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What do audiences want from 18 age rated computer games or films in this

report I will comprehensively explain how media audiences respond to media

products with elucidated examples and consistently using subject terminology
correctly. The BBFC discovered that younger gamers are influenced to play titles
such as GTA and Manhunt, which has usually been influenced by peer pressure,
as well as the negative press coverage of violent titles, which has increased their
uptake. However, the BBFC also stated that younger players often find that the
violence in the games are disturbing. But what do the audience want from an 18
age rated computer game during my research on forums I found that people are
looking for improved graphics making wounds and suffering more real looking
along with weapons and scenery, as well as open world free roam games.
Looking through research on the BBFC website, they tend to find that females
prefer games such as Sims and puzzle games, having a more strategic life
simulation. In addition, that males favour first person shooter games and sports.
There is no conclusive evidence that video games are the cause to violence for
example Sandy Hook incident that occurred on December the 14 th 2012. When
Adam Lanza fatally shot 20 children 6 adults as well as killing his mother was
blamed for doing this because he owned a few call of duty games. In addition,
notched up 83,000 online kills including 22,000 head shots and used these
violent games to train himself for his massacre. However viewing recent studies
the content of today's media sexualizes and objectifies girls . The effects of self-
objectification include eating disorders, low self-esteem and depression.
The reception theory, also known as the preferred, negotiated and oppositional
reading. Explains that there were 3 ways of reading a text. The first is the
preferred reading this is when the media producers produce a reading which they
want the audience to receive, the second is negotiated reading this is where the
audience accepts the meaning the media producers intend for the text but it
change some of the intentions of the text to suit its own position. And finally
there is oppositional reading this is where the audience completely reject the
preferred reading of the text and interpret the text in their own different way. An
example of a preferred reading can be seen in the film Harry Brown, its preferred
reading would see the audience siding with the character of Harry, because all
youths are thugs, mindless violence and so on. However the negotiated reading
may say that, yes this is true the youths in the film do act thuggishly and commit
acts of unnecessary violence, however there may be a reason behind it. And the
audience may look behind the stereotype which is intended to be shown hwile
still agreeing that Harry had a right to act as he did. The oppositional reader may
argue that there IS a reason behind the way the youths act, and that they feel
sorry for them rather than the people they are terrorising, as well as this young
teenagers might idealise the teens in t his film.

Hypodermic Needle Theory, also known as the hypodermic syringe model was
created by Harold Lasswell in 1920 in the war. This theory was a linear model of
communication and it spoke about the power that the media had towards the
audience. The message of this was the this needle was like a 'magic bullet' and it
entered peoples minds and set a particular message to them. This theory
explained how media controls what the audience views are and injects ideas,
attitudes and beliefs into their heads who as a powerless mass have little choice
but to be influenced and do what the media want you to do. An example of this
would be if you see something violent on TV you may go do something violent.
Or if you see someone doing the washing up It will encourage you and make you
want to do the same. in this case it would make the audience passive. It makes
the audience unable to resist the receiving messages being sent out by the
media. This was seen as an asset in mobilising people especially through the
radio however now people have become more sophisticated. The positive effect
of this theory was that exposure to educative media content is of great
importance for example the education we receive on talk shows and exposure to
information from the media such as news , however the negative effects of this
theory are that exposure to violence and sex on some media content could cause
some people to act this way, in addition exposure to false or sensational
The ''Uses & Gratifications' theory of audience is a popular approach in
understanding mass communication, this suggests that the audience decides
what to do with media content rather than the media just influencing the
audience directly. The theory places more focus on the audience, instead of the
actual message itself by asking ''what people do with the media'' rather than
''what media does to people'' this suggests that the members of the audience
are not passive but take an active role in interpreting and integrating media into
their own lives, which means that the media is not being forced on them as such
like how the hypodermic needle does, but that they are choosing to interpret tis
message. The main idea of this theory is that the media does not fully control a
helpless audience but rather the media is a subjective per person as they use it
to meet needs. Which makes this theory the opposite of the hypodermic needle.
Uses of gratification theory can be seen in cases such as personal music
selection. We select music not only to fit a particular mood but also in attempts
to show empowerment or other socially conscience motives. And there are many
different types of music and we choose from them to fulfil a particular need.
There are 4 basic model the first is 'Personal Identify' this is when you are able to
recognise the product or person in front of you, such as role models that reflect
similar values as yours, or to aspire to be someone else. The second is
'Information' this is when you are being able to acquire information/knowledge
and understanding, and example of this could be news or a chat show. The third
is 'Entertainment' this is when what you the consumer are consuming should
give you enjoyment as well as some form of 'escapism' enabling us to forget our
worries temporarily. And last of all 'Social Interaction' this is the ability for media
products to produce a topic of conversation between other people and spark
debates such as who is left on the X-Factor. However there is criticism for this
theory, many people believe that the public has no control over the media and
what it produces, and can also be said to be too kind to the media, as they are
being 'let off the hook' and do not need to take responsibility for what they
The Reception Theory is a version of reader response literary theory that
emphasizes the reader's reception of literary text. It originated from the work of
Hans-Robert Jauss in the late 1960's is when producers or directors construct a
text which has a hidden message or meaning to it that the producers or directors
want to convey across the audience. If this is done correctly the audience will be
able t o understand the message directly, but the audience will need constant
reminders of the message through out the film this would generally be done
through character dialogue or actions within the film. Stuart Hall stressed the
role of social positioning in the interpretation of mass media texts by different
social groups. He also identified that there were three types of audiences reading
messages. The first being Dominant, this is about what the audience wants to
hear from people and agreeing, but with the limited knowledge on the subject.
An example of this is in political speeches where politicians say what the public
want to hear, such as improving the NHS to win them over. The second type is
Negotiated, this is when the audience agrees, disagrees or that questions a
political speech or news broadcast due to previously held news that they may of
heard. As many people in the United States question FOX NEWS as it has been
said to be biased news who support the Republican party. And Finaly
oppositional, this is when the audience recognises the Dominant message but
rejects what is being said due to culture or political opinion.

Passive consumption is when the audience doesnt engage or question the media
message but just accepts it, this is what the media outlets want to achieve when
making a film or show as they want to view to except and not question.

An active consumption Is when the audience will engage and discuss media
messages that come aross to them and some times question the media
messages through life experience.