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A compound that can donate a proton (H+). The carboxyl and phosphate groups are the
primary acidic groups in biological molecules.

activation energy
The input of energy required to (overcome the barrier to) initiate a chemical reaction.
By reducing the activation energy, an enzyme increases the rate of a reaction.

active site
Region of an enzyme molecule where the substrate binds and undergoes a catalyzed

active transport
Energy-requiring movement of an ion or small molecule across a membrane against its
concentration gradient or electrochemical gradient. Energy is provided by the coupled
hydrolysis of ATP or the cotransport of another molecule down its electrochemical

Adenosine Diphosphate or ADP

a substance involved in energy metabolism formed by the breakdown of adenosine

Adenosine Triphosphate or ATP

Molecule in cells that stores and releases chemical energy for use in body cells. ATP
plays a role in rigor mortis

amino acids
Molecules that contain both amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups.
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. Twenty different amino acids are
commonly used in protein synthesis.

An organism that makes its own food.

Calvin cycle
The major metabolic pathway that fixes CO2 into carbohydrates during photosynthesis;
also called carbon fixation. It is indirectly dependent on light but can occur both in the
dark and light.

Cellular processes whereby complex molecules are degraded to simpler ones and
energy is released.
A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without undergoing a
permanent change in its structure. Enzymes are protein catalysts.

cellular respiration
Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in
the presence of oxygen

The movement of ions across a semipermeable membrane, down their electrochemical
gradient. An example of this would be the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
by the movement of hydrogen ions across a membrane during cellular respiration or

An organelle containing chlorophyll for photosynthesis

Green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis.

Citric acid
A weak organic tricarboxylic acid having the chemical formula C 6H8O7. It occurs
naturally in citrus fruits. In biochemistry, it is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle,
which occurs in the metabolism of all aerobic organisms.

A type of chemical bond where electrons are shared between the two atoms involved.

Drastic alteration in the conformation of a protein or nucleic acid due to disruption of
various noncovalent bonds caused by heating or exposure to certain chemicals; usually
results in loss of biological function.

Electron Transport chain

A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons
during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.

A biological molecule that increases the rate and lowers the activation energy of a
chemical reaction.
A 6-carbon sugar with the formula C6H12O6. Glucose is a building block for larger
molecules such as sucrose (a disaccharide) and cellulose, starch and glycogen
(polysaccharides). Plants produce glucose during photosynthesis.

Catabolism of glucose or other monosaccharides to pyruvate and 2 molecules of ATP in
the absence of oxygen or 34 molecules of ATP in the presence of oxygen.

A stack of thylakoids in a chloroplast

An organism that cannot make its own food.

hydrogen bond
A noncovalent bond between an electronegative atom (commonly oxygen or nitrogen)
and a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to another electronegative atom. Particularly
important in stabilizing the three-dimensional structure of proteins and formation of base
pairs in nucleic acids.

Krebs cycle
Also called Citric acid cycle ; second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid
is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions
light energy
Energy in the form of moving waves of light

An organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes
of respiration and energy production occur.

NAD+ (nicotinic adenine dinucleotide)

A widely used coenzyme that participates in oxidation reactions by accepting two
electrons from a donor molecule and one H+ from the solution. The reduced form,
NADH, transfers electrons to carriers that function in oxidative phosphorylation.

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. Carries H+ ions during metabolic reations.

NADP+ (nicotinic adenine dinucleotide phosphate)

Phosphorylated form of NAD+, which is used extensively as an electron carrier in
biosynthetic pathways and during photosynthesis.
A compound formed of a nitrogenous base (adenine, guanine, cytosine, guanine,
uracil), a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) and a phosphate group. Nucleotides are the
building blocks of nucleic acids.

Loss of electrons from an atom or molecule as occurs when hydrogen is removed from
a molecule or oxygen is added. The opposite of reduction.

oxidative phosphorylation
The phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP driven by the transfer of electrons to oxygen
(O2) in bacteria and mitochondria. This process involves generation of a proton-motive
force during electron transport, and its subsequent use to power ATP synthesis.

peptide bond
Covalent bond that links adjacent amino acid residues in proteins; formed by a
condensation reaction between the amino group of one amino acid and the carboxyl
group of another with release of a water molecule.

A tissue in plants that is used to transport dissolved sugars and other substances.

Plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars

A 'packet', or quantum, of electromagnetic radiation. Photons travel at the speed of light
(300,000km./sec). The concept of a photon is used to explain the observation that
some phenomena of light have a particle nature.

the process of converting energy from a light-excited electron into the pyrophosphate
bond of an ADP molecule.

are arrangements of chlorophyll and other pigments packed into thylakoids

A substance composed of large molecules with repeating structural units, or monomers,
connectec by chemical bonds e.g proteins are amino acid polymers; cellulose is a
glucose polymer.

Ending materials in a chemical reaction
A polymer formed from a chain of amino acids joined together with peptide bonds.

Organic compound with a backbone of three carbon atoms. Two molecules form as end
products of glycolysis

Molecules entering or starting a reaction

Gain of electrons by an atom or molecule as occurs when hydrogen is added to a
molecule or oxygen is removed. The opposite of oxidation.

In plants, the solution that surrounds the thylakoids in a chloroplast.

Molecule that undergoes a change in a reaction catalyzed by an enzyme.

Flattened membranous sacs in a chloroplast that are arranged in stacks forming the
grana and contain the photosynthetic pigments.

Plant tissue that transports water and minerals from the roots to the leaves / flowers



Study the general equation for photosynthesis and be able to indicate in which process
each reactant is used and each product is produced.
List the two major processes of photosynthesis and state what occurs in those sets of

Distinguish between organisms known as autotrophs and those known as heterotrophs as

pertains to their modes of nutrition.

Explain the significance of the ATP/ADP cycle.

Describe the nature of light and how it is associated with the release of electrons from a

Describe how the pigments found on thylakoid membranes are organized into
photosystems and how they relate to photon light energy.

Describe the role that chlorophylls and the other pigments found in chloroplasts play to
initiate the light-dependent reactions.

Describe the function of electron transport systems in the thylakoid membrane.

Explain the role of the two energy-carrying molecules produced in the light-dependent
reactions (ATP and NADPH) in the light-independent reactions.

Describe the Calvin cycle in terms of its reactants and products.