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For other uses, see Library (disambiguation). collection can include books, periodicals, newspapers,
manuscripts, lms, maps, prints, documents, microform,
CDs, cassettes, videotapes, DVDs, Blu-ray Discs, e-
books, audiobooks, databases, and other formats. Li-
braries range in size from a few shelves of books to sev-
eral million items. In Latin and Greek, the idea of a
bookcase is represented by Bibliotheca and Bibliothk
(Greek: ): derivatives of these mean library
in many modern languages, e.g. French bibliothque.
The rst libraries consisted of archives of the earliest
form of writingthe clay tablets in cuneiform script dis-
covered in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC. Private
or personal libraries made up of written books appeared
in classical Greece in the 5th century BC. In the 6th cen-
tury, at the very close of the Classical period, the great
libraries of the Mediterranean world remained those of
Library at Melk Abbey in Austria
Constantinople and Alexandria.
A library is organized for use and maintained by a pub-
lic body, an institution, a corporation, or a private indi-
vidual. Public and institutional collections and services
may be intended for use by people who choose not toor
cannot aord topurchase an extensive collection them-
selves, who need material no individual can reasonably be
expected to have, or who require professional assistance
with their research. In addition to providing materials,
libraries also provide the services of librarians who are
experts at nding and organizing information and at inter-
preting information needs. Libraries often provide quiet
areas for studying, and they also often oer common ar-
eas to facilitate group study and collaboration. Libraries
often provide public facilities for access to their elec-
tronic resources and the Internet. Modern libraries are
increasingly being redened as places to get unrestricted
access to information in many formats and from many
sources. They are extending services beyond the physi-
cal walls of a building, by providing material accessible
by electronic means, and by providing the assistance of
librarians in navigating and analyzing very large amounts
of information with a variety of digital tools.

St. Florian Library at Melk Abbey in Austria

A library is a collection of sources of information and 1 History

similar resources, made accessible to a dened commu-
nity for reference or borrowing.[1] It provides physical or
digital access to material, and may be a physical build- Main article: History of libraries
ing or room, or a virtual space, or both.[2] A librarys


Philosopher Laozi was keeper of books in the earli-

est library in China, which belonged to the Imperial
Zhou dynasty.[13] Also, evidence of catalogues found in
some destroyed ancient libraries illustrates the presence
of librarians.[13]

1.2 Classical period

Tablet from the Library of Ashurbanipal containing part of the

Epic of Gilgamesh

1.1 Early libraries

The rst libraries consisted of archives of the earliest

form of writingthe clay tablets in cuneiform script dis-
covered in temple rooms in Sumer,[3][4] some dating back Artistic rendering of the Library of Alexandria, based on some
to 2600 BC.[5] These archives, which mainly consisted archaeological evidence
of the records of commercial transactions or inventories,
mark the end of prehistory and the start of history.[6][7] The Library of Alexandria, in Egypt, was the largest and
Things were much the same in the government and tem- most signicant great library of the ancient world. It
ple records on papyrus of Ancient Egypt. The earliest ourished under the patronage of the Ptolemaic dynasty
discovered private archives were kept at Ugarit; besides and functioned as a major center of scholarship from its
correspondence and inventories, texts of myths may have construction in the 3rd century BC until the Roman con-
quest of Egypt in 30 BC. The library was conceived and
been standardized practice-texts for teaching new scribes.
There is also evidence of libraries at Nippur about 1900 opened either during the reign of Ptolemy I Soter (323
283 BC) or during the reign of his son Ptolemy II (283
BC and those at Nineveh about 700 BC showing a library
classication system. [8] 246 BC).[15] An early organization system was in eect
at Alexandria.[15]
Over 30,000 clay tablets from the Library of Ashurban-
ipal have been discovered at Nineveh,[9] providing mod- The Library of Celsus in Ephesus, Anatolia, now part of
ern scholars with an amazing wealth of Mesopotamian Seluk, Turkey was built in honor of [16][17] the Roman Sena-
literary, religious and administrative work. Among the tor Tiberius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus (completed
ndings were the Enuma Elish, also known as the Epic in 135) by Celsus son, Gaius Julius Aquila (consul, 110
of Creation, [10]
which depicts a traditional Babylonian AD). The library was built to store 12,000 scrolls and to
view of creation, the Epic of Gilgamesh, a large selec- serve as a monumental tomb for Celsus.
tion of omen texts including Enuma Anu Enlil which Private or personal libraries made up of written books
contained omens dealing with the moon, its visibility, (as opposed to the state or institutional records kept in
eclipses, and conjunction with planets and xed stars, archives) appeared in classical Greece in the 5th cen-
the sun, its corona, spots, and eclipses, the weather, tury BC. The celebrated book collectors of Hellenistic
namely lightning, thunder, and clouds, and the planets and Antiquity were listed in the late 2nd century in
their visibility, appearance, and stations,[12] and astro- Deipnosophistae. All these libraries were Greek; the cul-
nomic/astrological texts, as well as standard lists used by tivated Hellenized diners in Deipnosophistae pass over
scribes and scholars such as word lists, bilingual vocab- the libraries of Rome in silence. By the time of Au-
ularies, lists of signs and synonyms, and lists of medical gustus, there were public libraries near the forums of
diagnoses. Rome: there were libraries in the Porticus Octaviae near
1.3 Late Antiquity 3

the Theatre of Marcellus, in the temple of Apollo Palati- was the library of the Porticus of Octaviae.[22]
nus, and in the Bibliotheca Ulpiana in the Forum of Tra- Two more libraries were added by the Emperor Tiberius
jan. The state archives were kept in a structure on the on Palatine Hill and one by Vespasian after 70 AD. Ves-
slope between the Roman Forum and the Capitoline Hill. pasians library was constructed in the Forum of Ves-
Private libraries appeared during the late republic: pasian, also known as the Forum of Peace, and became
Seneca inveighed against libraries tted out for show by il- one of Romes principal libraries. The Bibliotheca Pacis
literate owners who scarcely read their titles in the course was built along the traditional model and had two large
of a lifetime, but displayed the scrolls in bookcases (ar- halls with rooms for Greek and Latin libraries containing
maria) of citrus wood inlaid with ivory that ran right to the works of Galen and Lucius Aelius.[23] One of the best
the ceiling: by now, like bathrooms and hot water, a li- preserved was the ancient Ulpian Library built by the Em-
brary is got up as standard equipment for a ne house peror Trajan. Completed in 112/113, the Ulpian Library
(domus).[18] Libraries were amenities suited to a villa, was part of Trajans Forum built on the Capitoline Hill.
such as Ciceros at Tusculum, Maecenas's several villas, Trajans Column separated the Greek and Latin rooms
or Pliny the Youngers, all described in surviving letters. which faced each other.[24] The structure was approxi-
At the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum, apparently the mately fty feet high with the peak of the roof reaching
villa of Caesars father-in-law, the Greek library has been almost seventy feet.[25]
partly preserved in volcanic ash; archaeologists speculate Unlike the Greek libraries, readers had direct access to
that a Latin library, kept separate from the Greek one, the scrolls, which were kept on shelves built into the walls
may await discovery at the site. of a large room. Reading or copying was normally done
in the room itself. The surviving records give only a few
instances of lending features. Most of the large Roman
baths were also cultural centres, built from the start with
a library, a two-room arrangement with one room for
Greek and one for Latin texts.
Libraries were lled with parchment scrolls as at Library
of Pergamum and on papyrus scrolls as at Alexandria: the
export of prepared writing materials was a staple of com-
merce. There were a few institutional or royal libraries
which were open to an educated public (such as the Ser-
apeum collection of the Library of Alexandria, once the
largest library in the ancient world),[15] but on the whole
collections were private. In those rare cases where it
was possible for a scholar to consult library books, there
seems to have been no direct access to the stacks. In all
Remains of the Library of Celsus at Ephesus recorded cases, the books were kept in a relatively small
room where the sta went to get them for the readers,
In the West, the rst public libraries were established un- who had to consult them in an adjoining hall or covered
der the Roman Empire as each succeeding emperor strove walkway.
to open one or many which outshone that of his predeces- Han Chinese scholar Liu Xiang established the rst li-
sor. Romes rst public library was established by Asinius brary classication system during the Han dynasty,[26]
Pollio. Pollio was a lieutenant of Julius Caesar and one and the rst book notation system. At this time, the li-
of his most ardent supporters. After his military victory brary catalogue was written on scrolls of ne silk and
in Illyria, Pollio felt he had enough fame and fortune to stored in silk bags.
create what Julius Caesar had sought for a long time: a
public library to increase the prestige of Rome and ri-
val the one in Alexandria.[19] Pollioss library, the Anla 1.3 Late Antiquity
Libertatis,[20] which was housed in the Atrium Libertatis,
was centrally located near the Forum Romanum. It was During the Late Antiquity and Middle Ages periods,
the rst to employ an architectural design that separated there was no Rome of the kind that ruled the Mediter-
works into Greek and Latin. All subsequent Roman pub- ranean for centuries and spawned the culture that pro-
lic libraries will have this design.[21] At the conclusion of duced twenty-eight public libraries in the urbs Roma.[28]
Romes civil wars following the death of Marcus Anto- The empire had been divided then later re-united again
nius in 30 BC, the Emperor Augustus sought to recon- under Constantine the Great who moved the capital of the
struct many of Romes damaged buildings. During this Roman Empire in 330 AD to the city of Byzantium which
construction, Augustus created two more public libraries. was renamed Constantinople.[29] The Roman intellectual
The rst was the library of the Temple of Apollo on the culture that ourished in ancient times was undergoing
Palatine, often called the Palatine library, and the second a transformation as the academic world moved from lay-

When Europe passed into the Dark Ages, Byzantine
scriptoriums laboriously preserved Greco-Roman clas-
sics. As a result, Byzantium revived Classical models
of education and libraries.[41] The Imperial Library of
Constantinople was an important depository of ancient
knowledge. Constantine himself wanted such a library
but his short rule denied him the ability to see his vision to
fruition. His son Constantius II made this dream a reality
and created an imperial library in a portico of the royal
palace.[42] He ruled for 24 years and accelerated the de-
velopment of the library and the intellectual culture that
came with such a vast accumulation of books.[43]
Constantius II appointed Themistius, a pagan philosopher
and teacher, as chief architect of this library building
program. Themistius set about a bold program to cre-
ate an imperial public library that would be the center-
piece of the new intellectual capital of Constantinople.[44]
Classical authors such as Plato, Aristotle, Demosthenes,
Isocrates, Thucydides, Homer, and Zeno were sought.
Themeistius hired calligraphers and craftsman to pro-
duce the actual codices. He also appointed educators
and created a university-like school centered around the
Malatestiana Library of Cesena, the rst European civic library.[45]
After the death of Constantius II, Julian the Apostate, a
bibliophile intellectual, ruled briey for less than three
years. Despite this, he had a profound impact on the im-
men to Christian clergy.[30] As the West crumbled, books
perial library and sought both Christian and pagan books
and libraries ourished and owed east toward the Byzan-
for its collections.[42] Later, the Emperor Valens hired
tine Empire.[31] There, four dierent types of libraries
Greek and Latin scribes full-time with funds from the
were established: imperial, patriarchal, monastic, and
royal treasury to copy and repair manuscripts.[46]
private.[32] Each had its own purpose and, as a result, their
survival varied. At its height in the 5th century, the Imperial Library of
Constantinople had 120,000 volumes and was the largest
Christianity was a new force in Europe and many of the
library in Europe.[47] A re in 477 consumed the entire
faithful saw Hellenistic culture as pagan. As such, many
library but it was rebuilt only to be burned again in 726,
classical Greek works, written on scrolls, were left to de-
1204, and in 1453 when Constantinople fell to the Ot-
cay as only Christian texts were thought t for preserva-
[33] toman Turks.[48]
tion in a codex, the progenitor of the modern book. In
the East, however, this was not the case as many of these Patriarchal libraries fared no better, and sometimes
classical Greek and Roman texts were copied.[34] worse, than the Imperial Library. The Library of the
Patriarchate of Constantinople was founded most likely
In Byzantium, much of this work devoted to preserv-
during the reign of Constantine the Great in the 4th
ing Hellenistic thought in codex form was performed
[35] century.[49] As a theological library, it was known to have
in scriptoriums by monks. While monastic library
employed a library classication system.[50] It also served
scriptoriums ourished throughout the East and West, the
as a repository of several ecumenical councils such as the
rules governing them were generally the same.[36] Barren
Council of Nicea, Council of Ephesus, and the Council
and sun-lit rooms (because candles were a source of re)
of Chalcedon. The library, which employed a librarian
were major features of the scriptorium that was both a
[37] and assistants, may have been originally located in the
model of production and monastic piety. Monks scrib-
Patriarchs ocial residence before it was moved to the
bled away for hours a day, interrupted only by meals and
[38] Thomaites Triclinus in the 7th century. While much is
prayers. With such production, medieval monaster-
not known about the actual library itself, it is known that
ies began to accumulate large libraries. These libraries
many of its contents were subject to destruction as reli-
were devoted solely to the education of the monks and
[39] gious in-ghting ultimately resulted in book burnings.[51]
were seen as essential to their spiritual development.
Although most of these texts that were produced were During this period, small private libraries existed.
Christian in nature, many monastic leaders saw common Many of these were owned by church members and the
virtues in the Greek classics. As a result, many of these aristocracy.[52] Teachers also were known to have small
Greek works were copied, and thus saved, in monastic personal libraries as well as wealthy bibliophiles who
1.4 Islamic lands 5

could aord the highly ornate books of the period.[53] lamic cities. They were called house of knowledge or
Thus, in the 6th century, at the close of the Classical dar al-'ilm. They were each endowed by Islamic sects
period, the great libraries of the Mediterranean world with the purpose of representing their tenets as well as
remained those of Constantinople and Alexandria. promoting the dissemination of secular knowledge. The
Cassiodorus, minister to Theodoric, established a 9th-century Abbasid Caliph al-Mutawakkil of Iraq, or-
monastery at Vivarium in the toe of Italy (modern Cal- dered the construction of a zawiyat qurra an enclosure
abria) with a library where he attempted to bring Greek for readers which was lavishly furnished and equipped.
learning to Latin readers and preserve texts both sacred In Shiraz, Adhud al-Daula (d. 983) set up a library, de-
scribed by the medieval historian, al-Muqaddasi, as a
and secular for future generations. As its unocial librar-
ian, Cassiodorus not only collected as many manuscripts complex of buildings surrounded by gardens with lakes
and waterways. The buildings were topped with domes,
as he could, he also wrote treatises aimed at instructing
his monks in the proper uses of reading and methods for and comprised an upper and a lower story with a to-
tal, according to the chief ocial, of 360 rooms.... In
copying texts accurately. In the end, however, the library
at Vivarium was dispersed and lost within a century. each department, catalogues were placed on a shelf... the
rooms were furnished with carpets.[55] The libraries of-
Through Origen and especially the scholarly presbyter ten employed translators and copyists in large numbers,
Pamphilus of Caesarea, an avid collector of books of in order to render into Arabic the bulk of the available
Scripture, the theological school of Caesarea won a repu- Persian, Greek, Roman and Sanskrit non-ction and the
tation for having the most extensive ecclesiastical library classics of literature.
of the time, containing more than 30,000 manuscripts:
Gregory of Nazianzus, Basil the Great, Jerome, and oth- Organization was a strength of Islamic Libraries during
ers came and studied there. the Golden Age (7th 14th century). In this period,
books were organized by subject. Within the subject,
the materials were further organized by when the libraries
1.4 Islamic lands gained the item, not by last name of the author or the title
of the book. Also, Islamic libraries may be the rst to
have implemented a catalogue of owned materials. The
content of a bookshelf was recorded on paper and at-
tached to the end of shelf. Arab-Islamic people also were
very favorable of public knowledge. Public libraries were
very popular along with mosque, private, and academic
libraries. Instead of only societies most elite, such as
caliphs and princes, information was something that was
oered to everyone. Some of the libraries were said to
let patrons check out up to 200 items. These buildings
were also made for comfort of the readers and informa-
tion seekers. It was said that the rooms had carpets for
sitting and reading comfortably. Also, openings such as
doors and windows were secured closed as to protect pa-
trons against cold drafts.[56]
This owering of Islamic learning ceased centuries later
when learning began declining in the Islamic world, af-
ter many of these libraries were destroyed by Mongol in-
vasions. Others were victim of wars and religious strife
in the Islamic world. However, a few examples of these
medieval libraries, such as the libraries of Chinguetti in
West Africa, remain intact and relatively unchanged. An-
other ancient library from this period which is still op-
erational and expanding is the Central Library of Astan
Quds Razavi in the Iranian city of Mashhad, which has
been operating for more than six centuries.
Inside a Qur'anic Library in Chinguetti, Mauritania
The contents of these Islamic libraries were copied by
By the 8th century, rst Iranians and then Arabs had im- Christian monks in Muslim/Christian border areas, par-
ported the craft of papermaking from China, with a paper ticularly Spain and Sicily. From there they eventually
mill already at work in Baghdad in 794. Early paper was made their way into other parts of Christian Europe.
called bagdatikos, meaning from Baghdad, because it These copies joined works that had been preserved di-
was introduced to the west mainly by this city.[54] By the rectly by Christian monks from Greek and Roman orig-
9th century, public libraries started to appear in many Is- inals, as well as copies Western Christian monks made

of Byzantine works. The resulting conglomerate libraries thousands of books circulating in the Islamic world circa
are the basis of every modern library today. 1000, including an entire section for books about the doc-
Buddhist scriptures, educational materials, and histories trines of other religions. Modern Islamic libraries for the
were stored in libraries in pre-modern Southeast Asia. In most part do not hold these[61] antique books; many were
Burma, a royal library called the Pitakataik was legen- lost, destroyed by Mongols, or removed to European
darily founded by King Anawrahta; [57]
in the 18th cen- libraries and museums during the colonial period.[62]
tury, British envoy Michael Symes, on visiting this li-
brary, wrote that it is not improbable that his Birman 1.5 European Middle Ages
majesty may possess a more numerous library than any
potentate, from the banks of the Danube to the borders
of China. In Thailand, libraries called ho trai were built
throughout the country, usually on stilts above a pond to
prevent bugs from eating at the books.

1.4.1 Islam

Science library of Upper Lusatia in Grlitz, Germany

In the Early Middle Ages, monastery libraries developed,

such as the important one at the Abbey of Montecassino
in Italy.[63] Books were usually chained to the shelves, re-
ecting the fact that manuscripts, which were created via
the labour-intensive process of hand copying, were valu-
able possessions.[64] This hand-copying was often accom-
plished by travelling monks who made the treks to the
Qur'an manuscript on display at the Bibliotheca Alexandrina sources of knowledge and illumination they sought for
learning or to copy the manuscripts held by other monas-
The centrality of the Qurn as the prototype of the writ- teries for their own monastic libraries.
ten word in Islam bears signicantly on the role of books Despite this protectiveness, many libraries loaned books
within its intellectual tradition and educational system.[58] if provided with security deposits (usually money or a
An early impulse in Islam was to manage reports of book of equal value). Lending was a means by which
events, key gures and their sayings and actions. Thus, books could be copied and spread. In 1212, the coun-
the onus of being the last 'People of the Book' engen- cil of Paris condemned those monasteries that still for-
dered an ethos of [librarianship]"[59] early on and the es- bade loaning books, reminding them that lending is one
tablishment of important book repositories throughout of the chief works of mercy.[66] The early libraries lo-
the Muslim world has occurred ever since. cated in monastic cloisters and associated with scriptoria
Upon the spread of Islam, libraries in newly Islamic lands were collections of lecterns with books chained to them.
knew a brief period of expansion in the Middle East, Shelves built above and between back-to-back lecterns
North Africa, Sicily, and Spain. Like the Christian li- were the beginning of bookpresses. The chain was at-
braries, they mostly contained books which were made tached at the fore-edge of a book rather than to its spine.
of paper, and took a codex or modern form instead of Book presses came to be arranged in carrels (perpendic-
scrolls; they could be found in mosques, private homes, ular to the walls and therefore to the windows) in or-
and universities, from Timbuktu to Afghanistan and mod- der to maximize lighting, with low bookcases in front of
ern day Pakistan. In Aleppo, for example, the largest and the windows. This stall system (i.e. xed bookcases
probably the oldest mosque library, the Suya, located perpendicular to exterior walls pierced by closely spaced
at the citys Grand Umayyad Mosque, contained a large windows) was characteristic of English institutional li-
book collection of which 10,000 volumes were report- braries. In European libraries, bookcases were arranged
edly bequeathed by the citys most famous ruler, Prince parallel to and against the walls. This wall system was
Sayf al-Dawla.[60] Ibn al-Nadim's bibliography Fihrist rst introduced on a large scale in Spains El Escorial.
demonstrates the devotion of medieval Muslim scholars Also, in Eastern Christianity monastery libraries kept
to books and reliable sources; it contains a description of important manuscripts. The most important of them
1.7 Enlightenment era libraries 7

were the ones in the monasteries of Mount Athos for III, Elector Palatine founded the Bibliotheca Palatina of
Orthodox Christians, and the library of the Saint Cather- Heidelberg.
ines Monastery in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt for the These libraries don't have as many volumes as the modern
Coptic Church. libraries. However, they keep many valuable manuscripts
of Greek, Latin, and Biblical works.
1.6 Renaissance Tianyi Chamber, founded in 1561 by Fan Qin during the
Ming dynasty, is the oldest existing library in China. In
its heyday, it boasted a collection of 70,000 volumes of
antique books.

1.7 Enlightenment era libraries

Reading room of the Laurentian Library

From the 15th century in central and northern Italy,

libraries of humanists and their enlightened patrons
provided a nucleus around which an "academy" of
scholars congregated in each Italian city of conse-
quence. Malatesta Novello, lord of Cesena, founded the
Malatestiana Library. Cosimo de' Medici in Florence es-
tablished his own collection, which formed the basis of
the Laurentian Library.[67] In Rome, the papal collections
were brought together by Pope Nicholas V, in separate
Greek and Latin libraries, and housed by Pope Sixtus IV,
who consigned the Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana to the
care of his librarian, the humanist Bartolomeo Platina in
February 1475.[68]
In the 16th century, Sixtus V bisected Bramantes Cortile
del Belvedere with a cross-wing to house the Apostolic
Library in suitable magnicence. The 16th and 17th
centuries saw other privately endowed libraries assem-
bled in Rome: the Vallicelliana, formed from the books
Thomas Bodley founded the Bodleian Library in 1602 as an
of Saint Filippo Neri, with other distinguished libraries
early public library.
such as that of Cesare Baronio, the Biblioteca Angelica
founded by the Augustinian Angelo Rocca, which was the The 17th and 18th centuries include what is known as a
only truly public library in Counter-Reformation Rome; golden age of libraries;[69] during this some of the more
the Biblioteca Alessandrina with which Pope Alexan- important libraries were founded in Europe. Francis
der VII endowed the University of Rome; the Biblioteca Trigge Chained Library of St. Wulframs Church,
Casanatense of the Cardinal Girolamo Casanata; and - Grantham, Lincolnshire was founded in 1598 by the rec-
nally the Biblioteca Corsiniana founded by the biblio- tor of nearby Welbourne.[70] Thomas Bodley founded the
phile Clement XII Corsini and his nephew Cardinal Neri Bodleian Library, which was open to the whole republic
Corsini, still housed in Palazzo Corsini in via della Lun- of the learned, Norwich City library was established in
gara. The Republic of Venice patronized the foundation 1608,[71] and the British Library was established in 1753.
of the Biblioteca Marciana, based on the library of Cardi- Chethams Library in Manchester, which claims to be
nal Basilios Bessarion. In Milan, Cardinal Federico Bor- the oldest public library in the English-speaking world,
romeo founded the Biblioteca Ambrosiana. opened in 1653.[72] Other early town libraries of the UK
This trend soon spread outside of Italy, for example Louis include those of Ipswich (1612), Bristol (founded in 1613

and opened in 1615), and Leicester (1632). Shrews-

bury School also opened its library to townsfolk.[73] The
Mazarine Library and the Bibliothque Sainte-Genevive
were founded in Paris, the Austrian National Library in
Vienna, the National Central Library in Florence, the
Prussian State Library in Berlin, the Zauski Library in
Warsaw, and the M.E. Saltykov-Shchedrin State Public
Library in St Petersburg.[74]

The British Museum was established in 1751 and had a library

containing over 50,000 books.

clubs evolved into subscription libraries, charging high

annual fees or requiring subscribing members to purchase
shares in the libraries. The materials available to sub-
scribers tended to focus on particular subject areas, such
as biography, history, philosophy, theology, and travel,
The Long Room, an early 18th century university library in Trin- rather than works of ction, particularly the novel.
ity College, Dublin, Ireland Unlike a public library, access was often restricted to
members. Some of the earliest such institutions were
At the start of the 18th century, libraries were becom- founded in late 17th century England, such as Chethams
ing increasingly public and were more frequently lending Library in 1653, Innerperay Library in 1680, and
libraries. The 18th century saw the switch from closed Thomas Plumes Library in 1704. In the American
parochial libraries to lending libraries. Before this time, colonies, the Library Company of Philadelphia was
public libraries were parochial in nature and libraries fre- started in 1731 by Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia.
quently chained their books to desks.[75] Libraries also
were not uniformly open to the public.[76] Parochial libraries attached to Anglican parishes or
Nonconformist chapels in Britain emerged in the early
Even though the British Museum existed at this time and 18th century, and prepared the way for local public
contained over 50,000 books, the national library was not libraries.[79]
open to the public, or even to a majority of the popu-
lation. Access to the Museum depended on passes, of The increasing production and demand for ction pro-
which there was sometimes a waiting period of three to moted by commercial markets led to the rise of
four weeks. Moreover, the library was not open to brows- circulating libraries, which met a need that subscription
ing. Once a pass to the library had been issued, the reader libraries did not full. William Bathoe claimed that his
was taken on a tour of the library. Many readers com- commercial venture was the Original Circulating library,
plained that the tour was much too short.[77] opening doors at two locations in London in 1737.[80][81]
Circulating libraries also charged subscription fees to
users and oered serious subject matter as well as the
1.7.1 Subscription libraries popular novels, thus the diculty in clearly distinguish-
ing circulating from subscription libraries.[82]
Main article: Subscription library Subscription libraries were democratic in nature; created
At the start of the 19th century, there were virtually by and for communities of local subscribers who aimed to
no public libraries in the sense in which we now under- establish permanent collections of books and reading ma-
stand the term i.e. libraries provided from public funds terials, rather than selling their collections annually as the
and freely accessible to all.[78] Only one important li- circulating libraries tended to do, in order to raise funds
brary in Britain, namely Chethams Library in Manch- to support their other commercial interests. Even though
ester, was fully and freely accessible to the public.[78] the subscription libraries were often founded by reading
However, there had come into being a whole network of societies, committees, elected by the subscribers, chose
library provision on a private or institutional basis. books for the collection that were general, rather than
The increase in secular literature at this time encour- aimed at a particular religious, political or professional
aged the spread of lending libraries, especially the com- group. The books selected for the collection were chosen
mercial subscription libraries. Many small, private book because they would be mutually benecial to the share-
1.8 National libraries 9

of ve shillings.[86] An analysis of the registers for the

rst twelve years provides glimpses of middle-class read-
ing habits in a mercantile community at this period. The
largest and most popular sections of the library were His-
tory, Antiquities, and Geography, with 283 titles and
6,121 borrowings, and Belles Lettres, with 238 titles and
3,313 borrowings.[87][88]

Biblioteka Zauskich, built in Warsaw in the mid 18th century.

holders. The committee also selected the librarians who

would manage the circulation of materials.[83]
In Britain, there were more than 200 commercial circu-
lating libraries open in 1800, more than twice the number
of subscription and private proprietary libraries that were Circulating library and stationery shop, Gulgong, Australia
operating at the same time. Many proprietors pandered 1870.
to the most fashionable clientele, making much ado about
the sort of shop they oered, the lush interiors, plenty Private subscription libraries held a greater amount of
of room and long hours of service.[80] These 'libraries control over both membership and the types of books in
would be called rental collections today.[84] the library. There was almost a complete elimination of
cheap ction in the private societies.[89] Subscription li-
braries prided themselves on respectability. The highest
1.7.2 Private libraries percentage of subscribers were often landed proprietors,
gentry, and old professions.[90]
Towards the end of the 18th century and in the rst
decades of the nineteenth, the need for books and general
education made itself felt among social classes created by
the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution.[91] The late
18th century saw a rise in subscription libraries intended
for the use of tradesmen. In 1797, there was established
at Kendal what was known as the Economical Library,
designed principally for the use and instruction of the
working classes.[92] There was also the Artizans library
established at Birmingham in 1799. The entrance fee was
3 shillings. The subscription was 1 shilling 6 pence per
quarter. This was a library of general literature. Novels,
at rst excluded, were afterwards admitted on condition
The Linen Hall Library in Belfast was an 18th-century that they did not account for more than one-tenth of the
subscription library. Pictured in 1888, shortly before its demoli- annual income.[85]

Private subscription libraries functioned in much the 1.8 National libraries

same manner as commercial subscription libraries,
though they varied in many important ways. One of Main article: National library
the most popular versions of the private subscription li- The rst national libraries had their origins in the royal
brary was a gentlemans only library. Membership was collections of the sovereign or some other supreme body
restricted to the proprietors or shareholders, and ranged of the state.
from a dozen or two to between four and ve hundred.[85] One of the rst plans for a national library was devised
The Liverpool Subscription Library was a gentlemen only by the Welsh mathematician John Dee, who in 1556 pre-
library. In 1798, it was renamed the Athenaeum when sented Mary I of England with a visionary plan for the
it was rebuilt with a newsroom and coeehouse. It had preservation of old books, manuscripts and records and
an entrance fee of one guinea and annual subscription the founding of a national library, but his proposal was

which appeared from 1739 to 1753 in 11 volumes. The

collections increased steadily by purchase and gift to the
outbreak of the French Revolution, at which time it was in
grave danger of partial or total destruction, but owing to
the activities of Antoine-Augustin Renouard and Joseph
Van Praet it suered no injury.[98]
The librarys collections swelled to over 300,000 vol-
umes during the radical phase of the French Revolution
when the private libraries of aristocrats and clergy were
seized. After the establishment of the French First Re-
public in September 1792, the Assembly declared the
Bibliotheque du Roi to be national property and the in-
stitution was renamed the Bibliothque Nationale. After
four centuries of control by the Crown, this great library
now became the property of the French people.[99]

1.9 Modern public library

Main article: Public library
Although by the mid-19th century, England could claim

The Lindisfarne Gospels is but one of the treasures made avail-

able in the British Museum upon its establishment in 1753.

not taken up.[93]

The rst true national library was founded in 1753 as part
of the British Museum. This new institution was the rst
of a new kind of museum national, belonging to nei-
ther church nor king, freely open to the public and aim-
ing to collect everything.[94] The museums foundations
lay in the will of the physician and naturalist Sir Hans
Sloane, who gathered an enviable collection of curiosi-
ties over his lifetime which he bequeathed to the nation
for 20,000.[95]
Sloanes collection included some 40,000 printed books
and 7,000 manuscripts, as well as prints and drawings.[96]
The British Museum Act 1753 also incorporated the
James Silk Buckingham led the campaign for public libraries in
Cotton library and the Harleian library. These were
the mid 19th century.
joined in 1757 by the Royal Library, assembled by vari-
ous British monarchs.[97] 274 subscription libraries and Scotland, 266, the foun-
In France, the rst national library was the Bibliothque dation of the modern public library system in Britain is
Mazarine, which evolved from its origin as a royal library the Public Libraries Act 1850. The Act rst gave lo-
founded at the Louvre Palace by Charles V in 1368. The cal boroughs the power to establish free public libraries
appointment of Jacques Auguste de Thou as librarian in and was the rst legislative step toward the creation of
the 17th century, initiated a period of development that an enduring national institution that provides universal
made it the largest and richest collection of books in the free access to information and literature. In the 1830s,
world.[98] The library opened to the public in 1692, under at the height of the Chartist movement, there was a gen-
the administration of Abb Louvois, Minister Louvoiss eral tendency towards reformism in the United Kingdom.
son. Abb Louvois was succeeded by the Abb Bignon, The Capitalist economic model had created a signicant
or Bignon II as he was termed, who instituted a complete amount of free time for workers, and the middle classes
reform of the librarys system. Catalogues were made, were concerned that the workers free time was not being
1.9 Modern public library 11

well-spent. This was prompted more by Victorian middle 1850, which allowed all cities with populations exceeding
class paternalism rather than by demand from the lower 10,000 to levy taxes for the support of public libraries.
social orders.[100] Campaigners felt that encouraging the
lower classes to spend their free time on morally uplifting
activities, such as reading, would promote greater social
In 1835, and against government opposition, James Silk
Buckingham, MP for Sheeld and a supporter of the
temperance movement, was able to secure the Chair of
the Select Committee which would examine the extent,
causes, and consequences of the prevailing vice of intox-
ication among the labouring classes of the United King-
dom and propose solutions. Francis Place, a campaigner
for the working class, agreed that the establishment of
parish libraries and district reading rooms, and popular
lectures on subjects both entertaining and instructive to
the community might draw o a number of those who
now frequent public houses for the sole enjoyment they
The turn of the 20th century witnessed a tremendous expansion
aord.[102] Buckingham introduced to Parliament a Pub- in the provision of public libraries in the English-speaking world.
lic Institution Bill allowing boroughs to charge a tax to Pictured, the Peter White Public Library built in 1905.
set up libraries and museums, the rst of its kind. Al-
though this did not become law, it had a major inuence Salford Museum and Art Gallery rst opened in
on William Ewart MP and Joseph Brotherton MP, who November 1850 as The Royal Museum & Public Li-
introduced a bill which would [empower] boroughs with brary, as the rst unconditionally free public library in
a population of 10,000 or more to raise a d for the es- England.[107][108] The library in Campeld, Manchester
tablishment of museums.[103] This became the Museums was the rst library to operate a free lending library with-
Act 1845. out subscription in 1852.[109] Norwich lays claims to be-
The advocacy of Ewart and Brotherton then succeeded ing the rst municipality to adopt the Public Libraries
in having a select committee set up to consider public li- Act 1850 (which allowed any municipal borough with
brary provision. The Report argued that the provision a population of 100,000 or more to introduce a half-
of public libraries would steer people towards temper- penny rate to establish public librariesalthough not to
ate and moderate habits. With a view to maximising buy books). Norwich was the eleventh library to open, in
the potential of current facilities, the Committee made 1857, after Winchester, Manchester, Liverpool, Bolton,
two signicant recommendations. They suggested that Kidderminster, Cambridge, Birkenhead, and Sheeld.
the government should issue grants to aid the foundation Another important act was the Education Act 1870,
of libraries and that the Museums Act 1845 should be which increased literacy and thereby the demand for li-
amended and extended to allow for a tax to be levied braries. By 1877, more than 75 cities had established free
for the establishment of public libraries.[104][105][106] The libraries, and by 1900 the number had reached 300.[110]
Bill passed through Parliament as most MPs felt that pub- This nally marks the start of the public library as we
lic libraries would provide facilities for self-improvement know it. And these acts inuenced similar laws in other
through books and reading for all classes, and that the countries, such as the US. The rst tax-supported pub-
greater levels of education attained by providing public lic library in the United States was Peterborough, New
libraries would result in lower crime rates. Hampshire (1833) rst supported by state funds then an
The earliest example in England of a library to be en- Act Providing for the Establishment of Public Libraries
dowed for the benet of users who were not mem- in 1849.
bers of an institution such as a cathedral or college
was the Francis Trigge Chained Library in Grantham, 1.9.1 Expansion
Lincolnshire, established in 1598. The library still ex-
ists and can justiably claim to be the forerunner of later The year 1876 is key in the history of librarianship in the
public library systems. The beginning of the modern, United States. The American Library Association was
free, open access libraries really got its start in the UK in formed, as well as The American Library Journal, Melvil
1847. Parliament appointed a committee, led by William Dewey published his decimal-based system of classica-
Ewart, on Public Libraries to consider the necessity of tion, and the United States Bureau of Education published
establishing libraries through the nation: In 1849, their its report, Public libraries in the United States of Amer-
report noted the poor condition of library service, it rec- ica; their history, condition, and management. During
ommended the establishment of free public libraries all the post-Civil War years, there was a rise in the establish-
over the country, and it led to the Public Libraries Act in ment of public libraries, a movement led chiey by newly
12 2 TYPES

Also, increasingly, digital collections enable broader ac-

cess to material that may not circulate in print, and en-
ables libraries to expand their collections even without
building a larger facility.

2.1 Academic libraries

Main article: Academic library

Academic libraries are generally located on college and

Andrew Carnegie played an important role in nancing public

libraries across the English-speaking world.

formed womens clubs. They contributed their own col-

lections of books, conducted lengthy fund raising cam-
paigns for buildings, and lobbied within their communi-
ties for nancial support for libraries, as well as with leg-
islatures and the Carnegie Library Endowment founded
in the 20th century.[112] They led the establishment of
7580 percent of the libraries in communities across the
Philanthropists and businessmen, including John Pass-
more Edwards, Henry Tate and Andrew Carnegie, helped
to increase the number of public libraries from the late
19th century. Carnegie alone built over 2000 libraries
in the US, 660 Carnegie Libraries in Britain, in addi-
tion to many more in the Commonwealth.[114] Carnegie
also funded academic libraries, favoring small schools
and schools with African American students. In 1899,
Pennsylvania State College became the rst college to re-
ceive Carnegie funding ($150,000) and their library was
constructed in 1903.[115]
The round reading room of Maughan Library, the main univer-
sity library of Kings College London
2 Types
university campuses and primarily serve the students and
Many institutions make a distinction between a circulat- faculty of that and other academic institutions. Some aca-
ing or lending library, where materials are expected and demic libraries, especially those at public institutions, are
intended to be loaned to patrons, institutions, or other li- accessible to members of the general public in whole or
braries, and a reference library where material is not lent in part.
out. Modern libraries are often a mixture of both, con- Academic libraries are libraries that are hosted in post-
taining a general collection for circulation, and a refer- secondary educational institutions, such as colleges and
ence collection which is restricted to the library premises. universities. Their main function are to provide support
2.2 Childrens libraries 13

databases and portals, institutional electronic resources,

Internet access, and course- or task-related software (i.e.
word processing and spreadsheet software). They are in-
creasingly acting as an electronic repository for institu-
tional scholarly research and academic knowledge, such
as the collection and curation of digital copies of students
theses and dissertations.[118][119]

2.2 Childrens libraries

The University Library in Budapest.

in research and resource linkage for students and faculty

of the educational institution. Specic course-related re-
sources are usually provided by the library, such as copies
of textbooks and article readings held on 'reserve' (mean-
ing that they are loaned out only on a short-term basis,
usually a matter of hours).
Academic libraries oer workshops and courses outside
of formal, graded coursework, which are meant to pro-
vide students with the tools necessary to succeed in their
programs.[116] These workshops may include help with
A childrens library in Montreal, Canada in 1943
citations, eective search techniques, journal databases,
and electronic citation software. These workshops pro-
vide students with skills that can help them achieve suc- Childrens libraries are special collections of books in-
cess in their academic careers (and often, in their future tended for juvenile readers and usually kept in separate
occupations), which they may not learn inside the class- rooms of general public libraries. Some childrens li-
room. braries have entire oors or wings dedicated to them in
bigger libraries while smaller ones may have a separate
room or area for children. They are an educational agency
seeking to acquaint the young with the worlds literature
and to cultivate a love for reading. Their work supple-
ments that of the public schools.[120]
Services commonly provided by public libraries may in-
clude storytelling sessions for infants, toddlers, preschool
children, or after-school programs, all with an intention
of developing early literacy skills and a love of books.
One of the most popular programs oered in public li-
braries are summer reading programs for children, fami-
lies, and adults.[121]
Another popular reading program for children is PAWS
The Robarts Library at the University of Toronto, Canada. TO READ or similar programs where children can read
to certied therapy dogs. Since animals are a calming
The academic library provides a quiet study space for stu- inuence and there is no judgment, children learn con-
dents on campus; it may also provide group study space, dence and a love of reading. Many states have these types
such as meeting rooms. In North America, Europe, and of programs parents just have to ask their librarian to see
other parts of the world, academic libraries are becom- if it is available at their local library.[122]
ing increasingly digitally oriented. The library provides
a gateway for students and researchers to access var-
ious resources, both print/physical and digital.[117] Aca- 2.3 National libraries
demic institutions are subscribing to electronic journals
databases, providing research and scholarly writing soft- Main article: National library
ware, and usually provide computer workstations or com-
puter labs for students to access journals, library search A national or state library serves as a national repository
14 2 TYPES

can use the library branches associated with the library

system. A library can serve only their city, however, if
they are not a member of the county public library sys-
tem. Much of the materials located within a public li-
brary are available for borrowing. The library sta de-
cides upon the number of items patrons are allowed to
borrow, as well as the details of borrowing time allot-
ted. Typically, libraries issue library cards to community
members wishing to borrow books. Often visitors to a
city are able to obtain a public library card.
Many public libraries also serve as community organiza-
tions that provide free services and events to the public,
National Library of Wales such as reading groups and toddler story time. For many
communities, the library is a source of connection to a
vast world, obtainable knowledge and understanding, and
of information, and has the right of legal deposit, which is entertainment. According to a study by the Pennsylvania
a legal requirement that publishers in the country need to Library Association, public library services play a major
deposit a copy of each publication with the library. Un- role in ghting rising illiteracy rates among youths.[125]
like a public library, a national library rarely allows cit- Public libraries are protected and funded by the public
izens to borrow books. Often, their collections include they serve.
numerous rare, valuable, or signicant works. There are
wider denitions of a national library, putting less em- As the number of books in libraries have steadily in-
phasis on the repository character.[123][124] The rst na- creased since their inception, the need for compact stor-
tional libraries had their origins in the royal collections of age and access with adequate lighting has grown. The
the sovereign or some other supreme body of the state. stack system involves keeping a librarys collection of
books in a space separate from the reading room. This ar-
Many national libraries cooperate within the National rangement arose in the 19th century. Book stacks quickly
Libraries Section of the International Federation of Li- evolved into a fairly standard form in which the cast iron
brary Associations and Institutions (IFLA) to discuss and steel frameworks supporting the bookshelves also
their common tasks, dene and promote common stan- supported the oors, which often were built of translu-
dards, and carry out projects helping them to full their cent blocks to permit the passage of light (but were not
duties. The national libraries of Europe participate in The transparent, for reasons of modesty). The introduction
European Library which is a service of the Conference of of electrical lighting had a huge impact on how the li-
European National Librarians (CENL). brary operated. The use of glass oors was largely discon-
tinued, though oors were still often composed of metal
grating to allow air to circulate in multi-story stacks. As
2.4 Public lending libraries more space was needed, a method of moving shelves on
tracks (compact shelving) was introduced to cut down on
Main article: Public library otherwise wasted aisle space.
A public library provides services to the general public.

Raczyski Library, the public library of Pozna, Poland A community library in Ethiopia.

If the library is part of a countywide library system, citi- Library 2.0, a term coined in 2005, is the librarys re-
zens with an active library card from around that county sponse to the challenge of Google and an attempt to meet
2.7 Special libraries 15

the changing needs of users by using web 2.0 technology.

Some of the aspects of Library 2.0 include, commenting,
tagging, bookmarking, discussions, use of online social
networks by libraries, plug-ins, and widgets.[126] Inspired
by web 2.0, it is an attempt to make the library a more
user-driven institution.
Despite the importance of public libraries, they are rou-
tinely having their budgets cut by state legislature. Fund-
ing has dwindled so badly that many public libraries have
been forced to cut their hours and release employees.[127]

Quaid-e-Azam Library in Bagh-e-Jinnah, Lahore, Pakistan

brary; and in North America, such libraries may belong to

the Association of Research Libraries.[132] In the United
Kingdom, they may be members of Research Libraries
UK (RLUK).[133]
A research library can be either a reference library, which
does not lend its holdings, or a lending library, which
does lend all or some of its holdings. Some extremely
Poet Laureate Rita Dove's denition of a library at entrance to large or traditional research libraries are entirely refer-
the Maine State Library in Augusta, Maine ence in this sense, lending none of their materials; most
academic research libraries, at least in the US and the
UK, now lend books, but not periodicals or other ma-
2.5 Reference libraries terials. Many research libraries are attached to a parental
organization and serve only members of that organiza-
A reference library does not lend books and other items; tion. Examples of research libraries include the British
instead, they must be read at the library itself. Typically, Library, the Bodleian Library at Oxford University and
such libraries are used for research purposes, for example the New York Public Library Main Branch on 42nd Street
at a university. Some items at reference libraries may be in Manhattan, State Public Scientic Technological Li-
historical and even unique. Many lending libraries con- brary of the Sibirian Branch of the Russian Academy of
tain a reference section, which holds books, such as dic- Science.[134][135]
tionaries, which are common reference books, and are
therefore not lent out.[128] Such reference sections may
be referred to as reading rooms, which may also in- 2.7 Special libraries
clude newspapers and periodicals.[129] An example of a
reading room is the Hazel H. Ransom Reading Room Main article: Special library
at the Harry Ransom Center of the University of Texas All other libraries, including digital libraries, fall into the
at Austin, which maintains the papers of literary agent
Audrey Wood.[130]

2.6 Research libraries

A research library is a collection of materials on one or

more subjects.[131] A research library supports scholarly
or scientic research and will generally include primary
as well as secondary sources; it will maintain permanent
collections and attempt to provide access to all necessary
materials. A research library is most often an academic
or national library, but a large special library may have a
research library within its special eld, and a very few of
the largest public libraries also serve as research libraries.
A large university library may be considered a research li- Technology Tower, Library in VIT University, India

"special library" category. Many private businesses and Most libraries have materials arranged in a specied or-
public organizations, including hospitals, churches, mu- der according to a library classication system, so that
seums, research laboratories, law rms, and many gov- items may be located quickly and collections may be
ernment departments and agencies, maintain their own li- browsed eciently. Some libraries have additional gal-
braries for the use of their employees in doing specialized leries beyond the public ones, where reference materials
research related to their work. Depending on the particu- are stored. These reference stacks may be open to se-
lar institution, special libraries may or may not be acces- lected members of the public. Others require patrons to
sible to the general public or elements thereof. In more submit a stack request, which is a request for an assis-
specialized institutions such as law rms and research tant to retrieve the material from the closed stacks: see
laboratories, librarians employed in special libraries are List of closed stack libraries (in progress).
commonly specialists in the institutions eld rather than
Larger libraries are often divided into departments staed
generally trained librarians, and often are not required to by both paraprofessionals and professional librarians.
have advanced degrees in specically library-related eld
due to the specialized content and clientele of the library.
Circulation (or Access Services) Handles user ac-
Some special libraries, such as governmental law li- counts and the loaning/returning and shelving of
braries, hospital libraries, and military base libraries materials.[136]
commonly are open to public visitors to the institution
in question. Depending on the particular library and Collection Development Orders materials and
the clientele it serves, special libraries may oer services maintains materials budgets.
similar to research, reference, public, academic, or chil- Reference Stas a reference desk answering ques-
drens libraries, often with restrictions such as only lend- tions from users (using structured reference inter-
ing books to patients at a hospital or restricting the public views), instructing users, and developing library
from parts of a military collection. Given the highly in- programming. Reference may be further broken
dividual nature of special libraries, visitors to a special down by user groups or materials; common collec-
library are often advised to check what services and re- tions are childrens literature, young adult literature,
strictions apply at that particular library. and genealogy materials.
Special libraries are distinguished from special collec-
Technical Services Works behind the scenes cat-
tions, which are branches or parts of a library intended
aloging and processing new materials and deacces-
for rare books, manuscripts, and other special materi-
sioning weeded materials.
als, though some special libraries have special collections
of their own, typically related to the librarys specialized Stacks Maintenance Re-shelves materials that
subject area. have been returned to the library after patron use
For more information on specic types of special li- and shelves materials that have been processed by
braries, see law libraries, medical libraries, music li- Technical Services. Stacks Maintenance also shelf
braries, or transportation libraries. reads the material in the stacks to ensure that it is in
the correct library classication order.

Basic tasks in library management include the planning

3 Organization of acquisitions (which materials the library should ac-
quire, by purchase or otherwise), library classication of
acquired materials, preservation of materials (especially
rare and fragile archival materials such as manuscripts),
the deaccessioning of materials, patron borrowing of ma-
terials, and developing and administering library com-
puter systems. More long-term issues include the plan-
ning of the construction of new libraries or extensions to
existing ones, and the development and implementation
of outreach services and reading-enhancement services
(such as adult literacy and childrens programming). Li-
brary materials like books, magazines, periodicals, CDs,
etc. are managed by Dewey Decimal Classication The-
ory and modied Dewey Decimal Classication Theory
is more practical reliable system for library materials
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
Library shelves in Hong Kong, showing numbers of the classi- has published several standards regarding the manage-
cation scheme to help readers locate works in that section ment of libraries through its Technical Committee 46 (TC

4 Buildings

National Library of India, Kolkata, estb. 1836

Librarians have sometimes complained that some of the

library buildings which have been used to accommodate
libraries have been inadequate for the demands made
upon them. In general, this condition may have resulted
from one or more of the following causes:

1. an eort to erect a monumental building; most of

those who commission library buildings are not li-
brarians and their priorities may be dierent

2. to conform it to a type of architecture unsuited to

library purposes

3. the appointment, often by competition, of an archi-

Card used by a user to sign out a book tect unschooled in the requirements of a library

4. failure to consult with the librarian or with library

46),[138] which is focused on libraries, documentation experts
and information centers, publishing, archives, records
management, museum documentation, indexing and ab- Much advancement has undoubtedly been made toward
stracting services, and information science. The follow- cooperation between architect and librarian, and many
ing is a partial list of some of them:[139] good designers have made library buildings their special-
ity, nevertheless it seems that the ideal type of library is
not yet realizedthe type so adapted to its purpose that
ISO 2789:2006 Information and documentation
it would be immediately recognized as such, as is the case
International library statistics
with school buildings at the present time. This does not
mean that library constructions should conform rigidly to
ISO 11620:1998 Information and documentation a xed standard of appearance and arrangement, but it
Library performance indicators does mean that the exterior should express as nearly as
possible the purpose and functions of the interior.[98]
ISO 11799:2003 Information and documentation
Document storage requirements for archive and li-
brary materials 5 Usage
ISO 14416:2003 Information and documentation Patrons may not know how to fully use the librarys re-
Requirements for binding of books, periodicals, se- sources. This can be due to some individuals unease in
rials, and other paper documents for archive and li- approaching a sta member. Ways in which a librarys
brary useMethods and materials content is displayed or accessed may have the most im-
pact on use. An antiquated or clumsy search system,
ISO/TR 20983:2003 Information and or sta unwilling or untrained to engage their patrons,
documentationPerformance indicators for will limit a librarys usefulness. In the public libraries of
electronic library services the United States, beginning in the 19th century, these
18 5 USAGE

the old card catalogue system was both easier to navigate

and allowed retention of information, by writing directly
on the cards, that is lost in the electronic systems.[144] This
argument is analogous to the debate over paper books
and e-books. While libraries have been accused of pre-
cipitously throwing out valuable information in card cat-
alogues, most modern ones have nonetheless made the
move to electronic catalogue databases. Large libraries
may be scattered within multiple buildings across a town,
each having multiple oors, with multiple rooms housing
the resources across a series of shelves. Once a user has
located a resource within the catalogue, they must then
use navigational guidance to retrieve the resource phys-
ically; a process that may be assisted through signage,
maps, GPS systems, or RFID tagging.
Finland has the highest number of registered book bor-
rowers per capita in the world. Over half of Finlands
population are registered borrowers.[145] In the US, public
Until the advent of digital catalogues, card catalogues were the library users have borrowed on average roughly 15 books
traditional method of organizing the list of resources and their per user per year from 1856 to 1978. From 1978 to 2004,
location within a large library book circulation per user declined approximately 50%.
The growth of audiovisuals circulation, estimated at 25%
of total circulation in 2004, accounts for about half of this

5.1 Shift to digital libraries

See also: Digital library

In the 21st century, there has been increasing use of the

Dynix was an early, but long-lasting and popular, digital cata-


problems drove the emergence of the library instruction

movement, which advocated library user education.[140]
One of the early leaders was John Cotton Dana.[141] The
basic form of library instruction is sometimes known as
information literacy.[142]
Libraries should inform their users of what materials are Interior of the Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Alexandria, Egypt,
showing both stacks and computer terminals
available in their collections and how to access that infor-
mation. Before the computer age, this was accomplished
by the card cataloguea cabinet (or multiple cabinets) Internet to gather and retrieve data. The shift to digital
containing many drawers lled with index cards that iden- libraries has greatly impacted the way people use physical
tied books and other materials. In a large library, the libraries. Between 2002 and 2004, the average American
card catalogue often lled a large room. The emergence academic library saw the overall number of transactions
of the Internet, however, has led to the adoption of elec- decline approximately 2.2%.[147] Libraries are trying to
tronic catalogue databases (often referred to as webcats keep up with the digital world and the new generation of
or as online public access catalogues, OPACs), which al- students that are used to having information just one click
low users to search the librarys holdings from any lo- away. For example, the University of California Library
cation with Internet access.[143] This style of catalogue System saw a 54% decline in circulation between 1991
maintenance is compatible with new types of libraries, and 2001 of 8,377,000 books to 3,832,000.[148]
such as digital libraries and distributed libraries, as well as These facts might be a consequence of the increased
older libraries that have been retrotted. Electronic cat- availability of e-resources. In 19992000, 105 ARL
alogue databases are criticized by some who believe that university libraries spent almost $100 million on elec-
5.2 The Internet 19

tronic resources, which is an increase of nearly $23 mil-

lion from the previous year.[149] A 2003 report by the
Open E-book Forum found that close to a million e-books
had been sold in 2002, generating nearly $8 million in
revenue.[150] Another example of the shift to digital li-
braries can be seen in Cushing Academys decision to
dispense with its library of printed booksmore than
20,000 volumes in alland switch over entirely to dig- British Museum Reading Room
ital media resources.[151]

5.2 The Internet

A library may make use of the Internet in a number of

ways, from creating their own library website to making
the contents of its catalogues searchable online. Some
specialised search engines such as Google Scholar of-
fer a way to facilitate searching for academic resources
such as journal articles and research papers. The Online
Computer Library Center allows library records to be
searched online through its WorldCat database.[153] Web-
sites such as LibraryThing and Amazon provide abstracts,
reviews, and recommendations of books.[153] Libraries
provide computers and Internet access to allow people
to search for information online.[154] Online informa-
tion access is particularly attractive to younger library
Stacks of the Jos Vasconcelos Library in Mexico City users.[155][156][157][158]
Digitization of books, particularly those that are out-
of-print, in projects such as Google Books provides re-
One claim to why there is a decrease in the usage of li- sources for library and other online users. Due to their
braries stems from the observation of the research habits holdings of valuable material, some libraries are impor-
of undergraduate students enrolled in colleges and uni- tant partners for search engines such as Google in re-
versities. There have been claims that college undergrad- alizing the potential of such projects and have received
uates have become more used to retrieving information reciprocal benets in cases where they have negotiated
from the Internet than a traditional library. As each gen- eectively.[159] As the prominence of and reliance on the
eration becomes more in tune with the Internet, their de- Internet has grown, library services have moved the em-
sire to retrieve information as quickly and easily as possi- phasis from mainly providing print resources to provid-
ing more computers and more Internet access.[160] Li-
ble has increased. Finding information by simply search-
ing the Internet could be much easier and faster than read- braries face a number of challenges in adapting to new
ways of information seeking that may stress convenience
ing an entire book. In a survey conducted by NetLibrary,
93% of undergraduate students claimed that nding in- over quality,[161] reducing the priority of information lit-
eracy skills.[162] The potential decline in library usage,
formation online makes more sense to them than going
to the library. Also, 75% of students surveyed claimed particularly reference services,[163] puts the necessity for
these services in doubt.
that they did not have enough time to go to the library
and that they liked the convenience of the Internet. WhileLibrary scholars have acknowledged that libraries need
the retrieving information from the Internet may be e- to address the ways that they market their services if they
cient and time saving than visiting a traditional library,are to compete with the Internet and mitigate the risk of
research has shown that undergraduates are most likely losing users.[164] This includes promoting the information
searching only .03% of the entire web.[152] The informa- literacy skills training considered vital across the library
tion that they are nding might be easy to retrieve and profession.[162][165][166] However, marketing of services
more readily available, but may not be as in depth as in- has to be adequately supported nancially in order to be
formation from other resources such as the books avail- successful. This can be problematic for library services
able at a physical library. that are publicly funded and nd it dicult to justify di-
In the mid-2000s, Swedish company Distec invented a verting tight funds to apparently[167]
peripheral areas such as
library book vending machine known as the GoLibrary, branding and marketing.
that oers library books to people where there is no The privacy aspect of library usage in the Internet age is a
branch, limited hours, or high trac locations such as El matter of growing concern and advocacy; privacy work-
Cerrito del Norte BART station in California. shops are run by the Library Freedom Project which teach

librarians about digital tools (such as the Tor Project) to Federal Depository Library Program
thwart mass surveillance.[168][169][170]
Green library
Interlibrary loan
6 Associations
International Standard Book Number
See also: List of library associations Libraries and the LGBTQ community
Libraries in ction
The International Federation of Library Associations and
Institutions (IFLA) is the leading international associa- Library anxiety
tion of library organisations. It is the global voice of the
library and information profession, and its annual con- Library assessment
ference provides a venue for librarians to learn from one Library of Congress Classication
Library of Congress Subject Headings
Library associations in Asia include the Indian Library
Association (ILA),[172] Indian Association of Special Library portal
Libraries and Information Centers (IASLIC),[173] Ben-
gal Library Association (BLA), Kolkata,[174] Pakistan Library Services and Construction Act
Library Association,[175] the Pakistan Librarians Wel-
National Library Service for the Blind and Physi-
fare Organization,[176] the Bangladesh Association of Li-
cally Handicapped
brarians, Information Scientists and Documentalists, the
Library Association of Bangladesh, and the Sri Lanka Li- Private library
brary Association (founded 1960).
Public library
National associations of the English-speaking world in-
clude the American Library Association, the Australian Public libraries in North America
Library and Information Association, the Canadian Li-
brary Association, and the Research Libraries UK (a con- Roving reference
sortium of 30 university and other research libraries in the Trends in library usage
United Kingdom). Library bodies such as CILIP (for-
merly the Library Association, founded 1877) may ad-
vocate the role that libraries and librarians can play in 7.1 Lists of libraries
a modern Internet environment, and in the teaching of
information literacy skills.[165][177] Main articles: List of libraries, List of national and state
Public library advocacy is support given to a public library libraries, and List of libraries in the ancient world
for its nancial and philosophical goals or needs. Most of-
ten this takes the form of monetary or material donations
or campaigning to the institutions which oversee the li-
brary, sometimes by advocacy groups such as Friends of 8 References
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10 External links
Libraries at DMOZ
LIBwebDirectory of library servers in 146 coun-
tries via WWW
Centre for the History of the Book,
Wikisource. The Free Library
Texts on Wikisource:
Dana, John Cotton (1920). "Libraries, Spe-
cial, Commercial and Industrial". In Rines,
George Edwin. Encyclopedia Americana.
Rines, George Edwin, ed. (1920). "Library
Data". Encyclopedia Americana.
Rines, George Edwin, ed. (1920). "Library
Publications". Encyclopedia Americana.
Walter, Frank K. (1920). "Rural Libraries".
Encyclopedia Americana.
Tedder, Henry Richard; Brown, James Du
(1911). "Libraries". Encyclopdia Britannica
(11th ed.).
Paton, James Morton; Charles Alexander Nel-
son; Melvil Dewey (1905). "Libraries". New
International Encyclopedia.
A Library Primer by John Cotton Dana (1899)
Champlin, John D. (1879). "Library". The
American Cyclopdia.
Libraries: Frequently Asked Questions,
A Library Primer, by John Cotton Dana, 1903, set-
ting out the basics of organizing and running a li-
brary. (from Project Gutenberg)

11 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

11.1 Text
Library Source: Contributors: AxelBoldt, Vicki Rosenzweig, Mav, Wesley,
Stephen Gilbert, ClaudineChionh, Andre Engels, Eclecticology, Matusz, William Avery, SimonP, Shii, Merphant, Daniel C. Boyer, Adam-
Retchless, Heron, Montrealais, Leandrod, Stephen pomes, Patrick, Michael Hardy, Llywrch, Modster, Dan Koehl, Nixdorf, GUllman,
Liftarn, Mic, Lquilter, Sannse, TakuyaMurata, Dnjansen, GTBacchus, Arthur3030, Ahoerstemeier, Stan Shebs, Snoyes, CatherineMu-
nro, Cimon Avaro, Jiang, Efghij, Ruhrjung, Lukobe, Wnissen, Mxn, Norwikian, Jengod, Feedmecereal, Charles Matthews, Emphasis-
Mine, Fuzheado, WhisperToMe, Tpbradbury, Grendelkhan, Taxman, Phoebe, Lord Emsworth, JonathanDP81, Mackensen, Oaktree b,
Mksmith, Wetman, Lunchboxhero, Secretlondon, Jusjih, Camerong, Hjr, Carlossuarez46, Robbot, AlainV, PBS, RickDikeman, Nurg,
Romanm, Tallus, Meelar, Alain Caraco, Roozbeh, Mandel, GreatWhiteNortherner, Tea2min, DocWatson42, Andy, Haeleth, Nunh-huh,
Tsca, Niteowlneils, Leonard G., Angry candy, Yekrats, Gracefool, Proslaes, Solipsist, VampWillow, Adam McMaster, Chipbruce, Pne,
Tagishsimon, Edcolins, Lucky 6.9, Andycjp, CryptoDerk, SarekOfVulcan, Quadell, Antandrus, Jewishlibrarian, Beland, OverlordQ, PDH,
Maximaximax, Latitude0116, Sam Hocevar, Grunners, ChaTo, JulieADriver, Creidieki, Lindberg G Williams Jr, Neutrality, Dovi, Joy-
ous!, Alperen, Zondor, Bluemask, Millisits, Tom X. Tobin, Ham II, Noisy, Deirdre~enwiki, Rich Farmbrough, FT2, Rydel, Vsmith, Flo-
rian Blaschke, Liblamb, Ponder, Mani1, Stbalbach, Edgarde, Bender235, Yinon, Djordjes, Kaisershatner, Neko-chan, Violetriga, Canis-
Rufus, El C, Kwamikagami, Mwanner, CDN99, Bobo192, Touriste, Circeus, Zlite, John Vandenberg, BrokenSegue, Slugguitar, Richi,
Kaivanmil, Audrey, Phalereus, Wrs1864, Sam Korn, (aeropagitica), Haham hanuka, Pharos, Jonathunder, Nsaa, Ranveig, Schissel, Storm
Rider, Alansohn, Neonumbers, Andrewpmk, Ricky81682, AzaToth, TheVenerableBede, Pouya, Mysdaao, Bart133, Gdavidp, ProhibitO-
nions, Deacon of Pndapetzim, Cburnett, Sciurin, Cmapm, BDD, SteinbDJ, Ghirlandajo, Czolgolz, HenryLi, Jlowgren, NicM, Benoni,
Gmaxwell, DavidReilly, Philthecow, OwenX, Woohookitty, Katyare, Anarchitect~enwiki, Scriberius, Jftsang, Tckma, Sdgjake, Table-
top, Schzmo, Grika, GregorB, Eras-mus, Tetraminoe, MarcoTolo, Yst, MassGalactusUniversum, KaisaL, Tibetibet, BD2412, Kbdank71,
Sjakkalle, Rjwilmsi, Scribas, Koavf, NewGuy4, Bruce1ee, Feydey, Vegaswikian, Crazynas, ElKevbo, Brighterorange, Mecasey, Yamamoto
Ichiro, Talia679, Computor, Eubot, Eldamorie, Arnero, Whimemsz, Pathoschild, DevastatorIIC, President Rhapsody, Blakesterz, Chobot,
Sbrools, Rewster, DVdm, Bdelisle, Gdrbot, Random user 39849958, Gwernol, Msauers, Flcelloguy, Dwstein, Sfrancoeur, Siddhant, Wave-
length, Jimp, Dmharvey, RussBot, PetrosGreek, Dili, Splash, Yllosubmarine, Gaius Cornelius, Eleassar, Ihope127, Neilbeach, Thane,
Anomalocaris, Alynna Kasmira, NawlinWiki, Wiki alf, Dialectric, Grafen, Rjensen, Yoninah, Cleared as led, Thecolemanation, Bota47,
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MK8, Cattus, Greatgavini, CSWarren, J. Spencer, DHN-bot~enwiki, Darth Panda, Xbxg32000, Jameswilson, Scwlong, Zsinj, Can't sleep,
clown will eat me, Scray, Aquarius Rising, OrphanBot, Yidisheryid, Fluandstu, SundarBot, Flyguy649, Cybercobra, Khukri, Reti-
narow, Nakon, Savidan, JonasRH, RolandR, Dreadstar, RandomP, Derek R Bullamore, DMacks, Ceoil, Nasz, Will Beback, SashatoBot,
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Hu12, ThuranX, JYi, Iridescent, Kencf0618, 05Ric59, Sander Sde, LSELibrary, Sweet byrd, Delta x, Dragonix, Blehfu, Bobamnertiop-
sis, Courcelles, Billy Hathorn, Wbalderaz, Brakel, SkyWalker, CmdrObot, Code E, Jenmc, Raysonho, Endeavor51, The ed17, Artdhtml,
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doom, Yaris678, TheRegicider, Steel, Wordbuilder, JFreeman, Breedimm, ST47, Laura Stiles, DumbBOT, Alaibot, Quadrius, Kozuch,
Protious, Daven200520, JodyB, PamD, Thijs!bot, Epbr123, Lord Hawk, Biruitorul, Jkbartholomew, Nowimnthing, Anshuk, RallySali-
nas, Mojo Hand, VilleS, Marek69, Vertium, Cool Blue, Turkeyphant, Sean William, Natalie Erin, Escarbot, Katewill, Martyr13, Rlitwin,
AntiVandalBot, Yonatan, Kramden4700, Seaphoto, Honeygo, Catfoo, Fayenatic london, Robert Lau, Tillman, Spencer, Salgueiro~enwiki,
Glennwells, Wayiran, LegitimateAndEvenCompelling, Kariteh, Roving Wordslinger, Ekabhishek, Kosboot, MER-C, Tonker83, The Tran-
shumanist, Robina Fox, The elephant, PhilKnight, Y2kcrazyjoker4, Acroterion, Lawikitejana, Bongwarrior, VoABot II, JNW, S. Cruz,
Doug Coldwell, Steven Walling, Twsx, WODUP, Froid, KConWiki, DoddLu, NiklasL, Stanj85, JoergenB, Waltless, Glen, DerHexer,
JaGa, Esanchez7587, Khalid Mahmood, Oicumayberight, DGG, Oroso, Stephenchou0722, Logan1939, Jackson Peebles, Hdt83, Martin-
Bot, Acjaeckel, STBot, Vigyani, WestBoston, Bluemancope, UnfriendlyFire, ISwearItsTrue, R'n'B, CommonsDelinker, AlexiusHoratius,
Wiki Raja, Gviswana, J.delanoy, Captain panda, Trusilver, Svetovid, Numbo3, Maurice Carbonaro, Theo Mark, Stevejpayne, Rockst-
jaerna, Acalamari, Martin McCarvill, Johnbod, Benjfrank, Grosscha, Shasta29, Ricardocolombia, Kathomps, Belovedfreak, NewEng-
landYankee, Rwessel, DadaNeem, Tinned Elk, Flatterworld, Christopher Kraus, Liliana-60, Homer Landskirty, Treisijs, GameSavior,
Socom591, HighKing, AngryBear, Mashtato, Sunying, Idioma-bot, Nigel Ish, Vranak, VolkovBot, Librarylefty, Powered, Words for the
wind, Wisdum, Philip Trueman, Shriram2576, TXiKiBoT, Zidonuke, Rei-bot, Maniajim, Andres rojas22, MadScientist40, Martin7x,
Deralect, Filajoe, Ashlandgeek, Deathlyraccoon, Katanch7, Ontoraul, Melsaran, Supertask, Abdullais4u, Canaima, LeaveSleaves, Wiae,
Chickenboy55, Maxim, Tancrede, Brakendeath, Billinghurst, Sammenaker, Falcon8765, Burntsauce, The Devils Advocate, AlleborgoBot,
Symane, SubLibris, AdRock, Romuald Wrblewski, SieBot, StAnselm, Froztbyte, Mikemoral, MrWolfy, Dlfreem, Spartan, Weeliljimmy,
Winchelsea, Gerakibot, Dawn Bard, Yintan, Marckk, Slugsrbad, Nummer29, Unauthorized Guest Librarian, Artoronto, Edmallard, Jordan-
high, Heylookyoucantrustme, Jocularjack, Arolga, JetLover, Ferret, Oxymoron83, Byrialbot, Brufas, Lightmouse, Mcat31, Fatboyharri95,
OKBot, Johnnywiggle, Maymaymaymay, Regenlied, Mtaylor848, Randalph P. Williams, Zqui, ImageRemovalBot, Elnon, Wikipedian-
Marlith, Atif.t2, Loren.wilton, Martarius, Twaingirl, ClueBot, The Thing That Should Not Be, Rjd0060, Ktg2, VsBot, Enthusiast01, Su-
pertouch, TimFearn74, Saddhiyama, Hafspajen, Parkwells, TypoBoy, Historychecker, Puchiko, Pointillist, Sektalkingbooks, DragonBot,
Jusdafax, LinMeg, Calimo, Flutist11, Peterhaastrup, BirgerH, Rhododendrites, Grey Matter, Jotterbot, MissPinto, AleXd, Emmatheawe-
some, Dekisugi, SchreiberBike, Jvanhaaften, BOTarate, Prof tpms, Scalhotrod, UnlinedPage, Johnuniq, Vanished User 1004, DumZiBoT,
Chris1834, Dthomsen8, Shavko10, Olegkagan, WikHead, Alexius08, MMich, WPjcm, HexaChord, Raminanikesh, Supaduperman, Fe-
lix Folio Secundus, Addbot, Freepenguin, Multcolibsteve, Some jerk on the Internet, DOI bot, QQQQQ5, Non-dropframe, Rhysydude,
PaterMcFly, Dvmsnicster, Tman87baliey, Tanhabot, Cat12, 123pierty, 15JGraves, Jazmin1234521, CanadianLinuxUser, Leszek Jaczuk,
Kinzfan97, Ka Faraq Gatri, Huhk87, Jejejejesss, MrOllie, Download, Favonian, Alanscottwalker, Lightbot, Pietrow, Gail, Clpda, LuK3,
JakobVoss, Legobot, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Schuym1, Korina iluvu, Mmxx, RMacF, Absolutely Trustworthy, AnomieBOT, IamVeryBoredAt-
Work, Willdcraze, Rubinbot, 1exec1, AlotToLearn, Galoubet, Tucoxn, ALBERT ARBABIAN, 9258fahskh917fas, Kingpin13, Justme89,
Ulric1313, Materialscientist, Tunseeker1, Citation bot, Bob Burkhardt, Dillon127, LilHelpa, Xqbot, Jamikadbelk, 4I7.4I7, Cureden, Anub-
havk1980, Jyusin, Dell9727, JimVC3, GoldCorrie, Poetaris, NorwalkJames, 4twenty42o, Lele giannoni, Norskie2080, Maheakim, Mart-
intownG, Laurence Gilcrest, Egriesba, JCrue, Unscented, Uomodis08, Killerqueso, Henersjenks, Wing1207, Slatzy, GrouchoBot, Abce2,

RibotBOT, The Interior, Amaury, IShadowed, N419BH, Chongkian, Uranrising, AlimanRuna, JayJay, Josemanimala, GT5162, Dragon
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Mitchell, Vikingdude21, Kmahmood2009, Eagle4000, M2545, Cannolis, Mdeochan, Citation bot 1, Middleschoolkid, WQUlrich, Biker
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Callanecc, Kggy, Rhswikiped, SeoMac, TheGrimReaper NS, OnesimusUnbound, Ewyatt22, Kyleisdabest09, Hairysubs, Bob5002, Choco-
lategumandredraspberry, IRISZOOM, Tbhotch, Shahidsoroya, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, Mean as custard, Michaelfoti, Bahnfrend, Rjwilm-
siBot, TjBot, DRAGON BOOSTER, Dmon21, EmausBot, Acather96, Pjposullivan, WikitanvirBot, Gfoley4, Zollerriia, Tsukaji, Going-
Batty, RenamedUser01302013, Vanita khanchandani, Annohj, Imager Visioner, Steve Lux, Jr., Poulie, Gouwepv, K6ka, AlexA95, Lu-
cas Thoms, Wikiwrecker97, Lamb99, Mz7, Clareeh, InfoSources, ZroBot, PBS-AWB, Checkingfax, Josve05a, Graczkowski, Genghis-
gandhi, Bryce Carmony, Deepblue2010, Mar4d, Laurathered, Reder8976, SwinSvinoza, Kiwi128, Rosyyy, Mahtopushpa, Spiriteye7,
Wayne Slam, WikiMan225, Michael Fleischhacker, Erianna, Mlemacio, L Kensington, Noodleki, Sakura-iro no namida, ChuispastonBot,
Plinkostick, Maentel, 28bot, Davey2010, Mikhail Ryazanov, ClueBot NG, Cwmhiraeth, Cispare, Jack Greenmaven, Westbender, Jhun-
gary, Wdchk, Hindustanilanguage, Frietjes, Murdiyah, Mpburch, Bushums, Morgan Riley, Cataobh, Crohall, Anupmehra, Ilsjwnmcgbob,
Theopolisme, Oddbodz, Gracetupelo, Helpful Pixie Bot, Bigred16, Linseyb22, SueTwo, Bobherry, Bemm14, WNYY98, Plantdrew, Baran-
walharshita, Doorknob747, BG19bot, Manumariyam, MKar, Northamerica1000, PhnomPencil, Cyberpower678, MusikAnimal, Amp71,
Cold Season, XXxMotorBabyxXx, AndyAnn, Mare9772, Gorthian, CitationCleanerBot, Cableknitpower, FutureInfoPro, Northo, Mered-
ithFischer, Skylarstrickland, Mycollege, Tyrannus Mundi, Haileyanneleighdeleon, Cli12345, Kingroy1981, Klilidiplomus, Chip123456,
Srinivsn, BattyBot, David.moreno72, Miszatomic, Iwannabangblackchicks, Luisa22, Skky999, Cyberbot II, ChrisGualtieri, Khazar2,
Gangstac121, Zoppagorfa, AK456, BuzyBody, Dexbot, Nin360, Kelseycut11, Flying x-ray hippopotamus, Geremy.Hebert, MWright96,
0900moosa01, Soumen4u, Frosty, Branches123, Graphium, Insectosaurus555, Skaihoi, Corinne, Gwlraj, Danny Sprinkle, Jayman945,
BlaqSun86, Cawhee, LibrarianAnnie, I am One of Many, Petercannon usf, Melonkelon, Mniharroy, Monika manav, PrinceCharming786,
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The Last Arietta, Randeerjayasekara, NextGenSam619, Abdallah hraiba, James E. Scholz, ValPritt, Worldtrackerorg, Giovanni Eteronni,
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JJMC89, HakanIST, Brecapla000, IM3847, Xxpagedestroyerxx, Oalexander, Sro23, Lizzzyc, Babymissfortune, Rebecca Gracey O, I
like doors, Sspringer2, CLCStudent, Rothweiler2015, Bazookabangbang123, Lakelandcrib, Qzd, H.dryad, Pijushbhatta, Hhuan, Inter-
netArchiveBot, Karlfonza, Marianna251, Colonel Wilhelm Klink, KGirlTrucker81, GreenC bot, StevesEdits, Ceecee7011, Bender the
Bot, Jignesh.vishapara, The your sandbox, Elig1234, Cshanahan23, Lbshevch and Anonymous: 785

11.2 Images
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2001 Original artist: O. Von Corven
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11.2 Images 29

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