Gates, known as BUI Gates,
(past simple, present perfect simple o r present is probably the richest man in America. He
perfect continuous) o f the verbs in bracl<ets. (0) studied engineering and (1)______ now
become the world's most famous computer
The Martians are not coming engineer When he was 15, he (2)
I (1)________ (read) science fiction stories for a system for controlling traffic in Seattle.
m any years no w and I (2)________ (just/finish) In 1975 he (3)______ a book on the computer
2001: A Space Odyssey by A rth u r C. Clarke. I language BASIC. He (4)_____ _ Harvard in the
(3 ) (always/find) their predictions sam e year and (5)_______ writing computer
about the future interesting but m ost of the programs. In 1977, h e (6)_ ___ Microsoft
predictions m ade by writers of science fiction w ith a friend and created DOS, an operating
(4 ) (never/com e) true. We (5)_________ system for computers. In 1981 M icrosoft
(wait) for Big Brother since OrwelJ (6)______ (7)_______a giant step forward w hen IBM
(write) 1984 but he still (7)_______ (not/come). adopted DOS for its personal computers.
The Time Machine which Welis (8)_______ Nowadays, there can be few people who have
(predict) over a hundred years ago (9)_ not (8)______ of Bill Gates. He has (9)_______
(not/appear) yet. Novelists (10)______ (write) two booJis, both of which have (10)______
thousands of stories about Martians and though bestsellers. He has not (11)_______ the age
we (11)_______ (already/iand) spacecraft on of 40 yet, but Gates has already (12)____ _
Mars no-one 12_______ (ever/visit) Mars and a fortune in excess of 30 billion dollars.
I (13)_______ (never/see) a Martian
in my back garden or anywhere _ For questions 1-12, read the text again and
else, though I (14)_______ thinl< of the word which best fits each space.
(wait) for th e m to tu rn up Use only one word in each space. There is an
since I w as a girl. example (0) at the beginning.

19
V isions o f the future

V o c a b u la ry
Com pound nouns Com plete these sentences using one o f the
We can com bine tw o n o u n s to m ak e a co m p o u n d w ords o r phrases in exercise 2.
n o u n , eg computer + program. We can com bine an 1 He spends h o u r s ________ th e Web.
adjective an d n o u n to m a k e com p o u n d s, eg
2 You c a n ____ at certain cafes w hich provide
personal + computer. C o m p o u n d n o u n s are
com puters for public use.
som etim es w ritte n as tw o w o rd s (science fiction)
a n d som etim es they are w ritte n as one w o rd 3 If a file is big, it can take a long tim e to
(hardware). M ore rarely, th e tw o p arts are it.
connected w ith a h y p h e n (pen-friend). T here are
4 You use a m ouse to different icons at
n o rules, so check w ith th e dictio n ary if yo u are
the top of y o u r screen.
n o t sure.

^ C om plete this te x t using the w ords in the box Phrasal verbs w ith get
to make appropriate com pound nouns. Match the phrasal verbs in list A w ith th e ir
meanings in list B.
numbers paper personal office post
electronic address pen race cards A B
1 get over som ething escape
1 2 get on w ith som eone re tu rn to a place
31 Are you on e-m ail?
^ 3 get aw ay have som ething
retu rn ed to you
Dear Sylvia,
'Did you remember to send those post (1) for 4 get back have en ough m oney to
me?' b uy the things you need
'I haven't been to the post (2)_______ yet.' 5 get som ething back have a friendly
'Has the (3)_______ man come yet?' relationship w ith
'We've run out of writing (4)_ ', etc etc. som eone
I wonder how much longer such conversations 6 get by recover from an illness
will be heard in homes around the world? The huttian
(5)_______ has been writing letters for centuries. ^ C om plete these sentences using the co rre ct
Young people write to (6)_______ -friends in other
countries but nowadays many of them have their own
form o f one o f the phrasal verbs in exercise 4.
(7)_______ computer. 1 The police tried to catch the robbers b u t they
E-mail or (8)_______ mail is a system which allows
people to send each other messages by computer.
Today, it is more common to ask for someone's e-mail 2 W e're going to th e cinem a b u t w e'll probably
(9)_______ than for their postal address. Perhaps
by te n o'clock.
telephone (10)_______ , like 'postmen' are also
threatened with extinction. 3 She's still looking feverish. Are you sure she's
th e flu?
4 Did you your m oney
Collocation (com puters)
5 She only has h er pension so she finds it difficult
Q Match a verb from list A w ith a noun phrase t o ________ .
from list B.
6 I ________ Jo h n very well - he's m y best friend.
A B
7 M y m u m has ju st had an operation and the
1 explore a file doctor has told h e r n o t to go to w ork for th ree
2 surf an ico n /m en u w eeks in order t o ________ it.
3 dow nload th e Web 8 My parents only give m e five p ounds pocket
m oney a w eek, b u t it's en o u g h for m e to
4 click on the In tern et

20
V isions of the future

L is te n in g a n d s p e a k in g
^ Listen to the tape and tic k the questions 6 How are astronauts chosen? They should be
which the in tervie w e r asks Helen. A intelligent people.
1 W h at w ere you doing before you becam e B able to w ork w ith others.
an a s tro n a u t? ____ C brave.
2 W hat m akes a good a s tro n a u t? ____
3 Did th e experience change you in any way? FCE practice: Parts 3 and 4
W o rk w ith a partner and do the
task below. Use some o f the
expressions from the box below.
You an d y o u r p artn e r have to
% ' design an android w hich will
help h u m an s in som e way.
Use th e following questions
In to help you decide w h at
kind of an android
i you need.
W h at is th e android
FCE practice: Part 4 going
to look like?
^ Listen again. For questions I - 6 , choose
W hat kind of jobs is the
the best answer A, B o r C.
android going to do?
1 How m any people applied for th e job of
Does it n eed to be able to
astronaut?
get up and dow n stairs?
A 3,000.
Does it n eed to be able
B 30,000. to talk?
C 13,000.
O ^ Discuss this question.
2 Before she got th e job H elen
A h ad already w orked in space. 1 W h at kind of androids do
y ou th in k th ere will be in
B h ad n ever w orked in space.
th e future?
C h ad done research in space exploration.
3 H elen w as brou g h t up
A in an u n u su a l way. Id like an android that can ...
My ideal android would be able to ...
B like any o th er child of h er age.
I think we really need an android that
C by rem arkable parents.
can ...
4 After h er jo u rn ey w h a t seem ed W hat I would find most useful Is if it
im p o rtant to Helen? could ...
A Personal relationships. It would be useful if it could ...
B To earn a bigger salary. Wouldnt it be great if it could ...?
How about if it was able to ...?
C To get a n ew flat.
Do you think it would be good if it
5 How does she feel now ? could ...?
A M ore anxious.
B M ore relaxed.
C Nostalgic.

21
V isions of the future

W r itin g
FCE practice: In fo rm al le tte r N o w read this model answer. Label the
paragraphs using the follow ing summary
headings:
An informal letter is similar in style to
someone speaking, but dont be to o conversational. details of flight
use contractions
make it interesting and amusing
enjoyable visit
be enthusiastic (unless something terrible has closing com m ents

happened!)
start your le tte r w ith D e a r + first name invitation
end your letter with Best wisheslLove + your first name signing off

^ Read this task.


You have ju st got back hom e after staying gob/
w ith a pen-friend in Britain. W hen you get
back hom e you find this e-m ail message
w aiting for you. W rite a letter to say th a n k
(b aS 1
you to your friend. Describe w h at you liked W/rKrtj jov, +Virs UH-er V c a n je Mij - a i l I'svv't
about your visit, th e jo u rn ey back hom e and
U)('kiVv^ Sw\e Sl'v'anijs .
w h a t y o u 're doing at th e m om ent. Invite your
friend to visit your country in th e future. 1
I W ict ull -tke fUt jXkCkj- Mwd "iUt
C-uvy-t.'.jS'i*-*. \ ftfK riA.es
Atvd. tUe loVely -
In -b o WCiSV''i' \ Vo, VjhI" it" v>.S i t i \
"lUe \>(>.ck TVer? sUort
iJe ftof M .iaj Rw-v

Dear Sylvia ov io. \'vc Wew^ Cw.\Ve twjj si'au. \ ^0+


i^j V cU i - V e n liiv i uaV\u \ V ^ o . u e v ''' - u j v - i +I-ilvx

Hi. I just thought I'd send *v(v*tXs siV\te I ue,w (r


you this message to say IrtU c s i's W si:!!' p\oLijS ik/ ooi/ioI uith~ a \^

hello. Did you get back lotit" brVsi^ oi.vi>j+U'Mj


all right? Was the flight TVcit'i nil .(r v\Dvi- S^>Dvs
Vb .u Vvi to W ,r tj |o r w v .. A v tl vH uN nyv.cK
smooth? I hope there
weren't too many delays. dl<vd.
S e jV o 's W s ,

It was great having you


here. I hope you had a good
time too and that it wasn't
too cold for you, after the
hot weather in your country.
Read the le tte r again and find examples o f the
Anyway, you're always welcome following:
to come back, any time.
1 use of the definite article
Write soon. 2 short adjective
Best wishes. 3 contraction
Bob 4 phrasal verb
5 short, everyday connector
6 repetition of w ords
7 chatty style

22
V i s i o n s o f tVe fu tu r e

D ear L uke,
Hi. Sorry 1 (1 ) h a v en t/have not w ritten for so long b u t
In a le tte r to a frien d w e use many I ve b een (2) a b it/rather busy. I ve started (3) going
expressions co m m o n in everyday to/attending this course at our local college and it tak es m e
speech. Read th is le tte r and choose (4) ages/a long tim e to read all m y e-m ail m e ssa g es. (5)
th e m ost a p p ro p ria te fo rm . In d e e d /A ctu allv . I d o n t e v en b o th e r to op en so m e o f them .
A n y w ay , (6) th a n k s/th an k you fo r th e in v ita tio n to
N o w it s y o u r t u r n . W r it e y o u r c o m e over. (7) I ts re a lly n ic e /p o lite o f y o u a n d (8) I d/I
le tte r fo llo w in g these instructions. w o u ld love to ju s t ju m p on th e (9) p la n e /a e ro p la n e a n d fly
You h a v e re ce iv e d th is p o stc ard
fro m a frien d . W rite a le tte r to got a couple o f assignments to finish and I think (11) it is
y o u r E n g lish frie n d e x p la in in g advisable to/Id better get those (12) done/ com pleted
h o w y o u r life h a s c h a n g e d since before I (13) start/commence relaxing.
y o u s ta rte d u n iv e rs ity in Thats enough (14) about/concerning m e how are
E n g la n d . S u g g est a tim e w h e n you and the fam ily? (15) OK/In good health. 1 hope.
y o u c a n m e e t in L o n d o n . W rite
b e tw e e n 120 a n d 180 w o rd s, W ell, thats all for now.
u sin g th e p la n b e lo w to h e lp y o u . Write soon.
(16) Love/R egards
O zzie

- ,5 * cWe.*-'

art i.lj

> ?
o** .

Lovfc

p a ra g ra p h ]
Say thahks.
When did you get his letter?
Why havent you written?
fa ra g ra p li 2
Whats Manchester like?
Have you met any nice people?
What are the lectures like?
farasraph 3
Thank Tony for inviting youio London
When can you visit hiwi?
What would you like to do there?

Close the letter.


The truth is out there
P ast p erfect sim p le , p a st p erfect c o n tin u o u s,
p ast co n tin u o u s
r
R e a d in g
W o r k w ith a partner. L o o k a t th e
photographs and discuss these questions.

1 W h a t do y o u k n o w a b o u t th is p e rso n ? Gillian Leigh A nd erson w a s born in Chicago,


2 W h a t ro le is she p lay in g ? W h o is h e r Illinois on 9 A u g u st 1968 b u t during th e early
p a rtn e r? years of her life sh e m ov ed around a lot b eca u se
3 W h a t do y o u th in k sh e is like in real life? of her fath ers work. 0 B T hen th e fam ily
m oved to London.
Read th e te x t quickly and check y o u r W hen Gillian w a s nine years old, th e y m oved
answers. back to th e US. This w a s a difficult tim e b eca u se
Gillian had problem s m aking friends at her n e w
school. I A s a result, sh e b eca m e
10 rebellious. A t h igh school, sh e w a s often in
trouble for arguing w ith th e tea ch ers, and on ce
sh e w a s ev en arrested for breaking into th e
school at night. A s a teen ager, Gillian b eca m e
a punk. W hen sh e got a nose-ring, her father
15 b eca m e furious, and Gillian adm its th a t sh e
fain ted w h ile sh e w a s h aving it done.

D esp ite her trouble at school, Gillian w a s a


ta len te d girl, and sh o w e d early sig n s of actin g
ability. A t th e a g e of 14, sh e took part in a school
20 p roduction of S hak esp eare's R om eo a n d Juliet.
2 H ow ever, at th is tim e, Gillian d idn t
w a n t to b eco m e an actress; sh e had w a n ted to
b e an archaeologist, and it w a s n t till later in her
school career th a t sh e ch a n g ed her m ind. .

25 3 A fter graduating from university,


Gillian w e n t to N e w York to start her acting
career. Her first b ig opportunity cam e w h e n
sh e w a s ch o se n to act in A lan A yckbournes
play A b s e n t F riends for w h ich sh e w o n a World
30 T heatre A w ard in 1991. H ow ever, sh e had b een
w orking as a w a itre ss for so m e tim e before sh e
w a s offered an oth er go o d actin g job.

Gillian had sw orn th a t sh e w ou ld n ever work


for telev isio n . 4 The TV series sh o w s
35 M ulder and Scully as h aving a clo se w orking
relationship, and it a lw a y s s u g g e s ts th a t rom ance
m ay d evelop b e tw e e n them . H ow ever, there have
b e e n rumours th at Gillian and David D uchovny
ca n t stan d ea ch other in real life. In fact, it w a s
40 another m em ber of th e X-files tea m th at captured
Gillians heart.
^ : ........ ^ I

24
The truth is out there

FCE practice: Part 3


^ Read the article again. Six sentences have been
removed from the te x t. Choose from the
paragraphs A - G the one which fits each gap
I- 5 . There is one extra paragraph which you do
n o t need to use.There is an example at the
beginning (0).
Although she says she didn't fall in love at
first sight, w hat had attracted her to Clyde A H er m other, Rosemary, says 'W h en she
Klotz (assistant art director for the show) p erform ed a scene from th e play for me, I was
-.vas his smile and his intelligence. They got absolutely astonished.'
:ogether during the first X-files series, and
B She spent th e first tw o years of h er life in
before too long, she learned that she w as
P uerto Rico.
pregnant. Chris Carter had to rewrite the
final episodes of the series so that their C She m oved on to study acting at DePaul
female star w as still able to act w hile she U niversity's G oodm an Theatre, and gained a
grew bigger and bigger. 5 degree in Fine Arts.
However, Gillian w as soon back on location D Her daughter. Piper M aru, was born in
to continue w ith The X-files. Today, Anderson Septem ber 1994.
LS still playing Scully and the series continues
E However, she auditioned for th e p art of Special
:o be a big success, both on TV and on the
A gent D ana Scully in Chris Carter's TV-series
big screen. The film The X-files: Fight the
The X-files and w as successful.
Future has b een a box-office hit in the US and
throughout the world. F She lived in a w orld of h er ow n.
G Part of th e problem w as th a t she h ad started to
speak w ith an English accent w hile h e r family
w ere living in England, w h ich m ade h er sound
different.

Q D o you th in k Gillian Anderson was an easy


child to bring up? Why? W h y not?

Q C om plete these sentences using w ords from


the te x t.T h e firs t le tte r o f each w o rd is given
to help you.
1 W em house because o u r old house
w as too small.
The player w as given a red card for a_
w ith the referee.
She w as so shocked by th e sight of so m uch
blood th a t she f________ .
4 A fter g_ from university I w an t to have
a year travelling ro u n d th e world.
Jill and David are getting very close. Do you
th in k they are having a r________ ?
6 W h en th e teacher shouted, it c____ the
stu d en ts' atten tio n im m ediately.
7 Do you th in k th a t song will be a h_
Personally I d o n 't th in k it's very good.

25
The truth is out there

G ra m m a r a n d Use o f E n g lis h
Past perfect sim ple, past perfect continuous, past continuous

Past perfect sim ple


3 W h en all th e passengers ____(get off) the
Q Underline examples o f the past simple and
train, it slo w ly ____ (move) aw ay from the
past perfect simple in these sentences. station.
1 Gillian d id n 't w an t to becom e an actress; in 4 Rom eo w as disappointed. He
fact she h ad w an ted to be an archeologist. (imagine) th a t Juliet w ould be m u ch m ore
2 Chris Carter rew rote th e final episodes of the beautiful th a n she was.
series because Gillian had learned th a t she was
5 I ________ (intend) to go aw ay for the
pregnant.
w eekend, b u t I ________ (realize) I h ad too
Look at this sentence and then com plete the m u ch w ork to do.
rule fo r the past perfect simple:
First Gillian learned she was pregnant. Then Chris C o rre c t these sentences by changing the
Carter rewrote the episodes. underlined verb into the past perfect
We use the past perfect sim ple to show th at continuous. Make any o th e r changes necessary.
one event in th e past h a p p e n e d ________ 1 She lay aw ake for several hours before she
a n o th er event in the past, w hich is m arked by m anaged to get to sleep.
t h e ________ tense.
2 She h ad a n ightm are w h en th e telep h o n e rang.
3 She opened th e curtain. It rained all night.
4 He crashed th e car because he d rank a lot of
Past perfect continuous beer.
5 Before Scully m et M ulder, she w orked as a
Q The past perfect continuous is used to m edical doctor.
emphasize th a t something happened fo r a
6 He w orked on his book all night so he looked
period o f tim e before another event (in the very tired th e following m orning.
past simple).
She had been working as a waitress for some time Past continuous
before she was offered another good acting job.
(She started w ork as a w aitress at som e tim e in
th e past an d co ntinued to do this u n til she B Look at these sentences and match them
to the c o rre c t use o f the past continuous.
found a n ew acting job.)
C om plete this question:
1 They w ere living in England at th e time.

How lo n g ________________ before she got 2 He was driving dow n th e m otorw ay w h en he


a n o th er acting job? passed a y oung w om an.
3 Some people w ere dancing w hile others w ere
See grammar reference page 143-4. listening to music.

a sim ultaneous continuous actions in th e past


I C om plete the sentences using thef c o rre c t form b tem porary actions or situations in th e past
(past simple o r past perfect simple) o f the
c a n action in progress in th e past w h ich is
verbs in brackets.
in te rru p te d by an o th er action
1 I (alw ays/w onder) w ho
(live) in th a t old house. See grammar reference page 144.

2 She . (tell) m e th a t she


(never/visit) th e US before.

26
The truth is out there
The past simple, past continuous, The m ystery o f th e N onogoods and th e G oodgoods
past perfect simple and past
Professor D anielle Jones, th e fam ous explorer, w as exh au sted .
perfect continuous are useful
She (1) had been travelling/travelled th ro u g h th e ju n g le for a
w hen we are telling stories. Here
w eek. She (2) had not eaten/w asn't eating for tw o days an d she
is a mystery. C om plete the sto ry
(3) had ju s t d ru n k/ju st d ra n k th e last of h e r w ate r supply. She
by choosing the c o rre c t tense.
(4) was looking/had looked for a village called M apondo w h ere a
tribe called th e G oodgoods (5) lived/had been living. This tribe w as
fam ous because its p eople alw ays (6) told/were telling th e tru th .
Nearby, th e re w as a n o th e r village w h e re th e in h a b ita n ts, th e
N onogoods, alw ays (7) told/had been telling lies. As she (8) was
w a lkin g /h a d been w a lkin g along, she (9) was m eeting/m et a n ativ e.
Since she (10) ha d never m et/w as never m eeting a G oodgood or
a N onogood before, she (11) ha d not kn o w n /d id n ot k n o w w h ic h
tribe h e b elo n g ed to.

Professor Jones can ask one question in o rd e r to find th e way,


b u t h o w w ill she k n o w if th e man is te llin g h e r th e tr u th o r
w h e th e r hes a liar? T h e re is one question w h ic h w ill solve
% he r pro b le m . W h a t is it? C h e c k w ith y o u r teacher.

FCE p ractice: P a rt 1
^ For questions 1-12, read th is te x t and decide w h ic h answ er A , B, C o r D best fits each space.
T h e re is an exam ple (0) at th e beginning.

Taken a w a y and b ro u g h t back


Have you ever wondered what happens to people who just disappear? Some go forever, and others
(0) turn up again. Those who do come (1 )_______ are able to clear (2 ) ________ the mystery of their
strange absence. But those who do not return, will continue to (3) ____ us. Some of the most
common (4 )_______ are: 'murdered by a colleague' or (5) '______ away by aliens in a spaceship.'
There was the (6 )_______ in Warwickshire, where a little girl of eight disappeared mysteriously. Her
parents had died when she was a baby, and her uncle had been ( 7 ) _______ after her. At the age of
eighteen, she was going to inherit the family wealth and property. The uncle was (8 )_______ to find
her and panicked: he decided to (9) up another little girl and (10) ____ she was his niece.
Police investigations discovered what he had done and he was (11) _ with murder. He was
(1 2 )_______ guilty and in those days that m eant the death penalty.

OA come B turn C make D get


lA in B out C back D away
2A away B up C down D by
3A deceive B wonder C puzzle D question
4A replies B excuses C facts D explanatic
5A taken B given C moved D driven
6A happening B crime C case D time
7A taking B running C looking D caring
8A made B failed C impossible D unable
9A make B look C dress D ring
lOA believe B pretend C like D look like
11 A accused B charged C punished D taken
12 A discovered B not C decided D found
The truth is out there

V o c a b u la ry
Parts o f speech W ords o fte n confused
The sam e w o rd can often b e u se d as a verb a n d a ^ Com plete the sentences using the appropriate
n o u n , eg order: fo rm o f the w ords below.
The general ordered the soldiers to attack. c o n tro l c h ec k in ve s tig ate insp ect
V o as I tell y o u ,' said the general. 'That's an order!'
1 M ulder and Scully w e r e ________ a n ew case.
^ Here are some m ore examples: return, start,
2 Schools a r e ________ to see th a t th ey m ain tain
control. A re they used as verbs o r nouns in the high standards of education.
sentences below?
The roads w ere icy an d she couldn't
1 I've h ad problem s w ith this car from th e start. th e car.
2 I can't get th e car to start.
4 The w o m an th a t she h ad tu rn ed off
3 C an't you control your bad tem per? th e lights before leaving th e house.
4 She is in com plete control of the situation.
5 You m ust retu rn the m oney you borrow ed Phrasal verbs w ith ffo
im m ediately.
^ Match the phrasal verbs in list A w ith th e ir
6 On their re tu rn from holiday, th ey found the
meanings in list B.
house had been b roken into.
A B
Here are some m ore w ords we can use as
1 go ahead stop liking som ething
nouns o r verbs. Com plete the sentences below
using the appropriate form . 2 go by begin to do som ething you
p lan n ed to do
sail sign c lim b search
3 go th ro u g h w ith w h e n tim e passes
1 They have been for a cure for cancer 4 go th ro u g h w h en som ething is happening
for years.
5 go off con tin u e to do som ething you
The T ita n ic________ for America in 1912. p lan n ed to do, even w h en
W ho w ere th e first people t o ________ Everest? it is unp leasan t
T h e _______ on the door said th a t th e shop 6 go on experience som ething
was closed.
^ Com plete these sentences using the c o rre c t
5 T h e ____ for the girl ended w h en she ju st
fo rm o f one o f the phrasal verbs in exercise 4.
tu rn e d up at th e police station.
1 W h a t's ________ n ex t door? T hey're m aking a
6 Do you th in k fam ous people like
lot of noise.
autographs?
2 I told him n o t to accept the job b u t he still
and took it.
3 It's already 5 o'clock. D oesn't tim e ________
quickly sometimes!
4 I 'v e ____ ____Leo DiCaprio - I d o n 't th in k he's
particularly good-looking.
5 S h e 's ________ a really h ard tim e lately.
6 H e ________ w ith th e p arach u te jum p,
alth o u g h h e was very frightened.

28
The truth is out there

L is te n in g a n d s p e a k in g
^ This is a picture o f the Mary Ce/este. W h a t do you
know about the mystery surrounding this ship?

Q Listen to the firs t part o f the sto ry and


discuss the questions.
W here does th e story take place?
W hat problem did th e M ary Celeste have?
W here h ad th e captains m et before?
W hat w as th e M ary Celeste carrying?
W hat condition w as th e ship in?

^ Before you listen to the rest o f the sto ry


you are going to tr y to solve the m ystery Do
the task below.
W ork in pairs. S tudent A read th e inform ation
on page 139. S tudent B read th e inform ation
on page 140. Tell each oth er your inform ation,
th e n discuss th e following theories for w hy the
crew abandoned th e M ary Celeste. W hich is the
m ost likely, according to your inform ation?
1 There had b een a m utiny on board.
2 The tw o captains had p lanned th e 'accident'
to g eth er to m ake money. FCE practice: Part 2
3 The crew had got drunk, killed th e captain and [m Listen again and com plete the sentences.
escaped in th e lifeboat. 1 British officials beheved th ere h ad b een a
4 The crew h ad ab andoned th e ship because they _________________ on board, or th a t the tw o
believed it w as going to sink. captains h ad b e e n __________________.
2 However, th e A m erican authorities believed
They might have ... Briggs w as n o t the kind of m a n to cause
They must have ...
There cant have been (a mutiny) because ...
3 The court could n o t decide w h y th e crew
th e ship.
Ithink its most likely th a t...
Its difficult to say, but Id guess (that) ... 4 People becam e interested in th e m ystery w h en
From the evidence, I reckon (that) ... C onan Doyle w r o te __________________.
5 C onan Doyle said the s h ip 's __________________
Well,you could be right, but ... was there, b u t in fact it w as missing.
Thats a good point, but on the other hand ...
I dont think thats right because ...
According to th e w riter the ship m ay have h it
__________________u n d er the surface of the
sea.
i think youre right.
1agree with you. W hy d id n 't th e crew re tu rn w h en th ey realized
rd go along with that. it w as n o lo n g e r _________________ ?
The speaker mentions one explanation which
covers all the facts. Can you guess w hat it is?
^ Listen to the next part o f the story.
Check w ith yo u r teacher.
W h ich one o f the explanations in exercise 3
is the m ost likely, according to the speaker?

29
3 The truth is out there

W r itin g
FCE practice; Short story

The main features of a good story are that it tells the events clearly and has a beginning,
middle and end, and that it is interesting to read. W hen writing a story, remember to:

organize your ideas into clear paragraphs use a mixture of direct and reported speech
begin by setting the scene; give some details use sequencing words
about when and where the story takes place use adjectives to make the story more
and who the main characters are exciting
use a variety o f past tenses bring your story to a definite conclusion

^ Look at the pictures and put these sentences in the c o rre c t order.

Suddenly, a child appeared at th e w indscreen.


Relieved, she got back into h er car.
W hen she got closer, she saw th a t it w as ju st a big doll th a t h ad b een th ro w n
out of a passing car.
A w o m an w as driving hom e alone one dark night.
Thinking th e child had b een in an accident, th e w o m an stopped and got o u t of
the car.

30
T he tr u th is o u t t h e r e
You a re g o in g t o w r ite a s to r y fo llo w in g th e se
instructions. C o n n e c t th e fo llo w in g sentences
You have decided to enter a short story w ith th e sequencing w o rd s in
com petition. The rules say that the story b ra cke ts. M ake any changes
m ust end w ith the following words; 'Finally necessary.
I had m anaged to explain the m ystery ' 1 I was just getting into bed.
Write betw een 120 and 180 words. I heard a tap at the window,
B e fo re y o u w r it e y o u r s to ry , d o th e (when)
fo llo w in g e xe rcise s.
2 I decided to ignore it. I heard it
again, (but/after a while)
0 Com plete this s to ry using the appropriate form
o f the verbs in brackets. 3 I sw itched th e light off. I heard
a scratching sound com ing from
th e wall, (as soon as)
It was a wild, stormy night in December. The road 4 I got up. I w en t over to the
(I) (be) empty, and there were no streetlamps. w indow . The sound h ad stopped,
^ (drive) for only a few minutes, when (by th e tim e)
She (2)
(notice) a car following her, flashing
she (3 ) 5 I tried to w ake th e n eighbours
Its headlights. She ( 4 ) ------------------ (drive) faster. She up. I decided to call th e police,
fc ) (attack) once before on a lonely road at (later/finally)
^ -------------
night. However, the car behind (6 ). (be) still
close. In a panic, she (7 )__________ (reach) her house ^ R ew rite these sentences to make
as the car (? )__________ (try) to overtake her. In the them m ore vivid and interesting
driver's seat there was a shadowy figure, waving his fo r the reader. Replace the
underlined w o rd s w ith w o rd s
hands around wildly. She (^ )__________ (stop) the car,
fro m th e box. Make any changes
( J O ) ________(jump) out and (ID.___________
necessary.
to the front door. The man in the other car (12) ------------------
(leap) out and shouted 'Wait! I (13)__________ notice push scream
to warn you! When you stopped on the motorway, someone march bang dash grab
(14 ) _ (get) in the back of your car. The woman
(15 )_ _ _ (look) round and (16)___________ (^^ 1 I looked out of the window and
a dark figure running away down the road. I saw something strange.
2 I quickly ran to the door.
3 He took me by the arm.
4 The stranger opened the door.
I Look at the checklist
5 Suddenly, she heard a loud noise.
below and find
examples of these 6 She walked angrily out of the
features in the story. set the scene room.
7 She shouted as loud as she could.
varied usa ofpaat J^enses
Now write your story and
remember to use appropriate
^ descriptive adjectives-
tenses, sequencers and expressive
vocabulary.
direct speech

interesting ending

31
C om plete the sentences using an appropriate Read the definitions below, then w rite the w o rd
w ord. The firs t le tte r o f each w o rd is given to they describe.The firs t le tte r o f each w o rd is
help you. given to help you.
1 M arconi is fam ous for being th e i___________ 1 an im p o rtan t job th a t som eone has b een given
of th e radio. to do m ___________
2 Today's g_______ have m ore freedom th an 2 one of th e parts of a TV program m e w ith a
in th e past. story e___________
For m ost young people, their friends have th e
3 an exciting experience in w hich dangerous
biggest i___________ on them .
things m ay h ap p en a___________
The USA has huge car and com puter
i___________ w hich em ploy m illions of people. 4 a book containing a long story n ___________
The p___________ of B irm ingham is about one 5 a w ay of pro n o u n cin g w ords because of w here
milhon. som eone comes from a___________
Some teenagers express their feelings by
w riting g___________ on th e walls of public Choose the best tense in the following
buildings. sentences.
1 It's raining/it rains outside - w h y d o n 't you w ait
Com plete these sentences using the c o rre c t
till it stops?
form o f the w ords below.
2 I applied for the job, now I w ait/am w aiting to
c a rry c re e p c raw l g ra b hold catch see if I get it.
3 It's n o t th a t I d o n 't like/am not liking th e job, it's
1 The th ie f ______ _ her bag and ran off
ju st th a t th e hours are too long.
dow n th e street.
4 I am n o t going to see the film again - I saw/have
Can y o u _______ th e baby w hile I go to the
seen it w h en it first cam e out.
phone?
5 I still ha ven't finished/didn 't finish w riting the
I'll th ro w th e ball in th e air an d you try and
test; I n eed a few m ore m inutes.
___________ it.
6 She has been writing/written letters for hours and
Before a baby learns to w alk it on
she still h a s n 't finished.
the floor.
7 Just as I got there, th e train was leaving/left the
The b u rg la r ____ up th e stairs in the
station.
dark.
6 I asked th e porter to m y bags to
the taxi because they w ere too heavy.

Read the questions l-IO . Use the w o rd given in capitals at the end
o f each line to form a w o rd th a t fits the space in the same line.
The In tern et has ( 1 ) __ appeal for teenagers aro u n d th e globe. UNIVERSE
The Sith are a ( 2 ) ____ an d evil force w h o w an t to destroy the Jedi. MYSTERY
W hat's th e ( 3 ) _______ betw een teenagers today an d in th e past? DIFFER
She com pleted th e test ( 4 ) _______
___________ an d was given the job. SUCCESS
At th e ( 5 ) ___________ of th e story, w e m eet the hero, Luke Skywalker. BEGIN
Some roots in th e rainforest are used for (6)___________ purposes. MEDICINE
Gillian A nderson w as ( 7 ) ___________ by h er h u sb an d 's smile. ATTRACT
Tom H anks is one of the m ost successful (8)___________ today. ACT
She used to be a ( 9 ) ___________ in a restaurant. WAIT
You'll have to use your (10) to solve th e problem . INTELLIGENT

32
^ M atch th e w o rd s in lis t A w ith th e w o rd s in lis t B to fo rm acceptable pairs o f w o rd s . 30
Som e pairs can be w r itte n as o ne w o rd and o th e rs as tw o .
<D
A e -m a il p o st w ritin g pen dow n
B ca rd paper lo a d ad d re ss frie n d

N o w co m p le te these sentences w ith an a p p ro p ria te phrase fro m above. (D


1 It c a n ta k e a lo n g tim e t o ____________ files fro m th e In te rn e t.
2 If y o u give m e y o u r ____________ I c a n se n d y o u a copy of th e te x t rig h t aw ay.
3 I alw ay s sen d a ____________ to e a c h of m y frie n d s w h e n I go o n h oliday.
4 W h e n m y sister w as te n , sh e h a d a ____________ w h o liv ed in Italy.
C
5 I w a n t to w rite to m y g ra n d m o th e r b u t I h a v e n 't got a n y ____________ .

Q Replace th e un derlin ed w o rd s in these sentences w ith th e c o rre c t


fo rm o f a phrasal verb w ith get o r go. Make any o th e r changes necessary.

1 You can le av e th e office b u t p lease try a n d r e tu r n b efo re th e m a n a g e r gets h ere . I


2 The h o lid a y w as cancelled so n o w w e 'v e got to try a n d h a v e o u r m o n e y r e tu r n e d . U j

3 W h e n B etty w as in h o sp ital w e h a d to c o n tin u e w ith th e jo b w ith o u t her.


4 I'v e h a d th is flu for w eek s an d I still h a v e n 't rec o v ered fro m it.
5 The te a c h e r to ld th e m to be q u ie t b u t th e y c o n tin u e d to talk.
6 I'v e ex p e rien c ed sim ilar p ro b lem s so I k n o w h o w y o u feel.

Q For questions 1-14 read th e te x t and decide w h ich answ er A , B, C o r D best fits each space.

S ecret A g e n t Pond
C harles P ond h ad b ee n w o rk in g late th a t night. The o n ly so u n d th a t could be h ea rd w as th e
so u n d of his fingers o n th e ( 1 ) ________ . He h a d b e e n ( 2 ) _________ to finish his re p o rt an d
n o w tim e w as ru n n in g ( 3 ) ________ . He h a d to finish before th e y got th ere. He ( 4 ) _________
th e last p ara g ra p h o n th e co m p u ter w h e n su d d en ly h e ( 5 ) ________ a noise ju st outside th e
w indow . P ond k n e w C apuccino's m e n w ere ( 6 ) ________ for h im b u t h e h a d n 't ex pected
th e m to ( 7 ) ________ u p so quickly. He ign o red th e so u n d a n d ( 8 ) _________ o n w riting. T hen
h e h e a rd footsteps. He im m ediately ( 9 ) ________ th e te x t an d w e n t o v er to th e w in d o w to
(1 0 ) . He drew th e curtains aside. P ond could see from th e w et roads th a t it
(1 1 ) all night. He could see nobody, b u t th o u g h t h e 'd b etter go o u t a n d ( 1 2 ) _________
ju st in case. He o p en e d th e door an d ( 1 3 ) _______ slow ly in to th e garden. T hen h e saw
so m eo n e ru n n in g ( 1 4 ) ________ in th e darkness.
1 A h a rd disk B screen C k eyboard D processor
2 A incapable B unable C m anaging D u n lu ck y
3 A off B aw ay C out D up
4 A h ad finished B w as finishing C has finished D finished
5 A listened B noticed C felt D h ea rd
6 A m aking B ru n n in g C searching D seeing
7 A go B get C ru n D tu rn
8 A con tin u ed B took c w en t D p u sh ed
9 A saved B pressed c loaded D sent
10 A control B test c investigate D inspect
11 A rained B has rained c w as raining D h ad b een raining
12 A check B w atch c inquire D control
13 A w alked B climbed c ran D fell
14 A tow ards B up c out D aw ay

33
4
Sunny days
F u tu re (1): fu tu re sim p le, going to, p resen t c o n tin
p re sen t sim p le u ou s.

R e a d in g
^ W o r k w ith a partner.
D escribe w h a t happens
du rin g an eclipse, using these
photographs to help you.

Q Read th e te x t q u ickly and


check y o u r answers.

T )o y V t l o o k n o i
s u n 's a b o u t to
1 A n eclipse is sim ply w hen the b etw een the earth and the sun, It is even dangerous to look at a
shadow o f one planet or m oon and will eventually end up by 55 partial eclipse. In the first place,
falls on another. In ancient 30 covering the w hole o f the sun, if you don't look up at the sky
tim es, an eclipse in broad but this will only be visible fi*om you w on't realize it's happening,
5 daylight w as a bad om en. In a few p laces around the world; since your eyes get u sed to the
som e parts o f the w orld even observers in certain parts o f the lower level o f light. A nd then
today, an eclipse o f the sun is a country will see the eclipse 60 people m istakenly think that
sign that som ething is not right 35 b egin at one tim e, but in other since tw o-thirds o f the sun are
in nature. It m ay n ot be that the places it will start a b it later. covered, it will b e all right to
10 gods are dissatisfied w ith look at it.
m ankind but it does se em that The w hole sp ectacle starts at
the end o f the w orld m ight be about 2 p m and ends at about There are always cases o f people i
com ing. 4 p m .T h e advice fi-om D r John 65 who have b een foolish enough to
40 M ason, an astronom er, is: 'If look at the sun through sm all
N ow adays, astronom ers can you're going to look at an telescop es or binoculars. A t the
15 predict very accurately the tim e eclipse, avoid looking at it very b est, they will end up w ith
that an eclipse w ill take place directly, even w ith glasses, since a p erm an en t blind spot on the
and how lon g it w ill last; they you can do your eyes serious 70 back o f the retina. A t the very
can also tell us w hether it will 45 dam age. I'm taking m y kids out w orst they will blind
be total or partial. This year, to see it to m ake sure they don't them selves.'
20 like every year, there will be at stare at the sun.
A total eclipse is a rare thing.
least tw o eclipses o f the sun and
The safest w ay to look at an The last tim e people in B ritain
in som e years there m ay be as
eclipse is to project the im age 75 saw one was on 11 A ugust, 1999.
m any as five.
50 on to a light surface w ith H owever, there w ill be 56 partial
As m o st people w ill know by b inoculars or a telescop e, but or total eclipses b etw een now
25 now, there's going to be an w ithou t looking through the and the year 2020, so be ready!
eclipse today. A t a certain tim e, len ses directly.
the m o o n will pass directly

34
Sunny days

Today's eclipse
A will be a total eclipse in some places.
B will be seen several times in a lew places.
C will only be seen in one place.
D will be a partial eclipse all around the world.
You should look at an eclipse
A using glasses.
B through a telescope lens.
C in photographs only.
D rellected onto a surlace.
During a partial eclipse
A it gets completely dark.
B the light changes colour.
C you may not notice anything.
D you must use binoculars.
Looking directly at an eclipse
A is best through a small telescope.
B will harm your eyesight.
C will make you go blind.
D is all right for a short time.

( Discuss these questions.


Have you ever seen an eclipse?
W hat are the benehts of the sun?
W hat are the dangers?

I Find words in the te x t that have a similar


meaning to the following. The first letter of
FCE practice: Part 2
each word is given to help you.
Q For questions 1-6, choose the correct answer,
a sign that something bad is going to happen
A, B, C o r D.
o________
1 In the past people believed an eclipse was
complete t________
A the shadow ol one planet on another.
something th an can be seen v________
B a sign that the gods were happy.
C a sign that something bad was going to the outside or top layer of something
happen. s________
D a natural disaster. in the end, after a long time e________
2 Every year there people who watch or notice something
A is at least one partial eclipse. o________
B are usually several eclipses. 7 harm d
C is at least one total eclipse. to make an image appear on a screen using
D are about hve eclipses. light p________

35
Sunny days .............

G ra m m a r a n d Use o f E n g lis h
Future (1): fu tu re sim ple, going to, present continuous, present sim ple

U Underline the future form s in these sentences, ^ C om plete these sentences using the future
then match them to the c o rre c t use. simple o r going to. In which sentences can you
1 I'm having m y hair cut n ex t w eekend. use both the future simple and going to v^ith
little change o f meaning?
2 It's definitely going to snow - look at those
dark clouds. 1 I ________ get a n ew pair of sunglasses
3 We will probably see th e total eclipse tom orrow .
tom orrow , if th e re are no clouds. Look at th e sky. The sun com e o u t m
4 My train leaves at 4 pm , so I n eed to leave a m inute.
at 3.30 pm to get th ere on time.
3 The s u n _____ exist for another five billion
5 I think w e are going to go shopping tom orrow , years.
a to m ake predictions about the future
4 That building fall dow n soon. Look at
b to talk about things w hich w e have arranged th o se cracks in the wall.
for th e future
T h e y ________ re-decorate th eir house during
c to talk about the future according to a fixed
th e holiday.
schedule of events, eg tim etables
d to talk about our intentions for th e future The s u n ____ co n tin u e to shine forever.
e to talk about things w hich are certain to W h en th e light from the sun stops, life on th e
happen in th e future, eg for w hich w e have e a r th ________ end.
present evidence
You m ust decide soon w h at you study
at university.
See grammar reference page 145.

^ Look at the pictures and com plete the sentences


below using an appropriate fo rm o f the future.

( 1 )- (21 (3)_ (4)_


snow. buy a house. at 9 pm. the lottery.

36
Sunny days ^
y C om plete this dialogue by choosing the best ^ C om plete these sentences about yourself.
form o f the future fo r each sentence.
1 This w eekend
A 1(1) am driving/drive dow n to D over on
Saturday to see th e eclipse w ith som e friends.
(write ab o u t y o u r plans)
<2) Do you come/Are you coming!
3 r d love to b u t I can't. I (3) am taking/w ill take 2 W hen I finish sc h o o l___
Jo h n to the m atch on Saturday. It's his big day. (write about y o u r intentions)
Their team (4) w ill play/is playing against
an o th er school in the semi-finals. 3 I ca n 't go to th e cinem a to n ig h t/to m o rro w
because
\ That's a sham e, perhaps you (5) w ill be/are
being able to com e later. W hat tim e (6) is the
game finishing/does the gam e finish? (write ab o u t w liat arrangem ents you have
3 A bout 5 o'clock. made)

\ The pap er says th e eclipse (7) w ill start/is 4 In ten years' tim e.
starting to be visible from Dover aro u n d
lunchtim e. (m ake a prediction ab o u t y o u r family)
3 How long is th e eclipse (8) going to last/lasting?
\ It (9) w ill last/is lasting about tw o an d a half
hours.
3 You (10) are not going to/w ill not look at it
directly, are you?
A No, th a t w ould be stupid. I (11) am going to
m ake/w ill m ake a little pinhole cam era o u t of
card. You ju st hold it to th e w indow.
3 Sounds like it (12) is going to be/is being quite a
spectacle!
A Right. A nd th e next one w o n 't be till 2090.
3 Wow! I d o n 't th in k I'll be aro u n d for th a t one!

practice: Part 2
^ A nsw er these questions. %
. W hat is the 'greenhouse effect'?
I Is th e earth going to get w arm er or cooler?
j Read the tex t quickly. W hat does the a u th o r say about this?

Global warm ing or global cooling?


Scientists have w arned th a t the earth is turning 1)- a kind of giant
greenhouse an d in the futu re th ere (2)________ ____ be a rise in tem ju'ratures everyw here.
B ut som e scientists disagree. They say th a t certain (3)________ of the earth are n o t
(4)_________ to get w arm er but are going (5)__________ get cooler. Global cooling over
parts of E urope (6)_________ probably be greater (7)__________ global w arm ing. The
reason is simple: clouds. W arm er tem peratures will (8)_________ m ore w ater evaporate
and (9)________ will lead to m ore clouds. These (10)___________ will shade the earth
from th e sun, leading to cooler tem peratures (11) the day. Ecologists,
how ever, insist th a t global w arm ing w ill continue, in (12)_________of increased
cloudiness - an d it (13)_________ n o t going to be a good thing.

^ For questions 1-13, read the te x t again and th in k o f the w o rd w hich best fits the space.
Use only one w o rd in each space.

37
^ Sunny days

V o c a b u la ry
Idiom s {time) 6 It's n o t w o rth queuing because th e y 're sold out.

Idioms and expressions w ith time are very


D o n 't__________________because th e y 're sold
com m on in English. Study these idioms w ith
out.
time and then complete the examples. 7 D o n 't hurry, y o u 'v e got p len ty of time!
, th e re 's no n eed to hurry.
be short of tim e I had a 1________ on
holiday. W ords o fte n confused
ru n out of tim e You need to leave for the Com plete these sentences by ticking the
airport in 2________ tim e c o rre c t preposition in the chart below.
in order to check in early.
take one's tim e 3________ w aste your time. in on at
Do som ething useful! 1 I'm going swimming_ _ 2pm.
have a good tim e Take 4________ tim e 2 They should leave_ _ a few minutes.
- do n 't hurry.
3 My birthday's_ _ Friday.
w aste one's tim e We only w atched TV to
4 It gets hotter_ _ summer.
5________ the time.
5 He's leaving_ _ Sunday.
in good tim e I was 6_ of time,
so I didn't stop to chat. 6 1 eat lunch_ _ midday.

pass the time You need to w ork quickly, 7 There was a total edipse_ _ 2000.
if you d o n 't w an t to
7________ of tim e.
C om plete these sentences using one o f the
prepositions from exercise 3.
For questions 1-7, com plete the second 1 I'm going to get u p ________ about ten o'clock
sentence so th a t it has a similar meaning to to m o rro w m orning.
the firs t sentence, using the c o rre c t form of
2 W e're thinking of redecorating th e house
one o f the phrases in exercise I .
th e spring.
If you d o n 't have m uch tim e, take a taxi.
3 h er n ex t birthday, she'll be sixteen.
If you a r e __________________, take a taxi.
4 I w onder w here w e'll b e ________the year 2010?
She read h er book so she w o u ld n 't get bored.
In order t o _________________ she read h er 5 W h at are you d o in g ________ the w eekend?
book. 6 I ll give you th e book b a c k ________ a couple
He d id n 't finish th e exam because he didn't of days.
have enough tim e.
A nsw er these questions about yourself, then
He d id n 't finish th e exam because he
discuss yo u r answers w ith a partner.
__________________time.
1 H ow m u ch tim e does y o u r h o m ew o rk take up
They really enjoyed them selves at y o u r party
every day?
last night.
They had a __________________at y o u r party 2 W h en does tim e go by m ore quickly for you -
last night. w h en you are playing or w orking?

He advised th e m th a t leaving prom ptly w ould 3 W hat kind of things do you usually p u t off
help th em avoid th e traffic. doing?
He told th e m to le a v e __________________in 4 W h at tim e do yo u set off for school every day?
order to avoid th e traffic.
5 W h at can you do to avoid ru n n in g o u t of tim e
during a test?

38
Sunny days ^
Liste nin g and speaking
^ W hat is the weather like at the moment where
you are? W hat will it be like in December? July?

The w eather B ritain Norway Greece

! cold and windy


2 showers
3 heavy rain
4 covered in snow
5 snowstorms
6 boiling hot
1 fairly cold
8 mild

Q Listen to the tape. Tick the chart to show


which country the expressions in exercise I
describe.

FCE practice: Part 4


^ S ] Listen again. For each question 1-7, decide
whether the answer is Yes o r No.
: Will the w eather be better later on in the week?
2 Is Alice disappointed by the weather?
3 Would Isabelle enjoy going shopping?
4 Is Windsor popular w ith tourists?
5 Does Bjorn go home often?
3 Is the w eather in Greece hot at this time of
year?
Is Alice going to go away for Christmas?

Q W hat is the weather going to be like in your


country tomorrow?

FCE practice: Part 2


^ Look at these photographs of different
beaches. Choose tw o and compare and contrast
them. Which beach would you most like to visit?
Why? In comparison to photo I, photo 2 is ...
In this picture ... while in the other picture ...
Q Discuss these questions. In this photo ... whereas in the other one ...
1 Which is your favourite beach? Why? The biggest difference between the two
photos is ...
2 What things annoy you w hen you go to the
beach? Picture I is very different because ...

39
Sun ny d ays

W riting
FCE practice: Transactional le tte r
^ Read this task and the advert below, then read the students le tte r
Your basketball team is interested in taking p art in an international
sports to u rn am en t for young people b u t only has the advertisem ent
show n below and needs m ore inform ation.

What are the dates exactly? Accommodation?


hear Sir or Maf{am,
/ saw your ae^vertiseMentfor ihe
InternationalSports Convention in Total
Sport majazine an(:l! am writing for more
NTERNATIONAL information. / am a member of a basketball
Which SPO RTS C O N V EN TIO N , team an(:lwe are allkeen to takepart in
sports? BARCELO NA the event, but re^fuirefurther (details.
calling a ll sports enthusiasts First of all, which sports w ill the event
everywhere
involve? !A/e hope basketballis one of them.
b ringing the youth o f the w orld
together! We wouUalso like to know the em ct t>lates
participation is in vited in an of the Convention. We arejoin^ to be taking
,athletics and sports festival exams till the en<^of June andso the
fo r application form s and more members o f our team w illbefreefrom
inform ation call or write to: 7July onwar^^s.
We wouU like to brinj a totalo f seven
people, including our coach; w ill this be
acceptable?Also, there were no (Retails about
How many accommodation inyour advertisement and
people per
Mr R Valero it wouldbe usefulfor us to know what the
team?
Calle Santa Rosja, 3 options are and whether bookings are made
Barcelona 72Si
byyou or by theparticipants themselves.
Finally, couldyou please send us an
informationpack, including application forms
ask for information pack and any other usefulinformation about
the Convention and the city of Barcelona.
(lookforward to receivingyour answer,
Yoursfaithfully,
Find words and phrases in the le tte r which
have the follow ing functions:
Sophie Wyss
1 to say w hy you are w riting
2 to say w ho you are
3 to ask for inform ation
4 to draw the letter to a close

40
Sunny days
Q N ow read the second letter which contains ' N ow it's your turn.You are going to w rite a
mistakes in the areas listed below. Can you letter following these instructions.
find them?
Your debating team at school is interested in
1 tenses attending an International Youth Conference
2 word order Debate on global warming but you only have
3 vocabulary the advert below and so need more
information. Write a letter in an appropriate
4 spelling style of between 120 and 180 words.
5 style
Read the advert, then w rite your letter covering
the points in your notes and any relevant
information about you and your Debating Club.
Dear Sir or Madam,
How many people
I am writihg to ask for more To be accompanied per team?
informations for the International Youth by a teacher?
convention which I saw advertised in Total . . . _______ \
port Magazine. In fact, my team-mates
and I were tfirilled when we have seen the Internal nal debating society:
advertisement but there are some things youth bating competition
we'd like you to inform us on. To begin. I'd C a llin g s ch o o l d e b a tin g club s
like to know what are the exact dates of the e v e ry w h e re !
Your chance to show your forensic skills Age limit?
tournament, as some of the dates wont be
convenient for some of us, due to school and help fight global warming
exams. Secondly, as accomodation wasn't Can you beat the best young speakers
mentioned in your advertisement. I'd in the world?
appreciate some information concerning
J o in th e d e b a te on:
hotels in the area where the tournament
Is global warming going to get better or worse?
is going to take place. In addition to these,
I request information on the number of Participants may argue for or against
the motion.
players that are allowed for each team and
I, also, didn't understand whether there is
an age limit or not? Finaly, we want to know
whether the games are knock-out or
whether there will be groups consisting of
a number of teams, and how many teams
are expected to participate.
I look forward to receiving an answer;
That's all for now!
Kind regards,
Rafael
V en u e: Milton conference centre
Z ________

Accommodation provided?
41
The secrets of science
Future (2); Futur*v ^ r
future continuou simple, future perfect continuous

R e a d in g
Cloning: future perfect?

I
Think about the fo llo w in g scene: you are
w alking dow n the street and you see a
m other and her children w alking side by
side. The children look identical, but they
are d ifferent ages. If human cloning
becomes norm al, scenes like this w ill have
become norm al by the year 2050.

A clone is an exact copy of a plant or


animal produced fro m any one cell. Since
10 Scottish scientists reported th a t they had
managed to clone a sheep named Dolly in
1997, research into cloning has grow n
rapidly. In May 1998, scientists in
Massachusetts managed to create tw o
15 identical calves using new cloning
technology. A mouse has also been cloned
successfully. But the debate over cloning
humans really started w hen Chicago
physicist Richard Seed made a sensational
20 a n n o u ncem ent:'W e w ill have managed to
clone a human being w ith in the next tw o
years,' he to ld the w orld.

0 W o rk w ith a partner. Look at the photographs


and discuss these questions. Seed's announcem ent provoked a lot o f
media attention, m ost o f it negative. In
1 This sheep is fam ous - do you know w hy? 25 Europe, nineteen nations have already
2 W hat do th e pictures have in com m on? signed an agreem ent banning human
cloning and in the US the President
0 D o you th in k these statements are tru e o r announced: 'We w ill be introducing a law to
false? ban all hum an cloning and m any states in
30 the US w ill have passed anti-cloning laws
1 By th e year 2050 w e will all have a clone of
by the end o f the y e a r'
ourselves.
2 Cloning experim ents have b een b an n e d in
som e E uropean countries. M any researchers are not so negative
3 W ithin ten years scientists will probably have about cloning. They are w o rrie d that laws
cloned a h u m a n being. banning human cloning w ill threaten
35 im p o rta n t research. In March, The N ew
Read the te x t quickly and check yo u r answers.
England Jo u rn a l o f M edicine called any

42
The se cre ts o f scie n ce

FCE practice: P art 1


0 C hoose th e m o s t suitable heading fro m th e lis t
A - G fo r each p a rt 1 -6 o f th e a rtic le .T h e re is
one e x tra heading w h ic h you d o n o t need to
use.

A The rig h t to choose


!9* i u :^u V t D d l i i s q i g n i n o l D
B A co m m o n sight
C A nxiety a b o u t th e fu tu re
D Teenagers in fav o u r of clo n in g
plan to ban research on cloning hum ans
seriously mistaken. M any researchers also E A rg u m en ts in fav o u r of clo n in g
believe that in spite of attem pts to ban it, F W h a t is cloning?
- human cloning w ill have become routine by G S trong reactio n s
2010 because it is im possible to stop the
orogress of science. Read th e te x t and u n d e rlin e th e arg u m e nts fo r
and against cloning.

is there reason to fear th a t cloning w ill lead Find w o rd s in th e te x t th a t have a sim ila r
:o a nightmare w orld?T he public has been meaning to th e fo llo w in g .T h e firs t le tte r o f each
bombarded w ith newspaper articles, w o rd is given to help you.
television shows and film s, as w ell as
cartoons. Such inform ation is often 1 a p ic tu re of a place s_________
misleading, and makes people w o n d e r w h a t 2 th e bab y of a cow (p lu ral) c_________
on earth the scientists w ill be doing next.
3 a discussion o n a n im p o rta n t su b je ct d_________
4 so m e th in g said in p u b lic a_________
W ithin the next five to ten years scientists
5 caused so m e th in g p _________
w ill probably have found a w ay of cloning
-iumans. It could be that pretty soon we w ill 6 to pass a law to say so m e th in g is n o t p e rm itte d
oe able to choose the person th a t w e w ant b________
our child to look like. But how w o u ld it feel to
7 th e w ay so m e th in g d ev elo p s p_________
oe a clone among hundreds, the anti-cloners
3sk. Pretty cool, answer the pro-cloners.


H i

m
*#

14 t3

43
5 The secrets of science

G ram m ar and Use o f English


Future (2): future perfect simple,
future perfect continuous, future continuous

Q Look at these sentences from the te x t and Q The future perfect continuous takes the
answer the questions below. following form: will have been + verb + ing. It is
1 We will have managed to clone a hum an being used to describe an action that will be in
w ithin the next two years. progress up to a particular point in the future.
2 We will be introducing a law to ban all hum an I will have been living here for ten years this July.
cloning.
See grammar reference page 145.
Which sentence:
is in the future continuous?
is in the future perfect simple?
means an action that is expected to happen
at some point in the future?
means an action that will be completed by
a particular time in the future?

Complete these sentences with an appropriate


form of the future. Check your answers with
the text. A w eekend in Paris
1 If hum an cloning becomes normal, scenes like
th is ________norm al by the year 2050. Saturday 1 July
(become) find tents at campsite ........ 2.15pm
2 'We ___ to clone a hum an being within eat sandwiches outside tents . . 2.30pm
the next two years.' (manage) bungey jump off Eiffel Tower . . . 4-6pm
return to tents to recover........ 7pm
'W e ________a law to ban all hum an cloning.' depart for river-front b a r ........ 8pm
(introduce) oyster-eating competition . . . 8-9.30pm
4 'M any states in the US anti-cloning all-night dancing at
laws by the end of the year.' (pass) local c l u b ............ 9.30pm-5.30am

5 Human cloning________routine by 2010. Sunday 2 July


(become) hunt for Hunchback of
Notre D a m e .................. 10am-2pm
Complete these sentences using the scuba diving in the
appropriate form of the verb in brackets. River S e i n e .................... 2-4pm
depart Paris ...................... 8pm
1 By 2050, w e ________on the Moon, (live)
2 Don't try calling her. S h e ________for the
airport by now. (leave) ^ Using the information in the itinerary above,
3 Scientists________in cloning hum an beings complete these sentences using the correct
within the next five to ten years, (succeed) form (future perfect simple, future continuous
o r future perfect continuous) of the verbs in
4 In the next five years, everyone________the
brackets.
Internet, (use)
on holiday 1 T h ey ________their tents by 2.30 pm. (find)
5 This time next week we
lying on a beach! (be) 2 At 2.30 pm th e y ________sandwiches outside
their tents, (eat)

44
The secrets of science 5
3 By 7.30 pm they to th eir tents to recover, (return)
4 At 8 pm t h e y __ _____ for the riverside bar. (depart)
5 B etw een 8 pm and 9.30 pm t h e y ________ oysters, (eat)
6 By the end of Saturday they eight hours dancing.
(spend)
7 By 2 pm on Sunday t h e y ___ looking for the Hunchback.
(finish)
8 By 4 pm they in the River Seine for two hours, (scuba
dive)

^ Answer these questions about yourself.


1 W hat will you be doing on your next birthday?
2 W hat will have changed in your town by the year 2020?
3 How long will you have been studying English by the tim e you
take the FCE?

FCE practice: Part 4


^ Discuss these questions.
1 How long, on average, do people live nowadays?
Men in my co u n try _______
Women in my co untry _______
2 In w h ic h c o u n trie s of th e w o rld d o p e o p le liv e lo n g e st?

Q Read the following passage and answer these questions.


1 H o w lo n g w ill p e o p le be liv in g b y 2 0 2 0 ?
2 W h y d o so m e p e o p le p a y to b e fro z en w h e n th e y d ie?

S cientists h a v e b e e n bein g lo o k in g for th e secret of e te rn a l life


for c e n tu rie s b u t n o w m o d e rn science is o n th e b rin k of solving
o n e of th e m o re g rea t m ysteries of h u m a n existen ce. R esearch ers
say th a t v ery so o n th e y w ill h a v e b e e n fo u n d th e 'elix ir of life' a n d
th a t b y 2020 p eo p le w ill h a v e be living 2 0 -5 0 years lo n g e r th a n
6 th e y did in th e 2 0 th century. Scientists believe th a t ev e n by 20 1 0
7 h u m a n beings aged 115 will still be feel y o u n g a n d h ealth y . Old age
8 will, a t last, h a v e h ad b een co n q u e red . O u r 'biological clock' will
9 be being m oving m o re slow ly in th e fu tu re a n d old age will be
10 arriving m u c h later. T echniques of hypnosis are im p ro v in g all th e
11 tim e so th a t so m eo n e could 'fall asleep' an d w ak e up m a n y years
12 later, w h e n scientists w ill h av e h a d discovered cures for 'in c u ra b le '
13 diseases. At present, th e re are ab o u t 30 h u m a n bodies frozen at a
14 te m p e ra tu re of -1 9 6 degrees, w aiting for th e m o m e n t w h e n science
15 will hav e b een found a w ay to bring th e m back to life.

^ For questions 1-15, read the te x t again and lo o k carefully at each line.
Some o f the lines are co rre ct, and some have a w o rd th a t should n o t be
there. If a line is corre ct, put a tic k ('). If a line has a w o rd w hich should
n ot be there, w rite the w ord.

45
The secrets of science

V o c a b u la ry
Prepositions W ords o fte n confused
N ouns, verbs a n d adjectives can b e u se d w ith C o rre c t these com m on mistakes w ith
p articu la r p rep o sitio n s. We say congratulate on, prepositions.
nervous about, agree w ith, speak to. You have to
learn w h ic h w o rd s go w ith w h ic h p rep o sitio n s 1 Patricia will have arrived to th e station.
b ecause th ere are few ru les to h elp you choose Can you fetch her?
correctly. 2 Jo h n will be going in a n ew school this year.
3 I w ould like to live in a desert island for
^ Here are some comm on uses o f prepositions a w hile.
w ith verbs, adjectives and nouns. C om plete the
4 Can you get th e p h o n e? I am to th e bathroom .
chart using the w ords in the box below.
5 There is som ebody in th e door.
example believe answer nervous different
C om plete these rules using the prepositions
Interested approve discussion Insist
at, on, in, to.

1 is used w ith verbs of m ovem ent.


in on of about to 2 is used to describe som eone's position
at a point or place.
noun research ledure 3 is used to describe som eone's position
verb chat refer inside a place. It is also used w ith cities, tow ns
an d countries.
ad je c tive keen afraid
4 is used to describe th e position of
som ething on th e surface of an o th er thing.
Q C om plete this te x t using appropriate
^ Choose the c o rre c t preposition in these
prepositions.
sentences.
Twins They m et to /a t a party.
M y younger sisters, Je n n y an d June, are The teacher w as standing a t/o n the blackboard.
identical tw ins. A lthough they are very similar The teacher w rote o u r h o m ew o rk to /o n the
(1)________ each oth er in m any ways, they blackboard.
differ (2)________ o th er ways. They agree
She spent w eeks at/in hospital after the accident.
(3)________ m any things; for exam ple they are
both fond (4)________ anim als, so they have Children feel nervous ab o u t going in /to school
a lot to talk (5)________ . W hen they first w en t for th e first tim e.
(6 ) school o u r M um and Dad insisted How w ould you feel ab o u t living to /in a small
(7 ) th e m being p u t (8)_________ village all y o u r life?
different classes. Jen n y is no w good
(9)________ gymnastics an d art b u t Ju n e is
hopeless at anything practical. Ju n e know s a
lot (10)________ history and geography b u t is
n o t interested (11)________ sport. Her teachers
say Je n n y is probably going to succeed
(12)________ som ething artistic like painting -
an d Ju n e will probably end up doing some
kind of research w ork.

46
The secrets o f science

J s te n in g a n d s p e a k in g
0 Answer these questions before you listen. ^ The English language is changing all the tim e.
How long will your parents have b een m arried These expressions came into the English
'n th eir n ex t anniversary? language recently. Match an expression from
_ Ho^v will you be celebrating your n ex t list A w ith its meaning in list B.
iiirthday? B
. hich of th e photographs th a t you have at 1 genetic using a m ixture of sound,
lOme is your favourite? W hy? engineering pictures, film an d w riting
1 How long does it take you to get ready w h en to give inform ation
-Qu are going out? 2 techno using com puter images and
sound to m ake things seem
^CE practice: Part 1 real w h e n th ey are n o t

Q S Y ou w ill hear people talking in five different 3 m ulti-m edia w h en scientists change the
s'tuations. For questions 1-5, choose the best genes of a person, p lan t or
in sw e r A, B o r C. anim al in order to im prove it
4 virtual reality electronic dance m usic w ith a
Vou overhear this conversation. W hy is the
strong, fast beat
'.roman surprised?
A Her h usband has done som ething unusual. Look at these pictures o f possible future
3 She has forgotten som ething. technological developments. Discuss these
I She realizes it is an im portant day. questions w ith a partner.

I You h ear a m an talking about his job. W hat is 1 W hat will life be like?
he looking forw ard to? 2 W h at will people be doing?
A Finding a n ew job. 3 H ow will life have changed?
3 Relaxing.
: Having a party.
You hear a radio an n o u n c em en t w hich gives
ietails of a future program m e about
photographs. W hat will th e experts be doing?
A Giving out prizes.
3 Choosing photographs.
C Showing their best photographs.
i You overhear this couple talking. W hy is the
-A'oman unhappy?
A Their friends are going to be late.
B Her husband's got to go and get their car.
C Her husband d idn't tell h e r som ething.
= You h ear a m an being interview ed in the street
""iVhat's his opinion of h u m a n cloning?
A It has advantages an d disadvantages.
B He understands th e reasons for it.
C It goes against nature.

47
The se cre ts o f scie n ce

W r it in g
An article Is a text on a particular subject which has been
FCE p ractice: M a g a z in e a rtic le written for a newspaper or magazine. Here are some tips
on writing an article:
L o o k a t th e pictures. Make p re d ic tio n s a b o u t think of a good title for your article - you want to
attract the readers interest
these childre n and th e adults th e y w ill becom e.
make sure that the first sentence of the article is
In ten ye a rs' time, she w ill be travelling all over the linked to the title and introduces the topic
world. organize your ideas into paragraphs; each new point
should start a new paragraph
B y the tim e he is 35 he w ill have earned billions
make sure that the last paragraph brings the article to
o f dollars. a definite end; depending on the topic, the last
paragraph can summarize the topic, reach a
conclusion or express your opinion on the topic

You are going to w rite an article follow ing these instructions.


Before you begin, do the exercises on page 49.

An international youth magazine has asked for


articles on how readers see themselves
changing in the next 5-10 years.
Write between 120 and 180 words.
The secrets of science

Read this students article


and label the paragraphs
using the headings below.
t the m om e nt, m y life is I do now. I hope th a t I ll
There is an extra heading
A a b it bo rin g. I spend
/ l i I m o s t of m y tim e a t
have lots of m oney too, so
th a t I'll have th e tim e and
th a t you do n o t need to use.
school and I d o n 't have m uch resources to travel - in South A Studying abroad
free tim e or money. The on ly A m e ric a , fo r instance. In B Conclusion
b rig h t s p o t in m y life is about ten years' tim e, as a
C My w orking life
ba ske tb a ll tra in in g tw o or result of m y hard work, I will
three tim e s a week. also have found a w e ll-p a id jo b D A big achievem ent
I hope I'll be d o in g m ore and I w ill have b o u g h t m y E Introduction
excitin g th in g s in th e fu tu re . firs t Alfa Romeo. F Family life
First o f all, in five y e a rs tim e Finally, I expect to have
I hope I w ill be s tu d y in g at be com e th e m o s t fa m o u s ^ Read the article again and
university Then, If I'm lucky a r c h ite c t in th e w o rld find w ords and phrases
I'll be stud ying arch itecture in because I w ill have designed w hich have the following
France. If I w o rk really hard, I th e fir s t s p o rts s ta d iu m in functions:
m ig h t g ra d u a te w ith a firs t space.
1 to list points
c la ss de gre e, w h ic h w ill To sum up, I th in k I w ill be
in cre a se m y ch a n ce s of livin g a ra th e r e x c itin g life 2 to add points
g e ttin g a good jo b over the next ten years. I w ill 3 to express cause an d effect
afterw ards. have co m p le te d m y s tu d ie s 4 to give exam ples
By th e tim e I am w o rkin g , su cce ssfu lly and I w ill have
5 to express a personal opinion
I w ill have m ore free tim e than becom e rich and fam ous.
6 to sum up

^ N o w com plete these sentences using linking expressions from


the article.
1 There are a lot of things I'd like to do in m y life. I'd hke to travel
ro u n d th e w o rld ,________ .
Sarah got to Oxford University h er exam results w ere
excellent.
I w ant to study languages at university I will have the
skills to w ork in a travel business.
4 In this article, I have given argum ents for cloning b u t I have
given several good argum ents against cloning.

^ N o w its y o u r turn.You are going to w rite yo u r own magazine


article on w hat y o u r life w ill be like in ten years tim e. First discuss
these questions w ith a partner and make notes.
W hat are you doing now ?
How do you see yourself changing in th e n ex t few years?
W hat will you be doing?
W hat will you have done?
W here will you be living?
Will you have got m arried?
Will you have travelled a lot?

49
after
yourself ?
1 In the hectic world of today, people are alw ays
searching for more w ays of keeping fit and r
healthy. Susan Jones has b een looking into som e 30 Did you know that standing, sitting and walking
of the w ays of looking good and feeling good. badly can make you look heavier than you really
are? If w e w atched the w ay w e sat and stood, it
would improve our appearance a great deal. Stand
5 Running is excellent exercise. Before you start in front of the mirror w ith your feet apart and your
running, you should warm up first, using slow 35 legs straight. Pull in your tummy, check that your
m ovem ents that make all your m uscles work. ears, shoulders, hips, knees and ankles are in line
But be careful! If you stretch w hen your m uscles w ith each other. You should be feeling and looking
are cold, you m ight do yourself an injury. A lw ays better already
1 0 w ear comfortable clothing and make sure your
trainers are in good shape. If you w ear shoes
that give good support to your w hole foot, you M ost of us live in large polluted cities. If w e got
will put less pressure on your knees. You should 40 more fresh air, w e would look healthier and more
start exercising slowly, at a pace you can keep attractive. A brisk w alk is one of the b est things you
15 up for about 15-20 m inutes. Try to exercise on can do for your circulation and appearance. Walking
soft ground as this will protect your knees and slow ly is useful but a quick pace g ets more oxygen
hips from too much stress. into your lungs. So don't just go for a pleasant stroU,
45 try and find an area that doesn't have much
pollution, and g et moving!
Its ok if you go to bed late occasionally but if 5
you regularly cut down on your sl0pp,,;it will
20 soon start to have a bad effect on your skin. If Many young people feel guilty about eating too
you get a good nights rest, it will do your ' V,,;. much chocolate, and som e ev en say they are
appearance th e world of good. It is not called addicted to it, though there is no evidence to
b eauty sleep for^otSiing! Lack ibf sle ep can 50 support this. Chocolate"does contain a lot of fat,
cau se acne or dry skin. Make sure you g e t a jt however, and therefore any addicts out there would
25 good night's sleep by going to bed and getting do better to eat less. However, if your diet is
up at regular times: dont burn the candle at balanced, you needn't feel guilty; eating chocolate
b ottfen d s. During the day, keep active; if you in moderation is fine - but don't eat it instead of a
don't g e t enough exercise during the May, you 55 proper meal!
nxay end up sleep less all night.

50
Looking good, fee lin g good

^ W o rk w ith a partner. Look at the photographs 5 The best w ay to get fresh air is
and discuss these questions. A w alking slowly in th e park.
_ W hat are th ey doing? B w alking quickly along th e street.
: W hich is th e best w ay to keep fit? C strolling in th e open air.
' W hich of these activities w ould you prefer D w alking quickly w h ere th ere is no traffic.
to do? 6 It is alright to eat chocolate
^ Read the article quickly and choose the most A if it gives you pleasure.
suitable heading from the list A -F fo r each part B if it d o esn 't contain a lot of fat.
1-5 o f the article.T here is an extra heading th a t C if you avoid eating a lot.
you do n o t need to use. D after a pro p er meal.
\ Get a good night's rest 7 W hich of th e following do you th in k the au th o r
3 Find tim e to relax m ight say is th e best w ay to protect your
; Sit up straight! appearance?
3 Spend m ore tim e in th e open air A W earing th e right clothes.
E D on't overdo it B Going on a chocolate-free diet.
r Go for a ru n C Getting regular exercise.
D Getting up early every m orning.
=CE practice: Part 2
^ Discuss these questions.
Q o r questions 1-7, choose the c o rre c t answer,
1 Do you look after yourself?
A, B, C o r D.
2 W hat do you do to keep fit?
. The w riter says th a t you should
A start ru n n in g as quickly as possible. ^ W h a t do these expressions mean? Choose the
B ru n slowly before you start exercising. co rre c t answer, using the c o n te xt in the article
to help you decide.
C do stretching exercises before you w arm up.
D w arm up by m oving your body slowly. 1 If you 'w arm u p ' (line 6) you:
A p u t m ore clothes on.
; W hy is ru n n in g on soft ground best?
B get ready to do som ething.
A It m akes y o u r hips stronger.
B You will feel m ore relaxed. 2 If som ething is 'in good shape' (line I I ) it:
C It is b etter for your knees. A is in good condition.
D It protects your trainers. B looks good.

- The au th o r says going to bed late 3 If y ou 'keep som ething u p ' (line 14-15) you:
A doesn't m a tte r m ost of th e tim e. A con tin u e w ith it.
B will m ake you feel dry. B go faster.
C does h arm to your skin. 4 If you 'b u rn th e candle at both ends'
D is alright if you get up early. (line 26-7) you:
A go to bed early and get up late.
i Some people look heavier th a n they are
because B go to b ed late and get up early.
A th ey sit dow n a lot. 5 If you are 'addicted' to som ething (line 49) you:
B th ey d o n 't w alk enough. A can 't do w ith o u t it.
C th ey d o n 't stand w ith their backs straight. B h ate it.
D th ey eat too m uch chocolate.

51
Looking good, fee lin g good

G ra m m a r a n d Use o f E n g lis h
C onditionals (1): firs t and second conditionals

El C om plete these sentences and answer the Look at this pair o f sentences. D o they have the
questions th a t follow. same meaning?
1 Be careful! If you stretch w h e n your m uscles I'll go ru n n in g to m o rro w m orn in g if it doesn't
are cold, y o u ________ do yourself an injury. rain.
2 If I ________ a m illion pounds, I w ould build an I'll go ru n n in g to m o rro w m orn in g unless it
Olympic-sized sw im m ing pool in m y garden. rains.
a W hich sentence describes a likely or possible Look at this pair o f sentences and com plete the
p rese n t/fu tu re situation? second sentence.
W hich sentence describes an unlikely or un real I eat chocolate every day, unless I'm dieting.
p resen t/fu tu re situation? I eat chocolate every day, i f ________ .
W hich sentence is a first conditional? Com plete this rule to express the difference in
W hich sentence is a second conditional? form .
Unless = i f + + verb.

See grammar reference page 146.

^ C om plete the second sentence so th a t it has a Eating chocolate in m o d eratio n w o n 't do you
similar meaning to the firs t sentence, using the any harm , (m uch)
w o rd given. D o n o t change the w o rd given. You
Unless , chocolate, it is harm less.
must use between tw o and five w ords, including
the w o rd given.There is an example at the If I'm n o t feeling energetic, I w o n 't com e for a
beginning (0). w alk, (unless)

0 Try to exercise on soft g round as this will I w o n 't , I'm feeling energetic.
protect your knees from too m u ch stress, (take)
Q Match the sentence beginnings in list A w ith the
If vou take exercise on soft ground, th ere will sentence endings in list B.
be less stress on your knees.
A
1 To m ake sure you get a good night's sleep go to
1 If w e go to th e cinem a tonight
bed and get up at regular tim es, (bed)
2 I w o u ld n 't eat vegetables unless
I f ________ an d get up early, you will n o t get a
good night's sleep. 3 You w ould look a lot h ealth ier if

W alking badly can m ake you look heavier th a n 4 If I finish m y h o m ew o rk early


you really are. (walk) 5 I w ould die of happiness if
You m ay look heavier th a n you really are if 6 We will com e to th e p arty to m o rro w if
________ properly.
B
G etting lots of fresh air can keep you looking
a I'm going to w atch TV.
h ealth y and attractive, (continue)
b w e a re n 't feeling too tired,
You ____ health y a n d attractive if you get
lots of fresh air. c L eonardo DiCaprio asked m e for a date,
d you got m ore fresh air every day.
4 W alking at a quick pace gets m ore oxygen into
y our lungs, (quickly) e th ere w as n o th in g else to eat.
I f ________ get m ore oxygen into your lungs. f w e could go for a pizza before the film starts.

52
Looking good, feeling good ( l
0 Choose the c o rre ct form in these sentences. ^ .1
_ I w ouldn't/w on't know w h a t to do if I w on
the lottery.
: I w ould go skiing every year if I could/can
afford it.
' W hen m aking bread, rem em ber th a t it
-.-onywouldn't rise unless you p u t yeast in it.
i If you eat/are eating lots of carrots you'll see
better in th e dark.
= If you ate healthier food, you w ill/w ould feel
better.
' I; I would w alk/w alk at a brisker pace, I'll use
jp m ore energy.

*CE practice: Part 2


Q Answer these questions.
'.Vhich of th e things to eat (pictures 1-6) do
.Qu th in k are good for your h ealth? W hich
jo you like m ost/least?
- '.Vhat is your favourite food? How often do
'. ou eat it?

0 Read the follow ing te xt. W h a t advice does it


give parents? Underline the advice you agree
-vith.

Meal times: advice to parents


:: children d o n 't eat th eir food, parents usually
;e t very anxious. B ut experts say, children
1 1_______ resist new food less, if parents didn't
"lake (2)_______ a fuss. (3)________parents
avoided saying silly things at m eal times, life
4_______ be m uch happier for everyone. Kids
in d it boring to hear th e sam e old lines: I f you
:o n 't eat your vegetables, you (5)_______ get
3ny pudding!'
A report o n children's eating habits says
children (6)_______ eat m ore if parents w ere
n o re relaxed about m ealtim es. However, kids
t_______ m ore likely to eat food if it looks
ramiliar, so you (8)_______ avoid giving th em
rxotic-looking dishes like sushi or snails. B ut if
ou serve th e snails at th e beginning of the
n e a l, w h en th e child is hungriest, th ey m ight
ust (9)_______ th e m w ith o u t thinking!

0 -o r questions 1-9, read the te x t again and


nink o f the w o rd which best fits each space.
Jse only one w o rd in each space.

53
Looking good, fee lin g good

V o c a b u la ry
W ord building: food W ords o fte n confused
C om plete this chart using the w ords below. ^ Match these w ords w ith th e ir meanings below,

bal<e meal bite tasteless snack raw m eal cuisine course cool< dish
food plate appetizer boil swallow chew
1 Food w hich is eaten at ab o u t th e same tim e
pot tasty dish sweet fry grill lick oven
each day.
cooker saucepan salty dessert
2 The separate stages in w hich a m eal is served.
3 Food prep ared in a particular way, often typical
Ways of cooking of a particular area.
Ways of eating 4 A person w ho m akes food.
Things we use 5 A particular style of cooking.
Things we eat
^ N o w c o rre c t these sentences.
Describing food
1 Stuffed peppers is a traditional food in m y country.
2 D inner usually consists of th ree dishes: an
Com plete these sentences using an appropriate appetizer, a m ain dish and a dessert.
form o f one o f the w ords from the chart 3 He is a good cooker.
above. 4 F rench k itchen is very pop u lar th ro u g h o u t
She h e r ow n bread in th e oven. th e w orld.

________ the spaghetti for te n m inutes in a 5 W h en o ur parents w ere aw ay w e h ad to


large saucepan. prepare our ow n dishes.

After going to th e dentist, h e found it difficult


t o ________ his food.
Plirasal verbs (fo o d and drinl<)
^ Match the phrasal verbs in list A w ith th e ir
4 If you y o u r food slowly, it m akes the
meanings in list B.
m eal last longer.
A B
I d o n 't boil carrots - I usually eat th e m
1 drink up take a drink w ith or after food

Switch the off and take th e food out. 2 drink to finish w h at you are drinking
3 cut up reduce the am o u n t of som ething
My D a d __ m e som e chips and a couple
of eggs for m y lunch. 4 cut dow n w ish som eone success/
on happiness an d have a drink
5 w ash dow n cut into small pieces

Q Com plete these sentences using one o f the


phrasal verbs from exercise 5.
1 The doctor told h er t o ________ fatty foods.
2 Before you eat th e m e a t,________ i t _________
into little pieces.
3 We h ad a lovely m eal a n d ________ i t ________
w ith a nice glass of m ineral water.
4 It's tim e to close now, can you all please
and leave now.
5 Let's , peace and good health.
54
Looking good, fee lin g good

L is te n in g a n d s p e a k in g f

=CE practice: Part 2

Crabbe's n ew book
iQ Com pare and contrast these photographs. A is a com plete history of tattooing.
Use w ords fro m the box to help you. B gives help for those w h o w an t a tattoo.
C explains w h y tattoos are popular.
tattoo tribe fashion skin colourful The A m erican Indians used tattooing
attractive decorate pierce painful
A during th e m arriage cerem ony.
fashionable traditional ugly
B to show w hich tribe th ey are from.
C to show th eir courage.
Discuss these questions. Body piercing first becam e m ore popular
. Is tattooing and body piercing com m on in your am ongst teenagers
country? A in ancient times.
; W hat kind of people do it and w hy? B in th e 1970s.
C in th e 1980s.
^ W o rk w ith a partner and talk about how you
W hat p art of th eir body w ould adults pierce?
would react if your girlfriend o r boyfriend had a
A Their tongue.
ta tto o o r a part o f th e ir body pierced. W h a t
would you say? Use these examples below to B Their eyebrows.
help you. C Their chest.
W hy w ould older people have body piercings?
People do it to look different/to shock people.
A Because it m akes th e m feel fashionable.
People do it to m ake themselves more attractive.
B It rem inds th e m of w h en th ey w ere young.
^ Listen to a radio interview about tatto o s C Because th ey are against big business.
and body piercing. Com pare yo u r answers in Com plete these sentences from the listening
exercises 2 and 3 w ith w hat the speaker says. text.
If you w alk dow n th e street in any big city in
=CE practice: Part 4 E urope y o u ________ probably see som eone
^ S ] Listen again. For questions 1 -6 , choose the w ith a tattoo, or a ring in th eir ear or nose -
best answer A, B o r C. or even th eir eyebrow.
: How was some tattooing done in th e past? If young girls, even today, are n o t decorated
A W ith a sh e ll w ith beautiful tattooing, th e y ________ be
allow ed to get m arried.
B W ith a pen.
C W ith a brush. 3 If you to frighten your enem y, y o u 'd
have to get yourself tattooed first.
55
Looking good, feeling good

W ritin g
FCE practice: Informal letter

A friend o f yours from


Britain is visiting your
country fo r the first time.
You have received the
following postcard from
your friend.W hat is their
main reason fo r writing?
To ask if it's OK to visit
you.
To ask for your advice.
To answer your questions.

Hi Kaierina
Just wnting to say I'llprobably be coming
over a t the of May. As it's my first
visit. I'd really like some advice about
where tojo, whatplaces to visit and so
on, because / really have no idea and
I'm sureyou know somegreatplaces /
should see. If I do come in May will / need
warm clothes, orju st T-shirts and
shorts? Let me know whatyou think!
Take care and write soon,

Trevor

Find phrases in the postcard which have the


same meaning as the formal expressions below.
1 I intend to come ...
2 I would appreciate ...
3 I am certain tliat ...
4 will it be necessary to ...
5 please inform me of your
opinion ...

56
Looking good, fee lin g good

Q Read the le tte r below quickly and answer these C om plete the sentences using the phrases
questions. below.
1 W hat's the w eath er like in May? m ake sure you
2 W hat accom m odation does K aterina m ention? if I w ere you
3 W hat traditional dish does K aterina m ention? if you like
4 W hat is K aterina's lavourite food? I w ould recom m end
you could try
^ Read the le tte r again and underline the phrases
which express advice. 1 ________ I w ould book a flight early, since it's
a busy tim e of year.
fish, y ou'll love this seafood dish.
w hich is a speciality of this area.
I)ear Trevor
If th ere are no vacancies at this h o te l,_______
the Pension Splendid w hich has room s at the
'l^anks p r y o u r letter, I'll do my best to answ er
sam e price.
:u r questions.
4 For beach-lovers. this coastline, w hich
Veil, fir s t 0^ all, i f you come in May, m ostplaces has beautiful stretches of w hite sand.
..ill be quite warm, b u t i f I wereyou, I would 5 If you are n aturally fair-sk in n ed ,____ . w ear
rack a pullover too as the evenings can g e t a bit sunblock otherw ise you will burn.

I N o w its yo u r turn.You are going to answer


yo u r frie n d s postcard using yo u r own co u n try
'you like swim m ing,you could try The Qolden as an example. First discuss w ith a partner w hat
Coast, where the beaches are great, i f you like advice you w ould give to yo u r friend and make
notes under the follow ing headings:
-he mountains, try the villages near Montbelle.
W h en to come
~ite islands are very popular so I suggest that
,:u hook a hotel in advance - it isn't a good idea W here to go

-V leave this u n til the last minute, l-^you w ant W here to stay

>:mething cheap, I would recommend a room W hat to w ear


--ith a family. Let me know w hatyou want, an d O ther tips
1try to book it fo r you.
Use the follow ing plan to help you structure
yo u r letter:
'ke food is delicious a n d there w ill be lots to
.:oosefo m in the summer. You should
'^nitely sta rt w ith the traditional salad, w ith 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
rts o f olive oill /4s a main course, I w ould __ greeting___________________
-^commendstuffedpeppers - my favouritel reason for writing
iake sure you try the steak too, as long as t on this subject
:u're n o ta vegetarian, ofcourse! .concluding__5entence(5) .
dasiogxemarks_________
' lot's allfor now,

Sest wishes I N o w w rite yo u r le tte r using yo u r notes and


the plan above to help y o u .W rite between
xterina 120 and 180 words.

57
^ Complete the sentences using an appropriate Q Complete these sentences using an appropriate
word. preposition.

1 W hat's the w eather . , there? Rainy, 1 She was n erv o u s________speaking in public.
I suppose, as always. She has been doing research the
We took a few board games with us to help us causes of cancer.
_______ the time while we were on holiday. His m other insisted___ going w ith him to
3 The tfaffic is bad, so try to leave i n _______ the doctor.
time. I have always believed___ ghosts.
4 I hope you brought an umbrella with you. The Spielberg refused to give an a n sw e r________
w eather forecast was f o r ________turning to the reporters w hen asked about his new film.
heavy rain.
I am not in terested ________w hat you did last
5 It's best t o ________your time w hen answering night.
exam questions, to avoid making mistakes.
He is afraid _______ spiders.
6 The w eather will b e ________tomorrow - it'll
be warm with sunshine. I do not ap p ro v e___ my children
drinking alcohol.
Replace the underlined words in these 9 She is not very keen , sport.
sentences with the correct form of one of the
phrasal verbs below. Make any other changes 10 We had an interesting discussion life
necessary.
after death.

run ou t o f put off go by ^ Read the definitions below, then w rite the word
take up set off hold up o r phrase they describe.The first letter of each
word is given to help you.
1 Time passes slowly w hen you are bored.
1 a mixture of sound, pictures, film and writing
2 I was lae hnishing at the bank because of the to give information m________-m________
long queues.
2 dance music w ith a repetitive beat, and strong
3 Looking after my m other w hen she was ill
rhythm t________
required most of my free time.
4 W hen they had loaded all the luggage in the 3 changing the genes of a person or plant to
car they were ready to go. improve it g________e________
5 They postponed the flight till the w eather had 4 computer images and sound which
improved. make things seem real w hen they are not
6 I had to come back home early from holiday V________r________

because I had no more money.

^ Match the questions in list A to their answers in list B.


B
1 Why was the meal so expensive? Just a few vegetables and a bit of cheese.
2 W hat's in the saucepan? Fried, please.
3 How did you burn the steak? I'm just boiling the cabbage.
4 How would you like your eggs? Probably because we had three courses.
5 What's your favourite cuisine? No, I'll start w ith the main course please.
6 Would you like an appetizer? I forgot it under the grill.
7 Is there any food in the fridge? I like Italian best.

58
^ Match the sentence beginnings in list A w ith the c o rre c t endings
in list B.
30
fD
A B
. If you take m ore exercise you will get fat.
1 If I w ere taller I w ould bu y a car. 5 '
; If you eat a lot of chocolate if you w ere unem ployed,
4 You w ould m ake a lot of m oney you will lose w eight,
' You will get a grade A if you d o n 't do any w ork,
: You w ould have lots of free tim e if you ow ned M acdonald's, C
" You will fail th e exam if you w ork hard, rs
f I'll lend you m y car if you break it.
- If I could afford it I w ould be a basketball
player.
,; You'll have to pay for th a t vase if I am n o t using it.
I
^ C om plete these sentences using an appropriate modal verb and
the w ords in brackets.
If you spoke m ore languages ________ (enjoy travel m ore)
If you get up e a rlie r ________ (get m ore w ork done)
If you lose your te m p e r ____ ___ (feel sorry afterw ards)
4 If y o u 're getting tired of your job _ _ (resign)
5 If y o u 're n o t busy at th e w eekend , __(go for a m eal)
If y ou n ee d help w ith the housew ork _____ (give you a
hand)
If you spent less m oney on c lo th e s__ (afford to go o ut
m ore)
If th e sym ptom s d o n 't go a w a y ______ (go and see th e doctor)

Q For questions 1-13, read the te x t and th in k o f the w o rd which


best fits each space. Use only one w o rd in each space.
Dear Georgia,
I am ju st w riting to let you know w h e n I'll be arriving
( 1 ) ________ Thursday. I th in k th e plane gets in ( 2 ) _________
about 11.30 from Zurich. You d o n 't have to pick m e up
( 3 ) ________ th e airport; I th in k I'll be able to m ake m y ow n
way. If all ( 4 ) ________ well. I'll be arriving ( 5 ) _________your
house at about 12.30. I will have (6) flying for about
four h o u rs altogether so I suppose I'll ( 7 ) ____ ____feeling quite
tired. I d o n 't th in k I ( 8 ) ________ be needing anything to eat, so
please d o n 't ( 9 ) ________ one of y o u r big m eals or anything.
O ther new s? I've still got th a t terrible headache. I will have to
go ( 1 0 ) ________ the doctor if this headache continues. It always
starts to bo th er m e ( I I ) ________ th e spring; hay fever perhaps.
It started on Saturday, so I will have h ad it for a nearly a w eek
( 1 2 ) ________ th e tim e I see you on Thursday. I certainly w o n 't
be ( 1 3 ) ________ to w ork tom orrow , if I d o n 't feel better. That's
all for now.

59
Reading
Read th e sto rie s A - D
qu ickly and m atch th e m
to th e pictures. N o w
answ er these questions.

1 W h ic h an im als are
m e n tio n e d ?
2 T h ree of th e stories
are m o d e rn a n d o n e
is tra d itio n a l. W h ic h is
th e tra d itio n a l story?
3 H ow did y o u spot th e
m o d e rn stories?

1, One afternoon, in a dark wood, little Once a seal was lying on a rock, ;
Red Riding Hood was on her way to sunbathing. Suddenly, she tho ugh t
lier gra n d m o th e rs house, carrying to herself:- Life is so boring! All I do
a basket of food. Suddenly, a wolf 30 is lie around all day and swim. If ,
5 appeared and asked her where she only I could do som ething m ore - ;
was going. Little Red Riding Hood interesting! If I joined a circus, life One day the lion said to the eagle,
to ld him and continued on her w ould be far m ore exciting. And 55 Ill make you an offer you cant
journey. The w olf disappeared into : so she joined a circus. : refuse. Ill give you my mane, if you
the forest. 35 A fter a couple of years, the seal give me your w ings. ........
10 When the little girl opened the door became a fam ous acrobat and was You m ust be jo king , said the eagle,
of her g ra n d m o th e rs house, she soon very rich. A few years later, if I d id n t have my wings, I :::
noticed im m e dia te ly th a t the wolf -dressed in her fine clothes and : 60 w o uld nt be able to f l y Dont
, had got dressed up as the old lady expensive shoes, the seal went w o rry about th a t, replied the lion,
But Red Riding Hood was a clever 40 back home to her rock to visit her if it werent fo r my mane, I
15 girl and was not taken in fo r a old friends. w o uld nt be the king of the ju ng le.
m om ent: the wolf had forgotten to : She showed the other seals all the So after th in k in g fo r a while, the
- put G randm others glasses on. new tric k s she had learnt in the 65 eagle agreed to make the
circus and then asked them to exchange.
While the w olf was lying in bed
w a iting to eat Red Riding Hood she 45 show her som ething they could do. When the eagle got home, wearing
20 dashed out of the house,' locked the They dived into the w ater and the lio n s mane, he tho ugh t hed
door, and called the police on her swam beautifully. When the give his wife and children a
m obile phone.'A fter a few m inutes, acrobatic seal trie d to follow them , 70 surprise by stickin g his head over
the police turned up and arrested she realized she had forgotten how : the nest and s h o u tin g Boo!
the wolf. If only I hadnt forgotten 50 to swim , and her clothes were so Unfortunately, his wife m istook him
25 to put on the glasses! the w olf : heavy th a t she would have fo r the lion and took a gun out of
drowned, if the other seals hadnt the drawer and fired at the
growled.
rushed to her rescue. : 75 stranger. Fortunately, she missed.

60
FCE practice: Part 4
Q Read the stories again. For questions 1-7 choose from the
stories A -D . Some o f the stories may be used m ore than once.
W hen m ore than one answer is required, these may be given in
any order.

W hich story is about:


1 n o t being deceived? ___/___
2 fam e and fortune? ___
3 using a disguise? ___/___/___
4 thinking fast in order to solve a problem ? ___
5 being un h ap p y w ith y o u r present life? ___/,___
6 m aking a deal w ith som eone else? ___
''e r e was once a donkey whox=r: 7 being too proud? ___
-.as tired of being a donkey/I
AiSh Iwere a lion or tiger, he ^ Discuss these questions.
:-ougiit. So one day wiien he
-:und a lions skin he put it on. 1 W hat do w e learn ab o u t people from these stories?
-^en he began trying to frighten 2 In w h at w ays do th e stories illustrate this statem ent: 'D o n 't try to
.-.hoever he happened to meet be som ething you are n o t.' ?
3 ong the road. Everyone he met
relieved he was a lion, and ran C om plete these sentences using w ords from the te xt. T h e firs t
3.vay as quickly as they could on le tte r o f each w o rd is given to help you.
seeing him approach. Delighted
:y the success of his trick, the The j________ will take m u ch longer if yo u go by bus.
:onkey brayed loudly. The fox The film w as so b________ th a t I fell asleep in th e middle.
guessed who was hiding under The sea w as so w arm th ey ju st d________ into th e w ater and
t -ne lions skin and, laughing, he started to swim.
said, M y dear friend, you can
:ome out now. Id have been
If he asks h er to m arry him , I d o n 't th in k she will r________ .
'fraid of you too, if I hadnt Sorry, I m ________ you for som eone else. I th o u g h t you w ere
-eard your loud voice. a friend.
6 The evening w as quiet u n til a donkey b__ loudly and broke
th e silence.
7 I w asn 't sure of the correct answ er, so I g_ it.

61
7 A good story

G ra m m a r and Use o f E n g lis h


Conditionals (2): th ird conditio nal, w ishes and regrets
5 If you . m e you w ere going to arrive
Q Read these sentences from the te x t and then so late. I'd have b ro u g h t a book to read, (tell)
answer the questions below.
We w ouldn't have invited you to the concert if we
1 I'd have b een afraid of you too, if I h a d n 't _________you were going to hate it. (know)
heard your voice. If I h a d n 't stayed so late, I _________ th e last
2 She w ould have drow ned, if th e oth er seals bus hom e, (not/m iss)
h a d n 't rush ed to h e r rescue.

a Was th e fox afraid? Did he hear th e donkey's n Look at these sentences and say which ones
voice? Is th e situation real? refer to the past, and which to the present.
b Did th e seal drow n? Did the oth er seals rescue 1 I w ish I w ere a lion.
her? Is th e situation real?
2 If only I could do som ething m ore interesting.
c W hich tenses are used in th ird conditional
3 If only I h a d n 't forgotten to p u t on th e glasses.
sentences?
Com plete this rule: From the pairs o f sentences below, choose the
In the clause w e u s e ________tense and in the one w hich has the same meaning as the
m ain clause w e use would + have + ________ sentences 1-3 above.
a He is a lion.
See grammar reference page 147. He w ants to be a lion,
b He w ishes he h ad done som ething interesting.
He w an ts to do som ething interesting,
^ Read the stories again and com plete these
sentences. c He forgot to p u t his glasses on.
He d o esn 't w an t to forget to p u t his glasses on.
1 If Red Riding H ood h a d n 't h ad h e r m obile
phone w ith h e r , ________________________ See grammar reference page 147.
2 If the wolf h ad n 't forgotten to p u t grandm other's
glasses o n , _________________________________.
@ C o rre c t these sentences.
3 If th e seal h a d n 't felt bored, she
1 I w ish I will have a big house, instead of this
4 The seal w ould've drow ned, if th e other seals little flat.
2 If only w e locked th e door, th e thieves
5 If th e eagle's wife h a d n 't m istaken him for the w o u ld n 't have got in.
lion, s h e __________________________________ . 3 'If only I have becom e an artist,' said th e doctor.
6 If the donkey h a d n 't brayed so loudly, th e fox 4 I w ish I w ould play th e trum pet.
5 I w ish I w o u ld n 't cut m y h air - I preferred it
w h e n it w as long.
@ Com plete these sentences w ith an appropriate
form o f the th ird conditional using the verbs
in brackets.
1 If s h e _________ hom e five m inutes earlier,
she w ould have caught the burglar, (return)
2 If he h a d n 't gone to th e party, h e _________
his wife, (never/m eet)
3 If w e h ad w an ted a beach holiday, w e
to M arbella. (go)
4 If i t _________ so m u c h this w inter, there
w o u ld n 't have b een so m any avalanches in
the m ountains, (not/snow )
62
A good story 7
Look at the pictures and imagine w iiat the people
are thinking o r saying. Complete the sentences.

1 If only I had 2 I wish I couid 3 I wish I had 4 If only I hadn't

FCE practice: Part 1


O Read the following te x t and find out why M r Moneybags had to w o rk so hard.
If they hadn't bought all that furniture and had (1)_____ comfortably into their house, Mrs
Moneybags would not have been (2)_________to invite her poorer friends to (3) ____ round
for all those luxurious feasts; and if she (4) ____ invited them round, they would not have
felt jealous as she (5)_____ them round the luxurious rooms, and she (6)_________have
heard them sigh 'I (7)____ . we had a house like this!' If they h adn't built the house, she
w ouldn't have been able to feel sorry (8)_________her neighbours. Nor (9)_________ she have
been able to complain to her husband (10)_________the housework and he w ouldn't have taken
(11)_________two servants to help her w ith it. And while Mrs Moneybags was (12)_________
their beautiful house in the country, Mr Moneybags would not have had to do (13)_ at
the office every day in order to (I4)_ enough money to pay their debt on the house and
the expensive furniture and the feasts that Mrs Moneybags' friends enjoyed so much.

0 For questions 1-14, read the tex t again and decide which answer A, B, C o r D
1 A sat B live C gone D settled
2 A able B possible C capable D fond
3 A turn B be C come D have
4 A didn't B hadn't C hasn't D w ouldn't
5 A looked B put C w ent D showed
6 A w on't B w ouldn't C would D will
7 A hope B wish C w ant D regret
8 A for B about C from D off
9 A will B would C w ouldn't D shall
10 A about B in C to D for
11 A on B to C up D in
12 A liking B amusing C relaxing D enjoying
13 A extra B overwork C overtime D duties
14 A take B do C earn D give

63
; A good story

V o c a b u la ry
W ord building Collocation (go and have)
@ Put these w ords into the appropriate group @ C om plete the sentences below using the
below. c o rre c t fo rm o f one o f these phrases.
go fo r a w a lk have a ro w have a c h a t
w h isp e r stare w ander m um ble chat
go fo r a stro ll have a lo o k
glare lim p strid e swear glance
1 Can I ________ at th e paper, please?
2 Blanca an d Ricky b o th look very angry - I
see speak w a lk
th in k th e y 're about t o ________ .
sta re w h is p e r w ander 3 W hy d o n 't w e ________ along th e beach?
4 W hat have you b een doing lately? We m u st
N o w nnatch the w ords to the c o rre c t definition. !
1 to use bad language 5 You could , if you need some exercise.
2 to talk to people in a friendly, informal way
3 to walk quickly taking big steps W ords o fte n confused
4 to speak quietly but not clearly so it is difficult Com plete the definitions below using one o f
for people to understand you these words.
5 to walk w ith difficulty because you have h urt
w a tc h see lo o k te ll speak ta lk
your foot or leg
6 to look very quickly at something or someone 1 W e ________ by using our voice.
2 W e ________ at som ething deliberately, by
7 to look angrily at someone
tu rn in g o ur eyes tow ards it.
8 to look at something for a long time w ithout
moving your eyes 3 W e ________ som eone facts or inform ation.
4 W e ________ som eone or som ething
9 to walk w ithout hurrying, w ithout going
anyw here directly deliberately, over a period of tim e.
5 W e ________ friends w h en w e visit or m eet
10 to speak very quietly
them .
^ C om plete these sentences using the c o rre c t 6 W e ____ . to som eone ab o u t som ething.
form o f the w ords from exercise I .
^ C om plete these sentences using the c o rre c t
1 After h e w as fouled, O w e n ________ off the form o f one o f the w ords from exercise 4.
pitch in great pain.
1 We looked for h er at the concert, b u t d id n 't
2 We spent th e d a y ________ ro u n d Rom e, ju st
her.
looking at th e sights.
2 If y o u 're n o t ________ th e program m e can w e
3 He tripped over th e table leg a n d ________
switch it off a n d ________ about th e m eeting
loudly.
tom orrow ?
4 W e ________ about ho w w e had spent th e
3 I've . you m an y tim es, I can't
w eekend.
in front of an audience. I ju st freeze an d can't
5 S h e ________ th e message into m y ear so th in k of anything t o ________ .
n o-one else could hear.
4 The car has b roken dow n and J o h n ________
6 S h e ________ som ething w hich I d idn't catch m e h e 'd com e an d have a ________ at it.
and left th e room .
5 W ere y o u ________ about th e film you saw last
7 H e ________ at th e TV, and th e n retu rn ed to night?
reading the new spaper.
6 I 'm ________ Francesca tom orrow . Do you
8 People stopped to :________at th e accident. w a n t to com e too?
9 She ________at h er husband, trying to get
him to sh u t up.

64
A good story 7

L iste n in g and speaking

Q Complete these sentences.Then decide whether


Bill o r Bills wife said them.
Look at the tw o pictures above and predict 1 If I this was a residential area.
what happens in the stories. N ow predict I w ouldn't have driven so fast.
which of these words go with which story. If I ________the sign, I would have slowed down.
I wish y o u ________your seat belt.
wheel com partm ent speed lim it station
pow der platform seat belt ticket I wish y o u ________your big mouth!
elephant police officer newspaper If only I you at home!

^ CK W o rk with a partner and do this task.


Q Listen to the tape and check your
predictions. You are going to work out w hat happened in a
smpwreck story by describing a set of pictures that
tell the story. Student A, look at the pictures on
FCE practice: Part 4 page 139. Student B, look at the pictures on page
^ Listen again. For each question 1-7, decide 140. Tell each other your part of the story. Student
whether the answer is Yes o r No. A begin.

1 Did the policewoman stop the car because the ^ Complete these sentences about the story using
m an was drunk? the words in brackets.
2 Did the man admit he was driving too fast? 1 If the w eather hadn't been b a d ______________
3 Was the m an glad that his wife was with him (shipwreck)
in the car? 2 If they hadn't found the la m p ___________ __
4 Did the stranger get on the train at Madrid? (escape)
5 Did Maria think the stranger's behaviour was 3 Bill w ouldn't have felt so lo n ely _____________
strange? (other two men leave)
6 Did the stranger hope to attract elephants with
his powder? ^ Imagine you are on a desert island and a
7 Did Maria see any elephants? genie appears and gives you three wishes.
W h a t wishes would you make?

65
eg lirst person.
use para ig:

- 2 Read the story belo


- complete the gaps using
these sentences.
I started to run, afrai
look back. pv.
On a cold winter eve
, we were driving thro
' the forest, high up in th
mountains.
Soon I was alone and.
, could no longer see It had been snowing all day. Suddenly, the engine
'0)-
the lights of the car.
S tarted to make a strange noise and five minutes later it
We were beginning to
feel worrie stopped. A t firs t, we thought we had run out of petrol, but then
we still had a !ittle bit left. We tried pushing the car, but it

( wouldnt s ta rt. (2)_________ it was already dark and cold. We


waited, in case a car came past. An hour later, we decided one of
us should go on ahead and get help, while the other two stayed
behind in case a car turned up. A few minutes later, torch in hand,'
I sta rte d walking. (51 I fe lt afraid. A t firs t,
1whistled to cheer myself up but a fte r a while I stopped. 1thought
1could hear something or someone following me. Perhaps there
were wild animals in the forest. (4)________ _

-ill
A good story

3 Read the sto ry again and underline any sequencing words.

4 A good s to ry also uses expressions w hich tel! us when things


happened and in w hat o rd e r they happened. Decide w hich of these
phrases tell us when o r in w hat o rd e r the events in a sto ry cook
place. A d d them to the box below.
in my opinion finally (>y then that evening moreover
a few years ago an hour later by contrast in a few minutes
on a hot summer's day eventually as soon as however

at first soon five minutes later after a w hile in the beginning


later previously the previous week in the meantime when
during on a cold \\ inter evening

5 C om plete these sentences using appropriate sequencing w ords


from exercise 4.
1 It w as very quiet in th e room . T h e n ,_____ _, an extrem ely loud
]M)])ping sound broke the silence.
2 I h ad n 't seen him f(ir o lew days; vve had m et for a colfee

They w ailed for vviuii seem ed like an eterniiy, and th e n ___^ ^


she turned up. 'Vou'li never guess w hai h ap p en ed to me! she
began.
------------ I didn't recognize him, but as he got closer, it becam e
o[)vii)us U) m e tiia! he was the tnan irom the old house.
She fell asleep as the sun began to set in the sky. She w oke up
____to find ii was dark.

6 N o w its yo u r turn. You are going to w r it e a 's to r y fo llo w in g


th e se in s tru c tio n s .

You hove decided to en ter a short story com petition. The


com petition rules say that the story m ust begin or end w it t
words: '11 I had only stayed at hom e ...' W rite b etw een 12 anc
: 180 words.
Make notes using this plan to help you structure yo u r story.
w ant to, include some o f these expressions in yo u r story.

Lasi year, 1 w ent lo ...


A lew m inutes later, som ething aw ful h appened ...
Tiien, just w hen 1 th o u g h t the w orst was over ...
By then, I was beginning to feel ...
\s soon as w e arrived ...
8 Wonders of the world
The passive
r
r
Reading

T h e_____________ crumbled into the sea


about 600 years ago but before that it was
one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient
World. It is not known who built the Pharos,
but we do know that it was the last Wonder
to be built, in 280 BC. In ancient times it was
a great help to ships trying to get through the
rocky harbour entrance. Yet it was not a
lighthouse in the modern sense, but rather a
10 giant advertisement for Alexandria. The
remains of the Pharos were found quite
recently. The word pharos is still used in
Look at the pictures and label them using some modem languages to mean lamp or
the names from the list below. lighthouse.
The Pyramids
B
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon 15 An early historian described the
The Statue of Zeus at Olympia _____________ at Ephesus as the greatest of
The Colossus of Rhodes the Seven Wonders. The remains of the
The M ausoleum at Halicarnassus building - a few stones near modem Efes -
The Parthenon suggest that the writer was exaggerating. The
20 temple was large, rich and beautifully
The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus
decorated, but there were many temples in
The Pharos of Alexandria
the ancient world which were much more
W h ich o f the above is n o t one o f the beautiful. Its power was due to the fact that
Seven W onders o f the W orld? Artemis was a goddess worshipped all over
25 Asia. In Rome she was called Diana. The
Read the texts quickly and w rite in the first temples on that site go back to the eighth
missing headings fo r each te x t from the century BC and the many visitors to the
list in exercise I . temple were important for trade.

68
Wonders of the world

FCE p ra c tic e : P a rt 4
^ For questions 1-9 choose from the texts
A -E . Some of the texts may be chosen more
than once. When more than one answer is
required, these may be given in any order.
In w h ic h of th e tex ts does it say th e
m o n u m e n t:
1 w a s b u ilt b y a w e ll-k n o w n artist?
2 was not built for a god o r goddess? ___ /___ /___ /_
3 w a s b u ilt a fte r all th e o th e rs?
4 w a s b u ilt to m a k e m o re m o n e y
According to tradition, th e ______________ for th e city? ___ /_
stood - legs apart - over the harbour at
5 w a s c o n n e c te d w ith sp o rt?
Rhodes and the ships passed in and out
between its legs. The Colossus attracted 6 h a s re m a in s w h ic h c a n still be
ships to Rhodes because, like the Pharos at s e e n to d a y ? ___ /___ /_
Alexandria, it was a giant advertisement for 7 w a s th e id e a of a w o m a n ?
the city. It could be seen from miles away.
8 a ttra c te d p e o p le fo r religious
The statue was built between 294 and 282
p u rp o se s?
BC, to celebrate the defeat o f the
Macedonians, who had failed to conquer the 9 c o u ld b e se e n fro m far a w a y ? ___ /.
city. When the statue was pulled down in
654 A D , 900 camels were used to take away Imagine one of the Seven Wonders of the
the pieces. W orld could have been saved from
destruction. W hich one would you choose
D to save and why?
The has left no remains.
Find words in the te x t that have a similar
We know what it looked like because it was
meaning to the following.The first
shown on coins and travellers said that it
letter of each word is given to help you.
was made o f gold and ivory. It was built to
celebrate the Olympic Games, and stood for 1 a calm area of water next to the land, w here
1000 years before it was destroyed in a fire ships are safe h________ /
in the fifth century AD. The sculptor was 2 a tall, narrow building w ith a powerful light that
the famous Pheidias who made some of the shows ships w here there is danger 1________
finest statues on the Parthenon.
3 a building w here people go to worship
t________
E
The was named after the 4 to take control of land belonging to another
man it was built for: Mausolus, the ruler of country or people by force c________
Caria. Ancient writers say that Mausolus 5 a hundred years c________
wife had the tomb built after his death in
6 a memory or image which stays w ith you a long
353 BC. During his lifetime, Mausolus
time i________
filled his capital city, Halicarnassus, with
impressive buildings. His tomb made a 7 broken pieces of a larger whole f________
great impression on anyone who saw it. By
Roman times, 400 years later, the word
mausoleum was used to describe any large
tomb. Today, only a few fragments o f the
Mausoleum remain.

69
W onders of the w orld

Grammar and Use of English


The passive

P I Look at these sentences which all contain the passive.


Rewrite them using the active form .
1 In Rome, Artemis w as called Diana.
2 The Colossus could be seen from miles away.
3 The Pharos was th e last W onder of th e W orld to be built.
N o w match the passive sentences w ith the c o rre c t use o f
the passive,
a because w e d o n 't know w ho did it
b because it isn't im portant w ho did it
c because it is obvious w ho did it

Q The follow ing chart shows the main form s o f the passive.
Com plete the chart.

a ctive passive
P resen t sim ple use is used
Past sim ple built (1)
M odal verbs could see could be seen
P resent continuo us is moving is being moved
Past continuo us was making (2)
P resen t p e rfe c t has found has been found
Past p e rfe c t had built (3)
M odal p e rfe ct could have conquered (4) - .

Rewrite these active sentences in the R ewrite the follow ing te x t changing the underlined verbs
passive. into the passive. Make any o th e r changes necessary.
1 They close m ore factories every year.
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon
2 They are building a new office block in
People believe th at King N ebuchadnezzar built the Gardens
the square.
as a present for his wife, Amytas, in 600 BC. Archeologists
3 The Egyptians built th e first pyram ids.
h ad n ot found any evidence until recently that the Gardens
4 You could see th e Pyram ids from a
existed at all. For a long time, experts believed that the
long w ay away.
Greek poets had m ade the Gardens up. Babylonian
5 They w ere m aking plans for th e new
historians do n ot m ention th em at all. Archeologists
m useum .
discovered the remains of the Palace of Babylon a few
6 They have found th e rem ains of a
years ago and they have no w found huge walls w hich may
tem ple.
have been built as part of the Gardens. The ancient
7 They had never built such a large tom b
Babylonians grew the Gardens 75 m etres above the
before.
ground. Today, visitors to m odern Iraq can see the ruins of
8 An earthquake m ight have destroyed
Babylon, though only a stone lion remains of the glory that
th e m onum ent.
was Babylon.
70
Wonders of the world |8

By + a g e n t

Q W e add by + noun when we w ant to mention


w ho o r w hat does the action o f a passive verb.
T h a t church w as designed b y W ren.
Put this sentence in the passive using by.
L ig h tn in g stru ck the tree.
The tr e e

See grammar reference page 148.

Q W o rk in tw o teams and do this quiz.


Team A look at page 139. Think of tfie questions for
your answ ers and w rite th em dow n. Then test Team B
by reading o u t your questions and correct their mistakes!
Team B look at page 140. Think of th e questions for
yo u r answ ers and w rite th em dow n. Then test Team A
by reading out your questions and correct their mistakes!
Team A: Who is 'Holiday' sung by?
Team B: 'Holiday' is sung by Madonna.

FCE practice: Part 4


Q Look at the picture on the right and answer
these questions.
1 H ow old do you th in k these buildings are?
2 W ho w ere th ey built by?
3 W hy w ere they built?
4 In w hich countries can th ey be found?

Q Read this te x t and check y o u r answers.

P y ra m id s
___ 1 Pyramids are huge four-sided buildings. They have a square base.
___ 2 The sides are triangles th a t are m eet in a p oint at th e top.
___ 3 The ancient Egyptians have built pyram ids as royal tom bs b u t we
___ 4 are n o t sure exactly ho w they w ere built them . The first w as built in
___ 5 about 2560 BC at Sakkara. It is 62 m etres high. The th ree m ost fam ous
___ 6 pyram ids are n ea r Giza: th e G reat Pyram id w hich w as b een built aro u n d
___ 7 2600 BC by th e P haraoh K hufu is 137 m etres high. A bout 100,000 slaves
___ 8 w ere been used to build it. The second an d th e third pyram ids
___ 9 w ere being built by o ther pharaohs. There are abou t 80 pyram ids
___ 10 still standing in Egypt today. Central and South A m erican Indians
___ 11 also did built pyram ids as tem ples during th e first six centuries AD.
___ 12 One pyram id is at Cholula, n ea r Mexico City. It is about 54 m etres high.

For questions 1-12, read the te x t again and lo o k carefully at each line. Some o f the
lines are correct, and some have a w o rd which should n o t be there. If a line is correct,
put a tick ( / ) . If a line has a w o rd which should n o t be there, w rite the w ord.
71
m Wonders of the world

V o c a b u la ry
Noun suffixes Phrasal verbs w ith up and down
We caB m ak e n o u n s from verbs b y ad d in g Match the phrasal verbs in list A w ith th e ir
th e fo llo w in g end in g s: -ion, -ation, -ance, -? meanings in list B.
-ing. S om etim es th e sp ellin g changes, for A B
ex am ple w h e n a w o rd en d s in e: educate/education.
I p u t up find in a book
1 ^ Add a suffix to these verbs to make nouns. 2 tu rn up hit by a car
1 enjoy ____ 6 suggest 3 look up b uild som ething
2 collect ____ 7 train 4 pull dow n appear
3 em ploy ____ 8 exam ine 5 knock dow n collapse
4 m ove ____ 9 adm ire 6 fall dow n destroy som ething
5 perform ____ 10 pollute purposefully

C om plete these sentences using the c o rre c t


form o f the phrasal verbs from exercise 4.
1 rd b een looking for m y glasses everyw here, and
th e n th ey s u d d e n ly ________ on th e kitchen
table!
The old bridge is going to b e ________ .
M any b u ild in g s________ in th e earthquake.
W h en did th e y ____ ____those n ew office
blocks?
If I d o n 't k n o w th e m ean in g of a phrasal verb I
________ i t _________in a dictionary.
I H o w much do you know about this building? 6 My n eighbour was yesterday as she
W hen was it built? W h o built it? Why? was crossing th e road.
Read the follow ing te x t and check yo u r
answers.

The Parthenon
The P arth en o n was (1)_____ . in the 5th century BC in h o n o u r of BUILD
th e (2)_________ A thena w ho protected th e city of A thens. GOD
W ork on th e (3)_________ was begun in 447 BC an d it was BUILD
com pleted 15 years later. Today, (4)_________ to the P arth en o n VISIT
are still filled w ith (5)_________ for its beauty. The first ADMIRE
(6)_________ you get is one of balance an d harm ony. IMPRESS
A lthough th e details of its (7)_________ have been lost, w e know CONSTRUCT
it w as plan n ed by Pericles and th e fam ous (8)_________ Pheidias. SCULPT
Lord Elgin's (9)_ of m an y of th e sculptures in 1801 led REMOVE
to the (10)____ ____ of parts of th e building. U ntil recently, DESTROY
th e rem ains of th e P arth en o n w ere n o t well guarded an d (11) TOUR
took the stones aw ay as souvenirs. Today, traffic (12)________ POLLUTE

Read the te x t again. Use the w o rd given in capitals at the end of


each line to form a w o rd th a t fits in space in the same line.

72
Wonders of the world 8
L iste n in g and spealcing
^ Before you listen to the tape, check the FCE practice: Part 3
meaning of these words with your teacher. Q Listen again. For questions 1-5, choose
haunted tra d e m a rk three-dim ensional which of the wonders A -F each speaker is
index finger angle referring to. Use the letters only once.There is
one extra letter which you do not need to use.
Listen to these people talking about some Which 'wonder';
modern wonders of the world. W rite the A was unpopular w hen it was Speaker 1_
number of the extract next to each picture. being built?
B cannot be visited at present? Speaker 2_
C has been good for the city?
Speaker 3_
D can be seen from far away?
E was built to celebrate a Speaker 4_
sports event?
F offers visitors entertainm ent? Speaker 5_

^ Listen to the accents. Discuss with a


partner which country you think the speakers
are from: US, France, Britain, Scotland o r
Australia.

FCE practice: Parts 2 and 3


^ Look at the photographs of different
modern wonders of the world. Choose tw o
and compare and contrast them.

^ W o rk with a partner and do this task.


You are planning a tourist brochure called
The wonders of the world for your country.
Choose two or three m onum ents or natural
wonders. Give reasons for your choice. Use
these words and the expressions in the box
below to help you.
castle temple statue waterfall
tower mountain cave lake
church palace fort river

I think we should include ... because ...


D o you think ... is a w o n d e r o f o u r country?
... should definitely be on o u r list because ...
W h a t about ...?
W e have to include ... because ...
W e ve got ... on o u r list because ...
8 W o nders o f th e w o rld

W r it in g
Read the follow ing extracts from a re p o rt on the
FCE p ractice: R e p o rt Hagia Sophia. Match these sentences w ith the
p a rt o f the te x t you th in k they are from .
A report contains facts and information which are often 1 You m u st see th e mosaics.
based on some kind of research; it doesnt usually contain
2 You will n eed tw o hours to see th e m o n u m en t
personal opinion. A report should have an informative title
and sub-headings for each new section. Here are some tips
properly.
on writing a report: 3 The aim of this report ...
use an impersonal style - dont express strong 4 The E m peror Justinian I built the church in
personal opinions 537 AD.
make sure that all the information you include is
relevant to the topic A In tro d u ctio n
use sub-headings to make your report clearer B Background
in the introduction, state the aim and content of the
report C W hat to see
D Advice
Check yo u r answers w ith the model text.
W h a t do you k n o w a b o u t this building?

The Haaia So phm


INTRO DU CTIO N
The aim of this report is to describe
the Hagia Sophia. It is one of the most
important buildings in the world and
should not be missed.

B AC KG R O U ND INFORMATION
The church of Hagia Sophia was built in
537 AD by the Emperor Justinian I. It was
called the Great Church because of its size.
Over the years, the Hagia Sophia has been
damaged by fire and earthquakes and parts of
the building have been rebuilt several
times. The building has been used as an
Orthodox Church, a Catholic Church and
T ic k th e features w h ich we a mosque. It was closed for many years and
use w hen w ritin g a re p o rt. then in 1934 it was re-opened as a museum.
h ea d in g s W HAT TO SEE
sh o rt form s It is definitely worth visiting the dome
form al style of the church and the mosaic of the Virgin
Mary, which are both quite spectacular
g en e raliz atio n s to see.
passive voice
A D V IC E TO VISITORS
facts The Hagia Sophia Museum can be visited every
in fo rm al ch a tty style day 9.00-17.30, except Mondays. Visitors
are advised to allow at least two hours for
their visit as there is a lot to see. I

74
W onders of the w orld 8

I Find phrases in the re p o rt which are examples i Here are some w ords which w ill be useful to
; good features o f a re p o rt. Use the inform ation you when w ritin g about buildings and
- exercise 2 to help you. monuments. Add them to the spidergram.

3 Find w ords o r phrases in the te x t w hich mean round stom


the same as the following:
the purpose
; during a certain period of time
; you should see something
^ impressive
inchide a certain am ount of tiiBe;in our plans

^ N o w com plete these sentences using the w ords


you found in exercise 5.
The exhibition i s _____ . They've got all the
famous pictures there.
; W hen w aiting to go on a ride at Disneyland
you have t o ________ at least 40 m inutes.
3 __ the pyramids have been damaged by
tourists.
The architect's was to design ihe square tower mosaic church ruins architect
tallest tower in the world. temple plastic engineer build panoramic
design concrete modern stone wooden
5 The fireworks we saw last night were
brick statue painting marble cement
museum designer carpenter stonemason
round painting ancient

W rite this re p o rt on the Eiffel Tower by


expanding the notes given in each paragraph.

O N o w its yo u r turn.
The Eiffel Tow er W rite your re p o rt
following these
INTRODUCTION
instructions. Use
This report describes
the Eiffel Tower. some o f the
vocabulary from
designed/Gustave Eiffel/1889
exercise 8.
BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Write a report for a
used as/radio/television/transmitter
travel agency on an
been/called/large/flagpole/worid important m onum ent
W HAT TO SEE in your: city, using the
topic vocabulary to
not miss/opportunity/climb/top/tower
help you. Write
ADVICE TO VISITORS betw een 120 and
feel tired/take lift/top 180 words.
buy/season ticket/main tourist
sites/valid/l/3/5 days

75
star players
Reported speech

Reading
W o rk with a partner. Look at the
photograph and discuss these questions.
1 W hat has just happened?
2 How does he feel?
3 W hat is he thinking?
4 W hat do you think he's going to say
to the other players?

The one
and only
I
Michael James Owen, born in Chester on 14 20 His father, 'Ferry Owen, was a professional player as
December, 1979, is one of the most promising well and the football training he provided for
players in England and now has a regulai- first team Michael helped to make his son a superstar. Mrs
place. H e was voted dung Player o f the Year in 1998 Owen is very pioud of her sou. Accoiding to her,
and he was the youngest player to play for Knglancl Mi('hael has no night life: He wont go out drinking
this century, when he played against Chile at the age 25 and he doesnt seek the limelight he ti ies his best to
of 18. He was the joint leading scorcr in the escape from the media, she says.
Premieiship season 1997/98 with 18 goals. H e is
4
sure to bt a faxourite with fans for years to come. '
Michael was in the primary school team in his
village, Hawarden. Ive loved playiiig football since
10 Michael believes that if you want to be a top player I was six or seven. By the time I was eight, I was
you sliould want responsibility. You should w'ant to 30 playing really well for llu; sc hool team and got
take the free-kicks, the corners, the throw-ins, picked lor the district, even though I wa^ three years
everything, he says. ^^Ithough Michael is small, he is younger than some of the other lads.
not afraid to tackle big players: W hen I see a big
15 defender I think, great, he cant turn. He reckons
the best moment on the pitch is when a player sends
the ball into the back of the net. When I score, I
don't feel the need to go crazy, but I do feel good
inside!

76
sta r players 0

FCE practice: Part 1


^ Choose the m ost suitable heading from the list H ere are five answers given by Michael Owen.
A -H fo r each p art 1-7 o f the article. There is Look at the te x t again and discuss w ith your
an extra heading which you do n o t need to use. p artner w hat the questions were.
A B ehaviour on th e field 1 14 December, 1979.
B A short biography 2 I scored 18.
C Not th e first footballer in th e family 3 I feel good inside.
D C hildhood m em ories 4 M y family.
E Som eone he adm ired 5 No, I d o n 't have any plans to get m arried.
F Looking tow ards the future Here are the questions fo r the answers above.
G The nex t W orld Cup C om plete the questions.
H The influence of his family
born?
H o w _____________ score in the
1997-1998 season?
How do you f e e l__
W h o _____________ your life?
Do you __ to get m arried?

A sk and answer these questions w ith a partner.


1 W h at is th e m ost successful thing you have
As for influences on his life, Michael wasnt the ever done?
r\pe to put football posters up in his bedroom. 2 W hat is th e m ost im p o rtan t thing in your life?
'I just wanted to go onl ;iitd play the gam e, he 3 W ho has h ad th e biggest influence on your life?
ays. But Gary Lineker l)ecauie my boyhood
hero when I saw him. play in the 1990 \\brld Com plete these sentences using w ords from
Cup. I was ten at the time and dreamed of the te x t.T h e firs t le tte r o f each w o rd is given
ibllowing iri his footsteps. u- to help you.
1 She is an extrem ely p________ student, and w e
M ichaels family are the niosl important expect this to show in h er exam results.
>eople in his life. Most o f the Ia mily still live 2 The judges of th e com petition decided to give a
::ear home and me and my younger sister j ________ first prize to th e tw o best contestants.
Lesley are staying with jVhim and Dad. Im
.aving a house built iK-arby, so [ can get out of 3 I'd h ate to be a doctor - th ey have far too
heir way, though, he adds. With his family m u ch r________ .
.^round Michael is confident that all the good 4 W h en the b an d w alked o u t onto th e stage, the
nmgs people are saying about him will not g o ; crow d w en t c________ w ith excitem ent.
his head; Its nice to hear all the comments
;ut Im pretty relaxed, he says. i; 5 She's n o t a p_ . pianist - she ju st plays
th e piano because she likes it.
It m u st be h ard for fam ous people always being
Michael says he loves his girlfriend and they in the 1________ an d nev er getting any privacy.
both very happy. BtU I \ e no plans to get
--arried, he admits. I wouldnt even consider The teacher w an ted som eone to read the poem
_:mhing as serious as that for at least another an d th e n she p________ me.
've years. At the m om ent he just looks 8 She a she has told lies an d will
rivard to going on holiday to other countries apologize.
~th his girlfriend.

77
0 star players

G ram m ar and Use o f English


Reported speech Reported questions

Q j Look at the sentences from the reading te x t and Q Look at these sentences and answer the
w rite down how the tenses change from direct questions below.
speech to reported speech. 1 'W hat is the most im portant thing in your life?'
1 'My big sister is 22.' He said his big sister was The interviewer asked him w hat the most
22. im portant thing in his life was.
2 'Do you love your girlfriend?'
'I was playing really He said that he had been
The interviewer asked him if/w hether he loved
well for the school playing really well for the
his girlfriend,
team and got picked school team and had got
for the district.' picked for the district. a Do the tenses change?
b W hat happens to the subject and verb of the
present simple
sentences?
past simple
c Are any new words added?
past continuous
See grammar reference pages 149-50.

Complete the second sentence so that it has a 'Do you like taking free-kicks?'
similar meaning to the first sentence, using the The interviewer asked h im ___
word given. Do not change the word given.You
'Do you think fame will change you?'
must use between tw o and five words, including
the word given. The interviewer asked h im _________

1 'My family are the most im portant people in 'Has money changed you?'
my life.' (life) The interviewer asked him
He said the most im p o rta n t_________________
his family. Reporting verbs,
2 'Most of the family still live near hom e.' (far) tim e and place expressions
He said most of the family_________________
from home. Q j We can use other reporting verbs which
3 'I've practised my autograph a lot.' (often) describe the way a person is speaking,
eg apologizing o r admitting something;
He sa id ________________ autograph.
'I am sorry I broke John apologized for
4 'It is nice to hear all the comments.' (enjoyed) the vase.' breaking the vase.
He sa id ________________ the comments. 'I stole the purse,' The thief admitted
5 'I w ouldn't even consider anything as serious said the thief. he had stolen the purse.
as that.' (out) W ords of time and place can change when
He said something as serious________________ we report what somebody said. Match a word
the question. from list A with a w ord o r phrase from list B.

Q Rewrite these sentences, changing the direct A B


questions to reported speech. 1 now the next day
1 'W hat do you think w hen you see w hen a big 2 today that day
defender?' 3 here then
The interviewer asked h im _________________. 4 tomorrow there
2 'W hat is your ambition?' See grammar reference page 150.
My m um asked m e ________________ .
78
s t a r p la y e rs

^ Complete the second sentence so that it has a ^ Read the text and check y o u r answers.
similar meaning to the first sentence, using one
of the reporting verbs below. Formula one and only
Mika Hakkinen had hardly changed out of
apologized claim advised announced his overalls, w hich were soaked in champagne,
explained w hen he prom ised he (1)_________ keep the
world drivers' cham pionship after w inning the
1 'I am so sorry for forgetting to m eet you Japanese Grand Prix. He ( 2 ) _________ that
yesterday!' Maria said to Peter. the accident he had suffered in Australia in
M a ria _____________________________ . 1995 had ( 3 ) _________his life and that from
that day on he had ( 4 ) _________ a different
'There is nobody here to answer your questions
person. He (5) he would never
n ow / the secretary said to them.
forget that time and the support the team
The secretary_____________________________ . had ( 6 ) _________him. He explained that
he thought (7 )_________things m ore now.
'WeTI be getting married in July,' Katherine
He (8 )_________not thinking m uch about
told her friends.
the future except that he and the McLaren
K atherine____________________________ . team (9 )_________remain champions.
T was nowhere near the scene of the crime,' Hakldnen's victory came after his great rival
said the suspect. Michael Schumacher had a blow out. Trom
that m oment on, I knew 1 (1 0 )________
The suspect ____________________________ . win the race,' he said.
'I think you should relax a bit,' the doctor told
her. O F o r q u e stio n s I - 10, read th e te x t again and
th in k o f th e w o rd w h ic h b e st fits each space.
The doctor ____________________________ . U se o n ly o n e w o rd in each space.

0 T h in k o f th e last q u e stion you w e re asked by


th e fo llo w in g people;
y o u r best frie n d
a m e m b e r o f y o u r fam ily ''4 ^ .
a stranger f "IL-.f C A N A t
N o w re p o r t to th e class w h a t th e y said. V-V ..

M y best fr ie n d asked m e i f I could lend h er some


money.

FCE practice: Part 2


The man in th e photograph is Mika Hakkinen.
He has ju st w on the Japanese G rand Prix
against his arch-rival Michael Schumacher.
Decide w hich o f the fo llo w in g you th in k he
said a fte r his v ic to ry and w rite y o u r answers.
This has changed m y life.
1 kn ew I w ould w in the race.
1 I think he sa id _________ .
2 I don't think he sa id ________ .

/
0 sta r players

V o c a b u la ry
A ntonym s W ords o fte n confused
Som e w ords have more than one opposite. We Match the w ords below w ith th e ir definitions,
u se different w ords depending on the context.
e a rn gain w in beat p o p u la r fa m o u s
The opposite of old can be young or new
depending on w hether w e are talking about 1 to get m oney by w orking
p eop le or things. 2 to get som ething th a t is useful or valuable
3 k n o w n by a lot of people
Match these w ords w ith th e ir opposites using
w ords from the box below. Com pare w ith a 4 liked by a lot of people
partner how many w ords have tw o opposites. 5 to get th e m ost points in a gam e
1 short 6 stop 6 to defeat y o u r o p p o n en t
2 hard 7 small
Com plete these sentences using the c o rre c t
3 top 8 w in w o rd fro m exercise 3.
4 success 9 early You w o n 't ________ m uch selling m atches!
5 friend 10 good She b e c a m e ____ ____all over th e w orld w h en
she w o n th e Oscar.
bottom go failure big evil long enemy
This restau ran t is very w ith tourists;
easy bad lose late tall start soft it's difficult to get a table.
4 I d id n 't ________ a lot by joining th e arm y; it
^ Com plete these sentences w ith an appropriate w as a w aste of tim e.
w o rd from exercise 1. th e game.
I believe w e can ,
The test w as really . I k n ew all the
W h en w as th e last tim e I ________ you at
answers. table-tennis?
My new sw eater is really com fortable because
it's s o ________ . Collocation (sport)
He's n o t short, b u t he's n o t as as his ^ Com plete the chart by matching each s p o rt
brother. w ith the place and equipm ent which go w ith it.
How is the Mississippi river?
boots costume pool ring slope skis boat
Star Wars is about the struggle betw een good
racket stadium rink oar rod court ball
a n d ________ .
gloves river alley pitch hoop
T hat food tastes ! I can 't eat it.
You have t o ___ w h en th e traffic light
s p o rt place e q u ip m e n t
tu rn s red.
8 D on't singing until the football
conductor gives th e signal to begin. boxing
skiing
basketball
tennis
ice-skating
rowing
fishing
swimming
sta r players

L is te n in g a n d s p e a ld n g
FCE practice: Part 2
Listen again and com plete the notes.
1 Name:
2 N am e of first film to w in Oscar:
3 N am e of latest film:
4 Favourite kind of w eather:
5 Height:
6 His role in the film:
7 C hosen book:
8 O ther jobs done:
9 M ost im p o rtan t change in life:
10 Feelings about signing autographs:

o C om plete these questions.


1 W h e r e ________ born?
2 W h e n ________ born?
3 W h a t________ your eyes?
4 W h a t________ drive?
Q Before you listen to the tape, check the
5 ________ a pet?
meaning o f these w ords w ith yo u r teacher
6 ________ food do you like?
n o m in a tio n p ro m o te s tra n d e d 7 ________ y o u r hobbies?
sign ificant s e n tim e n ta l fla tte re d 8 W ho ____actress?
9 m usic do you like?
^ W h o is your favourite film star? W rite three favourite place?
10
questions you w ould like to ask him/her.
^ W o rk w ith a partner and com plete this task.
^ Listen to a phone-in programme w ith a
You are going to find o u t ab o u t Leonardo
film star and match the beginning o f the
DiCaprio. S tu d en t A, look at th e notes on page
sentence in list A w ith the end o f the sentence
139. S tudent B, look at th e notes o n page 140.
in list B. Com plete th e inform ation in y o u r chart by
A B asking questions and taking notes. Use the
questions above to help you, b u t rem em b er to
1 The first listener w h eth e r he liked
change the questions in to th e th ird person.
asked him signing autographs.
S tudent A should begin.
2 The second listener how tall he was.
asked him FCE practice: Part 1
3 The th ird listener h o w his life had ^ H o w w ould you answer these questions?
asked him changed since he Interview each o th e r using the questions above
had w on aw ards. and w rite down yo u r p a rtn e rs answers.
4 The fo u rth listener w h at his n ew film w as
asked him about.
5 The fifth listener w hich book h e w ould
asked him take w ith him if he
w as stranded on a
desert island.
81
9 star players

W ritin g
FCE practice: M agazine article
^ Look at these people who
became famous when they were
very young. W h a t are the
advantages and disadvantages
of being famous when you are
still young?

^ Read this magazine article


fo r a teenage magazine on the
advantages and disadvantages w
of being famous when you are
still at school.

not a bed of roses!

Imagine the look on your classmate's The biggest disadvantage fo r famous


face if one day you became famous! teenagers is th a t they don't usually
Most people believe it must be great lead a normal life: they have to
to become famous when you are still travel a lot and work long hours.
at school. Also, they might have problems
But in spite of the advantages there finding real friends who are
interested in them, and not the
are drawbacks, too. On the one
hand, you get special privileges but glamorous lifestyle.
on the other, you w ill not be able to Thus, in spite of the glamour of
have a normal childhood. being young and famous there are
First of all, young film stars are serious drawbacks, too.
A
S! allowed to have time o ff school.
What's more, they are very popular
and have lots of friends. Apart from
that, they don't have to worry about
money or what they are going to do
when they leave school.

82
S ta r p la y e rs 9

N ow choose the correct answer A, B o r C to


complete these sentences.
1 I don't like the w eather in Britain; b u t ________
I love the place.
A apart from this B although C in addition
On the one hand, he likes maths b u t ________
he gets bad marks in tests.
A furtherm ore B on the other C in contrast
You will need to add salt; you can add
a little pepper, if you like.
A on the other B yet C also
The fUm was boring; we stayed till the
end.
A moreover B however C at the same time
5 The main problem is the traffic;________
problem is the pollution.
A the greatest B in addition C another

A students magazine has asked you to w rite


an article imagining the advantages and
disadvantages of being famous. W rite between
120 and 180 words.
Before you begin to w rite, look at the
A good magazine article has certain features. list below and divide the points into
Label the model article w ith these features. advantages and disadvantages.Then add
The first is done as an example fo r you. some of your own ideas.
You can buy w hatever you want.
: a catchy title
You have no privacy.
; an interesting first line
You travel all over the
- a general statement in the first paragraph world.
specific points that support the general People are jealous of your success.
statement
You are recognized w herever you go.
= specific points that support the general negative
People w ant your autograph.
statement
You need bodyguards.
' conclusion
You meet lots of other famous people.
^ Underline all the linking words and phrases People are interested in your opinions.
in the model and add them to the list of
Journalists and photographers follow you
expressions below. around.
contrasting points: yet, however, although,
at the same time, in contrast N ow w rite the article, using your
advantages/disadvantages: one, another, notes to help you.
a further, the greatest
adding points: in addition, furthermore,
moreover

83
^ Com plete these sentences using the c o rre c t I C om plete this chart. Make nouns from the
form o f one o f the w ords below. verbs on the left, using the suffixes -ance, -ion,
-ment. Make any spelling changes necessary.
s tare lim p see w h is p e r w ander w a tc h
s trid e
verb noun
1 D on't you know it's rude t o ___________ at
enjoy
people like that?
2 W hy are y o u ___________ ? N obody can hear collect
us. perform
3 W e ___________ aro u n d Rom e for hours communicate
w ith o u t a m ap, n o t know ing w here w e w ere profess
going.
move
4 H e ___________ a h ead of his girlfriend, w ho
was trying to w alk as quickly as him . compete
5 I stayed up late t o ___________ a film on the admire
television. educate
6 If y o u ___________ M ary tonight, can you give pollute
her this message?
7 He w a s _______ because he had tw isted his
ankle going dow n th e stairs. ( Q C om plete these sentences using an appropriate
w o rd from exercise 3.
G Match a w ord from list A w ith a w o rd from list 1 He ate his m eal quickly, and w ith obvious
B, then com plete the sentences below using
one o f these phrases. Use some o f the phrases
2 I d id n 't enjoy last n ig h t's , . The
more than once.
actors kep t forgetting th eir lines.
A have go
3 She got a n e x c e lle n t___________ at h er school.
B a chat a row a stroll ru n a look
a w alk 4 His club takes part in a b a sk etb a ll___________
every year.
1 It w as a pleasant evening so w e __
for a n ic e ___________ in th e park. 5 G reenpeace is taking direct action to try and
s to p ___________ in cities.
2 Can I a quick at your
new spaper? 6 The post office m akes a ___________ of post
every m orning at 7.30 am.
3 We w e r e __ _______ a ____________ in the
coffee bar before th e lesson w h en m y friend 7 The burglar m ade a s u d d e n ___________ and
arrived. the police saw him hiding b ehind th e curtain.

4 I always for a in the 8 The old w o m an w atched th e firem an in


park in th e m orning to keep fit. as he rescued h er cat.

The c o u p le ___________ a te rrib le ____________ Match these w ords w ith w ords from the box
before th ey decided to break up. below to make pairs o f opposites. Some w ords
If y o u ___________ for a tw o -m ile ____________ have tw o opposites.
every day, you'll soon get fit.
lose bottom early easy young success
The doctor told h er p atient to say 'a a h ' so th at enemy big soft new
she c o u ld ___________ a ____________ dow n her
throat. la te to p w in old fa ilu re frie n d
sm all hard

84
Read the definitions below, then w rite the ^ Complete the second sentence so that
w o rd they describe.The firs t le tte r o f each
3Q
it has a similar meaning to the first sentence,
w o rd is given to help you. using the w ord given. D o not change the
(D
1 a field w here football gam es are played w o rd given.You must use between tw o and s
five words, including the w ord given.
P----------------- 5 '
2 a place w h ere sporting events are held 1 All th e hotels w ere full so w e let H erbert
s___________ stay w ith us for a few nights, (put)
All th e hotels w ere full so
3 the players w ho play on th e same side
______________________ for a few nights.
t___________ c
2 She decided n o t to accept the offer of
4 th e n u m b e r of points or goals in a gam e
a job as she w anted som ething better,
s___________
(take)
5 th e thing you use to play tennis r________ She d ec id e d ______________________ th e
6 th e place w here you play tennis c___________ job as she w an ted som ething better.

7 a person w ho is playing against you in a game 3 They are going to dem olish th e old house
in order to build an office block.
V
o___________ VO
(pulled down)
^ Match the beginnings o f these conditional The old h o u s e ________________ _ in
sentences in list A to th e ir c o rre c t endings in order to build an office block.
list B.
4 The accident took place because he d idn't
look before h e crossed th e road, (looked)
If th ey h ad had a car. If h e ______________________ , the
accident w o u ld n 't have tak en place.
If I h ad got th e job in America,
If I h ad gone for a holiday in Switzerland, 5 It's a pity we d id n 't go and see th e film
w h en it was on. (wish)
If th ey h ad m et Robert De Niro,
I ______________________ to see th e film
I w ould have tak en th e dog for a w alk
w h en it was on.
He w ould definitely have drow ned
6 It's a real sham e you d id n 't com e to the
She m ight have w on th e lottery
party, (only)
M ary w ould have m ade a chocolate cake
I f ______________________ to th e party.
She w ould have been a doctor
7 I 'v e got to get up early tom orrow ,' she
10 If th ey had left in good tim e,
said to h er father, (told)
S h e ______________________ to get up
B early th e n ex t day.
th ey w ould have asked for his autograph. 8 W h en they have repaired th e car we can
I w ould have gone skiing in the Alps, continue our journey, (been)
if you had w anted m e to. W h e n ______________________ w e can
continue our journey.
I w ould have lived in New York.
th ey w ould have given him a lift. 9 'D o n 't m ake so m uch noise,' th e teacher
said to the class, (told)
if he h a d n 't k n o w n ho w to swim.
The te a c h e r ______________________ m ake
th ey w ould have caught th e train.
so m u ch noise.
if she had b een b etter at science subjects.
10 They are going to build a garage n ex t to
if she had had th e recipe.
th e house, (built)
if she h ad b ought a lottery ticket.
A g a ra g e ______________________ nex t to
th e house.

85
I
IO Fun and gam es
G e ru n d s a n d in f in it iv e s

Reading
^ Work with a partner. Look at the pictures and
say what the people are doing and why.

Read the text below and find things which are


similar to what happens in your country.

1 N e w Years D ay is ce leb ra ted all 30 their b eh aviour in so m e w ay, b y m ore accurate to sa y th a t th e


over th e w orld, but n ot a lw a y s at givin g up b ad h abits. P eop le p olice tr y to control th e crow d but
th e sa m e tim e. Our N e w Year m igh t d ecid e to g iv e up sm oking, 60 in su ch an a tm o sp h ere it is very
sta rts on 1 January but th e for ex am p le, or to g o on a diet. difficult, and a lot of p eo p le en d
5 C h in ese N e w Year ta k es p lace any T h ese p ro m ises are o ften broken up in th e foun tain in th e Square
tim e b e tw e e n 21 January and 19 3 5 in th e first fe w d ays of th e N e w w ith all their clo th es on.
February, d ep en d in g on th e year. Year, h ow ever!
In Germany, a fe w cen tu ries ago, In China, d ays b efore N e w
p eo p le celeb ra ted th e N e w Year in On N e w Years E ve m any 65 Years Day, every fam ily is b u sy
10 N ovem ber, b e c a u se th is w a s th e p eo p le g o to p arties or g e t g iv in g its h o u se a thorough
tim e w h e n th e y had finished to g eth e r w ith their fam ilies, clean in g. T h ey h o p e to s w e e p
bringing in th e harvest. T h ey 4 Q n eigh b ou rs or friends and th e y
a w a y all th e ill-fortune th ere m ay
looked forw ard to th is part of th e sta y up until m idn igh t to s e e th e h a v e b e e n in th e fam ily to m ake
year b e c a u se after th e h arvest N e w Year in. Som e p eo p le can't 70 w a y for g o o d luck in th e com in g
15 th e y w o u ld h ave a period of rest
resist drinking a little bit m ore year. P eop le also paint their doors
w h e n th e y could relax and h ave
th an th e y sh ou ld on th is night. In and w in d o w s red. T he N e w Year's
45 Britain and esp ecia lly in Scotland, E ve su p p er is an im portant fam ily
N o w a d a y s, N e w Year is th e y sin g a sp ecia l so n g called ev en t. All m em b ers of th e family
regard ed as a tim e for celeb ratin g A uld Lang S y n e. In London, 75 like to h ave dinner together.
2 0 and for m aking a n e w start in life. p eo p le g a th er to celeb ra te in W h en it is over, th e w h o le fam ily
P eop le w ish ea c h other H appy Trafalgar Square, w a itin g for Big sta y s up la te p layin g cards or
N e w Year and often se n d sp ecial 50 B en to strike tw e lv e . W hen it is board g a m es. A t m idn igh t th e
g re etin g s cards. In recen t years, alm o st m idn igh t p eo p le are very w h o le sky lig h ts up w ith
th e s e cards h ave b e e n replaced q u iet b u t w h e n Big B en b eg in s to 80 firew orks. Very early n ex t
25 by colourful e-m ail m e s s a g e s . In strike th e y all start ch eering. m orning, children g re et their
m any E uropean cou n tries, p eop le P eop le g r e e t ea ch other w ith p aren ts and receiv e their present:
m ake N e w Years resolu tion s. This ^5 H appy N e w Year and so m e e v e n m o n ey w ra p p ed in red paper.
in volves p eo p le prom ising k iss th e police w h o are th ere to
th e m se lv e s th at th e y w ill im prove control th e crow d. It w o u ld b e

86
=. Fun and gam es i| 0

In Trafalgar Square on N ew Year's Eve


A th e police jo in in th e party.
B people are allow ed to kiss th e police.
C th e police d o n 't w ork very hard.
D th e police try to stop people from jum ping in
the fountain.
FCE practice: Part 2 In China, people clean th eir houses before the
N ew Year
Read the magazine article again. For questions
1-7, choose the co rre ct answer, A, B, C o r D.
A to get rid of all the bad things th a t have
h ap p en ed during th e year.
1 New Year in China falls
B because a dirty house is full of ghosts.
A on 1 February.
C because it brings th e w hole family together.
B on th e same day every year.
D to get th e m ready to be painted.
C on th e sam e day in February.
7 The New Year's Eve supper in China
D later th a n in Europe.
A starts w ith gam es involving all th e family.
2 In G erm any th e New Year was originally
B is accom panied by a firew ork display.
A a celebration to m ark th e end of w inter.
C brings to g eth er th e w hole family.
B a celebration at the end of the harvest.
D has several different courses.
C celebrated by holding a big party.
D a tim e w h en people w ere on holiday. W h a t do these w ords o r expressions mean?
Match them to the c o rre c t definition, using the
3 The prom ises people m ake for th e N ew Year
c o n te xt in the te x t to help you decide.
A d o n 't last long.
1 takes place (line 5) try to avoid doing
B m ake th em healthier.
som ething
C change their lives.
2 resolutions (line 27) m eet
D are w ritten o n special cards.
3 im prove (line 29) occurs
4 O n N ew Year's Eve people 4 giving up (line 31) bad luck
A n ev er drink alcohol. 5 resist (line 43) decisions
B som etim es drink too m uch. 6 g ath er (line 48) stopping doing
C drink a special New Year's drink. som ething
D start drinking at m idnight. 7 ill-fortune (line 68) m ake b etter

87
Fun and gam es

G ra m m a r a n d Use o f E n g lis h
Gerunds and in fin itiv e w ith to
C om plete these sentences using the c o rre c t
Q C o rre c t these sentences, then check y o u r fo rm o f the verbs in brackets.
answers w ith the te x t. 1 W h ere w o u ld y o u r a t h e r ________ o n holiday
1 People decided th e y w ill give u p to sm oke. this year? (go)
2 Som e people ca n 't resist to d rin k a little bit 2 At w h a t age do p eople s t o p ________ to school
m o re th a n th e y sh o u ld on this night. in y o u r co u n try ? (go)
3 They h o p e sw eeping aw ay all th e ill-fortune 3 W ould y o u s t o p ________ to y o u r trie n d in th e
th e re m ay hav e b e e n in th e family. stree t if yo u w ere in a h u rry ? (talk)
W h ic h sentences use th e gerund and w hich 4 W ould y o u p r e t e n d ________ th e an sw er to a
use th e infinitive w ith to?
q u estio n w h e n y o u d id n 't really k n o w th e
a n sw er? (know )
is th e re a difference in meaning betw een these 5 W h a t w o u ld y o u l i k e ________ to celeb rate
pairs o f sentences? If so, explain w h a t it is. y o u r n e x t b irth d a y ? (do)
She b eg a n doing h e r h o m e w o rk . 6 D oes y o u r bicycle n e e d _ (repair)
She b e g a n to do h e r h o m e w o rk . 7 Do y o u e n j o y ____ cards? (play)
I sto p p e d talk in g to m y friend. A sk and answ er th e questions w ith a p artner.
I sto p p e d to talk to m y friend.
C o m p le te th e second sentence so th a t i t has a
sim ilar m eaning t o th e fir s t sentence, using th e
In fin itiv e w ith o u t to w o rd given. D o n o t change th e w o rd given. Y ou
m u st use b e tw e e n tw o and five w o rd s , including
Q What do these sentences have in common? th e w o rd given.
1 I'd rather go to the cinema than go to the 1 W hen the teacher told them off, the children
theatre. were quiet, (stopped)
2 You'd better revise for the test on Monday. The children________________ told them off. '
3 They wouldn't let him enter the country 2 I studied German at school but 1 can't speak it
without a passport. very well, (how)
4 You must have a driving licence to drive. Although I studied German at school 1 didn't
Complete this rule. le a rn ________________ it very well.
must/would rather/had better/let (someone) are 3 Parents always allow their children go to bed
followed by t h e _______ late on New Year's Eve. (let)
Parents alw ays________________ up late on
See grammar reference page 151.
New Year's Eve.
4 It would be a good idea to start the iourney
^ Decide which of these words go with a gerund early if we don't w ant to be late, (set)
and which with the infinitive with to, and W e 'd ________________ early if we don't want
complete the chart using words from the box. to be late.
5 Tradition is still a great influence on people's
afford miss give up hope dislike agree suggest behaviour on New Year's Eve. (continues)
promise avoid decide enjoy refuse keep
T radition_________________a great influence
on people's behaviour on New Year's Eve.
gerund in rm itiv e w ith to
6 She is very keen to start going to school, (wai
S h e _________________ to school.

88
Fun and gam es IQ

C om plete these questions using the verb in brackets and then discuss them
w ith a partner.
1 Have y ou ever a d m itte d ________ som ething w rong? (do)
2 Have you ever re fu s e d ________ w h a t som ebody told you? (do)
3 W ould you e v e r ________ to sing in public? (agree)
4 W ould you rath e r , your birthday w ith your family or y o u r friends?
(celebrate)

FCE practice: Part 5


^ Look at the pictures and discuss w ith a partner how these games are played.
Read the te x t and find out.

Learning can be fun


Games are for (1)__________ as w ell as for learning; an d w e should PLEASE
n o t assum e th a t children only learn from (2)__________ toys. A cuddly EDUCATION
toy such as a teddy bear can help th e child's (3)__________ grow th; EMOTION
a skateboard will be (4)__________ in learning h ow to balance. Of course, USE
som e toys involve a great deal of (5)__________ . Rubik's cube, w hich THINK
m ade its first (6)__________ in the 1970s and w as hardly noticed, APPEAR
w e n t on to m ake its (7)__________ a m illionaire. It also m ade millions INVENT
of people spend hours desperately trying to find a (8)__________ to the puzzle. SOLVE
M onopoly is a board gam e in w hich (9)______ buy, re n t and sell PLAY
squares o n th e board using (10)__________ m oney; th e aim is to try IMITATE
an d get m ore m oney th a n your (11)__________ . The cost of th e property OPPOSE
depends on ho w (12)__________ th e places w ould be in real life. VALUE

I For questions 1-12, read the te x t again. Use the w o rd given in capitals at
the end o f each line to fo rm a w o rd th a t fits the space in the same line.

89
Fun and games

V o c a b u la ry
C ountable and uncountable nouns @ Com plete these sentences w ith the c o rre c t
form o f one o f the phrases in exercise 3.
^ Read the follow ing sentences, then complete
the rules fo r countable and uncountable nouns. 1 I heard a re a lly ____ . joke th e o th er day.
B ananas are m y favourite fruit. 2 He's so His stories k ep t th e audience
I love eating ^ cheese. laughing all night.

M ost jobs require som e know ledge of I d o n 't w h a t you said at all
com puters now adays. You're so serious - d o n 't you ever do anything
C om puter gam es can cost a lot of money. j u s t ________ ?

We can count w ords like apple and banana. I am looking forw ard to ________ at th e party.
They have a singular a n d ________ form.
O ther n o u n s are 'u n co u n tab le'. This m eans W ords o fte n confused
th ey are only singular an d take a ________ Match the w ords in list A w ith th e ir meanings
verb. W ith uncountable n o uns w e do n o t use in list B.
a/the. We use th em alone or w i t h ________ /any,
A B
m u c h , ______ .
1 take place be similar to
@ Read the te x t below. Some o f the lines in the
2 take part look after
te x t are co rre c t and some have a w o rd which
should n ot be there. If a line is correct, put a 3 take care participate
tic k ( / ) . If a line has a w o rd w hich should not 4 take care of be careful
be there, w rite the w ord.
5 take after occur

Quiz shows
___ 1 Television can be a useful source of th e inform ation about
___ 2 w hat's happening in th e w orld b u t it is also full of rubbish.
___ 3 Parents should to stop their children from w asting th eir
___ 4 tim e on it an d get th em to read m any books or listen to some
___ 5 music. I really can 't stand to w atching those silly quiz
___ 6 shows w hich are supposed to test your know ledge of a variety
___ 7 of subjects. I d o n 't m ind having th e thing on in th e background
___ 8 if I'm doing a housew ork as it helps to pass th e tim e. They p u t
___ 9 on a n ew quiz gam e last night w hich w as like so m an y others:
___ 10 th ere are th e several com petitors, w ho are people from different
___ 11 parts of th e country. The one w ho answ ers m ost of questions
___ 12 correctly w ins a prize, w hich it is usually a lot of money.

Collocation (fun and gam es) ^ C om plete these sentences using the c o rre c t
form o f one of the phrases from exercise 5.

\
We u se fu n to ta lk ab o u t gam es a n d activities
w h ic h are enjoyable. F unny is u se d for th in g s 1 Could you th e baby for us on
Saturday evening?

\
w h ic h m ak e y o u sm ile or laugh.
The Chinese N ew Year som etim e in
1 do som ething for fun
February.
2 have some fun 3 Could you n o t to break any of the
eggs on y o u r w ay hom e?

/
3 be funny
4 S h e ________ h er m other.
4 find som ething funny
5 E v ery b o d y ________ in th e harvest.

90
Fun and gam es QN

L is te n in g a n d s p e a k in g
The V alentine b u n was
A an am o u n t of money.
B a kind of cake.
C a kind of fruit.
M odern V alentine cards appeared because
A people preferred som ething handm ade.
B th ey w ere cheaper th a n presents.
J C people w ere spending m ore on Christm as
presents.
W hat does Jan e say about th e bird tradition?
A It is ju st a story for children.
B It is probably true.
C It is still believed by som e people.

W h a t have you learnt about St Valentines day


^ You are going to hear a radio discussion which you did n o t know before?
about St Valentines Day. First, decide w h e th e r
these sentences are tru e o r false.
FCE practice: Parts 3 and 4
1 St Valentine nev er existed.
CK W o rk w ith a partner and read the task below.
2 St V alentine's Day is a m odern custom.
Your school is going to have a carnival day.
3 A 'V alentine' is som eone you love. Work w ith a p artn er and plan th e day.
4 A 'V alentine' is a kind of card. Use these questions to help you.
5 Birds choose their partners on St Valentine's W hat kind of food will you provide?
Day.
W hat kind of music?
^ Listen to the interview and check your How will you decorate the school?
answers.
W hat kind of gam es will you organize?
W hat kind of prizes will you give?
FCE practice: Part 4
^ [S ] Listen again. For questions l- IO , choose CK Discuss these questions.
the best answer A, B o r C. 1 W hat sort of festivals do you celebrate in your
Jan e G rantley has w ritten a book about country?
A St Valentine's Day. 2 W hat do you do at these festivals?
B young people.
C traditional customs. It would be a good idea if we ...
We should also think about ...
The original Valentine
We could ...
A was a priest.
I think it would be good to ...
B w as a R om an soldier. How about if we ... ?
C w as a blind m an. Why dont we ... ?
In ancient Rome, w ho sent the first W hat kind of (gannes) should we organize?
an onym ous V alentine cards?
Thats a nice idea, but I dont think its
A They w ere sent by boys to girls.
very practical.
B They w ere sent by girls to boys. We could do that, but ...
C It is not k n o w n w ho sent them . Yes, but on the other hand ...
91
10 Fun and gam es

W r itin g
FCE practice: D escriptive com position

A descriptive composition expresses the w rite rs thoughts about a


particular subject.When describing a place, the composition should
include details o f where the place is, what it looks like, and what
happens there. For a person, give details about their appearance and
paragraph]
personality, and what they mean to you. For a thing, describe what it $ Bummry of-the event . .
looks like, what it is made of, and what it is used fo r f writ&bmtiime^ place, people
Try to engage the interest of the reader by: . Jmlvedj-whyyou like it
making the narrative style personal (use first o r third person)
using interesting adjectives to bring your subject alive
describing your own feelings towards your subject paragraph 2
describing the surroundings and atmosphere 0.Jeveloftnent of t\\e.eyewt ........ . ..
.............................................. % m A etsikih c
writing one paragraph for each topic

^ Read this task. paragraph 3


Your teacher has asked for a composition ^ummaryMfttie sutject
describing the festival students have most f give personal comment or opinioa.
enjoyed and why.
Read this com position plan and the model
com position below. Has the student followed
the plan?

A Find examples o f the


follow ing in the composition:
Semana Santa in Seville
1 gerunds
D u rin g E a s t e r , w e u s u a l l y v i s i t my a u n t i n S e v i l l e . I
lo v e g o in g to S e v i l l e d u r i n g H o l y W eek o r S em a n a S a n t a 2 the passive
because th e re th ey c e le b ra te th e ev e n t in a r e a l ly
s p e c i a l way. I t i s a m a rv ello u s s ig h t. 3 personal pronouns
T here a re c o lo u r f u l p ro c e s s io n s e v e ry n ig h t a l l over 4 relative clauses
th e c i t y . The p r o c e s s io n s a r e o r g a n iz e d by r i v a l
g r o u p s . M en f r o m e a c h g r o u p c a r r y l a r g e l i t t e r s - o r
p a s o s - on t h e i r s h o u l d e r s . T h e re c a n b e a s many a s Find adjectives in the
s i x t y men c a r r y i n g t h e s e l i t t e r s , w h i c h a r e d e c o r a t e d com position which describe:
w ith b e a u tif u l je w e ls and flo w e rs.
1 objects
The l i t t e r s a l s o c a r r y w ooden s t a t u e s p a i n t e d in
b r i g h t c o l o u r s . The s t a t u e s a r e a c co m p an ied by 2 the atmosphere
' p e n i t e n t s ' who a r e p e o p l e t h a t w a n t t o b e f o r g i v e n
fo r th e ir s in s ; th e se p e n ite n ts w ear t a l l p o in te d 3 feelings
h o o d s w h ic h c o v e r t h e i r f a c e s a n d make th em lo o k
rath er sin iste r. 4 sounds
The a tm o s p h e re a t t h i s f e s t i v a l i s r a t h e r s tr a n g e and
u n fo rg e tta b le - you can h e a r m ournful v o ic e s
l a m e n t i n g , w h i c h i s v e r y m o v i n g . H o w e v e r , H o l y W eek i n
S e v i l l e i s fo llo w e d by th e A p r i l F a i r when th e c i t y
becom es a happy fa ir g ro u n d w ith h o r s e - a n d - c a r r ia g e
p a ra d e s. I t i s a r e a l ly jo y fu l ev e n t a f t e r th e r a th e r
s a d c e l e b r a t i o n s o f Semana S a n ta .

I a lw a y s e n j o y t h e t i m e we s p e n d i n S e v i l l e , a n d e a c h
y e a r I lo o k fo rw a rd to o u r n e x t t r i p . Each tim e I see
t h e f e s t i v a l , I t a k e aw ay new m e m o rie s w i t h me.

92
Fun and gam es

I U nderline w ords in the com position which have N o w its y o u r turn. W rite y o u r com position
a similar meaning to the w ords in the box. follow ing these instructions, and using the
questions below to help you.
memorable happy melancholy mysterious
evil procession An international students' magazine has asked
you to write about what you like/dislike about
an important festival, eg Easter, in your
Q C om plete these sentences using an appropriate country. Write between 120 and 180 words.
w o rd from the box in exercise 3.
1 My friends organized a surprise party for me - 1 Where does the event take place?
wondered w hy everyone was behaving in such W hen does it take place?
. way! What people are involved?
2 The of dancers and musicians at the What do these people do?
Rio carnival is quite amazing.
What sights can you see?
He always fe e ls________ every year on the day
What sounds can you hear?
his dog died.
How do the celebrations end?
The old house was a dangerous a n d ________ -
looking place.
I love weddings. They are su c h ________
tall pointed hood
occasions.
litter

' ' I

, 4 ^

'5 v ' * a f '


If

procession

93
From Columbus to Concorde
C om parative and superlative adjectives

R e a d in g
r
H o w much do you know about C h ristopher 3 Colum bus set off for th e n ew w orld in
Columbus? D o the follow ing quiz. A 1453. B 1492. C 1602. D 1653.
1 W here w as Colum bus born? 4 W hich of th e following is n o t th e n am e of a
A Spain B Portugal C Greece D Italy ship Colum bus took on his first voyage?
A Santa M aria B Santa B arbara
2 Colum bus w an ted to find a n ew ro u te to
C Pinta D Nina
A Africa. B America. C India. D Australia.
^ Read the te x t quickly and check yo u r answers.

Columbus:
hero or villainl
The traditional view
1 Most people are taught at school th at Columbus is one
of the greatest heroes of Western civilization. For a lot
of people, he not only discovered America but
introduced the arts, law and religion to the primitive
5 tribes of the New World. I Which view is
more reliable? We should first consider the facts.

Roads to the East


In the 15th century, the Portuguese were one of the
most powerful nations on earth. By the end of the
century, they were sailing further and further into the
10 Atlantic, in search of a new route to India.
2 It seemed the most sensible thing to do,
but the journey was much further than they thought.

A new approach
Columbus came up w ith an original solution to the
problem: he decided to tu rn Portugals strategy for an
1 5 eastern sea route on its head. 3 No
European before had deliberately sailed ships away
from land, w ith no certainty of getting back home

94
From Colum bus to Concorde

FCE practice: Part 3


^ Read the article again. Seven sentences have Q Discuss these questions.
been removed from the article. Choose from
1 W h at do you th in k are th e positive things and
the sentences A -H the one w hich fits each gap
th e negative things ab o u t Colum bus m en tio n ed
I- /.T h e r e is one extra sentence w hich you do
in th e text?
n ot need to use.
2 Do you th in k h e was a h ero or a villain?
A This is w hy he th o u g h t th e y w ould m ake good
servants and slaves.
Find and underline w ords th a t mean:
B W h en th e Spaniards w ere ready, th ey picked
th e 500 best 'specim ens' to load onto th e ships. 1 th e w ay from one place to an o th er
(paragraph 3)
C W hy n o t sail west, th o u g h t Colum bus, and
reach th e Indies th a t w ay? travelled by ship (paragraph 3)
D W h en Colum bus and his sailors cam e ashore, 3 w h e n people are o w ned by a n o th er person and
th e A raw aks ran to greet th e m bringing food m u st w ork for th em ________ (paragraph 3)
and gifts.
4 th e people w ho w ork on a ship ________
E They th o u g h t th e best w ay to do this w as by (paragraph 4)
sailing south ro u n d Africa an d eastw ards.
5 clever, good at und erstan d in g things ________
F For others, h e is responsible for the
(paragraph 6)
in tro d u ction of slavery an d th e destruction of
native A m erican culture. 6 jo u rn ey s by ship ________ (paragraph 6)
G We k n o w very little about C olum bus' 7 bad, catastrophic, ending in failure ________
childhood an d education. (paragraph 7)
H He was determ ined to find gold.

safely. In the end, it was the Spanish King and Queen guarded by Spaniards and dogs. 5 Of
who gave Columbus ships and men and in retu rn he those 500, only 300 survived the trip. When they
promised to bring as much gold as they need ... and as arrived in Spain they were sold.
many slaves as they ask.
Mixed feelings
A new world Columbus thought the Indians were gentler and more
hi 1492 Columbus sailed west with three small ships: 40 intelligent than he had expected. 6
the N ina, the P inta and the Santa M aria. After three During his later voyages to the Caribbean he imposed
weeks, on 12 October, Columbus and his crew arrived terrible punishm ents on the Indians. Yet Columbus
at an island in the Bahamas inhabited by the Arawak was always w arning his officers to treat the Indians
Indians. 4 Columbus mTote the following well and he often seems genuinely moved by the
in his diary: They brought us parrots and balls of 45 beauty of the natives culture.
cotton and spears and many other things, which we
exchanged for glass beads. They willingly traded His reputation today
everything they owned. They do not bear arms, and do Five hundred years later, Christopher Columbus
not seem to know them . rem ains an enigma. He clearly had a very strong
desire for riches. 7 In this he was
How they lost their freedom successful. However, his attempt to create a colony was
When the gold Columbus found was not enough, he 50 disastrous. He died after a fourth voyage, richer than a
made the natives into slaves. The slave trade started Genoese weavers son could ever have dreamed. Was
when Columbus men captured 500 Arawak men, he a hero or a villain? The answer m ust surely be that
women and children and kept them imprisoned, Christopher Colombus was a bit of both.

95
11 From Colum bus to Concorde

G ra m m a r a n d Use o f E n g lis h
C om parative and superlative adjectives
C om plete this te x t using an appropriate form
m Com plete these sentences from the te x t using o f the w ords below. You can use some o f the
the w ords in brackets.Then check your w ords m ore than once.
answers.
long fast less good
1 The Portuguese w ere one o f ________ nations
on earth, (powerful)
A tla n tic crossings
2 The In d ia n s' w e r e ________ a n d _____ th a n
Today, th an k s to m o d ern air travel, it takes a
he had expected, (gentle, intelligent)
plane ab o u t seven hours to fly from London to
He died after a fourth voyage. th a n a
New York w hich is m u ch (1)_________ th a n it
G enoese w eaver's son could ever have used to be. B ut Concorde can do it in m uch
dream ed, (rich) (2 ) tim e th a n th a t - it takes about
th ree hours. Alcock an d B row n m ade th e first
Some adjectives are irregular, eg good and far.
flight across the A tlantic in 1919 and it took 16
Com plete these sentences from the te x t using
h o u rs 12 m inutes - ab o u t five tim es
an appropriate form o f good o r far. (3 ) th a n Concorde. Lindbergh m ade
They w ould m a k e ________ servants. a solo flight w hich took a lot (4)_________ th a n
T h e ________ w ay to do this w as by sailing Alcock and Brow n: h e flew from Paris to New
south ro u n d Africa. York in 33 hours 30 m inutes. It w as a w o m an
They w ere sa ilin g ____ and how ever w h o achieved th e (5)_________
results. Amelia E arh art's first solo fhght across
Check yo u r answers w ith the te xt. Com plete th e A tlantic took only 14 ho u rs 56 m inutes.
this chart.

su p e r la tiv e Q To compare tw o people o r things we can use:


a d je c tiv e co m p a ra tiv e
1 best as + adjective + as
good
w orse 2 She is as tall as her brother.
bad
far 3 furthest m i To make a link between tw o actions o r
situations, w e can use:
See grammar reference page 152.
the + com parative + the + com parative
The quicker we get there the better.
Com plete these sentences, using the co rre ct
form o f the w ords in brackets.
of th e three Q C om plete the second sentence so it has a
1 The Santa Maria was
ships, (big) similar meaning to the firs t sentence.

2 Spain w a s ____ Portugal and England, 1 Travelling by train is expensive. Travelling by


(rich) plane is m ore expensive.
Travelling by train is n o t ___________ .
3 Spain w a s _____ country in E urope at the
tim e, (wealthy) 2 Flying is th e fastest form of transport.
4 Jum bo jets are _ ____ other kinds of plane. No other form of transport is a s ___________ .
(heavy) If you b uy a good car, it will last longer.
5 Travelling in those days was m u c h _____ The better the car is, t h e ___________ .
is today, (uncom fortable) The price of a train ticket is th e same as hiring
6 Colum bus' first voyage was probably his a car.
of all. (difficult) Going by train is just as ex p en siv e___________ .

96
From Colum bus to Concorde

I W o rk w ith a partner. Choose tw o photographs


and compare them , using as many different
comparative form s as you can.

FCE practice: Part 1


^ Read the te x t below and answer these questions.
1 W h en w as th e first flight in an aeroplane?
2 How far did th e first flight go?
3 How high could aircraft fly in 1914?
4 W hat m ade flying m ore dangerous 50 years ago?
5 W h at m ade flying m ore pleasant?

Flying: the early days


M ythology is full of stories about th e first attem pts to fly, b u t in m o d ern times, th e first (1)________ was
in th e W right brothers' m achine Flyer, w hich was (2)________ by Orville, the elder of the tw o brothers,
on 17 December, 1903. It was one of th e (3)________ flights ever - it lasted only 12 seconds and it got no
(4)________ th a n 120 feet. Later the same day, the tw o brothers did even (5)_________w h en they flew
852 feet in 59 seconds. During World War I (1914-1918) aircraft developed at a faster (6)________ . The
m ore the W ar in E urope spread (7) ____ urgent it was to build aircraft. The n ew planes w ere
( 8 ) _______ to fly faster th a n 125 m p h at heights of (9)________ th a n 15,000 feet.
W ith the end of th e war, pilots w ere used for m ore (10)________ purposes: th e n ew airlines used
w artim e planes as passenger carriers and ( 11 ) to fly greater and greater distances. Conditions in
th e cabins w ere probably (12)________ uncom fortable th a n today, and journeys w ere m uch
(13)________ , w ithout radio or any air traffic control. (14)_________efficient lighting of the runw ays
m ade landing (15)_ and th e flights becam e m ore pleasant w h en cabin crew w ere introduced.

1 For questions 1-15, read the te x t again and decide which


answer A, B, C o r D best fits each space.

1 A try B flight C voyage D travel


2 A driven B taken C flow n D fled
3 A fastest B longest C shortest D quicker
4 A distance B place C m ore D fu rth er
5 A greater B higher C faster D b etter
6 A tim e B rate C am o u n t D w ay
7 A m ore B th e m ore C m ost D th e m ost
8 A had B capable C able D m anaged
9 A taller B bigger C b etter D greater
10 A peaceful B quiet C nicer D good
11 A w ould B reached C began D succeeded
12 A m ost B m uch C m ore D m ore th a n
13 A m ore danger B danger C m ore dangerous D dangerous
14 A An B Some C M ore D M ost
15 A safer B safely C m ore safe D m ost safe

97
From Columbus to Concorde

V ocabulary
Word form ation (making adjectives) Words often confused
We can identify different adjectives by their ^ Complete the sentences using one of these
endings o r suffixes. Look at these words and words.
say which are nouns and which are verbs. Does
the spelling change fo r any of the words? tra n s p o rt travel travelling
rely power origin 1 We all w anted to go to the airport but we had
n o ________.
W rite the adjective fo r each word, then
com plete these sentences using the 2 M o d ern ___ by air is m uch more
appropriate adjective. comfortable than it used to be.
3 I h a te ________by air.
1 The US is one of the most countries in
4 P ublic_______ in my country is not very
the world.
expensive.
2 You need to h a v e _______ ideas to write an 5 She is always in her job.
interesting book.
3 I don't think the facts in that newspaper report Collocation {take)
a r e _______. I checked them and there were
several mistakes. ^ ^ T ic k the words in the box below which go with
take.
Make adjectives from the words below using
-able, -ive, -ous, -ful and -al, and complete the holiday meal bus coffee
chart. exam haircut trip bicycle

disaster danger adventure expense


drink w onder co m fo rt act fury
Complete the second sentence so that it has a
similar meaning to the first sentence, using the
beauty music wash effect read
appropriate form of take and one of the words
from exercise 5.
1 The trip to the border lasted three hours.
The tr ip ________________ three hours.
2 We've got an exam on Monday.
W e 're _________________Monday.
3 It's about time you had a few days holiday.
W h y ________________ holiday?
' Read the te x t below. Use the word given in
capitals at the end of each line to form a word 4 I think I'll go hom e by bus.
that fits the space in the same line. I'm go in g _________________home.
F a sten y o u r s e a t b e lts
There is no doubt that air travel is more (1)_______ than any other EXPENSE
form of m odern transport, but although it would be more (2)__________ECONOMY
to travel by train I often fly because I find it more (3)________. ENJOY
Strangely enough, they say it is the (4)_______ form of travel. SAFE
Apparently, it is more (5)________to drive or cross the road so DANGER
I don't feel as (6)________as I used to w hen I travel by air. ANXIETY
I usually ask for a window seat because you get a (7)________view, WONDER
although it can be quite (8)________because there is less space. COMFORT
Others feel less (9)________next to the aisle because they find it NERVE
(10)________to forget how high up they are. EASE

98
From Columbus to Concorde

L iste n in g and speaking


FCE practice: Part 2

^ W o rk with a partner. Look at these Q Listen to this radio programme about


photographs of different forms of transport. Concorde and check your answers.
Choose two, and compare and contrast them.
Use the words in the box below to help you. FCE practice: Part 2
^ Listen again and complete the sentences.
Both photos are on the subject o f ...
Both photos show ... 1 Concorde is one of t h e _________________
The photos are different because ... symbols of m odern Britain.
They are both photos o f ... 2 Concorde is remarkable because of its
Both photos are connected to ...
Concorde can travel the
speed of sound.
^ Discuss these questions.
By the time Concorde reaches New York it is
1 W hat's your favourite form of transport? _________________w hen it set out.
2 W hat's the best/worst journey you have ever 5 It is expensive to fly on
taken? Concorde than on an ordinary plane.
Q Read these statements and decide whether Concordes make four or five
they are true o r false. _________________flights than jumbos.
The youngest person to fly on Concorde was
1 Concorde was buih by Britain and the US.
_________________; the oldest was
2 Concorde can travel faster than the speed of
light.
3 Concorde can carry more passengers than an I Imagine you have just won a holiday fo r tw o in
ordinary plane. New York, travelling on Concorde. W h o would
4 Concorde spends less time in the air than a you take with you and what would you do in
jum bo jet. New York?

99
11 From C olum bus to C oncorde

W riting
FCE practice: Report
O this task. ^ Expand these notes into complete sentences.
You have been asked to w rite a report on the 1 fly/quick/other/form s/transport
advantages and disadvantages of air travel. 2 turbulence/m ake/journey/uncom fortable
Read these comments and decide whether they 3 bus/expensive/train
are about planes, trains or buses. 4 airconditioned bus/com fortable/train
1 The trip to the airport took almost as long as 5 high speed train/fast/plane/short distances
the flight.
6 w aste tim e/stop/m any places
2 There was no toilet.
7 often/long/delays/airport
3 I've never seen such a long ?,ueue at the check-in.
4 The seats were made into beds on night journeys. ^ Read the report below. Choose the right
5 It kept stopping a t traffic lights. heading for each paragraph A-D. There is one
6 The driver was awful.
extra heading which you do not need to use.

7 You couldn't get up to stretch your legs. 1 W hy air travel?

& There was a buffet car selling drinks and snacks. The aim of the report
Sum m ing up
Less pollution
The problem s of air travel

(1) Nowadays/It seems to me. ttie main forms


of public transport are buses, trains and
aeroplanes. In tiiis report, I describe the
advantages and disadvantages of air travel.

(2) Of course/Firstly. air travel is


quicker than other means of transport. This
is particularly true if you are travelling
long distances. (3) All in all/Moreover,
many people enjoy travelling by air because
of the meal and the entertainment on board.
(4) As a consequence/In fact, the time goes
by more quickly when travelling by plane.
From Columbus to Concorde mm
Bi

Read the report again, and choose the most


appropriate expressions (questions 1-8) to
complete the text.

Find words o r phrases in the model which have


a similar meaning to the following:
1 most common 5 types
2 drawbacks 6 like
3 faster 7 bad w e a rh e r
4 cheaper

N ow it's your turn.You are going to w rite a


report following these instructions.
The local municipality is trying to encourage
people to leave their cars at hom e and travel
by bus instead. They have asked pupils to
investigate the problem and write a report
outlining the advantages and disadvantages
of travelling by bus. Write betw een 120 and
180 words.

(5) I believe/However, flying often


involves delays and ca n ce lla tio n s. (6) For
th is reason/Furtherm ore. you often spend First, ask your classmates these questions.
more time g ettin g to and from the a irp o rt
How do you get to school?
than ac tu a lly fly in g . In additio n , planes
How often do you travel by public
are often cramped - people with long legs transport?
can find s it tin g in a plane for hours
How long do you usually have to wait for
very uncomfortable. Turbulence can also the bus?
sp o il the f lig h t. (7) Anyway/Finallv, Do you enjoy travelling by bus? Why? Why
th ere are occasionally t e r r o r i s t th re a ts not?
which would d e fin ite ly sp o il any journey.
Q Discuss with a partner the advantages and
disadvantages of bus travel. Make notes on your
D ideas, using these words and the vocabulary
(8) To sum up/People claim , i t could be from previous exercises to help you.
said th a t fly in g is more e f f ic ie n t than
other forms of public tra n sp o rt i f you speed safety cleaniiness cost frequency
have to v i s i t another country or comfort the environment parking traffic
nowadays in conciusion punctual rush hour
continent. In other cases, i t is more
crowded miss efficient convenient
p ra c tic a l and economical to go by tr a in
or bus.
N ow w rite your report.

101
Making money, spending money
R ela tiv e clau ses

Reading
W o r k w ith a p a rtn e r and do th is quiz.

1 W hich country do Reeboks com e from?


2 W hat does the n am e R eebok m ean?
3 W hat is an 'Airmax'?
4 W hat is a 'Beckham '?
5 W hat h ave the Spice Girls got to do w ith
trainers?

Read th e te x t q u ickly and check y o u r answers.


i:

HAK
TRAIXINC
the land of that he lik es d o in g m ost on The b ig n am es in teenage

w N ike. Here, the greal


god d ess N ike,
w ears a R onaldo shirt, look s
w ho
25 Saturdays is shopping for n ew
trainers.
footw ear are R eebok, N ik e and
A d id a s and the co m p etitio n
b etw een these com panies can be
dow n on the other gods, Reebok Trainers have b een around for at
50 fierce. They all w ant teenagers to
and A didas. This land is a least a him dred years. In 1900
b uy their sh oes and not a rival
dangerous one for parents. H ow Joseph Foster set up a com pany
brand. O ne b attle the sports
can they m ake their child, w ho 30 in England w hich produced and
com panies have b een fighting
lives for nothing but sport, happy so ld trainers. This com pany,
recently is persuading famous
10 at Christmas? The trainers kids w h ich w a s then k n o w n as
55 sports stars to link their names
w ant to wear these days are so Fosters, is n o w k n o w n as
w ith their trainers. F ootb all
expensive! Take Derek Hill, 15, R eebok. The nam e R eebok is
p layers su ch as R on ald o or
w h o se w ardrobe is fu ll of 35 African and com es from a type of
Beckham and basketball players
basketball trainers: he w ill only animal called a gazelle, w hich
as popular as M ichael Jordan,
15 b u y w e ll-k n o w n brands lik e rims very fast.
60 can cost the footw ear com panies
N ike and Reebok. 'I like to wear a great d eal o f m o n ey in
Today, R eebok Classics, w hich
som ething that's comfortable and sponsorsh ip fees. H ow ever, if
come w ith a smart zip, are very
sm art/ he says, 'the cheaper ones sa le s in crease as a result of
40 popular w ith teenagers; the
don't last that long.' Derek is not successful advertising, they can
younger ones may prefer Reebok
20 a basketb all player, and he 65 also bring in enorm ous profits.
Fruit, w hich also have a trans
doesn't w atch m uch basketball; There is o n ly on e brand of
parent stripe. The Airmax comes
he is just keeping up w ith the football boots w h ich teenagers
w ith a bubble in the sole, which
latest fashion. One of the things are happy to be seen in and that
45 gives added bounce to the shoe.

102
M aking money, spending m oney ^2l

FCE practice: Part 2


Read the te x t again. For questions 1-7, choose 4 Sports stars are paid a lot of m oney
the co rre ct answer A, B, C o r D. A to advertise footwear.
1 Parents th in k th a t trainers are B to advise footw ear com panies.
A dangerous. C if sales of footw ear increase.
B necessary. D to train o th er players.
C too expensive. 5 W hy do teenagers w an t to w ear
D very cheap. 'th e B eckham '?
2 D erek likes trainers A To advertise football boots.
A he can play basketball in. B Because th ey are com fortable.
B th a t a re n 't too expensive. C They are th e m ost fashionable boots to be seen
in.
C th a t are w o rn by fam ous people.
D They w a n t to m eet David Beckham .
D th a t feel good and look good.
6 The Spice Girls
3 Reebok trainers
A like to play sport in trainers.
A are also called Fosters.
B have m ade trainers popular w ith girls.
B are m ade by Fosters.
C prefer to w ear Nike.
C used to be called Fosters.
D th in k trainers m ean 'girl pow er'.
D w ere popular 100 years ago.
7 W h at does th e article say about b ran d -n am e
trainers?
A They a re n 't w o rth th e money.
B They should be cheaper.
is the 'Beckham', or the Adidas
'0 Predator Accelerate, which is their C They look attractive b u t are badly m ade.
offical name. D They look attractive an d are popular.

These days, trainers seem to be an Q D o you th in k the best trainers are those which
essen tial p art of any teenager's
feel com fortable, o r which lo o k good?
w ardrobe. Pop groups such as the
Spice Girls have had an enorm ous
influence in m aking trainers high- W ords from th e te x t
fashion w ear for girls.
C om plete these sentences using w ords from the
G iven the p o w er of m od ern te xt. T h e firs t le tte r o f each w o rd is given to help
m arketing m ethods, parents have a you.
: difficult job p ersu a d in g th eir
1 Goods w hich are th e pro d u ct of a particular firm.
children to w ear less w ell-know n,
I th in k all soap b________ are th e sam e as each
cheaper brands. Are the brand-nam e
other.
train ers w o rth th e m oney? They
certainly look good, and plenty of 2 A long line th a t is different in colour from its
- effort is m ade by com panies in background. He w ore pyjam as w hich h ad a blue
m aking th eir latest m odels better an d w hite s________ .
than the rest. So it seems likely that
b rand-nam e trainers w ill continue tu 3 Things w e w ear on o ur feet, like shoes and boots.
be a p o p u la r choice w ith b o th F________ should be com fortable to w alk in.
; athletes and kids. 4 Som ething w h ich is very im p o rtan t or necessary.
E________ qualities in a good footballer are
fitness and skill.
5 Fam ous. Products w hich are w ______ -______
usually cost m ore.

103
M aking money, spending m oney

G ra m m a r a n d Use o f E n g lis h
R elative clauses

Q C om plete these sentences from the te x t w ith Q Read these sentences, then answer the
who, whose, which, that o r no relative pronoun. questions.
1 How can th ey m ake th eir c h ild ,________ lives 1 These shoes are th e ones w hich I always w ear
for n o th in g b u t sport, happy at Christm as? to school.
2 Take D erek Hill, 1 5 ,________ w ardrobe is full 2 Reeboks, w hich are m y favourite trainers, are
of basketball trainers: h e will only buy very expensive.
w ell-know n brands like Nike an d Reebok.
3 One of th e things h e likes doing m ost a In w hich sentence can you miss o ut the relative
on Saturdays is shopping for n ew trainers. p ro n o u n ? Is this a defining or a non-defining
This co m p an y ,________ was th e n k n o w n as clause?
Fosters, is no w k n o w n as Reebok. b In w hich sentence is it n o t possible to replace
Reebok Classics,________ com e w ith a sm art the relative p ro n o u n w ith that? Is this a
zip, are very popular w ith teenagers. defining or a n on-defining clause?
There is only one brand teenagers are
happy to be seen in. See grammar reference page 153.

Check yo u r answers w ith the te xt.

Com plete these sentences using an appropriate C om plete this te x t using one appropriate w ord
w ord. in each space.
1 A purse is a small bag people, usually
Nike
w om en, use to carry m oney in.
Nike is an A m erican m an u factu rer of sports
A trainer is so m e o n e ________ teaches a skill
clothes an d shoes, (I) ________ has becom e
th ro u g h practice.
very fashionable, particularly w ith young
A gazelle is a kind of small a n te lo p e ________ people. Nike, (2)________ is p ro n o u n ced 'ni-
can ru n very fast. key', is th e goddess victory in Greek mythology.
R e eb o k s,________ live in Africa, belong to the Nike, (3)________ sat at th e side of Zeus, was
gazelle family. usually rep resen ted as a w inged figure.
5 N ik e ,________ m eans 'victory' in Greek, was Caroline Davidson, a graphic design stu d en t at
an ancient goddess. P ortland State University, w as com m issioned to
'V icto ria n ',______ refers to th e tim e _________ design th e Nike 'sw oosh' logo (4)________ now
Q ueen Victoria ruled in England, is th e period appears o n every pair of Nike shoes.
betw een 1837 an d 1901. The Nike logo, for (5)________ D avidson was
paid only 35 dollars, captures th e spirit of the
7 A place people of sim ilar interests goddess (6)________ inspired th e m ost
m eet is called a club.
courageous G reek w arriors. Nike is the
R e e b o k ,________ repu tatio n is w orldw ide, has tw entieth-century footw ear (7)________ helps
w on m any intern atio n al prizes. th e w orld's greatest athletes w in new victories.

> 1
%
t.!?

104
M aking money, spending m oney

Look at the examples and w rite similar sentences


about yourself.
1 My father, w ho is 70 years old, has n o w retired.
My father, w ho is ...
2 The to w n w here I live has a population of one
million.
The to w n w here ...
3 M y friend Trevor, w hose Dad is an architect, w ants
to be an engineer.
M y best friend, w ho ...
4 I d o n 't like people w ho d o n 't listen to m y opinion.
I d o n 't like people w ho ...

FCE practice: Part 1


For questions 1-13, read the
te x t below and decide which
answer A, B, C o r D best fits
each space.

Making shoes, malcing money


If you visit an Asian factory w hich produces sports shoes you will see th e m ajor (1)________
com ing off th e same production lines. The sports shoe (2)________ have m ostly becom e design
an d m arketing com panies, w hich (3)________ a lot of atten tio n to com ing (4)_________w ith
original ideas. There are team s (5)________ only (6)_________is to design and (7)_________new
ideas for footw ear. The logos are very im portant: th e Nike swoosh; th e th ree stripes of Adidas.
These com panies (8)________ huge am ounts of m oney on advertising. The image th ey try and
(9)________ is A m erican, young an d hi-tech. The shoes th ey m ake are particularly (10)________
w ith m ales w ho like to (11) them selves as tough and com petitive. The com panies
(12) com pete to persuade top sports personalities to (13) th eir clothes,
1 A brands B types C goods D sorts
2 A groups B products C com panies D shops
3 A take B m ake C pay D ask
4 A dow n B in C up D aw ay
5 A w hich B w ho C w hose D that
6 A job B w ork C profession D hobby
7 A m ake B test C do D control
8 A spend B put C use D pass
9 A do B m ake up C create D invent
ID A fam ous B a lot C loved D popular
11 A look B m ake C show D see
12 A addition B too C also D and
13 A p ut B carry C show D w ear

Read the te x t again and find a relative clause w here the pronoun has been left out.
O

105
M aking money, spending m oney

V o c a b u la ry
Transitive and in tran sitive verbs Phrasal verbs w ith take
L ook at th ese w ay s of ta lk in g ab o u t th e clothes ^ Match the verbs in list A to th e ir definitions iin
w e w ear. list B.
to dress som eone to w e a r so m e th in g B
to be dressed in so m e th in g to g e t dressed
1 take after som eone get responsibility for
Som e verb s are tran sitiv e - th e y have an object. som ething
She is wearing a tracksuit and trainers.
2 take som ething aw ay rem ove som ething
Som e verbs are in tra n sitiv e - th ey d o n 't have an from som eone or
object. som ew here
He got dressed.
3 take som ething back behave or look like
Som e verb s have a n object after th e particle. an o th er m em ber of
He is dressed in black. your family
4 take som ething off re tu rn som ething to the
shop w h ere you bought
it
5 take over som ething rem ove som ething

C om plete these sentences using one o f the


phrasal verbs from exercise 3.
1 He h ad parked his car illegally so th e police
cam e an d rem oved it.
The police his car.

Som e verbs have th e object after th e m a in verb. Susan behaves ju st like h er m other.
She always dresses her baby in pink. S u s a n ________ h er m other.
You should always rem ove y o u r shoes w h en
^ Choose the c o rre c t verb to com plete these
entering a B uddhist tem ple.
sentences.
You m u s t________ your s h o e s _________.
1 She has to her father now he's too old
to m anage himself, (dress/get dressed) I w asn 't h appy w ith the clothes I bought.
I'm going t o ________ to th e shop.
S h e ________ in black for th e party.
(w ore/dressed) His dau g h ter will be responsible for th e
business w h en she's 21.
3 They w ere all traditional costum e.
(w earing/dressed) His d aughter will th e business.

4 H e ________ quickly since h e w as late for


school, (got dressed/dressed in)
W ords o fte n confused
Com plete the sentences using the co rre c t form
Q C o rre c t these sentences. o f one o f these verbs,
1 She w as dressed in a pair of sunglasses. m atch su it fit
2 He always w ears casually w h en h e goes out. 1 Having your h air shorter really you!
3 The guests got dressed inform al clothes. Her skirt and top are nice, b u t th e colours are
She always w ears h er children in expensive awful. They ju st d o n 't ________ .
clothes. Since he's got thinner, his clothes d o n 't
5 They w ere all w earing in traditional costum e. ________ well anym ore.

106
Making money, spending money

L iste n in g and speaking


O Check with your teacher the You Speaker I Speaker 2 Speaker 3 Speaker 4 Speaker 5
meaning of these phrases. Topic
set up clothes
save up (for)
get sick of bicyde
get hold of lessons
How much pocket money music
do you get? Tick the chart
food
to show which things you
spend it on. comics
hobbies
study

Listen to the tape and tick the chart to show which


speakers spend money on the things listed above.

FCE practice: Part 3


^ Listen again. For questions 1-5, choose from the list A -F
which statement refers to which speaker. Use the letters only
once.There is one extra letter which you do not need to use.
Which speaker:
A has an unusual hobby? Speaker 1
B likes fashion? Speaker 2
C prefers to earn his/her own money?
Speaker 3
D is going to buy a computer?
E is saving up to buy something? Speaker 4
F has money in the bank? Speaker 5

FCE practice; Parts 3 and 4


Look at the pictures. Choose one item which you would like
to buy W ork with a partner and plan a TV advert for one of h
items. Use the questions below to help you.
Wfiat age group are you selling to?
Are you going to use a famous person? If so, whio"?
W hat will happen in the advert?
W hat music will you use?
W hat slogan will you use?

Discuss these questions.


1 Do you think adverts work?
2 What's your favourite advert?

107
12 M aking money, spending m oney

W r itin g This kind of letter means you must


use information you are given to
FCE practice: Transactional le tte r
communicate a particular message.
^ Read this task. The information may be an
You w rote off for th e CD advertised below an d found advertisement, notes, instructions.
th a t th e product w as faulty. W rite a letter asking for a Remember;
who you are w riting to, eg a
replacem ent or a refund.
stranger, a friend
how formal the letter should be
to get your message across
clearly
to make sure you include all the
information

,\(\(^e CD sent

same collection; boxes broken

arrived a mention this


month latei

k ^ a -A

Tony Mi cha
reason for writing MeresIde ;*
02 to
West Midlan
Freepost
PO Box 52
O the le tte r and label it London
using the notes below.
Dear Sir or Madam,

I am writing to complain about the CD collection I ordered


iggg"" seeing your advertisement in the Daily News on 8 August
1 reason for writing
First of all, I ordered the collection three weeks ago, and
2 closing remarks - looking to the future only received it yesterday, although it clearly says in your
advertisement that it should arrive within seven days.
5 give reasons why you are aissatisfied Furthermore, I ordered POs Goldies and you sent me Hits of
the Nineties, which has very different songs on it.
Also, the collection I ordered is a double CD, and the one
4 reference to advertisement you sent me is a single CD. Finally, the plastic box which
contained the CD was broken.
5 rec^uest for action In your advertisement, you say I can claim a refund if I am
not satisfied. I would be grateful if you would replace the
6 signing off CD you sent by mistake, or send me a refund of 14.99, which
was the cost of the original double CD.

I look forward to hearing from you,

O Underline w ords o r phrases Ygurs faithfully,


which tell you this is a
form al letter. Tony i^ichael

108
M aking m on ey, sp e n d in g m o n e y 12

^ Match the beginnings of these sentences w ith ^ Read this student's le tte r and the advert, and
the correct endings. answer the follow ing questions:

1 I have just received Are all the notes covered in the letter?
2 I expect you to Is the style appropriate?
3 Furthermore, it seemed to me that Is the text organized clearly?
4 First, I was led to believe that Read the le tte r again and c o rre c t the mistakes.

a there would be a free gift included with the


cassettes.
b the boxed set of cassettes you advertised in Dear Madams
Music Unlimited magazine.
/ am writLn^ for io complain aboutyou r holiday
c the cassettes had been used since the boxes
were dirty. camp. / haveju st returnedfrom a holiday camp in
d refund the full am ount of m oney that I Wales which Ifound it very disappointing.
paid you.
Your advertise said that the accommodation would
be five-star bungalows. However, this was not the
case: the only accommodations available was tents.
As for the mealsyou mention, the all we g o t every
day was spaghetti and things like that. I insist on a
lomsuns Holiday Camp full refund.
And there were few opportunity to meet any people
to practise speaking English with.
K /ou had enough of the same kind of holidays? Please write to me soon,
Feel like a change? Best wishes,
ry Thomsuns Holiday Camp this summerl 11 Pancho

we were given tents


N o w its yo u r tu rn . W r ite
yo u r le tte r fo llo w in g these
beautiful stone bungalows spaghetti and instructions.You may add
sandwiches every day o th e r points o f yo u r own.
all meals included
You have ju st re tu rn e d from
wide range of activities including mountainbiking a T hom sun's Holiday Cam p
cancelled for the w hich w as very disappointing.
swimming, volleyball,
whole week You decide to w rite to th e
mountain-climbing and cycling' com pany to com plain about
the holiday a n d ask for som e
practise your English with local people . m oney back. W rite b etw ee n
few opportunities 120 and 180 w ords.
free pick-up service from railway station
to do this

a taxi

109
^ These sentences are incorrect. Find the 2 I h ate to listen to people quarrelling, (stand)
mistakes and re w rite the sentences correctly. I ______________________ to people quarrelling.
1 The advices she gave m e w ere very good. 3 It's all th e sam e to m e if I w alk to work, (mind)
2 We w o n th e oth er team by th ree goals to tw o. I ______________________ to work.
3 I lost th e bus because I w oke up late. 4 W hy d o n 't you use th e spare room as a study?
4 He did a very fu n n y joke and everyone burst (make)
o u t laughing. I su g g est______________________ into a study.
5 The know ledges w e get from school are n o t
5 I d o n 't have guitar lessons anym ore because I
always useful.
d o n 't have tim e, (given)
6 Please com e to th e beach - 1 know w e're going
I ______________________ guitar lessons because
to do lots of fun.
I d o n 't have tim e.
7 Let's m ake a gam e of chess - I've got nothing
else to do. 6 If you d o n 't m ake less noise you'll w ake th e
baby up. (keep)
A nsw er the follow ing questions using w ords If y o u ______________________ so m u ch noise
from the box below. you'll w ake the baby up.
7 I w ould rath er w atch a video th a n go to th e
original comfortable nervous intelligent
cinem a tonight, (prefer)
successful disastrous adventurous
I ______________________ a video th a n go to the
cinem a tonight.
1 W hat do you call som eone w ho achieves the
things th ey set o u t to do? Som eone 8 She says she w o n 't resign th o u g h she has been
asked to. (refuses)

2 W ho w ould you ask to go on an exciting b u t S h e ______________________ th o u g h she has


m aybe dangerous trip? S o m e o n e ___________ been asked to.

3 How w ould you describe som eone w ho is Com plete the te x t below using an appropriate
clever an d good at u n derstanding things? form o f the w ord in brackets.

4 How w ould describe an accident in w hich a lot


Travelling light
of people w ere k ille d ? ___________ A lthough flying is ( I)________ (fast) form of
5 W hat do you call som ething th a t is im aginative travel an d some people say it's (2)________
an d n e w ? ___________ (safe) too, it can often be (3)____ (tiring)
travelling by plane th a n by o th er m eans. W hen
6 How w ould you feel about having an operation I travel I h ate (4)________ (carry) a lot of
in h o sp ita l? ___________ luggage w ith m e so I try (5)________ (pack) all
7 How do trainers feel th a t fit your feet well? th e things I n eed into a small suitcase. Not only
is a small suitcase (6)________ (easy) to carry
th a n a large one b u t th e airline com pany are
^ Com plete the second sentence so th a t it has a also (7)________ (likely) to let you (8)_________
similar meaning to the firs t sentence, using the (take) it onto the plane w ith you as h an d
w ord given. D o n o t change the w o rd given. You luggage. So w hile everybody else is w aiting in
must use between tw o and five w ords, including (9)________ (long) queues to check in th eir
the w ord given. bags, you can relax. Of course, it is (10)______
(difficult) to take all th e things you w an t in a
1 I am really looking forw ard to going to France small suitcase b u t I th in k th a t th e advantages
in the sum m er, (wait) are (11)________ (great) th e disadvantages. I
I ______________________ to France in the prefer (12)________ (leave) a few things b ehind
sum m er. th a n to carry heavy luggage aro u n d th e w orld
w ith me.

110
^ Rewrite the following pairs of sentences to
make one sentence using who, which, whom, that,
Complete these sentences using an
appropriate preposition fo r phrasal
3D
where o r whose to make one sentence. verbs with take.
MacDonald's is an American company. It sells fast 1 He's just like his father. He takes
food. him in everything.
5 "
MacDonalds is an American company which sells 2 This w asn't the book I asked for - I'm
fast food. going to take i t _______to the shop.
1 That is the factory. They make Nike trainers 3 If y oure feeling hot, take your jacket
there.
2 Reebok is the nam e of a popular sports shoe. 4 There is far too m uch work for me to
Young people like to wear them. ta k e ________by myself.
3 A departm ent store is a shop w ith many
floors. You can buy lots of different kinds of 5 W ho's going to ta k e ______from the
goods there. director w hen she retires next year?
4 Henry Ford made cars. They became famous ^ Rewrite these sentences using the 0
all over the world. word o r phrase in brackets. 1
5 Henry Ford was a car maker. He became X
famous all over the world. 1 It took us three hours to get to London,
(lasted) N j
6 That is the man. I told you about him.
2 I thought I would walk into the town
7 Our neighbours come from Australia. Their centre, (on foot)
children are studying at university.
3 We could go to the cafe across the road
8 Phoebus was the nam e of the god of the sun. and talk, (chat)
It is pronounced Feebus.
4 I'd rather take a taxi home, (by)
9 Columbus was a famous explorer. He
discovered the Americas. 5 Do you have sugar in your tea? (take)
10 Flyer is the nam e of an early aeroplane. It was 6 Bill's not in at the m om ent - do you
flown by the Wright brothers. w ant to leave a message? (take)
7 He takes no interest in books,
(interested)

For questions 1-14, read the te x t and look carefully at each line. Some of the lines
are correct, and some have a word that should not be there. If a line is correct,
put a ( / ) . If a line has a word which should not be there, w rite the word.
1 My teenage children would rather not to go out at all than go
_ 2 out wearing the 'w rong' clothes or footwear. Even in cold
_ 3 w eather they prefer to go out w ithout to wearing a jacket
_ 4 if it means avoiding of wearing something which does not
_ 5 make them to look cool. The problem is the clothes that teenagers
_ 6 think are cool tend to be more expensive than those which
_ 7 are not. Also, the 'uncool' clothes are as often m uch w armer
_ 8 than the trendy ones, but unfortunately kids can't stand
_ 9 from wearing them. Certain brand names are not as popular, for
_ 10 some reason, as all others. Take boots, for example. I bought a pair
_ 11 of boots for my young son which looked like exactly the same
_ 12 as another more w ell-known make of boots, which were also
_ 13 cost twice as m uch as the ones I had chosen. He refused to
_ 14 wear the boots I had got for him.

Ill
R e adin g
^ W o rk w ith a partner. Read these comments
made by students about to begin an FCE
course. D o they express the way you feel?
Discuss yo u r answer w ith a partner.
'I th in k th e Use of English is going to be the
m ost difficult paper.'
George Papadopoulos, Greece
'O ur FCE course starts n ex t year so I'm going
to start reading English books ju st for pleasure.'
Carmen Silva, Brazil
'I'm going to get hold of the cassette th a t goes
w ith our textbook, an d listen to it every night.'
Hans Sveltberg, M unich

^ Read the paragraphs A - H quickly and choose a


heading fo r each paragraph from the list below.
1 M ake im portant inform ation stand out
2 Read w idely
3 The oral exam
4 A fun w ay of learning
5 Believe in yourself
6 A useful qualification
7 W hat th e exam is all about
8 A technique for taking notes
A Succeeding in th e FCE m eans you will be able Listening to songs is n o t only enjoyable b ut
to go on to take m ore advanced exam inations m em orable because of th e melody. Singing to
such as the Proficiency exam. In some countries, yourself in English w hile y o u 're w aiting for the
this m ay enable you to teach English. bus is an excellent w ay of revising your
gram m ar and vocabulary.
B There are m any cases of people w ho w ere able
to com m unicate in a foreign language after a It is n o t possible to re-sit individual papers of
m atter of m o n th s ju st by reading on a regular th e FCE. The exam is designed to be a test of
basis. You should start w ith simplified readers stu d en ts' overall com petence in English, and
and th e n go on to m agazine articles. th eir final grade is th e total score of all five
papers.
C A technique w hich will help you revise and
recall inform ation m ore easily is to w rite dow n Candidates have to take five papers, including
useful phrases or rules on small cards. a speaking test w hich will take th e form of a
'paired' interview w ith an o th er candidate.
D R em em ber to use a highlighter p en to pick out
the m ain ideas in a text - this will help you H First of all, w h atev er your aims in taking the
recall vocabulary m ore easily later. exam , you m ust set o ut w ith a positive attitude
tow ards studying. If you th in k you will fail, the
chances are you will.

112
Sm art kids 13

FCE practice: Part 3


^ Seven parts in exercise 2 have been removed from the article.
Choose from the parts A -H the one which fits each gap 1-7.
There is one extra paragraph which you do n o t need to use.

Success comes in 'cans' not in 'can'ts'!


This June, about 300,000 candidates w ill sit for the You could also try w riting d o w n the w ords of
Cam bridge First Certificate E xam ination in thirty songs in E nglish an d learning verses by heart.
different countries. These candidates, aged betw een S The good thing about this form of
12 and 65, w ill have studied E nglish for at least revision is that you can do it any tim e and any
500 hours and sitting the exam ination w ill be an 30 place.
opportunity to see w hat they have learnt.
1 Of course, not every student is interested in getting
a top grade - some students w o u ld be quite happy
The average pass rate for the FCE is 70-75 per cent. w ith a pass - and you d o n 't have to be a genius to
2 If students do fail, they can re-sit the get a grade C in the FCE. If you approach the exam
exam a few m onths later - in December - or they 35 in the right way, you ought to pass. But you m ust
can w ait till the follow ing June. W hat can m ake the m ost of your abilities an d this w ill m ean
candidates do to prepare them selves for the great m aking the m ost of your memory. 6
day and m ake sure they get the best possible
results? A nother thing you can do to help your m em ory to
w ork m ore efficiently is to take notes w hile you're
3 You have to malce the decision to be 40 reading; w riting things do w n can help you retain
successful - it's in your hands, nobody else can do things more easily. Experts say the m iddle part of a
it for you. Secondly, if you are interested in a good text is the part w e tend to forget more easily so pay
grade (an A or B) you w ill have to do m uch more particular attention to this p art of a text, reading
than just attend classes and han d in your and re-reading carefully if necessary, 7
hom ew ork in a half-hearted way. 45 Carry the cards w ith you so you can revise at odd
m om ents of the day.
Long before you have to sit for the exam ination
you should get into the habit of reading som ething Finally, it w ill help to talk to other candidates and
in E nglish just for the fun of it. 4 After share ideas. You can learn a lot from each other.
a w hile, you w ill be able to understand basic Above all, rem em ber to th in k positive: d o n 't say 'I
messages. 50 could never do it', say: 'I can, I w ill'.

@ Read the te x t and find the three m ost useful


tips fo r preparing to take the FCE fo r you.

Find w ords in the te x t th a t have a similar


meaning to the following. T h e firs t le tte r of
each w o rd is given to help you.
1 to take an exam s________
to take th e same exam a second tim e r_
a m ark in an exam g________
4 th e parts of a song or p o em v__
5 a very clever or skilled person g_
6 reading som ething again r______

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13 Smart kids ......

G ram m ar and Use o f English


Modal verbs (1)
2 I'm sure you are tired after studying all night.
Q Underline the modal verbs in these sentences. Y ou________tired, after studying all night.
1 He can't be interested in taking the exam,
3 I don't believe this mark is correct. I hardly
because he never does any work.
made any mistakes.
2 They can re-sit the exam a few months later.
This m a rk ________be correct!
3 He m ust be clever to have got into Oxford
University! 4 It's possible you'll pass the exam, but it is
unlikely.
4 You could try writing down the words of songs.
Y ou________pass the exam.
5 We should do well in our exams because we've
had excellent teachers. 5 I haven't decided w hether to take the exam in
6 If you approach the exam in the right way, you December or June.
ought to pass. I ________take the exam in December or June.
7 She's not very confident, but she's intelligent
and might do better than she thinks. U Underline the modal verbs in the following
N ow answer these questions using the sentences.
examples above to help you. 1 I m ust try and have a positive attitude.
a W hat form of verb follow modal verbs? 2 Candidates have to take five papers.
b Which sentences express advice and degrees of 4 You m ustn't copy another candidate's answers.
possibility?
5 You don't have to stay if you've finished the
Match the following sentences w ith one of test - you can go.
these meanings. When you think something is:
N ow answer these questions about the
a possible
sentences above.
b certain
a Which verbs express obligation, prohibition and
1 He m ust be mad to w ant to do a bungey jump! lack of necessity?
2 She's not very confident, but she's intelligent b Which sentence expresses obligation coming
and might do better than she thinks. from the speaker him/herself?
3 This grade can't be correct - the examiners c Which sentence expresses obligation which is
m ust have made a mistake. outside the speaker him/herself?
4 You may pass if the questions aren't too
difficult. In the past and future, must is replaced by have
to.
See grammar reference page 154.
We had to take a lot o f exams when I was
at school.
We will have to take an exam at the end
Complete the second sentence so that it has a of the year.
similar meaning to the first sentence using an
appropriate modal verb. See grammar reference page 154.
1 I'm not sure if the test is on Monday or
Wednesday.
The te s t________be on Monday, but it
_______ be on Wednesday.

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Sm art kids

FCE practice: Part 2


C om plete this te x t by choosing the c o rre c t Q For questions 1-14, read the te x t below and
verb form fo r each sentence. th in k o f the w o rd which best fits each space.
Use only one w o rd in each space.
G eneral exam tips
Here are some last words of advice to help Babies are good at grammar
you do well in exams. First of all, you Scientists have succeeded (1)____ . proving
(1) should/can't avoid staying up late the night w h at every p are n t know s: babies are
before. Eight hours sleep (2) will/could m ake intelligent. All h ealthy babies (2)____ able
you feel fully aw ake th e n ex t day b u t if you to p u t to g eth er rules of gram m ar alm ost before
(3) can't/m ustn't mandLgt that, seven hours th ey (3)_________ talk.
(4) m ust/should he enough. You (5) m u st/d o n t At first, scientists could n o t u n d erstan d how
have to rem em ber to take your identity card babies w ere (4)_________ to do this. To find
or o th er form of identification w ith you. out, scientists (5)_________ to in v en t a new
Rem em ber, you (6) don't have to/m ustn't co p y language and speak it in fro n t of the babies.
o ut th e question as this w ill w aste valuable The babies quickly (6)_________ to m ake sense
tim e. You (7) m ay/ought to end up n o t having of th e n ew language. They (7)_________ able to
en o u g h tim e to answ er th e question itself. do this by listening to th e sounds: even
There are five papers and you (8) m u st/d o n t n ew b o rn babies (8)_________ tell th e difference
have to pass all five to pass th e exam . You (9) b etw een sounds like 'p a h ' and 'b ah '.
m ay/have to answ er all th e sections on each
Researchers also m anaged (9)_____ show
paper. You (10) m ustn't/ca n 't forget to p u t your th a t children are sensitive to gram m atical
n am e on all papers. inform ation from th e age of five m onths. At te n
^ W rite you r own advice to a friend w ho is m o n th s an in fan t (10)_________ use
anxious about an im porta n t exam, using modal inform ation about th e order of n o u n s and
verbs and the w ords below. verbs, and at 16 m onths th ey k n o w w here
n o u n s and verbs belong in a sentence.
stay u p /late
However, alth o u g h th e baby (11)_
get/fresh air h ave a good idea ab o u t th e rules of the
w o rry /too m u ch language, it m ay (12)_________ k n o w m uch
take/breaks ab o u t m eaning. 'D addy', for example,
( 1 3 ) _ _ ______ be used for all m en rath e r th a n
stu d y /to o hard
ju st one. C hildren soon succeed (14)_
ea t/h e alth y food overcom ing th a t difficulty. Once th e y reach the
revise/w ith a friend age of about 15 m onths, th ey learn about ten
w ords a day, every day.

rnoSfll verbs
no -s oh the
p e rS o h

ire / o l l o w e l t ; / t h e
inJin'Wve

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|13 Smart kids

V ocabulary
Parts of speech
^ !S] Are you good at grammar? Listen
and read this nonsense verse by Lewis
CarrolL Find examples of parts of speech
such as verbs and nouns, and w rite them
in the chart.

Jabberwocky

Twas briliig. and the siithy foves


Did gyre and gimble in the wabe Complete these sentences using the correct
All mimsy were the boro^oves form of do o r make.
And the mome raths outfirabe. me a favour - help me with this test.
Can I ________ a suggestion? Why don't you
delay taking the exam till next year?
noun
H e ________lots of mistakes in the exam.
verb
S h e ___ ___ m uch worse in the test than her
adjective teachers expected.
conjunction It w o u ld ________me really happy to get a
preposition grade A in the exam.
I've got a lot of revision t o ________for the
Q Complete these sentences with a nonsense exam.
word from the chart, using the appropriate part
of speech. Collocation (exams)
1 I met some friendly at a party last Look at these ways of talking about exams,
weekend. enter for an exam
2 He bought some really trousers from sit (for)/take an exam
a shop in town. take/do a test
3 Can vou an exam if vou haven't done get a good or high mark in a test
enough ? get into university
4 I'd love to be able to Spanish. pass/fail an exam
5 Thev don't know w hether to play N ow correct these sentences.
today.
1 I am going to write the First Certificate Exam
on Saturday.
Collocation {make and do) 2 I got a high mark in my exam and passed to
Q Match the words and phrases in the box with university.
either make o r do. 3 I took a good mark in the test.
4 I am going to take myself for the exam.
a mistake a suggestion a promise well
5 She succeeded to the exam.
your best badly the bed the shopping
revision someone a favour someone happy 6 How m any exams are you getting this
summer?

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Sm art kids 13

L is te n in g a n d s p e a k in g
^ Look at this p ictu re .W h o are these people and 4 Candidates will lose m arks if th ey d o n 't express
how do you th in k they feel? interesting opinions.
5 The candidate should try and m ake th e
exam iner feel relaxed.
6 The exam iner will do his best to find o u t your
mistakes.
7 O ur body can send im p o rtan t messages to the
exam iner.
8 Candidates should try and smile an d joke a lot.

FCE practice: Parts 3 and 4


^ W o rk w ith a partner and do the task below.
You are both m em bers of the student com mittee
and have been asked to help the governm ent
w ork out a n ew curriculum.
A nsw er these questions to help you plan yo u r
curriculum . You do n o t have to agree w ith your
partner.
Before you do the follow ing section check yo u r 1 Look at the list of traditional subjects (A). W hich
understanding o f these key words. three should be given the m ost tim e and w hich
three the least time?
a p p ro a ch squeeze issues in itia tiv e
to catch s o m e o n e o u t nod gaze 2 Look at the list of new subjects (B). W hich ones
w ould you add to the curriculum ?
You are going to hear an examiner talking B
about an oral interview. Listen and answer the
Latin en v iro n m en t
questions.
A ncient Greek sex education
1 The speaker is ho m e economics m oney m anag em en t
A describing th e type of questions asked history politics
in an oral interview . chem istry pop music
B giving candidates advice. religious education cultural studies
C discussing th e problem s of exam ining. m aths graphic design
2 The speaker says oral exam inations English m arketing
A can be difficult for th e exam iner.
B m u st be tak en seriously. In my o p in io n ,... is very im p o rta n t because ...
As far as Im concerned/As I see it ...
C can be enjoyable.
I would say th a t ... is m ore useful than ...
I feel strongly th a t ...
FCE practice: Part 4 I feel the same way as you./l agree w ith you about that.
Thats absolutely right.
^ Listen again. For questions 1-8, decide
I see w hat you mean, but ...
w hich o f the statements are tru e o r false Youve got a point, but w hat about the fact t h a t ... ?
according to the speakers. But dont you th in k that ...?
W h a t do you think?/W hat are your views?
1 The oral interview is to allow candidates to
show their ability.
2 Candidates should always give long answers.
3 Candidates should carefully prepare one topic W h a ts yo u r favourite/least favourite subject
to talk about. at school?

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Sm art kids

W r itin g An opinion composition expresses the w rite rs personal


opinion about a particular subject and contains arguments
FCE practice: O pinion com position
that support that opinion. Here are some tips on writing
a good opinion composition:
^ Look at the pictures and com plete use a formal o r semi-formal style
the names o f the school subjects make sure that all the points you include are relevant
below.Then match the pictures to the subject
to the names. state your opinion in the introduction
begin a new paragraph fo r each main point and give
examples o r supporting arguments
use linking words to connect your ideas in each
paragraph, and to link the paragraphs together
In the conclusion, summarize your main points and
re-state your opinion in different words

W hich o f these subjects can you do at


your school?

Q W o rk w ith a partner. Look at the school


subjects above, and discuss w hich are fun,
interesting, helpful, boring o r n o t useful.

Decide which o f these sentences could be


used in the discussion in exercise 2.
1 The m ost im portant subject, in m y opinion,
is m aths.
2 Teachers sh o u ld n 't give us so m uch
hom ew ork.
3 I can't see w h y w e should do ancient
languages like Latin.
4 If you d o n 't do well in m aths you can't
get into university.
5 I m ust w ork harder at school.
6 One of th e m ost useful subjects is geography.
7 We should do m ore experim ents at school.
8 Physical education is a w aste of time.
Do you agree o r disagree w ith these
statements?
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Sm art kids 13

^ Read the com position below. W hich paragraphs


have the following functions?
1 to m ake a statem ent
2 to justify th e statem ent using exam ples
3 to sum up

The most important school subjects

Nowadays, we have to study a lot of


subjects at school. Although most subjects
can be interesting, I think the most
important subjects are those which are
useful, that is, those which help you to
find a job.

In my opinion, we shouldn't have to study


subjects which are not useful, such as
Latin. Latin is a language that nobody
speaks, and is therefore not likely to be
useful in many jobs.

English, on the other hand, ought to be


taught because we might find it useful for
writing letters and applications. We might
also need English to express ourselves in
interviews for a job.

^ Look at the te x t again and Information technology is another important


find w ords which have the subject. It should be taught because
follow ing functions: everyone will need to use computers in the
future, otherwise they won't be able to get
1 th ree phrases w hich give a job.
a personal opinion
In conclusion, subjects such as classical
2 one purpose clause languages might be interesting but they
aren't important in terms of getting a job.
3 one phrase w hich Personally speaking, I think subjects
introduces an exam ple should be useful, but they should be
interesting too.
4 one superlative phrase

N o w its yo u r turn. W rite yo u r com position Use this plan to help you.
follow ing these instructions.
W hich are th e m ost im p o rtan t subjects for
y oung people to study at school and w hy?
W rite b etw een 120 and 180 words. .... .5taie_yQur__apiii io n c Iea rly,
.... _Mke_twjQ.ct.iriSiS.pQiw ..
supporting your opinion.
_Suni__uf__by..res-tatln^,yQur.
apmioa JA ^ Jifferen t way.

119
M H m ^ r
m o rn im m
The world's best,
the world's worst
M od al verbs (2): m odal perfect

R e a d in g
^ W o rk w ith a partner. Look at this photograph and discuss the
follow ing question.
This is a fam ous au th o r of detective novels. In D ecem ber 1926 she
suddenly disappeared. She tu rn e d up several days later. Can you
explain th e m ystery? Use these w ords to give you ideas.

kidnap go abroad memory murder lost


leave her husband suicide accident

Read the te x t quickly. W h ic h explanations fo r Agatha C hristies


disappearance are mentioned? U nderline them.

THE MYSTERY OF THE DISAPPEARING AUTHOR

here cant be many people wha because most people do it at home and have been in Guildford at that time.
T havent heard of Agatha Christie.
She must have sold more novels
do not drive off in the middle of the
night. What few people would have
45 4 Colonel Christie took
an afternoon train from London to
than anybody else in history. 25 known was that Agatha Christies life Harrogate and learned that his wife
1 In that year, she was couldnt have been very happy at the had been staying in the hotel for a
involved in a mysterious case; of an time. 3 She had been week and a half She had apparenth
author who vanished - the author was sleeping badly, eating irregularly, and 50 seemed normal and happy. She
herself ': moving furniture around the house for sang, danced, splayed billiards, . read
30 no apparent reason. Some newspapers the newspaper reports of her own
A t the age of thirty-six, Agatha hinted that her husband would have disappearance, .chatted with her
10 x V C h ristie m ust' have been an
gained much from the death of his fellow guests and went for walks,
enviable figure. She" lived with her wife, but he couldnt have murdered 5 Later, ^Archibald
husband. Colonel Archibald Christie, her because he had been at a party all 55 Christie told reporters: She has
in a magnificent country' house and 35 weekend in Surrey: he had a perfect suffered from a loss of memory and i
she was already the autlior of .Seven alibi. Other journalists suspected she do not think she knows who she is.'
15 detective novels. Then on the freezing might have disappeared in order to get But Ritchie-Calder, a friend of hers,
cold night of 3 December, 1926, she publicity in the press. Then her thought her ^ condition did not
left her home in Sunningdale, brother-in-law Campbell received a 60 resemble the usual cases of amnesia.
Berkshire, and disappeared. 40 letter from her whose postmark
2 ,At first, the police indicated that it had been posted in
suspected suicide: Her husband said London at 9.45 am on the day after The consequences of the whole ston
she -couldnt have committed suicide her disappearance, so she couldnt were not all uiipleasant.

120
The w orld's best, the w orld's w orst

FCE practice: Part 3


^ Read the article again. Seven paragraphs have E Her hu sb an d had fallen in love w ith an o th er
been removed from the article below. Choose w o m an and h er m o th er's d eath m u st have
from the paragraphs A -H the one which fits b een a great shock for her. Her b eh av io u r at
each gap l-7 .T h e re is one extra paragraph hom e suggested she could have been on the
which you do n o t need to use. verge of a nervous breakdow n.

A Till h er death in 1976, A gatha Christie refused F At eleven th e n ex t m orning, an officer at


to discuss the m ystery of h er ow n G uildford police station w as h an d ed a report
disappearance. Her biographer, Jan et M organ, saying th a t A gatha Christie's car h ad been
accepts th a t it m ust have b ee n a case of found halfw ay dow n a grassy ban k w ith its
nervous breakdow n followed by am nesia. b o n n et buried in some bushes.
B He felt th a t she had prepared for her G She w as reading a new spaper w hich contained
disappearance because she had 300 w ith her, h er story, w ith a photograph, w h en her
an d she had also told oth er guests in th e hotel hu sb an d m ade his w ay over to her. 'She did
th a t she w as a visitor from South Africa. n o t seem to recognize h im ,' said th e hotel
m anager.
C She w rote u n d er h er first husband's surnam e.
She w rote m ore th a n 70 novels featuring the H Then, on 14 December, a w aiter in a hotel in
Belgian detective, Hercule Poirot or th e curious H arrogate, Yorkshire, looked m ore closely at a
village lady. Miss Marple. fem ale guest and realized from th e new spaper
photographs h e h ad seen th a t it m ust have
D Yet th ere was a tim e w h en A gatha Christie was b een th e missing novelist. He rang the
relatively u n k n o w n . The first tim e she cam e to
Yorkshire pohce w ho contacted h er hom e.
th e attention of th e public in a big w ay was in
1926. ^ C om plete these sentences about the story.
1 A gatha Christie can 't have b ee n a happy person
because ...
2 She m u st have b een well-off because ...
3 She m u st have h ad a lot of im agination
because ...

Agatha Christies next novel, The Big Four, Find w ords in the te x t th a t have a similar
was received badly by reviewers, but sold meaning to the follow ing.The firs t le tte r o f each
65 nine thousand copies - more than twice w o rd is given to help you.
as many as The Murder o f Roger Ackroyd.
1 disappeared v________
And from then on her books sold in
increasing quantities. 7 Yet this 2 said som ething in an indirect w ay h ________
is difficult to accept. Why did she register in 3 proof th a t som eone was n o t w h ere a crime
70 the hotel using the name of her husbands
took place a________
mistress? A television play produced after her
death e\ ,.! >uggested that the whole event 4 th e atten tio n th a t som eone or som ething gets
might I'-.i'. -been pat1 of a plot to murder her from th e m edia p________
husbaiiv.!' mistress. The only thing that is
5 the b ro th er of your wife or hu sb an d b________
75 certain is that her disappearance in 1926
turned Agatha Christie into a best-selling 6 a gam e y ou play on a rectangular table, using a
writer and a millionaire. Perhaps her long stick to knock balls into pockets aro u n d
disappearance was Agatha Christies most the table b________
successful story.
7 w h en you lose your m em ory a________
8 things th a t hap p en as a result of som ething else
c________
9 a secret plan to do som ething p________
i l l
121
The w orld's best, the w orld's w orst

G ra m m a r a n d Use o f E n g lis h
M o dal verbs (2): m odal perfect
4 I called by at th eir house b u t th ere w as no
m u C om plete these sentences from the te xt. answer.
1 T h e r e ________ be m any people w ho h av e n 't (T hey/not/get/back/holiday/yet)
heard of A gatha Christie.
2 Her h usband said s h e ________ have com m itted 5 My w allet's b een missing for days.
suicide. (I/lost/it)
Check you r answers w ith the te x t.T ic k the
sentence which refers to a past event. b u t it's possible som eone stole it.

N o w com plete the follow ing rules: 6 I saw M adonna at th e sup erm ark et yesterday.
D o n 't be silly.
W hen talking about a present situation w e use
m odal + infinitive w ith o u t________ (T h at/not/be/M adonna)
W h en talking about a past situation, w e use
m odal + have + ________ she lives in th e US.

Decide w hat degree o f possibility is expressed Com plete the second sentence so th a t it has a
in the follow ing sentences: similar meaning to the firs t sentence, using the
a possible w o rd given. D o n o t change the w o rd given.
b certain You must use between tw o and five w ords,
including the w o rd given.
1 She m u st have b een very unhappy.
1 I'm n o t sure th a t she killed herself, (have)
2 He m ight have stayed in a different hotel.
S h e _________________ suicide.
3 They can 't have w anted to come.
2 She m u st have b een n earby because h er coat
4 She m ay have gone straight hom e.
was in th e car. (far)
5 I could have ta k en th e train.
_____________ aw ay because her
She c a n 't _____________
See grammar reference page 155.
coat w as in th e car.
3 The h o tel o w ner obviously did n o t recognize
her. (know n)
Read the situations and w rite sentences using The h o tel o w ner was her.
the notes in brackets. Use a past modal form .
4 I expect she w as n o t feeling very well at the
1 I w onder w ho left this parcel on th e doorstep? tim e, (bad)
(It/be/postm an) She m ust at th e tim e.
It can't have b een m y neighbour.
5 O ne possibility was to ask a doctor's help,
(doctor)
2 I th in k it w as th e butler w ho killed Lord
She to help her.
Moneybags.
6 The w aiter guessed she w as th e missing
(It/be/butler)
novelist, (have)
I d isa g re e._________________________________
because he was n o t in th e house at th e tim e. The w aiter th o u g h t s h e _______________ the
missing novelist.
3 I w onder w h y she didn't say hello this
m orning. 7 It's clear to m e th a t Miss Scarlet did n o t
com m it the crime, (com m itted)
(S he/not/see/you)
It's n o t like h e r . ___________________________ . Miss S carle t__________________th e crime.

122
The w orld's best, the w orld's w orst

Look at pictures 1-5 and imagine w hat must have happened o r


cant have happened in each case. Discuss yo u r ansv/ers w ith a
partner.

FCE practice: Part 5


^ W h a t do you kn o w a b o u t d rivin g a car? W h a t do
you press w hen you w a n t to do th e fo llo w in g things?
1 To m ake th e car go faster? a_______
2 To w a rn som eone to get o u t of your w ay? li_______
3 To stop th e car? b_______ ^
Read the te x t and check yo u r answers.

Learning to drive
U ntil recently the record for the w orst (1)_______ in th e w orld w as held DRIVE
by H elen Ireland from California w ho failed h e r (2)_______ test in DRIVE
th e first second, by m istaking the (3)_______ for th e clutch and ACCELERATE
shooting straight th ro u g h th e wall of th e test centre (4)_______ . BUILD
This record seem ed (5)_______ until 1981 w h e n a m otor m echanic BEAT
called T hom son failed th e test before th e (6)_______ had even got into EXAMINE
th e car. On (7)_______ at th e test centre, T hom son tooted th e h o rn to let ARRIVE
everyone kn o w h e w as ready; th e exam iner strode (8)_______ o u t to the ANGRY
vehicle, told T hom son it w as (9)______ to sound your h o rn w hile LEGAL
stationary, an n o u n ced Thom son's (10)_ _____ to pass th e test and strode FAIL
aw ay again.
By M arch 1980, Betty Tudor had ta k en an (11) BELIEVE
273 lessons. D uring this tim e she had had nin e (12)___ an d was INSTRUCT
b an n ed from th ree driving schools. Her (13)_______ test end ed w h en she SEVEN
drove in th e w rong (14)_______ ro u n d a roundabout. 'If it h a d n 't b een DIRECT
for th e cars com ing th e (15)_______ way, he w o u ld n 't have OPPOSE
noticed anything w rong,' said Mrs Tudor (16)_______ . 'A nd anyway, BITTER
th e brakes w ere w orking fine.'

For questions 1-16, read the te x t again. Use the w o rd given in capitals at
the end o f each line to fo rm a w o rd th a t fits the space in the same line.

123
14^ The w orld's best, the w orld's w orst

V o c a b u la ry
W ord fo rm a tio n (noun suffixes) Collocation (la w and order)
^ W e use -er and -or to describe w hat a person C om plete the chart using the phrases in
does.These suffixes are also used fo r things the box.
such as tools, machines and instrum ents.W hich
o f the follow ing w ords are things and w hich are charge someone find someone guilty
people? Divide them into tw o groups. arrest someone commit a crime
put someone on trial steal something

officer screwdriver reviewer projector


tin-opener visitor typewriter biographer
cooker murderer operator crim inal police judge

have a motive suspect someone sentence someone


Phrasal verbs w ith break

b re a k o u t b re a k up w ith s o m eo n e
b re a k in to s o m e th in g b re a k o u t o f s o m e th in g
b re a k dow n b re a k up
Com plete this te x t using the appropriate form
y Rewrite these sentences replacing the o f one o f the phrases above.
underlined phrase w ith an appropriate The police (1)_______ M atilda Evans of the
phrasal verb from the list above. m u rd er because she h ad an obvious (2)_______
- she w anted h er husband's m oney. They
1 The burglars gained entry to th e building at couldn't (3)_______ h er w ith th e m urder,
night. how ever, because th ey h ad no evidence. But
2 Our car stopped w orking on th e m otorw ay. w h en th ey found th e bottle of poison w ith her
3 The police are searching for th e convict w ho fingerprints on it, th ey w ere able to (4)_______
escaped from prison. her, an d th e court (5)_______ h e r guilty of
4 W orld W ar II started in 1939. m urder. M atilda Evans w as (6)_ to life
im prisonm ent.
5 M ichael an d Cecily separated after five years
together.
6 She left h er boyfriend.

Read the te x t below. Use the w o rd given in capitals at the end


o f each line to form a w o rd th a t fits the space in the same line.

The musical th ief


Once a young Russian ( 1 ) broke into a flat in BURGLE
the to w n of Baku, w hile th e (2)_ _____w ere aw ay on hohday. OWN
E xhausted after filling his bag w ith (3)_______ goods, he ran STEAL
him self a nice h o t bath. Feeling hungry, h e sw itched on the (4)_ COOK
and m ade him self a tasty m eal. The (5)_______ w ash ed it dow n ROB
w ith a few glasses of vodka. Being a bit of an am ateu r (6)______ MUSIC
he th e n sat dow n an d started playing Grieg's Piano Concerto,
w hich w oke up th e nextdoor neighbours. W hen th e police (7)_ OFFICE
arrived th ey found th e (8)_______ thief happily at th e piano. MUSIC

124
The world's best, the world's worst 14

L iste n in g and speaking


Before you listen, check with your teacher the meaning of these Crime
words.
Speaker 1
blackmail shoplifting mugging burglary robbery kidnapping Speaker 2
Speaker 3
Q ESI Listen to five speakers talking about different crimes and
Speaker 4
complete the chart.You can use some crimes more than once.
Speaker 5
FCE practice: Part 3
[S] Listen again. For questions 1-5, choose which of the situations
A -F each speaker is talking about. Use the letters only once.
There is one extra letter which you do not need to use.
In which extract:
A was the thief arrested immediately? Speaker 1_
B were the thieves strangers to the area? Speaker 2_
C was the thief very ineffective?
Speaker 3_
D was the thief a teenager?
E was the thief an old man? Speaker 4_

F was one of the thieves probably very small? Speaker 5_

Q Do you know anyone who has had a similar rocking chair cat lap stroke happy
experience to the ones in the listening text? p u rr climb stuck m ew despair
telephone dial 999 fire-brigade
^ W o rk with a partner. Look at the pictures and tell fireman ladder rescue cup o f tea
the story, using the words in the box to help you. hero fire-engine wave goodbye

125
,1 4 ) The world's best, the world's worst

W ritin g
FCE practice: Argum entative composition
Look at these photographs. Compare and
contrast them with a partner. Life is much betterJbaiiJt was 200 years aaoLQi&cms.^

wrong with thiS.way_M..........


live taday,.i_ri..ffly_imjife_is M t e r now tlia n it was ZOO ____
years ago,........................................ ................................

Firstly,.we_are_muclijrjflj:6. technologically a<dvanc_ed________


_today Modern communication system s mean,that,we_____
can now comm,umcate,,ea,si],y with people all over t he world.

Also, nowadys,,pfi.Q|2k!s__tand,ard of living ig ,c^uit,e________


high and people live longer d ue to modern advances________
, in medicine and healthcare, as well as improvements_______

.......On the.other hand^tQday__wjs_fac,e_,5,6rious,e,nvir,oflmejitaL


-* ______ problems such as pollution of the atmosphere and globa l ,
iK " / a ,war,ming_______________________________________

. ....... Another problem related to modern living is the pace_____


,of,liffi;,.majiy. people to day suffer. fro,ra_stre,65-rekted_____

is easier in many ways


_,scifitic,.a
have create d new.prQhleJH6._.tQQ,..........

I Look at this advice a teacher gave her student.


Look at the model again and decide whether
the student to o k the teachers advice.
'Don't forget to give the basic outline of
your argum ent in the first paragraph.'
'One paragraph should be about arguments
in favour of the statement.'
Read this task.Then read the model composition
'Another paragraph should contain
and discuss with a partner whether you agree or
arguments against the statement.'
disagree with the statement.
'Your conclusion should be a balanced
'Life today is m uch better than it was 200 years summary taking both sides into account.'
ago.' Write your answer using between 120
and 180 words.

126
The w orld's best, the w orld's w orst

Q Read the follow ing sentences Q W o rk w ith a partner and com plete the diagram using w ords from
and divide them into the box. Decide which w ords are good things and w hich are bad
arguments fo r and against things.
the question in exercise 2.
Then decide in which computers telephones aeroplanes central heating
paragraph the w rite r might cars television nuclear energy diseases poverty
have used the sentences. video pollution noise violence space travel

1 O vercrow ding is a com m on


sight in cities all aro u n d the diseases
w orld.
2 People are better-educated
these days.
3 All in all, I th in k life is better
today.
4 We have very efficient forms
of transport.
5 New incurable diseases
have appeared.

^ Find w ords o r phrases in


the com position which:
1 refer to th e present
2 draw com parisons
3 give exam ples
4 express an opinion

O N o w its yo u r turn. W r ite your


com position follow ing these
instructions.
'There are m ore bad things th a n
good things about living in the
21st century.' Discuss. Write
b etw een 120 and 180 words.

.................................................1 4 * =

r m
n x ii

127
Work and play
C lauses o f p u rp o se and reason

Reading
^ W o r k w ith a partner. L o o k at th e photographs and
m atch th e m w ith th e jobs b e lo w .T h e n discuss th e
questions.

h o te l r e c e p tio n is t s hop a s s is ta n t w a itre s s


g a ra g e m e c h a n ic c a m p le a d e r
1 W h a t do th e se p e o p le h av e to do in th e ir jo b ?
t j t .
2 W h ich jo b w o u ld y o u like to do th is su m m e r? W h y ?

Read the magazine a rtic le and m atch th e five people


w ith th e photographs.

H a v in g fun in the su n ?
Choosing a summer job is not easy. Bruce inglis talks
to five teenagers about their job plans for this summer.

A Miguel Machado, 15, G ranada m oney, w h ich I could g e t from m y p aren ts


1 M iguel M achado, w h o w ill b e takin g h is FCE th is anyw ay, I think it is im portant to b e able to
June, in ten d s to w ork in h is u n c les g arage for a m an a g e your o w n fin a n ces and to sta n d on your
fe w w e e k s so th at h e can earn en o u g h m on ey to o w n tw o fe e t. A nother reason te e n a g e r s ch o o se
go on holiday w ith his friends. His m ain reason for 25 to w ork in bars and ca fes is b e c a u se su ch p la ces
5 ch oosin g to w ork is to b eco m e le s s reliant on his h a v e a certain glam our for y o u n g p eo p le. There is
p aren ts for m oney. This summ er, Im plann in g to u sually cool m usic playing, and th ere are lo ts of
w ork as hard a s I can, so I can g e t som e m on ey to y ou n g p eo p le sittin g around ch a ttin g and having
go to th e Canary Island s w ith so m e friends. I a go o d tim e .
d o n t su p p o se th e job w ill b e th at excitin g, but Id
10 rather w ork in th e g arage th an deliver pizzas, C Rafael Garcia, 18, Mexico City
w h ich is w h a t m y b ig brothers go in g to do. My 30 W orking at a sum m er cam p is fa n ta stic, sa y s
in tention is to w ork hard for four w e e k s, by w h ich Rafael, w h o w ill b e w orking a s a group leader in
tim e I'll h ave en ou gh m on ey to g e t a w a y and charge of a d ozen 12-year-olds th is sum m er. I do
relax afterw ard s. it so that I can w ork outdoors in stea d of b ein g
stuck in a restaurant so m ew h ere in a p ollu ted
B M arcelle Dupont, 17, Lyon 35 city. You also g e t paid to do stu ff you enjoy - like
15 Lots of stu d e n ts also g e t jobs w orking in bars or sailing, hiking and archery. Last year, I g o t to
cafes. W orking con d itions are usually poor and p ractise m y E n glish too, b e ca u se all th e group
p ay is ev e n w orse. So w h y do stu d en ts q u eu e up lead ers cam e from different countries, and English
to g e t th e s e jobs w h e n th e y could b e relaxing and w a s th e only la n g u a g e w e had in com m on. Rafael
enjoying their holidays? M arcelle D upont sa y s sh e 40 d o e sn t only work in order to m ake m oney, but
20 d o es it for several reason s. A part from th e also b e ca u se of th e op portu nities th e sum m er

128
Work and play i| ^

FCE practice: Part 4


Read the texts again. For questions 1-8 choose
from the people A -E . Some o f the people may
be chosen m ore than once. W h e n m ore than
one answer is required, these may be given in
any order.
W hich of th e five people interview ed:
1 chose h is/h er job to be n ear
camp gives him to socialize and develop as a a friend? __
person. I suppose one of the m ost important 2 hopes to im prove h is/h er
boosts you get is that you becom e a hero to language skills?
45 young kids, and earn m oney at the sam e tim e!
3 will learn useful skills for a future job?
D Jenny Logan, 16, Birmingham 4 will spend th e m oney h e earns
Working in the summer w ill be a n ew on a holiday?
experience for Jenny Logan; sh e is going to be
a sales assistant in a local supermarket. Itll 5 w ants to be in d ep en d en t of
give m e valuable experience in dealing w ith h is/h er parents? _
50 people because w h en I finish school Id like to
go into marketing or m anagement. Im also 6 has chosen a job w h ere h e/sh e will
doing it because of the chance it gives m e to m ake n ew friends?
get out of the house a bit. The m oney will come 7 thinks th e job w o n 't be very interesting?
in handy, but Im not saving up for anything in
55 particular. I arranged this job so as not to get 8 will be com bining w ork w ith
bored, I suppose: I didnt w ant to be sitting a holiday? _
around all day.'

E Sylvia Bonatti, 17, Naples O W hich o f the jobs described would you enjoy
Most young people would like to spend their most? Why?
summer near the seaside and a good w ay of
60 combining work w ith leisure is to find a job at a Find and underline w ords and phrases th a t
seaside resort. Sylvia will be working as a hotel mean:
receptionist in a tourist hotel on the island of
Capri near Naples. 'I chose the job in order to 1 aims to (A) 6 enjoy oneself (B)
be w ith my boyfriend w ho is a lifeguard and 2 d ep en d en t o n (A) 7 responsible for (C)
65 will be working on Capri in the summer. Of
3 prefer doing 8 useful (D)
course, it also m eans the sea is just a stone's
throw aw ay so I can go for a dip after work som ething (A)
and g et a good tan too. 4 w ait in line (B) 9 so th a t (E)
5 be in d ep en d en t (B) 10 n o t far aw ay (E)

129
Work and play

G ram m ar and Use o f English


Clauses of purpose and reason
^ Complete these sentences using an appropriate
Q Underline words o r phrases in the sentences word o r phrase.
below which express purpose. 1 I bought a b ik e ________I can cycle to school.
1 His main reason for choosing to work is to 2 She chose the jo b ________she wanted to
become less dependent on his parents. combine work and pleasure.
2 I do it so that I can work outdoors. 3 He became a sales representative________to
3 I arranged this job so as not to get bored. travel.
4 I chose the job in order to be with my 4 She wants to be a m a n ag er________the big
boyfriend. salary.
Complete these rules by adding an appropriate 5 She closed the door quietly s o _______ to wake
connector. the baby.
1 ________expresses purpose and is 6 She got up early i n ________to be late for the
followed by a sentence w ith a modal verb. train.
2 _ express purpose and are 7 She wants to go abroad _ study foreign
followed by infinitive w ith to. languages.
8 She w ent to live in Spain the weather.
W hat can we use instead of in order to/so as to
when we want to be more informal? W hich Q Answer these questions using an appropriate
sentence shows this? expression of purpose o r reason. Some prompts
are given to help you.
B B Underline words o r phrases in the sentences
below which express reason. 1 Why has she taken up Chinese?
1 A nother reason teenagers choose to work in (in order/translator)
bars and cafes is because such places have a 2 Why does he avoid eating cakes?
certain glamour. (because/not get fat)
2 I'm also doing it because of the chance it gives 3 Why should people avoid smoking?
me to get out of the house a bit. (so as/not get heart disease)
4 Why did he become a pilot?
Complete these rules by adding an appropriate
(in order/travel)
connector.
5 Why is he learning to use the computer?
1 _ shows the reason for or
(so that/find job in IT)
cause of something and is followed by a
sentence (subject + verb). 6 Why aren't they camping this weekend?
(because of/weather)
2 shows the reason for or
cause of something and is followed by a noun 7 Why did she go to university?
phrase. (get/good education)
8 Why did he become an actor?
See grammar reference pages 155-6. (because of/fame)

Q Complete these sentences.


1 I would like to stu d y _______ so as t o ________ .
2 I am studying English because
3 People become doctors in order to
Compare your answers with a partner.

130
Wo rk and play 15S

FCE practice: Parts 1 and 4


Make a list of the jobs animals do fo r people, eg dogs for the blind.

Read the te xt below and find out which animals are mentioned.

T h e p e rfe c t e m p lo y e e ?
They are not very tall - less than a metre high - and don't (1)________guns
but the director of Bega prison in the south of Sweden (2)________that his
new members of (3)________- ten domestic geese - are the perfect guards.
better than dogs or men. The geese (4)_ gentle but they are fierce
and intelligent, and they don't (5)____ ___ longer holidays or overtime
(6)_______ . And they never (7)______ ____ on strike. They feel very
grateful to their employers because their new ( 8 ) _ _____ has saved these
geese from the butcher's block. Warden Lars Sjoberg says; 'We have such a
small num ber of (9)________that we need this kind of help, especially at
night. Criminals are always (10)________to escape over the fence, but now
the geese guards quack loudly and alert the prison staff.'

^ For questions l-IO , read the te x t again and decide which answer A, B, C o r
D best fits each space.
1 A hold B carry C take D bear
2 A believes B asks C expects D tells
3 A employees B workers C staff D team
4 A are B looking C look D looking
5 A ask B go C have D dem and
6 A income B salary C pay D wages
7 A be B go C going D are going
8 A duty B work C job D employ
9 A employers B employment C unem ploym ent D employees
10 A try B to try C tried D trying

Read the next extract and find out w h a t 10 November and 400 refer to.
Sauce for the guards
1 Sjoberg says 'Geese they bite very hard and few people
2 w ant to try a goose-bite a second time. They pinch hard
3 w ith their beaks and can cut you if they do flap their wings
4 about.' Sjobererg says they are call the geese 'Guard Unit B'
5 and they patrol betw een two high-wire fences which are surround
6 the prison near the city of Helsingborg. 'They used to give
_ 7 geese jobs like this in ancient Rome,' Sjoberg added.
_ 8 'And in Scotland they are still use geese as guards.'
9 The geese are lucky to be still alive. They were saved on
_ 10 10 November, the date w hen m any Swedes have celebrate
_ 11 the annual holiday of 'Martin's goose'. The holiday is marks
_ 12 the birth of Martin Luther, the founder of the Lutheran church.
13 The local flocks of 400 geese were all going to end up on the dinner
_ 14 table, but the prison reserved ten of them for special guard duty.

For questions 1-14, read the te x t again and look carefully at each line. Some
of the lines are correct, and some have a word that should not be there. If a
line is correct put a tick ( / ) . If a line has a word which should not be there,
w rite the word.
131
15 Work and play

V o c a b u la ry
W ord fo rm a tio n (suffixes) Collocation and idiom s (jobs)
M any adjectives are m ad e b y a d d in g th e suffixes apply for a job
-fill, -able, -y a n d -al. go for an interview
Make adjectives using the w ords below, and do som ething for a living
answer the questions. be given the sack
get prom oted
scare truth believe luck profession
suit count rely avoid help
Q Look at the phrases above. C om plete the
second sentence so th a t it has a similar
avoid -able = avoidable
meaning to the firs t sentence, using the w o rd
help -ful = helpful
given. D o n o t change the w o rd given. You must
1 W hat som etim es happens to th e -e at th e end use between tw o and five w ords, including the
of a verb w h en w e add a suffix? w o rd given.
2 All of these adjectives can be m ade negative 1 W hat's your job? (do)
using th e prefix un- except one. W hich w ord is
W h at d o __________________living?
it?
2 She h ad to leave h er job because she was
W ords o fte n confused always arriving late, (given)
S h e __________________because she w as always
Com plete the sentences using one o f these
arriving late for w ork.
words.
3 Last year she w as th e assistant m anager; now
e x p e rie n c e q u a lifica tio n s tra in in g sl<ills she is th e m anager, (got)
1 She's never done anything like this before. She This y e a r __________________from assistant
has n o ________ . m anager to m anager.
2 She's never w orked at th e job b u t has passed a 4 Your application should include a copy of your
lot of exams. She's g o t ________ . certificates, (job)
3 She has th e practical ability to do a difficult job I f __________________, you should send a copy
well. She's got t h e ________ . of y o u r certificates.
4 She got th e job w ith little experience b u t the
5 He's being in terview ed today for a n ew job.
com pany gave h e r som e e x c e lle n t________ .
(go)
H e __________________an interview today for a
I For questions l - l 0, read the te x t below. Use the n ew job.
w o rd given in capitals at the end o f each line to
form a w o rd th a t fits the space in the same line.

Strictly confidential
Reference for Joseph Bloggs
I w ish I could say it w as a (1)_ w orking w ith PLEASE
M r Bloggs but, (2)________ , this w as n o t th e case. He was FORTUNATE
(3)________ for th e job b u t o u r attem pts to train h im totally QUALIFY
failed. His office w as always very (4)________ w ith paper TIDY
scattered all over th e place. He w as very (5)________ FORGET
an d seem ed (6)________ to rem em ber anything. He w as so ABILITY
(7)________ I could n o t even tru st him to do th e sim plest RELY
tasks. M r Bloggs w as (8)________ to custom ers w ho often POLITE
com plained to m anagem ent about his (9)________ . In short. RUDE
I believe h e w ould be (10)_ for th e job for w hich SUIT
h e applied. Regrettably, I cannot recom m end him .

132
Work and play 1S

L is te n in g a n d s p e a k in g FCE practice: Part 1


Listen again. For questions 1 -6 , choose the
best answer A, B o r C.
1 H ow does the speaker feel about th e course?
A It could be better.
B He w ould recom m end it.
C It's very varied.
2 W hy did th e speaker do th e course?
A In order to see London.
B To help h im w ith his acting techniques.
C To im prove his language skills.
3 W hy did th e speaker do th e course?
A Because she is interested in Spain.
^ V 'r
B To im prove h er com puter skills.
C To im prove h er reading skills.
4 W hat is th e speaker's m ain reason for choosing
th e course?
A The art classes.
B To practise h e r Swedish.
C To m eet y oung people from different
countries.
5 W hy does th e speaker reco m m en d th e camp?
A It w ould m ake a nice change.
B He w ould rath e r n o t go alone.
C They will get sw im m ing lessons.
6 W hy does th e speaker telephone?
A To com plain.
B To apply for a job.
C To find o u t about a course.
FCE practice: Part 2
^ C i^ Look at the photographs o f holiday ^ Match the expressions in list A to th e ir
courses above. Choose tw o and compare and definitions in list B.
contrast them. A B

Q Cfc Discuss these questions. 1 a package expressing yourself w ith


physical signs
1 W h at holiday course w ould you m ost/least like
2 th e p o in t no room or spaces available
to do? W hy?
3 body language bored or tired of som ething
2 If you could choose your ow n ho lid ay w hat
th ree things w ould you do? 4 fed up a holiday w hich includes
3 Have you ever been on a holiday course? travel an d accom m odation
5 booked up th e purpose of som ething
Q l EH You w ill hear people talking about six
different holiday courses. W h ic h courses are
mentioned?

133
115 W o rk a n d p la y

Writing
FCE practice: L e tte r o f a p p lic atio n

^ Read the following job advert.


Sunny D ays ,
The key to good letters of application
In t' rn a t'lo n a l 6 u m m e r C a m p
is organization.You should use Group le ad e rs w an ted , =
paragraphs to make the message clear 5 a n Kemo, Italy
Here are some of the features we 1-14 July 1 1 5 -5 0 July /1-15 A ugust
usually find in letters of application:
salutation ::0 do voujspeak EngVieh? :
reason for writing O Do ^ou pla^ an)j of the following eports?
qualifications - tennis - table tennis - volleyball - basketball - football -
experience swinnming - horse-rWing
closing remarks
O ^re you friendly and easy to get on with?
signing off
O Do you think you would make a good leader?
T iy ^ y ju z
Read the letter of t o be responsible for a group of 15 children
application below and
put the parts in the t h i i :ialar'/i
,50 per week and free food and acconnmodation
correct order using
the advice in the Ml applicants must be fit and healthyl
w riting box above to
Write to;
help you. Max Voxels
25 Chepstow Crescent
London Wll . ^ _____ _ .
/ look forward to heanm^ p-omyou,

o fall, i speak English well and /


Finally, / think / would make a goodgroup
write it flueyitly. !passed the Cambridge first
leader because / am friendly and get on with
Certificate exaM with a jrade B and t am now people, especially children.
preparing for the Proficiency exann. / ant keen on
sports:! am a member o f the localswimming club,
and also play basketball regularly. I don't have any
health problems. / am writing to applyfor thejob o fgroup leader
at the Sunny Days Summer Camp in San
Remo this summer. / would like togiveyou
some details about myself.
In terms o f experience, although / have never been a
group leader before, / have attended severalsummer
camps, and therefore understand the kind o f work I am available to work during the period
they do. / believe / am a good leader (l am President 15 August.
o f my class at school) and lastyear / was captain of
the basketball team.
Dear M r Vogels,

134
........... . Work and play
Q Read this le tte r o f application and find the I Now its yo u r turn.Y ou have seen the follow ing
follo w in g mistakes: advertisem ent in the local newspaper fo r
1 a wrong preposition sum m er w o rk . W r ite a reply saying why you
2 repetition of a word or phrase w ould be suitable fo r th e job. W r ite between
120 and 180 w ords.
3 wrong tenses used
4 a missing article
5 a wrong modal verb
6 a spelling mistake Sunny Beach Hotel
C o rre c t the mistakes using the model le tte r to The Parade
help you.
Bognor Regis
Sum m er Work
bear Sir,
Receptionist
/ hav'e seemyour advertisement in the Daily
W e need young people (age 17 -2 5 ) w ith
Star. ! am really interested in this sort o f
a good kn ow le dg e o f English to help o u t
werk and I u/onld like to jiv e you some
information about me. in th e busy su m m er m onths.

/ would likeyou to know / am good student - You can w o r k m ornings o r evenings.


my best subjects are maths andphysics. / To apply, w r ite a le tte r in English saying
w ill take the fC E ep<am in December a n d i
w hy you should g e t th e job.
am alsojo in j often to the jy m which it
means / am veryfit. / am also a member Please w r ite to :
o f the school athletic team. M rs A Boyce

/ would likeyou to know / w ent to a summer


camp lastyear a n d / think this is a good
thing for a good leader to do. I am fsyears
old. I would rather be a group leader in the Use the follo w in g notes to help you:
frstperiod, (t worked to a camp in Spain
lastyear).
I believeyo u m ustgive me thejob because o f
my enthusiasm and because the children
w ill like me and do w hat / tell them. _ why are you writing?

Yours faithfully, eductipn/c^ualificaionst

Blanca Suarez
worke-xpi^neiice?

an-y other rderant infarmatipn?

135
^ Read the definitions below, then w rite the w ord Five o f these sentences are incorrect. Find the
they describe. T h e firs t le tte r o f each w o rd is mistakes and re w rite the sentences correctly.
given to help you. 1 She will get into O xford University. I really
d o n 't know.
1 som eone w ho kills an o th er person deliberately
m ___________ 2 You o ught to be clever to get a grade A.
3 She can 't be Mrs Bleany because Mrs Bleany
2 som ething you use for opening tins
died five years ago.
t___________
4 You m u st tell lies. It's n o t honest.
som eone w ho w rites books, articles or plays
5 They m u st be on holiday because th ere was
a___________
nobody at hom e w h e n I called.
som eone w ho steals things from o ther peo p les 6 I told you w e should have get up earlier - no w
houses h___________ w e'v e m issed th e train.
som ething you use to type letters t_________ 7 She m u st have b een a h appy w o m an - she h ad
som eone w ho has a position of au thority in the so m an y problem s all h er life.
army, navy or police o___________
som ething you use to tu rn screws
s___________

C onnect the sentence beginnings in list A w ith the sentence endings in list B using
the expressions so/so that/because/because of.
A B

I The m atch w as cancelled I w o u ld n 't be late for th e m eeting.


2 We w en t to bed early th e rain.
3 I caught a taxi w e could get a good night's sleep.
4 She couldn't take p art in th e race nobody could get in.
5 She locked th e door carefully th e late arrival of th e plane.
6 Their flight was delayed th e pain in h er leg.
7 He started taking m ore exercise it was dam aging his health.
8 He stopped sm oking he could lose w eight.

Replace the underlined w ords in these sentences w ith the c o rre c t form o f one of
the phrasal verbs below. Make any o th e r changes necessary.

catch up (w ith ) b re a k o u t hold on b re a k dow n


b re a k up (w ith ) b re a k in to catch on b re a k o u t (o f)

1 How did th e thieves get into th e building?


2 W hat will you do if th e m achine stops w orking?
3 Can you tell Mrs Larkin to w ait for a few m in utes?
4 Jo h n and M ary a re n 't getting on and th e y 'v e decided to sep arate.
5 How did th e prisoners m anage to escape from prison?
6 W hen did the w ar in Bosnia start?
7 If you fall behind w ith your w ork, you'll have to w ork h ard er to do the w ork
everyone else has done.
8 Do you th in k this kind of m usic will ever be p o p u lar?

136
C om plete the sentences
using the appropriate form
7 The police w ere able to the w o m an w ith
poisoning h e r husb an d because they found th e poison in her
30
o f the w ords and phrases handbag. n>
below. 8 The p o lic ew o m a n ___________ th e m an in th e superm arket <
w here he had stolen tw o cans of beans.
steal (sonnething) 5
a rre s t (som eone) C om plete this chart. Make adjectives from the w ords on the
ro b (som eone) left, using the suffixes -al, -able, -ed, -ful and -y. Make any spelling
c o m m it a c rim e changes necessary.
charge (som eone)
find (som eone) g u ilty
ve rb noun adjective C
suspect (som eone)
educate education I
have a m o tive scare scared 2
help help 3
1 Sherlock Holmes enjoy enjoym ent 4
___________ Professor
qualify qualification(s) 5
M oriarty had com m itted U j
these horrible crimes. fail failure 6
I
2 M any people w ho -A
Use an appropriate w o rd from the completed chart above to
___________ , even m urder,
com plete these sentences.
are n ev er discovered by the
police. I find using a dictionary very w h en I am w riting
3 The c o u r t___________ all com positions in English.
th ree m e n ___________ of Do you find w orking as a w aitress ? I d o n 't
arm ed robbery and th in k I w ould like it at all!
sentenced th e m to three 3 His in th e exam m ade him determ ined to
years each in prison. succeed n ex t time.
4 Som eone h a s ___________ I'm n o t very keen on , TV program m es - I like
m y w allet from m y handbag! soap operas best of all.
How m any banks has he My sister always finds h o rro r films v e r y ___________ , and
gets nightm ares after w atching them .
M atilda hated h e r husband, You n eed a lot o f ___________ to get a job as a pilot.
so she d efin itely __________
for killing h im .

I For questions l - l I, read the te xt. Use the w o rd given in capitals at the end o f each line to fo rm a
w ord th a t fits the space in the same line.

Learners
Believe it or not, I took m y (1) test four tim es DRIVE
so I hardly have th e right (2) ________ to tell other QUALIFY
people h o w to be ( 3 ) ________ learners and to do well SUCCESS
in th eir ( 4 ) ________ . However, m y job as a teacher in a E X A M IN E
( 5 ) ________ school in L ondon m eans I have to deal SECOND
w ith young people w ho are often very ( 6 ) ________ INTELLIGENCE
but are th o u g h t to be ( 7 ) ________ by their teachers. FAIL
I have n o w been involved in (8) . ____for over tw enty EDUCATE
years an d I have com e to th e (9) ____ th at children CONCLUDE
fail because of a lack of ( 1 0 ) ____ in them selves w hich BELIEVE
is the result of th eir teachers' lack of (11) m CONFIDE
th eir ability to learn.

137
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bral out (of)


. ' -jSiiil UO is'jj _ _ _ _ _ t ^) Vttf i^nw I .1^
l a r f j o 11% J _________ J f ig h j f l ^
> . *> it>w o b u j f'.'ia ___ _ ____ I f )
: ; ri3 '> J c <n -fo j 7 ifi
V' : ^'^f& m .:nQ U m m a h ji __
Jl 0.aiio..iic, oijw. .{^...',
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13 oi'w oTi-w prf f>frt e-. r

ll'afiiLr|#*------- Afif-'ri'jrfjB-l'il'KJ e 1
....... .mS!#! : , .r, -ifW

138
U n it 3, page 29: S tud en t A U n it 8, page 71: Team A
1 F u rth er research show ed th a t th e box w hich Famous facts quiz
h ad contained th e ship's compass had been
sm ashed. 1 Holiday is sung by M adonna.
2 The com pass itself w as broken. 2 The Theory of Relativity w as developed by
A lbert Einstein.
3 Som eone had sm ashed one of th e barrels of
alcohol. 3 Romeo and Juliet w as w ritten by Shakespeare.
4 The lockers still contained plenty of food and 4 The English hav e b een conquered by the
w ater. Vikings an d th e Rom ans.
5 The sailors' chests w ere still there, w hich 5 Penicillin w as discovered by A lexander
show ed th a t th ey h ad probably deserted the Fleming.
ship in a great hurry.
6 B ut a search of th e C aptain's cabin show ed that U n it 9, page 81: S tud en t A
th e ship's navigation instrum ents w ere missing. L eo n a rd o D iC aprio
7 This m e an t th a t th e M ary Celeste had been Place of b ir th :________
sailing w ith o u t a crew for nin e days.
Date of birth: 11 N ovem ber 1974
8 She had sailed 700 miles in those nine days.
Eyes: blue
9 A part from th e crew, th e ship had sailed w ith
C a r:________
Briggs's wife an d his daughter.
Pet: A lizard
Favourite food: pasta, cheeseburger, French
fries w ith lots of ketchup, coke an d lem onade
U nit 7, page 65: S tud en t A He loves: skydiving
F avourite ac tre ss:________
Music: The Beatles, Led Zeppelin, Sugar Hill
Gang, Pink Floyd

139
-.JU

U n it 3, page 29: S tud en t B U n it 8, page 71: Team B


1 Captain M orehouse of th e Dei Gratia decided Famous facts quiz
to take th e ship back to Gibraltar.
1 The n ex t Olympic Games are being staged
2 B oth ships arrived in G ibraltar h arb o u r six
by Australia.
days later.
2 The tom b of T utankam un was discovered
3 From the beginning, th e M ary Celeste had been
by H ow ard Carter.
an unlucky ship.
3 Microsoft is ow ned by Bill Gates.
4 Her first captain had died w ithin 40 hours of
taking over th e ship. 4 The telephone was in v en ted by A lexander
G raham Bell.
5 On h er m aiden voyage, she had had an
accident and had to be repaired. 5 Gravity w as discovered by Sir Isaac N ew ton.
6 W hile she w as being repaired, a fire had
broken o u t on board. U n it 9, page 81: S tud en t B
7 Later, w hile she was sailing n ea r Dover, she L e o n a rd o D iC a p rio
hit an o th er ship, w hich sank. Place of birth: Hollywood, CA
8 This had happ en ed u n d er h er third captain. Date of b ir th :________
9 Before setting sail for Genoa, h e r ow ner had E y e s:________
repaired th e M ary Celeste.
Car: Silver BMW Coupe
10 This helped to explain w hy she had survived
P e t:________
for so long in th e w intry A tlantic after the
crew had abandoned ship. 6 Favourite food:
7 He lo v e s:_____
U n it 7, page 65: S tud en t B Favourite actress: Meg Ryan
Music:

140
U n it 1
form
I drink milk. They don't drink milk.
He drinks milk. It doesn't drink milk. "
We drink milk. Do you drink milk?
They drink milk. Does she drink milk?

Present sim ple


The p resen t simple is used to talk about things th a t h appen or exist all th e tim e,
n o t ju st at the m o m e n t of speaking. It can have th e following uses:

use exam ple

1 to say som ething happens repeatedly The children always m a k e th eir ow n '
breakfast.
to describe a general or p erm a n en t situation He w o r k s in a bank. She liv e s on h er own.
to talk about general scientific truths The earth g o es ro u n d th e sun.
to describe present actions in com m entaries W right p a sses the ball to Jones.
or stories
to talk about ho w often w e do things I go to th e superm arket every Saturday.
to give instructions You p u t th e eggs in a saucepan; you b o il
them .
to talk about tim etables an d schedules* O ur train le a v e s at 10 o'clock.

Present continuous
form
be + verb + ing
I am leaving. I am not leaving. Am I leaving?
He is leaving. She is not leaving. Are you leaving?
They are leaving. We are not leaving. Is he leaving?

use exam ple

to talk about actions already happening at the I 'm g e ttin g dressed - I'll be dow n in a
m o m e n t of speaking m om ent.
to talk about tem porary situations She's w o r k in g in a bar at th e m om ent.
to talk about changing situations Things are g e ttin g m ore an d 'm o re expensive.
to express irritation (w ith always) S h es always arrivin g late.
to talk about plans and arrangem ents* I 'm h a v in g m y h air cut tom orrow .

Note
* See unit 4 on the future.
141
i
Gram m gr reference mmraewrBiaivn

Unit 2
Past simple
form
Regular: verb ed Irregular: eg takeltook, m akelm ade, catch!caught
She laughed. I took it. We made a cake. I caught it.
They didn't laugh. He didn't take it. She didn't make a cake. He didn't catch it.
Did you laugh? Did they take it? Did you make a cake? Did they catch it?

use ex a m p le

to talk about events w hich h ap p en ed at a I sa w a great film last night.


particular tim e in th e past
to talk about situations in th e past I liv e d in France for tw o years.
to talk about habits in th e past We w e n t for long w alks every day.

Note
Adverbs which we often use w ith the simple past include: a t six o'clock, on 8 A ug u st 19 5 1,
la s t week, la s t m o n th , la s t ye a r, in / 9 99, days, ye sterd ay, on M o n d a y, ago.

Present perfect sim ple


form
have + past participle
I have been to Spain. I haven't been to Spain.
She has been to Spain. He hasn't been to Spain.
We have been to Spain. Have you been to Spain?
They have been to Spain. Has she been to Spain?

use ex a m p le

to talk about states or actions th a t started in I've liv e d here for tw en ty years.
th e past an d continue to the present She's b e e n ill since M onday.
w h en w e can see th e result of a past action in She h a sn 't w o k e n u p yet. Look! Y ou've
th e present m a d e a terrible mess in th e living room .
to talk about repeated actions in th e past w hich She's ta k e n p a rt in every race so far.
continue in th e present
to talk about experiences in our life H ave y ou ever b e e n to France?
I've n ev er s e e n a w hale.
to talk about ho w m an y tim es w e have done That's th e th ird tim e h e 's w o n th e prize.
som ething
w ith th e superlative This is th e best film I've ever seen .

Note
Adverbs which we often use w ith the present perfect:
yet, already, since, ever, ever since, never, still, before, th is m orn in g , th is w eek.

142
G r a m R fia r r e f e r e n c e

Present perfect continuous


form
have/has + been + verb + ing
I have been eating. He hasn't been eating.
You have been eating. They haven't been eating.
We have been eating. Has she been eating?
They have been eating. Have we been eating?

use exam ple


to em phasize th e duration of an action I've b e e n w a itin g for an hour.
w h e n w e can see the results of an action Som ebody's b e e n w a lk in g on th e flowerbeds.
to say a n action is tem porary I've b e e n sta y in g w ith a friend.
to talk about tem porary repeated actions He's b e e n se e in g a psychiatrist.
to say an action is n o t com plete I've b e e n try in g to finish this assignm ent,
b u t ju st can 't finish it.

U n it 3
Past perfect sim ple
form
had + past participle
I had eaten dinner. He hadn't eaten dinner.
You had eaten dinner. We hadn't eaten dinner.
We had eaten dinner. Had you eaten dinner?
They had eaten dinner. Had they eaten dinner?

use exam ple

for events th a t took place before an o th er I arrived at th e station too late, an d found
event in the past th a t th e train h a d already left.
to em phasize th e order in w hich events occurred He d id n 't go o u t u n til he h a d d o n e all
his w ork.
m reported speech He told us h e h a d arrived a w eek before.

143
Gram m ar reference

Past perfect continuous


form
had + been + p resent participle
I had been sleeping.
He hadn't been sleeping.
Had she been sleeping?

use example
to describe a past action w hich continued until She h a d b e e n w a itin g by th e ph o n e
I an o th er past action took place all n ight before h e finally called.
! to explain w hy an action or feehng in the I w as tired; I h a d b e e n w o r k in g all day.
i past occurred
to em phasize th a t som ething happ en ed for a long W ar suddenly broke o u t in a country w here,
period of tim e before an o th er event in the past un til th en , th e people h a d b e e n h v in g
peacefully for h u n d red s of years.

Note
The past perfect continuous is often used w ith adverbs such as for and since.

Past continuous
form
waslwere + verb + ing
1 was travelling. He w asn't travelling.
He was travelling. They w eren't travelling.
We were travelling. Was she travelling?
They were travelling. Were you travelling?

use example
to describe actions in progress in th e past She w a s b u sy cleaning th e house yesterday.
to describe an action in progress in th e past He w a s w a tc h in g TV w h en th e doorbell rang.
w hich is in terru p ted by a n o th er action
^ to em phasize th a t an event in the past was We w e r e sta y in g on a small island at the tim e.
j tem porary
i The couple w e r e sta n d in g on th e balcony,
to give descriptions
looking at th e beautiful n ig h t sky.
to talk about som ething you p lanned to happen We w e r e g o in g to go to Italy b u t w e had
b u t did th a t n o t happen to cancel th e trip.
to talk about tw o or m ore actions going on at W hile Jo h n w a s p u ttin g u p th e tent.
th e same tim e in th e past Bill w a s fry in g th e sausages.

144
Gi reference

U n it 4
Future (1): fu tu re sim ple, going to, present continuous, present sim ple
form
will, going to, present continuous, present simple
It will rain. It's going to rain.
It will n o t/w o n 't rain. It isn't going to rain.
Will it rain? Is it going to rain?
For p resent simple an d continuous see G ram m ar reference page 141.

use example
fu tu re facts Christm as w ill b e on a S aturday this year.
predictions It w ill b e a difficult test to pass.
decision tak en at th e tim e of speaking I'll d o th e shopping.
intentions I 'm g o in g t o go to Italy this sum m er.
som ething in the future for w hich w e have Yes, he's g o in g to score!
evidence now
to talk about plans and arrangem ents I W e're se ttin g o ff at 6 am.
to talk about tim etables and schedules The train g ets in at 9 pm .

U n it 5
Future (2): fu tu re perfect sim ple, fu tu re perfect continuous, fu tu re continuous
form
w ill have + past participle
w ill have been + p resent participle
w ill be + present participle
I will have finished. She will have been hnishing. I will be finishing.
He will not/w on't have finished. He will not/w on't have been finishing. You will not/w on't be finishing.
Will we have finished? Will they have been finishing? Will we be finishing?

use example
an action th a t will be com pleted by a particular They w ill h a v e arrived to m o rro w night.
tim e in the future
an action th a t will be in progress up to (Jn 6 M ay I w ill h a v e b e e n w orking h ere for
a particular tim e in the future tw en ty years.
an action th a t is expected to hap p en at some This tim e n ex t w eek w e 'll b e sa ilin g to
p o in t in th e future M ykonos.

145
Gram m ar reference

U n it 6
Conditionals (1): firs t and second conditionals

First conditional
fo r m
Conditional clause: I f + present sim ple/present continuous
M ain clause: futu re sim ple/present co n tinuous/m odal/im perative
Unless = i f not
If you leave now, you will/are going to/m ight catch the train.
If you don't leave now, you w ih/are going to/m ight miss the train.
Unless you leave now, you will/are going to/m ight miss the train.
If you leave now, will/are you going to/m ight you catch the train?

use e x a m p le

to talk about a possible event in th e future If w e p la y well, w e 'll win.


If you are c o m in g to th e party, bring a friend.
If w e 'v e fin ish e d by th en , w e ca n go out.
U n less you p ra ctise hard, y o u ll n ev er play
th e guitar weU.
U n less y ou are in te n d in g to leave now, w e
are g o in g to miss th e boat.

Second conditional
fo r m
Conditional clause: //+ past simple/were
M ain clause: m odal + infinitive w ith o u t to
If she cycled to work, she would feel better.
If she didn't cycle to work, she would feel better.
If she cycled to work, would she feel better?

use e x a m p le

to talk about an unlikely event in th e present II' I h ad m ore tim e. I'd com e w ith you.
or future If I w a lk e d to school. I'd be late.
to talk about an im aginary event If I w e r e rich. I 'd go an d live in the Baham as.
to give advice If you p ra ctise d th e guitar m ore, you m ig h t
im prove.
even i f iox em phasis E v en if I saw h im I w o u ld n 't speak to him .

146
U n it 7
C onditionals (2): th ird conditio nal, w ishes and regrets

Third conditional
form
C onditional clause: If!If only + past perfect simple
M ain clause: w ould have + past participle
If she had cycled to work, she would have felt better.
If she hadn't cycled to work, she would have felt better.
If she had cycled to work, would she have felt better?

use example
to speculate about different outcom es for things If she h a d re a liz ed he was lonely she w o u ld
w h ich happ en ed or d id n 't h ap p en in th e past h a v e ca lled him .
If you h a d n 't sta y e d o u t so late you
w o u ld n 't h a v e g o t in to trouble.
to express w ishes an d regrets If I h a d w o k e n u p earlier I w o u ld h a v e h a d
tim e for breakfast.
If o n ly you h a d to ld m e you w ere com ing I
w o u ld h a v e p rep a red you a nice meal!

W ishes and regrets


form
wish + past simple
wish + waslwere
wish + could + infinitive w ith o u t to
wish + past perfect
wish + would + infinitive w ith o u t to

use example
regrets about a present situation I w is h I h a d a bicycle.
I w is h I w e r e o n holiday now.
w ishes about p resent or futu re actions I w is h w e c o u ld go to th e circus.
regrets about th e past I w is h I h a d ta k e n y o u r advice.
to express irritation about a p resent situation I w is h you w o u ld n 't p h o n e m e at w ork.

Note
W ishes can refer to situations in the past, present o r future.
W e can use wish in fixed phrases like: I w ish you a M erry C hristm as.

147
Gram m ar reference

U n it 8
The passive
form
be + past participle
The passive voice is form ed by m aking th e object of th e active
phrase into the subject of th e new phrase.

form exam ple


1
present simple They m ake these boots in Italy.
> These boots are m a d e in Italy.
past simple They b o u g h t these goods in France.
These goods w e r e b o u g h t in France.
m odal verbs : She co u ld n 't see th e car from th e office.
The car could n o t b e se e n from th e office.
present continuous They are changing th e rules of th e game.
The rules of the gam e are b ein g ch a n g ed .
past continuous The dam age w as being repaired.
The dam age w a s b ein g rep aired .
present perfect He's lost th e keys. > The keys h a v e b e e n lo st.
past perfect They h ad already built the Pyramids.
> The Pyram ids h a d already b e e n b u ilt.
m odal perfect They m ight have b eaten United.
> U nited m ight h a v e b e e n b ea ten .
im personal They say he stole th e money.
He is said to have stolen the money.

use exam ple

to describe a process A banoffi pie is m a d e w ith bananas


and toffee.
w h en w e w an t to focus on th e action n o t on The garage rang to say your car h as b e e n
the person w ho did it rep aired .
w h en w e d o n 't w an t to identify th e agent There's b ee n an accident - coffee g o t sp ilt
on th e carpet. '
w h en w e do n o t know w ho did th e action The car w a s sto le n from outside the house.

Note
W e use by + agent when we w ant to emphasize the agent o f an action, eg:
The A m e rica s w ere discovered by C h ris to p h e r C o lu m b us in 1 4 9 2.

148
Gram m ar reference

U n it 9
Reported speech

direct speech reported speech


p re s e n t s im p le past s im p le
My m o th er is a lawyer. He said his m o th er w a s a lawyer.
p re s e n t co n tin u o u s past co n tin u o u s
I'm h a v in g m y hair cut today. He said he w a s h a v in g his hair cut th a t day.
past s im p le past p e rfe c t s im p le
I sta rted o u t as a teacher. He said he h a d sta rted o ut as a teacher.
p re s e n t p e rfe c t s im p le past p e rfe c t s im p le
I've p a sse d m y driving test. He said he h a d p a sse d his driving test.
p re s e n t p e rfe c t c o ntinuo us past p e rfe c t co n tin u o u s
I've b e e n h a v in g lessons for a year. He said he h a d b e e n h a v in g lessons for a year.
m o d a l verbs can/will/must could/would/had to
Can you help m e do m y hom ew ork? She asked him if h e c o u ld help h er do her
I'll help you do your hom ew ork. hom ew ork.
You m u st do your hom ew ork. She said she w o u ld help him do his hom ew ork.
The teach er told him h e h a d to do his hom ew ork.
yes/no q u e stio n If + w o rd o rd e r o f a s ta te m e n t
Do y ou w a n t som e m ore cake? She asked h im if he w a n te d m ore cake.
yes/no q u e stio n If + w o rd o rd e r o f a s ta te m e n t
A re you c o m in g shopping this afternoon? She asked if/w h eth er she w a s g o in g shopping
th a t afternoon.
m o d a l v e rb
L et's go to th e beach. She suggested g o in g to th e beach.
She suggested t h e y go to the beach.
She suggested t h e y w e n t to th e beach.
She suggested t h e y sh o u ld go to the beach.
wb- q u estio n What + w o rd o rd e r o f a s ta te m e n t
W h at's your favourite sport? I asked him w h at his favourite sport w as.
wh- question Where + w o rd o rd e r o f a s ta te m e n t
W here do you live? They asked h er w h ere she liv e d .
im p e ra tiv e W it h to + In fin itiv e
H a v e a rest. She advised/told h im t o h a v e a rest.
n e g a tiv e im p e ra tiv e N ot + to + in fin itiv e
D o n 't m a k e so m uch noise. He told th em n ot t o m a k e so m u ch noise.

J
Reported speech continued ...

The verb form in reported speech changes w h en th e rep o rt is m ade some tim e
after the original statem ent. W e do n o t always m ake these changes w hen:

w e are reporting im m ediately after It's a lovely day today


som ething has b ee n said M ary says it's a lovely day today.
w e are reporting a scientific fact The earth g o es ro u n d th e sun, th e teacher said.
> Our teach er told us th e earth g o es ro u n d th e sun.
w e w an t to say som ething is still tru e I 'm a teacher. He said h e 's a teacher.
w e are reporting m odal verbs I w o n 't prom ise to come, b u t I m ig h t.
m ight/could/w ould/should/ought to He w o u ld n 't prom ise to com e to th e party, b u t he
said th a t he m ig h t.

Tim e and place expressions

direct speech reported speech

today th a t day
now th e n
this th at
here th ere
ago before/previously
tom orrow th e n ex t d ay /th e following day
yesterday th e day b efo re/th e previous day
last night th e n ight b efo re/th e previous night
next w eek the following w ee k /th e w eek after (that)
n ex t W ednesday th e following W ednesday
this m orning th a t m orning

R eporting verbs

form verbs exam ple

verb + object + infinitive ask advise beg encourage invite She a d v ise d m e to go to th e doctor.
w ith to tell rem ind w arn
verb + that say claim adm it prom ise deny She c la im e d th a t she w as innocent.
verb + object + that tell rem ind w arn She r e m in d e d u s th a t w e h ad
an appointm ent.
verb + ing deny adm it suggest She su g g e ste d g o in g to th e cinem a.

Note
See also verbs followed by preposition + ing below.

150
^ Gram m ar reference

U n it 10
G erunds and infin itives

form
verb + ing, verb + infinitive with to, verb + infinitive w ithout to
I enjoy wailcing. I w ant to waik. I woutd rather waik:.
They don't enjoy waiking. We don't w ant to walk. They would rather walk.
Do they enjoy walking? Do you w ant to walk? Would you rather walk?

form verbs exam ple


verb + ing enjoy dislike d o n 't m ind avoid She en jo y s singing.
can 't bear can 't help practise He k e e p s laughing.
p u t off risk suggest can 't stand
suggest give up keep (on) miss
postpone

verb + infinitive w ith to afford decide agree arrange She can 't afford to go to Thailand. |
can 't w ait decide expect hope She d e c id e d to go to Wigan I
offer learn m anage plan preten d instead.
prom ise refuse seem th re a te n w an t
verb + ing or verb + begin start continue like h ate He sta rted to te ll a story.
infinitive w ith to w ith love prefer He sta rted te llin g a
no or little difference in story.
m eaning
verb + ing or verb + stop rem em ber try I re m em b e red te llin g him his
infinitive w ith to w ith sister phoned.
significant change of I r e m e m b e r e d to t e ll him his
m eaning sister phoned.
verb + infinitive w ithout to \ m ake let w ould rath er had b etter He m a d e u s w o r k hard.
m odal verbs You h a d b e tte r fin d a job.
verb + question w ords She d id n 't k n o w w h a t to say.
what, where, how, when I d id n 't k n o w w h e r e to go.
+ to infinitive She d o esn 't k n o w h o w to sp ea k
Italian.
They d id n 't k n o w w h e n to start
w riting.
verb + preposition + ing apologize for insist on succeed in They a p o lo g iz e d for b ein g late.
look forward to accuse (someone) of She in sis te d o n co m in g w ith us.
He su c c e e d e d in w in n in g the
first prize.
We lo o k fo rw a rd to h ea rin g
from you.
They a ccu sed h im o f stea lin g
th e money.

151
linar reference

U n it 11
C om parative and superlative adjectives

adjective com parative superlative exam ples

1-syllable and adjective -i- -er + than France is bigger t h a n


2-syllable adjectives Portugal.
Asterix is b rav e r th a n
Obelix.
the + adjective She is t h e cleverest pupil
-est in th e class.
T h e sky is b luest in Greece.
M ost 2 -syllable more + adjective + than Trains are m o r e expensive
adjectives and th a n buses.
adjectives w ith 3
or m ore syllables
the + most + History is t h e m o s t
adjective interesting subject of all.
as + adj -h as to com pare This restau ran t is as good
tw o people or things as th e o th er one.
She isn 't as clever as
h er sister.
not so + adj + as to compare N ew York isn 't so far
tw o or m ore things as Sydney.
the + adj -i- -er + the + T h e older he gets th e
adj -I- -er to say tw o m o r e p atien t h e becomes.
things change.

Irregular com paratives

adjective com parative superlative

good better best


bad w orse w orst
far fu rther furthest
m u ch /m an y m ore m ost
r little less least
old older/elder older/eldest

Note
2-syllable adjectives ending in -y usually change to -ie r and -/est: h a p p y -> h a p p ie r h a p pie st.
Adjectives ending in -e usually change to -r and -st: blue b lu e r bluest.
I-syllable adjectives which have a vowel follow ed by a consonant at the end o f the w ord, usually double the consonant
before -e r o r -est: b ig bigger > biggest.

152
Gram m ar reference

Unit 12
R elative clauses

p ro n o u n use e x a m p le

w ho/that people People w h o only talk about them selves are boring.
w hich/that things The film w h ic h we saw was on at the Odeon.
where places T hats the village w h e r e I'd like to retire.
w hen tim e That was a tim e w h e n we found it h ard to m ake ends m eet.
w hy reasons I d o n 't know w h y he behaved like that.
! whose possessive of who That's th e party w h o s e leader has ju st resigned.

D efinin g clauses

use e x a m p le

; give essential inform ation about th e person or The m an w ith w h o m you m ust m ake contact
I thing being referred to is called Jam es Bond.
com m as are nev er used to m ark a defining clause *The m an, w ith w h o m you m ust m ake contact,
is called Jam es Bond.
j that can be used to refer to both people an d thing 1 ca n t stand people w h o /th a t th in k they
1 n o w everything.
I like to w ear shoes w h ic h /th a t feel
com fortable.
I w h en the relative p ro n o u n is the object of the I spoke to th e boy (w h o ) I m et at th e party
: defining clause, w e can miss it out yesterday.
I th e relative possessive p ro n o u n whose is used He's th e m an w h o s e shirt always m atches
to show possession his tie.

N o n -d efin in g clauses

use e x a m p le

give extra inform ation M y n ew neighbour, w h o I m et for th e first


(we use com m as in non-defining clauses) tim e today, is very nice.
w e cannot miss out th e relative p ro n o u n *His brother, is an actor, lives in Los Angeles.
which is used to refer to things; w e cannot *My car, th a t I call Fanny, is quite old now.
use that

Note
* indicates a sentence which is wrong.

153
'r a m m a i r ref=:

U n it 13
M o d al verbs (1)

form
m odal + infinitive w ith o u t to
can, could, m ay, m ig h t, shall, sh o u ld , o u g h t to, m u st, h a ve to
I can swim. You should swim.
He can't swim. She shouldn't swim.
Can they swim? Should we swim?
I must swim. I have to swim.
She m ustn't swim. You don't have to swim.
Must we swim? Do we have to swim?

use example
to tall< about possible events in th e present or The w eath er can get very cold h ere in the
future w inter.
That m a y /m ig h t/c o u ld be Jo h n at th e door.
It m a y /c o u ld rain so take y o u r coat.
to m ake guesses about things w e are sure are She m u s t be French w ith a nam e like D upont.
tru e /n o t tru e in th e present or future She ca n 't be F rench w ith a n am e like Jones.
to talk about ability/inability in th e present She ca n /c a n 't speak French.
or future I co u ld speak French if I took lessons.
I c o u ld n 't speak F rench even if I took lessons.
to give advice You sh o u ld n 't go o u t w ith o u t an um brella.
to talk about perm ission in th e present or future C an/C ou ld I go to th e party on Saturday?
to talk about obligation in th e present or future I h a v e to leave now.
We h a v e to sit for th e exam.
You o u g h t t o /s h o u ld /m u s t tell the tru th .
to talk about lack of obhgation in th e present You d o n 't h a v e to com e if yo u d o n 't w an t to.
or future
to talk about prohibition in th e present or future You sh o u ld n 't/m u stn 't he.

154
a> -

U n it 14
M o dal verbs (2): m odal perfect
form
m odal + present perfect simple
She must have seen him.
They can't have seen him.
Should I have seen him?

use exam ple

to m ake guesses about th e past w h e n w e are sure She ca n 't have gone to L ondon on h er ow n.
som ething h ap p e n ed /d id n 't hap p en She m u st have gone to L ondon w ith a friend.
to talk about possible events in th e past She co u ld h a v e ca u g h t th e train.
He m ig h t h a v e fo r g o tte n his
appointm ent.
to talk about obligation in the past You o u g h t to /s h o u ld h a v e to ld th e tru th .
I h a d to le a v e at 6 o'clock.
to talk about lack of obhgation in th e past We d id n 't h a v e to w a it long for th e bus.
to talk about prohibition in the past You sh o u ld n 't h a v e to ld so m an y hes.

U n it 15
Clauses o f purpose and reason
form
because + subject + verb so as + infinitive w ith to
because o f + n o u n so as not + infinitive w ith to
in order + infinitive w ith to so (that) + m odal verb
in order not + infinitive w ith to

m eaning exam ple

th e reason for som ething He w as tired b eca u se he overslept.


He w as late b eca u se of the snow.
th e purpose She p u t h er coat on in ord er to keep w arm .
She p u t h er coat on in ord er n o t to feel cold.
She p u t h er coat on so as to keep w arm .
She p u t h er coat on so as n o t to feel cold.
She p u t h er glasses on so (th a t) she could
see better.

155
G ra m m a r re fe re n c e

Connectors

c o n n e c to r m e a n in g e x a m p le

however contrast I th o u g h t I w as late. H o w ev er, I got th ere first.


although contrast A lth o u g h I th o u g h t I was late, I got th ere first. ]
(even) though contrast E ven th o u g h it was raining, w e w en t for a stroll.
in spite o f contrast In sp ite o f th e rain, w e w en t for a stroll. |
despite contrast D e sp ite th e rain, w e w en t for a stroll.
after sequence A fter breakfast, I h ad a show er. A fter I had breakfast, I h ad
a show er. A fter having m y breakfast, I had a shower.
afterwards sequence I had breakfast. A fterw a rd s, I had a show er. |
before 1 sequence ' B efo re breakfast, I h ad a shower. B efo re I h ad breakfast,
I had a show er. B efo re having breakfast, I h ad a shower.

[Questions

q u e s tio n w o rd use e x a m p le

who questions about th e subject ; W ho w rote this book? Tolstoy did.


w hat 1 W hat caused th e accident? The bad w ea th er did.
who questions about th e object W ho does he w ork for? He w orks for a car hrm .
w hat W hat did she see? She saw a tiger.
where questions about place W h ere did you grow up? I grew up in the USA.
when questions about tim e W h en did you get here? I got h ere at eight.

Yes/No questions
To m ake YesINo questions, w h en there is an auxiliary or m odal verb
in th e statem ent w e change the order of th e subject and th e verb:

s ta te m e n t q u e s tio n

She is going out. Is sh e going out?


She has arrived. Has sh e arrived?
She can sing well. Can sh e sing well?
She will have finished soon. W ill sh e have finished soon?
She had b een to Rom e before. H ad sh e been to Rom e before?
She had b een w orking all day. H ad sh e b een w orking all day?

W hen the statem ent has a m ain verb, w e use th e auxiliary do!did to form questions.

She lives in h e r ow n flat. D o es she live in h er ow n flat?


She lived in h er ow n flat. D id she live in h er ow n flat?
156
b r e a k d o w n stop w orking. W hen a m achine c u t u p cut into little pieces. If you c u t
or a car b r e a k s d o w n it stops w orking. som ething u p you cut into small pieces.
The car broke down on the motorway. Cut up the m eat into fo u r or five pieces.
If you have a b r e a k d o w n w h en you are
travelling in the car, the car stops w orking. d rin lc to w ish som eone success and have an
alcoholic drink. If you d r in k to som eone's
b r e a k in to burgle. If som eone b r e a k s in to a h ealth or success you drink an alcoholic drink
building they get in by force in order to steal. A and w ish th em success or good health.
th ief broke into the house and stole all their jewels. L e ts drink to the happy couple!

b r e a k o u t start (for war, disease). If som ething d r in k u p finish w h at you are drinking. If you
bad breal'CS o u t it starts suddenly. The w ar broke d r in k u p you finish a drink. Come on, drink up,
out w hen villages near the border were attacked. it's time to go.

b r e a k o u t o f escape from prison. If som eone fa ll d o w n collapse. If a tree or a house falls


b r e a k s o u t o f prison th ey escape. Three d o w n it falls to th e ground. The house was empty
criminals broke out o f prison last night, killing for years - in the end, it fell down.
a guard.
g e t a w a y m anage to leave a place. If you g e t
b r e a k u p separate from a boy/girlfriend. If a a w a y from som ew here you m anage to leave
m arriage or close relationship b r e a k s u p it th a t place. Sorry I'm late b ut m y boss wanted me
ends. She kept having disagreements with Peter to w ork late and I couldn 't get away.
so they decided to break up.
g e t b a c k retu rn . If you g e t b a c k to a place you
b rin g u p help children grow. W hen you b rin g re tu rn there. We got back from the party ju s t after
u p a child you look after it until it is grow n up. midnight. The opposite is s e t off.
I was born in London but I was brought up by m y
g e t b a c k have som ething retu rn ed . If you g e t
grandparents in Canada. See g ro w u p .
som ething b a c k you are given som ething w hich
c a r ry o n continue. If you c a rry o n w ith an you used to have. Did you get that money back that
activity you continue w ith it. He carried on you lent Peter?
talking in spite o f the noise. G o o n has a similar
m eaning. g e t b y have en ough m oney to buy the things
you need. If you g e t b y you m anage to
c a tc h o n becom e popular. If som ething c a tc h e s con tin u e w ith your w ay of life although you
o n it becom es popular. The new fashion in skirts do n o t have m u ch m oney. She doesn't earn much,
caught on very quickly. but she gets by.

c a tc h u p to com e closer, to reach som eone from g e t o n w i t h have a good relationship w ith. If
behind. If you c a tc h u p w ith som eone w ho is you g e t o n w i t h som ebody you like th em and
in front of you you reach th e m by walking have a friendly relationship w ith them . She gets
faster. I'll w alk on ahead and you can catch up with on very well w ith all the girls in her class, except for
me later. Debbie.

c a tc h u p also m eans to reach th e sam e standard g e t o n w i t h continue w ith. If you g e t o n w ith


as som eone else. Our economy is catching up with som ething you con tin u e doing it. I can't talk to
that o f the other countries in the European Union. you now - I have to get on with m y work.
The opposite is to fa ll behind (som eone else).
g e t o v e r recover from an illness. If you g e t
c u t d o w n (o n ) reduce. If you c u t d o w n on o v e r an illness or o th er u n p leasan t experience,
som ething you reduce th e am ount. I've cut you no longer have it and you feel better. I still
down on m y smoking. You 'II have to cut down ha ven 't got over the shock o f failing the exam.
on the money you spend.

157
g iv e u p to stop doing som ething. If you g iv e u p h o ld up delay. If som eone or som ething h o ld s
so m e th in g you decide to stop doing it. u p an activity th ey delay it. We were held up on
I've given up smoking. the motorway by an accident.

go a h ea d to start doing som ething. W hen k n o c k d o w n pull dow n a building, dem olish a
som eone g o es a h ea d w ith som ething they building. If som eone k n o c k s d o w n a building
have plan n ed to do they start doing it. they intentionally destroy it. They are going to
We decided to go ahead w ith our holiday plans knock that old house down to build the new road.
in spite o f the bad weather.
lo o k u p check inform ation in a dictionary or
go b y pass (time). W hen tim e g o es b y it passes. reference book. If you lo o k u p an u n k n o w n
Time goes by really slowly when you 're waiting for w ord in a dictionary or a piece of inform ation in
the bus in the rain. a reference book you look th ere to find o ut
m ore inform ation about it. W hy d o n 't you look the
go o ff no longer like som ething. If you go o ff
word up in the dictionary to fin d out w hat it means?
som ething or som ebody you n o longer hke
them . I used to like tea but I've gone o ff it now. p u ll d o w n dem ohsh a building. If you p u ll
d o w n a building you deliberately destroy it.
go o n happen, occur. If som ething g o es o n it
They are going to p u ll down that old building in
takes place or happens. There was a concert going
order to build the new road. The opposite is to
on in the m ain square and there were hundreds o f
p u t u p a building. K n o ck d o w n has a similar
people there.
m eaning to p u ll d o w n .
go th r o u g h experience som ething difficult. If
p u t o ff postpone. If you p u t o ff doing
you go th o u g h an u npleasant experience you
som ething you delay doing it till an o th er tim e.
experience a painful or difficult tim e. The team
You can't p u t o ff going to the dentist forever - you 'II
has been through some difficult times but this season
have to go soon.
has been very successful so far.
p u t u p build. If som eone p u ts u p a building
go th r o u g h w it h com plete. If you go th r o u g h
they build or raise it. They're going to p u t up a
w it h som ething, you com plete som ething you
new office block where the park used to be. The
in ten d ed to do, even if it is unpleasant.
opposite is k n o c k d o w n or p u ll d o w n .
He w ent through w ith his decision to separate
from his girlfriend even though it was painful. ru n o u t o f have no m ore. If you ru n o u t o f
som ething, eg coffee, sugar, m oney or petrol,
g ro w u p becom e an adult. If you gro w u p you
you have no m ore of it. W hat are we going to do if
develop from being a child and you becom e an
we run out o f money?
adult. I grew up in Birm ingham , though I was born
in London. se t o ff start a journey. If you se t o ff on a
jo u rn ey you start a journey. W hat time do we set
h a n g aro u n d If you h a n g a ro u n d som ew here
o ff in the morning? We set o ff on our journey at six
you spend a lot of tim e in th a t place, often
o'clock. S et o u t has a similar m eaning.
w ith o u t having anything in particular to do. The
kids were hanging around on the corner o f the street. ta k e after resem ble. If you ta k e after
som ebody you look like th e m or behave like
h o ld o n wait. If you w an t som eone to h o ld o n
them . John takes after his father while M ary takes
you w an t th e m to w ait for a short tim e. I f you
after her mother.
hold on a moment, I'll see i f Rosa's in her room.
H ang o n m eans som ething sim ilar b u t is ta k e a w a y rem ove. If you ta k e som ething
m ore inform al. a w a y (from som eone or from a place) you
rem ove it. / took aw ay the knife so the baby would
h o ld u p rob. If som eone h o ld s you u p they
not cut itself. The opposite is ta k e b ack or g iv e
point a gun or knife at you an d force you to
back.
give th em m oney or o th er valuable things.
They held up the bank and got away w ith a million ta k e back retu rn . If you ta k e som ething b ack
pounds. to th e place from w hich you took it you re tu rn
it. I have to take these books back to the library. The
opposite is ta k e a w a y .

158
P hrasal v e r b d ic tio n a r y
t a k e o ff rem ove (clothing). If you t a k e o ff
y o u r clothes or som ething y o u are w earing you
rem o v e it. I'm going to take o ff m y pullover because
it's hot in here. The opposite is p u t o n .
t a k e o ff leave th e ground. If an aero p lan e
t a k e s o ff it leaves th e gro u n d . A s soon as the
aeroplane took o ff I started to read m y hook. The
n o u n is ta k e o f f .
t a k e o n start bein g responsible for. If y o u t a k e
o n a jo b y o u agree to do it a n d be responsible
for it. 1 only took the job on because I needed the
m oney.

t a k e o n accept so m eb o d y for e m p lo y m e n t. If
y o u t a k e s o m e o n e o n for a job y o u agree to
give th e m a job. They took on a n e w teacher because
they h a d a lot m ore pupils.

t a k e o v e r b e c o m e resp o n sib le in place of


so m e b o d y else. If y o u t a k e o v e r so m e o n e e lse s
jo b y o u ta k e c o n tro l of it or b ec o m e resp o n sib le
fo r it. Jo h n has taken over the position o f captain o f
the basketball team .

ta k e u p r e q u ire tim e . If s o m e th in g t a k e s u p
tim e , it u se s th is a m o u n t of tim e in o rd e r to do
s o m e th in g . T raining fo r b a sketb a ll takes u p m ost
o f h is free tim e.

tu rn u p a p p e a r s u d d e n ly . If s o m e o n e o r
s o m e th in g t u r n s u p th e y a p p e a r su d d e n ly .
W e w e r e n t expecting Jo h n to come to th e m eetin g
b u t in the e n d he tu r n e d u p j u s t as it M/as fin is h in g .

w ash d o w n fin is h a m e a l w ith a d rin k . If y o u


w a s h fo o d d o w n y o u d r in k s o m e th in g w h ile
y o u a r e e a tin g o r w h e n y o u h a v e fin is h e d
e a tin g . W e h a d a lovely m e a l a n d w a s h e d it d o w n
w ith a cool glass o f lem o n a d e .
Macmillan Education, Rice, pP102-3; The Guardian, for an extract adapted
Betw een Towns Road, Oxford 0X4 3PP from Babies good grammar by Tim Radford, p i 15.
A division of M acmillan Publishers Limited A lthough every effort has been m ade to trace and contact
Companies and representatives throughout the w orld copyright holders before publication, this has n o t always
been possible in some cases. We apologize for any
apparent infringem ent of copyright and if notified, the
ISBN 978 0 333 75806 9 publisher will be pleased to rectify any errors or omissions
Text Luke Prodrom ou 2000 at the earliest opportunity.

Design and illustration Macmillan Publishers Limited The authors and publishers w ould like to thank the
2000 following for permission to reproduce their photographs:

First published 2000 Research Photos by

All rights reserved; no part of this publication m ay be courtesy of Apple UK Ltd pI07(3): B os'un/ R.D Battersby
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transm itted in pp74, 99(1) British Airways, 107(1) R.D Battersby; Sylvia
any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, Cordaiy pp23, 97(4); James Davis pp39(a), 56; Ecoscene
photocopying, recording, or otherwise, w ithout the prior p p l5 Sally Morgan, 97(c); Eye Ubiquitous pplO, 39(c), 45,
w ritten permission of the publishers. 50(r), 53(r), 55(2,3), 73(tr) R.D Battersby, 73(br), 92,
128(1), 129(3); M ary Evans pp29, 94, 97(b), 120(t);
Designed by Pentacor pic. High Wycombe Ronald Grant p p l7 (3 ) Universal City, 17(4)
Cover design by Pentacor pic. High Wycombe N BC/Paramount; Dr O.H.B Gyde p43(r); ICCE p55(4);
Kobal p l7 (2 ) Ladd Co/W arner Brothers; A ndrew Lambert
Picture Research by Lodestone Publishing Ltd p l3 3 (I); NHPA p l3 1 ; PA News p p l4 Daniel Beltra, 19
Illustrated by: M ichael Stephens, 21 Jim James, 24 David Cheskin, 34/35
M athew Fearn, 34(tm) EPA, 35(tl,ml)EPA, 39(b) John
Dave Bracher, pp65, 117, 123, 124, 125, 139, 140; Russ
Giles, 42 Roslin Institute, 76 Rebecca Naden, 79 EPA, 82
Cook, p p l l , 27, 28, 132; M ark Duffin, pp37, 41, 48, 91,
John Stillwell, 83 Toby Melville, 87(r)Rosie Hamllam, 93
118, 127; Stephen May, pp66-67; M ark McLaughlin,
Emilio M orenatti, 97 (I) M att Campbell, 97 (2) Peter
p pI2, 68-69, 70, 71, 72, 75; Peter Richardson, p p I8 -I9 ,
Jordan; PGL p l2 9 (5 ), 133(3); Popperfoto p p l6 Lucas
21, 47, 100, 101, 106, 118-119; Jacky Rough, p62; David
Films, 25 Reuters/MarkSeliger, 48(r), 81, 86/87, 102,
Shenton, pp36, 63, 115; David Stevens, pp44, 45, 46, 125;
107(2), 126(1,2), 133(2); Tony Stone pp8/9, 43(1),
Adam Stower, pp60 -6 I, 116; Simon Turner, pp27, 45, 56,
48(tl/bc), 50(tl/b), 73(br), 112, 128/129(2,4), 134(4);
89; Pat Williams, p30
Skyscan p l0 5 ; Telegragh Colour Library pp48(tc), 55(1),
The author w ould like to thank: 135; Travel Ink p73(mc)Disneyland Paris; Wellcome
Helen Gyde and Katy Wright, my editors, for their sound Trust Photo Library pl26(3,4)
advice and hard work. Thanks to m y teenage boys Commissioned Photography by R.D Battersby p p l3 , 104,
Michael and A ntony for trying things out and acting as 107(4), 120
unofficial consultants. The book is dedicated to both of
them . Thanks also to Herbert Puchta for the expression
Success comes in 'cans' not 'can'ts'. The Publishers wish to thank Mrs M Battersby,
The Ancient Bookshop, Reigate, Surrey
The publishers w ould like to thank:
Mrs Astoglou-Adamidou, Vicky Babaliki O'Halloran,
Suzy Belevetti, David Briggs, Zoe Brova, Nina Christou,
Tony Clark, Maria Dimitriou, Costas Gaberielatos,
Vassilis Galanis, Tina Georgoudi, Yiannis Giotis, Mr Grose,
Despina Hatzopoulou, Eleni Kakrida, M arianthi Kariofili,
Philip Kerr, Eleni Kokolaki, M r Kominelis,
Mrs Kosmatopoulou, Sonia Kosmopoulou, Rodoula
Kostaki, Mrs Kremmida, Carol Lambe-Sigzi, The Lord
Byron School Thessaloniki, Jenny Mela, Kathy Mestheneou,
Margarita Misailidou, Sonia Mykoniou, Sandy Nene-Moudouri,
Stella Olzierski, Betty Orfanidou, Irene Papageorgiou,
Despina Semizoglou, Olga Semizoglou, A nna Sioki, Lynn
Smith, M ary Spyroglou, K aterina Savani, Katerina
Stavridou, Mrs Vasiladou-Zerbini, Steve Vassilakopoulos,
George Vassilakis, Youli Vezergiannidou, Maria Votsi
The authors and publishers w ould like to thank the
following for permission to reproduce their material:
Greenpeace for the use of their logo, p i 4; 1986 World
Wide Fund For N ature for the use of their logo, p i 5;
War on Want, campaign against w orld poverty for the use
of their logo, p i 5; A & C Black Publishers Limited for an
extract adapted from The Blue Guide Istanbul by John Printed in Thailand
Freely, p74; Friends of the Earth for the use of their
2016 2015 2014 2013 2012
logo, p i 5 Times Newspapers Limited, 1989, for an
e x tra a adapted from Thanks Dad, you 're a sport by Timothy 19 18 17 16 15
- r

A Cc'tf1^!c2t Course

Rising Star provides thorough and appropriate


preparation fo r an FCE course through a
combination of stimulating material and
systematic practice.

Key features:

Introduces and practises all parts o f the FCE

Focus on development of vocabulary and


phrasal verbs

Comprehensive grammar syllabus

Systematic skills practice

Special emphasis on w riting skills

Topics appeal to teenage learners

Grammar reference and phrasal verb dictionary

The course consists o f a Students Book, Practice


Book, (with key and w ith o u t key editions) Teachers
Book,Test Booklet and Cassettes.

Use your Macmillan


JVLvCMILLAN Essential Dictionary
www.macmillanenglish.com with this book.