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Personality and career passion questions.

1. Here are some suggested interview questions

2. Describe your characteristics that your boyfriend/girlfriend dislikes the most and how are you
going to tackle it?
3. Describe your personality?
4. If you are given an offer of a position other than a flying position in our company, will you
take it?
5. Besides aviation, do you have any other hobbies? How do they help you to be a pilot?

6. What aviation book / magazine that you have read? They should quote book and author If not
ask who wrote it ?
7. Are you willing to terminate your study/work immediately if we give you an offer to be a
cadet pilot?

8. What do you think is the most important criteria of a pilot?

9. How do you prove to us that you love aviation?
10. How do you foresee the future of aviation industry in HK?
11. What is your biggest accomplishment to date?
12. Imagine if your girlfriend/boyfriend do not support you to be a pilot, what will you do?

13. Do you have any brothers or sisters, and how do you get along with them?
14. Why do you choose your degree?
15. What will you do during your leisure time?
16. Why have you fail (something)?
17. How do you see yourself in a group? (team player? leader?)

18. What type of aircrafts do KA fly?

19. Why did you apply to KA?
20. What would you do if you're unsuccessful?
21. Why should we hire you?
22. Tell me about any recent news. (not related to aviation)

23. Did you apply other company?

24. Which aircraft do you want to fly?
25. What does your family think about the pilot life-style?
26. Reasons for working as an aviation-unrelated job after graduation / Reason for studying a
aviation-unrelated degree?
27. Imagine you application is successful, would you get bored with flight decks after a few
years working as a pilot?

28. How will you keep yourself motivated throughout your career?
29. Why do you want to be a pilot?
30.. How do you foresee yourself in 10 years?
31. Name me 2 strengths and weaknesses.
32. What have you prepared for this interview?
33. Describe a situation of difficulty and how you solved it in the end.
34. Why did you apply to Cathay pacific first ?
35. Why did you try and join then DACP programme instead of just applying to Cadet

36. Tell us about yourself? Back ground and Interests.

37. Do you have a particular career interest in Aviation ATM?

38. Do you have any flying experience?

39. Have you ever applied for a job in the Aviation industry?

40. Who do you know in the Aviation Industry?

43. Describe your Character and Personality.

44. Why should we give this opportunity to you?

45. Have you travelled on an aircraft if so what type of aircraft was it.

For Technical Questions.

General Knowledge

What date did the first aircraft land at Kia Tak airport?

The first commercial passengers flight 'Dorado' landed on 24 March 1936 from Penang
operated by the Imperial Airways

Summarize the Dragon Airlines History and facts? Ref:- Dragon Airlines Website.

Dragonair is a regional airline based in HK. It has 34 destinations in 14 countries. KA

is the whole subsidiary of Cathay Pacific Airways since 2006. And it is now operated
with 32 aircrafts, including 15 A320, 6 A321 and 11 A330.

Established in 1985, Dragonair operates 400 flights a week to mainland (18

destinations), it was the initiative of Chao family. It gained the Air Operator
certificate in the same year and run the first flight to Kota Kinabalu by a 737-200A.
In 1993 first A320 aircraft joined the KA fleet and the first A330 joined the fleet in
1995. In 2006, it becomes the wholly owned subsidiary of Cathay Pacific Airways.

Summarize Cathay Pacifics History and facts? CX Website.

CX was founded by American Roy Farrell and Australian Sydney H De Kantzzow in 1946.
Initially based in Shanghai, they moved to HK and established the airline. They
thought the name of CX in a bar at Manila Hotel.
Initial destination includes Shanghai, Singapore, Manila and Bangkok.

In 1948, Swire took 45% of the share and in the coming decades the airline grew

Cathay Pacific operates a fleet of 133 aircrafts includes Boeing 777-300, 777-300ER,
777-200, 747-200, 747-400, 47-499BCF, 747-400F, 747-400ERF, 747-8F, Airbus A330-330
and A340-300, together with 94 firm orders. It serves 162 destinations in 42
countries. CX owns Dragonair (100%), Air Hong Kong (60%), Air China (19%) and some
ground companies. The chairman is Christopher Pratt and CE is John Slosar. The major
shareholders of CX is Swire Pacific Limited and Air China Limited.

What was the last Flight to Take Off from Kia Tak and what was the date and time?

CX3340, 0105 local time, 6 July 1998.

Hong Kong Chep Lap Kok airports Runways magnetic directions are?

073,253 respectively.


Define the following


Indicated air speed is a measure of dynamic pressure translated into speed and
displayed to the pilot through the airspeed indicator.


True airspeed is the actual speed of an aircraft


Calibrated airspeed is the term commonly used in the US, AUS, NZ and European
counties. RAS is IAS corrected or instrument and pressure errors.


Rectified airspeed is the tem commonly used in UK. CAS is IAS corrected or
instrument and pressure errors.


Equivalent airspeed is the RAS corrected for compressibility error.

How does True Airspeed increase with altitude?

TAS is the actual speed of an aircraft through the air mass its flying.

TAS is therefore depends on the air density properties of the air mass. In higher
altitude the air is less dense. Therefore the less resistance to the motion of aircraft
and higher the TAS.

What is a Wing Fence

It is a device used to reduce span wise airflow and thereby reduce its effect.

One of the effects of span wise airflow over the wing is reduced aileron efficiency
due to diagonal airflow over the control surface. Wing fences are located on the
upper surface of a wing to create a slightly disturbed airflow perpendicular to the
leading edge of th wing, which helps to maximize the effectiveness of control
surface (aileron).

What is a Winglet ?

Winglets aerodynamically efficient surface located at the wingtip. They are designed
to reduce induced drag. It reduces the vortex interference with laminar airflow near
tip of the wing.

What is the difference between a Winglet and a Wingtip fence

Winglet is a wingtip device Boeing and Airbus (A350) uses for extending the wingtip
surface upward.

Wingtip fence is a wingtip device Airbus uses (of all its airliners, excludes A330 and
A340 raked wingtip and A350 - winglet) to extend the wingtip upward and
downward. It is often smaller or equivalent in size to winglet but processes similar
aerodynamic property.

Both of them are designed based on a research of NASA in 1970s.

How do these devices work?

Winglets dispense the span wise airflow from the upper and lower surface at
different points. Thus preventing the intermixing of these airflow that otherwise
would create induced drag vortices.

What are their advantages and disadvantages?

Advantages- improved fuel efficiency, increased range. Reduced vortex created to
the others that can potentially cause a loss of control in turbulence.

Disadvantage- installation and maintenance cost, weight penalty

High speed Flight .

What is the benefit of a Sweepback wing ?

Two advantages.

High mach cruise speed. The swept wing is designed to enable the aircraft to maximize
the high mach speeds its jet engines can produce. The straight wing aircraft
experiences sonic disturbed airflow, resulting in a loss of lift at relatively low
speeds. Therefore a different wing design was required or the aircraft to b able to
achieve a higher cruise speed. The sept wing design delays the airflow over the wing
from going supersonic. And enables the aircraft its jet engines potential for
higher mach cruise speed.

1. Stability in turbulence. Because of its poor lift capabilities. This is because

the swept wing produces less lift and is less responsive to updrafts. Which
allows for a smoother more stable ride in gusty conditions.
What are the disadvantages of Sweepback wing?

1. Poor lift qualities because swept wing has a fect of reducing life capabilities
from the wing.
2. And this results in a higher stall speed.
3. Speed instability at low speed. (Results of poor lift). Refer to the drag curve
of jet, before VIMD and after VIMD the drag penalties is large enough to degrade
the lift drag ratio.
4. Wingtip stalling tendency. It is results of the high CL loading it experiences.
What is a Yaw damper used for in a high speed Jet ?

Yaw damper is used in high spped jet:

1. To prevent dutch roll. It is a gyro system that is sensitive to changes in yaw.

And it feeds signal into rudder which applies opposite rudder to the yaw before
roll occur. Hus preventing dutch roll.
2. Coordinate turn

What is an inertial reference system used for and how does it work?

An INS is a self contained onboard navigation system that can provide continuous
information on an aircrafts position without external assistance.

The general principle of INS is that the systm measures the aircraft inertia
movement from a initial position as a great circle track direction and distance to
continuously determine its up to date position.
Define Aspect Ratio?

Aspect ratio is the ratio of wing span to its geometrical chord. High aspect ratio =
high lift (eg. Glider). Low aspect ratio = lower life but capable o higher speed.

Define Fineness ratio?

It is defined as the ratio of length of an object to its height.

An object with better fitness ratio (3 to 4) is considered more streamline, and

therefore the form drag produced becomes less and less.

What is a Stol Aircraft and what type or Operation would are they used for?

Short takeoff and landing aircraft. Usually STOL aircraft can clear 50 feet obstacle in
1500 feet take off distance. STOL aircraft can land on and off airport and operate on
different ground surface (snow/ ice). Many STOL serves as bush planes to serve
undeveloped area of the country.

What are the differences which you would find between a Stol aircraft and a High
speed Jet ?

STOL aircraft big wheel, high wing, taildragger.

High speed jets low wing, sweep back wing

Aircraft and Runway Performance.

What flight control surfaces limits an aircrafts Maximum crosswind.


If you are traveling at 360 Kts, how long will it take to travel 65 nm?

10.8 minutes

If you are traveling at 420 Kts, how long will it take to travel 120 nm?

17.1 minutes

If your traveling at 8 miles per minute how fast is that?

Given that 1 mile = 1609m. 772km/hr or 417 kts

If your traveling at 5 miles per minute how fast is that?

Given that 1 mile = 1609m. 482km/hr or 261 kts

What is balance Field length?


In other words, when the end of the clearways is the end of the stopway,and the
aircraft achieves the screen height over the end of runway in all case.

How does a wet runway affect the balance field length?

Balance field length shorter.

Recalls the balanced field length TODA = EDSA. For a given aircraft on a
contaminated runway, the emergency distance required is increased because of the
reduced braking ability. Also a contaminated runway the aircraft has a slower
acceleration. And therefore TORR increased, which limits the stopping distance
available. The effect can be found in the performance graph of the aircraft.

What are the definition for?


Minimum control speed on the ground for a mult-engine aircraft at a constant power
setting and configuration at and above it it is possible to maintain directional control
of the aircraft around the normal / vertical axis by the use of rudder to maintain
runway heading after failure of an off center engine.


Minimun control speed in the air for a multiengine aircraft in take off and climb out
configuration. At and above VMCA it is possible to maintain directional control of the
aircraft around the normal / vertical axis by the use of the rudder within defined
limits after the failure of an off center engine.


V1 is the decision speed in the event of an engine failure during takeoff failure. At
which it is possible to continue the take off and achieve the screen height within
normal takeoff distance available or to bring the aircraft to a full stop within the
emergency distance available.

the take off safety speed achieved by the screen height in the event of an engine
failure that maintains adequate directional control and climb performance properties
of the aircraft.
VR Definitions

Rotation speed. The speed at which pilot initiates rotation during take off to
achieve V2 at the screen height, even with an engine failure.


take off run available (or all engine operations) is the usable length of the runway
available that is suitable for ground run for the aircrafts take off. In most cases it is
the length of the runway.


Take off distance available 9for all engine operations) is the length of the usable
runway available pls the length of the clearway available. Within which the aircraft
initiates a transition to climbing flight and attains a screen height at the speed not
less than take off safety speed (TOSS).

TODA = usable runway + clearway


Clearway is the length of an obstacle free area at the end of the runaway in the
direction of take off, with a minimum height of 75m either side of the extended

What is Hydroplaning? Name 3 types and explain each in detail?

Hydroplaning is the situation that tires of aircraft surf on the water and lose grip to
the ground surface.

There are 3 types:

1. Dynamic hydroplaning
It is the most common form. Water cannot get out of the tires surface and
forms a film of water between tire and road. The tires does not make full
contact with the ground and deteriorate steering and braking efficiency.

Initially partial hydroplaning develops into total hydroplaning with increasing


2. Viscous hydroplaning
It can happen at low speed. The tire is actually sliding on fluid rather than
water (or mixture of fluid and water), eg. Oil. As rain can wash away the
contaminated substance, this situation happens as the rain starts or after a
light shower or heavy dew.
3. Reverted Rubber hydroplaning
This is a rare situation. A precision amount of water must be present to
generate a friction and then heats up between the skidding tire and the
ground that melts the rubber of the tire, and forms a seal around the
footprint on the tire and turns water into steam. The steam continues
melting other parts of the tire.

Pavement classification Number is?

It is an ICAO standard indicating the strength of the runway / taxiway / airport ramp.
This helps to ensure the ramp is not subjected to excessive wear and tear, thus
prolong its life.

How does an Aft C.G affect VMCG?

A center of gravity aft the CG , the aircraft will be tail heavy, and the tailplance will
have a short moment arm.

The horizontal tailplane will have a significant effect and give a large balancing
force downward. And it gives a larger effective weight on the airplane. Thats
increases the stall speed.

Altimetry, Meteorology and Maps and Charts

Hypoxia is?

Hypoxias is the human condition when the oxygen supply is insufficient to human
tissues to meet the need. It means lack of oxygen.

How are Thunderstorms formed? (Quote all methods and explain).

Thunderstorm is associated with cumulonimbus cloud. So lets examine how CB is


4 conditions are required for the formation of CB loud.

1. High moisture content in the sir

2. A trigger lifting action
3. Adiabatic cooling by rising air. Lifting actions can be convection, turbulence,
frontal or orographic.
4. A highly unstable atmosphere.

So when the air starts to rise, it will continue rising. Effectively the
environmental lapse rate must be greater than the saturated adiabatic lapse rate for
over 10000 ft. (ELP > SALR)

Meanwhile Life cycle of a CB cloud can be divided into 3 stages.

1. Developing stage. During the development of CB cloud, updrafts move air aloft,
allowing condensation to take place through the ascent of convection current.
2. Mature stage. O this stage, water droplets starts falling though the cloud.
Drawing air down with them. During this stage, downdraft can be 3000 ft/in while
updraft can be 6000 ft /min. the mature phase of a CB cloud is also the most
hazardous stage of its thunderstorm.
3. Decaying stage. The final stage of a CB cloud. It starts with the end of a
thunderstorm. Sporadic shower, virga and wind shear experienced.

If an aircraft is a t 35000 ft and you where descending at 2500FPM how long would
it take to descent to 5000 ft?

12 minutes

What is a Nimbostratus cloud?

Nimbostratus loud is found in mid altitude. It is characterized by formless cloud

layer that is almost uniform dark grey in color. It produces steady moderate to
heavy precipitation.

Name 4 Types of Fog. How do they Form?

1. Radiation fog
It requires i. cloudless night: to allow the earth surface lose heat by
radiation. This causes its water vapor to condense out in liquid form; ii. Moist
air: with a high relative humidity which only requires a slight cooling to reach
its dew point temperature; iii. Light winds

2. Advection fog: heat transferred by horizontal airflow of air. It requires: 1.

Warm, moist air mass flowing across a colder surface; i. Light moderate winds
facilitate the intermixing of the lower layer to give a layer of fog.
3. Frontal fog. Formed due to the interaction of two air masses.
4. Sea Fog. Sea smoke occurs in the reverse condition of advection fog.
Explain what is the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) at the equator?
Intertropical convergence zone is where converging air masses meet near the
thermal equator.
How it is formed and what weather is associated with its sessional movement.

ITCZ movement is a function of seasonal heating that is much greater over the land
than the sea. ITCZ movement is large in summer, and the ITCZ pattern determines
the weather pattern over a significant portion of the globe.

Which direction in the Northern Hemisphere does the wind blow around a Low-
pressure system?

Air deflected to the right.

What Is Corollas Force?

It is an apparent force thats acts on a parcel of air that is moving over the rotating
earth surface. Air does not move simply from high to low pressure system but is
deflected to the left or right according to the hemisphere you are in. it is a product
of earth rotational properties.

What happen to Coriolis force at the equator?

Not significant. In northern hemisphere, the force deflects airflow to the right and in
southern it deflects airflow to the left.

Define the ICAO Standard Atmosphere?

Pressure: 1013 millibars

Temperature: +15oC

Density: 1225 g/cubic meter

Definition of :-


QNH is a local altimeter setting that makes the altimeter indicate the aircrafts
altitude above mean sea level (AMSL) and therefore airfield elevation.

There are two types of QNH:

1. Airfield QNH
2. Regional QNH

This is not an altimeter setting but is the height shown at touchdown on the
altimeter with 29.92 in or 1013 millibars set on the subscale. It is used at very high
aerodromes where QFE pressure is low that it cannot be set on the altimeter


This zeros the altimeter on the airfield elevation datum.

There are two types of QFE:

1. Airfield QFE measured at the highest point on the airfield

2. Touchdown QFE measured at the touchdown point of the runway in use for
precision approaches.

Altimetry Question:-

Elevation 931ft

QNH:- 1003 Mb

Temperature 30C

What would the QFE setting be if the altimeter of an aircraft which was on the
ground at this airport altimeter so that the altimeter read zero?


What is the Density Height at this airfield?

DH = PH + 120X (OAT ISA temp)

= 300 + 120 (30-13)

= 3540 ft

What is the time of useful contentiousness at 45000ft with full depressurization?

30 seconds.

Define a Fowler flap and a Simple flap?

Fowler flap are trailing edge wing trap (and usually triple slots) to increase the wing
area and the chamber, which increases the coefficient of lift maximum for a low flap

Simple flap extends to create a longer wing chord line to provide more lift from the

Describe how a VOR works?

A VHF omni range is a short ranged sophisticated and accurate VHF navigational
radio aid at outwardly generates specific track / position lines. A VOR transmitter
radiates line of straight signals in all directions. However unlike a NDB the signal in
any particular direction differs slightly from its neighbor. The signals are individual
that can be thought as tracks from a VOR round station.

Define Rhumb Line and Great Circle?

Rhumb line is a line drawn on the surface of the earth such that its true direction
remains unchanged. It will cross all meridians at the same angle.

Great Circle is any circle drawn on the surface of the sphere such that the plane of
the circle passes through its center the shorter length of an arc of a great circle
joining two places on the surface of the sphere measures the shortest distance.

When tracking on a VOR radial is it a great Circle or a Rhumb line

Rhumb line

Define Latitude?

Latitude is a small circle drawn on the surface of the earth, such that its plane lies
parallel to the plan of the equator.

Define Longitude?

Longitude refers to the angular distance across the equator. The longitude of any
point is the shortest distance in arc along the equator between the prime meridian.

What Latitude and Longitude is Hong Kong ?

Latitude 221832N Longitude 1135452E

What is an Isogonic Line?

Isogonic Line refers to a line of constant magnetic declination. It connects points of

equal magnetic dip.

What is an Argonic Line ?

An argonic line is drawn through the points of zero magnetic dip. It connects those
where the magnetic dip is zero.

What is an Isobar

An isobar is a line on a metrological chart joins place of equal see pressure.


Why do the Airbus aircraft have Fly-by Wire?

FBY set flight envelope that protects aircraft from excessive maneuver. The
technology also enables the transmission of pilot input to actuator in electronic
signal resulting in a reduced in aircraft weight.

How many hydraulic systems are there on an A320?

3. Blue, green and yellow respectively.

On the Modern Airbus Aircraft (A330, A320, A340). What are the Speed Safety
protections? Explain them?

The protection system limits pilot maneuver exceeding the limit. It ensures the
aircraft flying in a speed in the flight envelope that would not cause excessive
stress or damage to the aircraft.

On the Primary Flight Display how are these Safety Speed protections displayed on
the Speed Tape?

VLS (minimum selectable speed)

The top of the amber strip along he speed scale.

Alpha Prot
The top of the black and amber strip display this speed on EFIS.

Alpha Max (Alpha protection speed, flaps full)

Th etop of the red strip on speed tape.

VLF :- Flap Limit speeds

It is indicated by different yellow color shape (eg. triangle) along the speed tape.

VNE :- Never Exceed Speeds

The dotted red strip on the speed tape.

Have Fun

Regards Captain Marcus De Santis