You are on page 1of 36


ECE422H1S: Radio and

Microwave Wireless Systems

Prof. Sean Victor Hum

1 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

Contact Information
Prof. Sean Victor Hum

Office hours:
Wednesdays 14:00-15:00
Anytime by appointment

2 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

Lecture notes (posted online)
F. Ulaby et al, Fundamentals of Applied
Electromagnetics, 6th ed., Prentice-Hall, 2010
D. Cheng, Field and Wave Electromagnetics, 2nd ed.,
Addison-Wesley, 1989
D. M. Pozar, Microwave and RF Design of Wireless
Systems, Wiley, 2000
C. A. Lewis, J. T. Johnson, and F. L. Texeira,
Radiowave Propagation: Physics and Applications,
Wiley, 2010
3 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum
Course Website
Course administered through Blackboard
but course materials available directly
online at:
Important information distributed through
this site
Notes, problem sets, announcements,
Check that you have access

4 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

Course Grading
Mini-test 1 (to be scheduled) 10 %

Mini-test 2 (to be scheduled) 10 %

Midterm (to be scheduled) 20%

Laboratory Work 20%

Final exam 40%

5 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

Important Course Information
The quizzes, midterm, and final exam are
closed book
One 8.5x11 aid sheet allowed (type D)

Teaching Assistants
Utkarsh Patel (TUT)
Min Yin (Talia) Xu (PRA)

6 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

Tutorials / Problem Sets
Weekly 1 hour interactive sessions
Will cover supplementary material to augment/
reinforce lectures
Should be seen as important as attending lectures
Problems sets
Issued weekly, partial solution follows
Since there are no graded assignments, completion is
essential as practice for tests

7 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

Labs consist of a structured portion and an
unstructured portion
3 structured laboratory experiments
Experiment 1: Basic antenna characteristics
Experiment 2: Antennas arrays
Experiment 3: Radio wave propagation
See schedule for experiments / due dates
Laboratory reports on these experiments due 2
weeks from lab in boxes (4th floor Bahen)
1 report / person
8 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum
PRA01 Wed 12:00-15:00 odd weeks
PRA02 Thu 09:00-12:00 even weeks
PRA03 Wed 12:00-15:00 even weeks

9 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

Unstructured Laboratories: Build
your own SDR
Assembly and testing can
be done where and when
you wish
Lab access available
during all available PRA
1 report on your SDR
observations due at end
of term
Intermediate versions due
at milestone dates (see

10 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

Unstructured Laboratories: Build
your own SDR

11 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

Course Schedule
ECE422 Course Schedule 2017 (subject to change)
Lecture Lecture content Date Week of Labs Tests
1 Introductory material / presentation 17-01-10 17-01-09 No labs
2 Review of Maxwell's equations / phasors 17-01-11
3 Review of plane waves 17-01-13
4 Wave polarization, Poynting vector, introduction to radiation problems 17-01-17 17-01-16 SDR
5 Vector potential, introduction to Hertzian dipole 17-01-18
6 Hertzian dipole, far-field, antenna characteristics 17-01-20
7 Dipole near-fields, antenna patterns 17-01-24 17-01-23 SDR
8 Directivity, gain, antenna equivalent circuit 17-01-25
9 Antenna equivalent circuit, half-wave dipole 17-01-27
10 Half-wave dipole, reciprocity 17-01-31 17-01-30 SDR
11 Reciprocity, 2-antenna arrays, pattern multiplication 17-02-01
12 Array factor, case study 1: feeding of antennas 17-02-03
13 Vector effective length, receiving antennas, introduction to radio links 17-02-07 17-02-06 PRA01 Exp. 1
14 Effective area, Friis' transmission formula 17-02-08
15 Friis transmission formula effects 17-02-10 Module A+B due 16:00
16 Polarization loss factor 17-02-14 17-02-13 PRA02 Exp. 1 Mini-test 1
17 Image principle, monopole antenna 17-02-15
18 Monopole, case study: electromagnetic compliance and RF safety 17-02-17
Reading week (no lectures) 17-02-21 17-02-20 SDR (Tse only)
Reading week (no lectures) 17-02-22
Reading week (no lectures) 17-02-24
19 Folded dipole, antenna arrays 17-02-28 17-02-27 SDR
20 Antenna arrays, graphical techniques for plotting AF 17-03-01
21 Generalized array factor 17-03-03
22 Amplitude tapers, continuous array factor 17-03-07 17-03-06 SDR Midterm
23 Aperture antennas 17-03-08
24 Case study: Digital television and antenna arrays 17-03-10
25 Review of boundary conditions 17-03-14 17-03-13 PRA01 Exp. 2
26 Plane earth reflection 17-03-15
27 Knife-edge diffraction 17-03-17 Module C+D due 16:00
28 Knife-edge diffraction (cont'd) 17-03-21 17-03-20 PRA02 Exp. 2
29 Atmospheric refraction 17-03-22
30 Atmospheric attenuation 17-03-24
31 Noise in radio systems, Rayleigh-Jeans law, equivalent noise temperature 17-03-28 17-03-27 PRA01 Exp. 3
32 Noise figure, equivalent noise temperature in cascade systems, NT of passive networks 17-03-29
33 NF Example, antenna noise, g/T ratio 17-03-31
34 Link budgets, satellite systems 17-04-04 17-04-03 PRA02 Exp. 3 Mini-test 2
35 Satellite systems (cont'd), Exp.ample, radar 17-04-05
35 Radar equation, CW radar, pulse radar 17-04-07
36 Radar systems 17-04-11 17-04-10 SDR
37 Case study: Doppler radar 17-04-12 Final SDR report due 16:00

12 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

Communication Systems
Utilize electromagnetic radiation to carry information

13 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

Communications Media
Transmission lines Wireless
and waveguides communications
Coaxial cable Optical systems
Twisted pair Ultrasonics
Waveguide SONAR
Optical fiber Microwave and RF

Image courtesy: ESA

14 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

Wireless Communication Systems
Radio waves are the
most attractive
because of their


15 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

Select RF System Frequencies
(North America)
Wireless System Operating Frequency (ies)
3G cellular systems
CLR 824-849 MHz; 869-894 MHz
AWS 17101755 MHz
GSM1900 / PCS 18501910 MHz; 19301990 MHz
4G cellular systems
BRS/EBS 2496 2690MHz
700 MHz 698806 MHz
GPS L1: 1575.42 MHz; L2: 1227.60 MHz
WLANs / ISM 902-928 MHz; 2.400-2.484 GHz;
5.725-5.850 MHz
Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) 11.7-12.5 GHz

16 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

17 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum
Radio Communication Systems
Wireless systems abound in the modern
Radiodetermination systems
Fixed services
Mobile services
Space communications
Radio astronomy

18 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

Radio determination systems
VLF beacons for
navigation at sea
Global positioning
system (GPS)
Wireless localization /
E911 services
Radio frequency
identification (RFID)
tags Image courtesy: ESA

19 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

Fixed Services
Radio and television broadcast
Terrestrial: NTSC, ATSC
Satellite: Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS)
Point-to-point microwave links
Wireless LANs and PANs
802.11x, HiperLAN, Bluetooth
Last mile wireless
WiMAX Image couresy: D-Link

Local Multipoint Distribution Systems (LMDSs)

20 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

Mobile Services
Cellular communications (voice, data)
1980s market firm hired by AT&T to survey potential
US market for cell phones estimated 900,000 users
by 2000
Actual: 60 million (6000% error)
CB / FRS radio
Dispatch systems
Satellite phones
Military communications
Image courtesy: BlackBerry

21 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

Space Communications
communications Image courtesy: NASA/JPL

communications (e.g.
Deep space
communications (e.g.
Voyager, New
Remote sensing
22 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum
Other Radio Systems
RADAR Radio Astronomy

23 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

What you will learn in ECE422
Analysis and design
Various antenna types used in industry
Radio wave propagation characteristics
How radio waves interact with the
Analysis and design of wireless links /

24 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum


25 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum


26 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

Large Antennas

Arecibo Telescope, Puerto Rico

Square Kilometre Array (SKA)

Australia / South Africa

27 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

Elementary dipoles
Half-wave dipoles, linear antennas
Antenna arrays
Folded dipoles, monopoles
Smart antennas

28 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

Radio Wave Propagation

Courtesy Intelsat


29 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

Radio Wave Propagation
Free space wave propagation
Large scale effects from reflections off the
Diffraction effects
Ionospheric propagation
Atmospheric effects

30 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

Link/System Design

31 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

Link/System Design
Link budgets
Noise in radio systems
System applications
Terrestrial wireless communications
Satellite communication systems
RADAR systems
Radio receiver architectures
Software-defined radio (SDR)

32 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

Case Studies
1. Practical feeding and measurement of
2. Improving the range of your wireless LAN
3. Over-the-air HDTV in Toronto
4. Electromagnetic Compliance (EMC)
5. Amateur radio satellite communications

33 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

Part I

Radiation and Antennas

34 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

Fields from a Charge

35 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

Fields from an Accelerating Charge

36 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum