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These are the directions for Part 5 of the new TOElC@test. Study them now. If you
understand these directions now, you will not have to read them during the test.

In the Reading test, you will read a variety of texts and answer several different types of reading
comprehension questions. The entire Reading test will last 75 minutes. There are three parts, and
directions are given for each part. You are encouraged to answer as many questions as possible
within the time allowed.
You must mark your answers on the separate answer sheet. Do not write your answers in the test

Directions: A word or phrase is missing in each of the sentences below. Four answer choices are
given below each sentence. Select the best answer to complete the sentence. Then mark the letter
(A), (B), (C), or (D) on your answer sheet.

In this section, you will learn the most common types of items found on Part 5:
word families
similar words
adverbs of frequency
causative verbs
conditional sentences
verb tense
two-word verbs


Word families are words that look alike but have different endings.

ROOT WORD: nation

ENDINGS: -al -ize -ly -ity
WORDS: national nationalize nationally na tionali ty
These endings (-ai, -ize, -ly, -ity, -ful, -SiOIl, etc.) change the original word to either a
noun, verb, adjective, or adverb. For example, the word care can be made into an
adjective (careful) or an adverb (carefully).



Do you need a noun? If so, does the ending make the word a noun?

Noun endings: -alIce, -ancy, -enee, -at ion, -dam, -islll, -ment, -/less, -ship,
-or, -er, -io/l
INCORRECT [I was sorry to hear about his ill.)
CORRECT 1 was sorry to hear about his illness.

Do you need an adjective? If so, does the ending make the word an

Adjective endings: -able, -ible, -ai, -fiLl, -ish, -ive

INCORRECT [This is a wonder report!]
CORRECT This is a wonderful report!

Do you need an adverb? If so, does the ending make the word an
Adverb endings: -ly, -ward, -wise
INCORRECT [She entered the data very careful.]
CORRECT She entered the data very carefully.

Do you need a verb? If so, does the ending make the word a verb?

Verb endings: -en, -ifij, -ize

INCORRECT [We are going to wide the parking lat.)
CORRECT We are going to widen the parking lot.



Mark the choice that best completes the sentence.

1. We need to the language in this report; CD CD CD @

it is too complex.
(A) simplify (C) simply
(B) simple (0) simplistic
2. In my opinion, her leaving early was a very CD CD CD @
thing to do.
(A) children (C) childishly
(B) childish (0) child

3. We could call the TV stations and the opening CD CD CD @

of our new store.
(A) publicity (C) publicize
(B) public (0) publisher

4. I like my work because I have the to make my CD CD CD @

own decisions.
(A) freed (C) freedom
(B) freely (0) free
5. Our company believes it is the best to handle CD CD CD @
the account.
(A) organizing (C) organizational
(B) organization (0) organize

6. Most meetings are not as as this one was. CD CD CD @

(A) interested (C) interest
(B) interestingly (0) interesting

7. A doctor's manner makes patients feel comfortable. CD CD CD @

(A) friendship (C) friendly
(B) friend (0) friend liness

8. It was very of the boss to buy us those nice gifts. CD CD CD @

(A) thoughtless (C) thought
(B) thoughtful (0) thoughtfully

9. One of your duties will be some typing. CD CD CD @

(A) light (C) lighten
(B) lightened (0) lightness

10. She would like a raise, not just a few dollars. CD CD CD @

(A) really (C) real
(B) realist (0) reality


Similar words are often confusing if they have similar meanings but cannot be
interchanged. Sometimes they have the same root, prefix, or suffix. Sometimes they
have similar spelling. The grammatical structure and the meaning of the sentence will
help you determine which is correct.



Many words seem similar because they contain similar letters. Do the
other words in the sentence help you understand the meaning of the
INCORRECT [The manager will except the gift.]
CORRECT The manager will accept the gift.

Some words can refer to the same topic but have different meanings.
Do you know the different meanings of a word?
INCORRECT [Do you have change for a ten-dollar currency?]
CORRECT Do you have change for a ten-dollar bill?

Some words have similar spellings, but they have very different mean-
ings or are different parts of speech. Can you tell the difference?
INCORRECT [The athlete does not want to loose the race.]
CORRECT The athlete does not want to lose the race.



Mark the choice that best completes the sentence.

1. The task was divided into parts. CD CD @ @
(A) like (C) equal
(B) same (0) even

2. We were impressed with the recommendations CD CD @ @

at the end of the report.
(A) specially (C) especial
(B) special (0) especially

3. Your during our visit has been greatly appreciated. CD CD @ @

(A) hospice (C) hospitality
(B) hospital (0) hospitable

4. With prices at such a rapid rate, buyers should CD CD @ @

compare prices.
(A) ascending (C) enlarging
(B) increasing (0) expanding
5. No one is at fault, according to the company CD CD @ @
(A) speaker (C) teller
(B) man (0) spokesperson

6. Your advice was very CD CD @ @

(A) cooperating (C) helpful
(B) contributive (0) improving

7. I think the for his services is high. CD CD @ @

(A) duty (C) fine
(B) fee (0) tariff

8. We've decided to the company Macrodisk, Inc. CD CD @ @

(A) name (C) nominate
(B) identify (0) denominate

9. Have you checked out the of that contract? CD CD @ @

(A) rightfulness (C) legality
(B) lawfulness (0) authority
10. The experience I received being an apprentice was CD CD @ @
(A) costly (C) expensive
(B) pricey (0) invaluable


Small words that introduce phrases are prepositions. Prepositional phrases show time,
placement, direction, cause, and location.



Do you need to refer to a specific time? If so, is the preposition at?

INCORRECT [The morning shift starts on 9:00.]

CORRECT The morning shift starts at 9:00.

Do you need to refer to a specific day? If so, is the preposition on?

INCORRECT [The conference will be held ~ Friday.]
CORRECT The conference will be held on Friday.

Do you need to refer to a specific date? If so, is the preposition on?

INCORRECT [The contract deadline is in February 10.]
CORRECT The contract deadline is on February 10

Do you need to talk about a specific city? If so, is the preposition in?
INCORRECT [Our headquarters are at Baltimore.]
CORRECT Our headquarters are in Baltimore.

Do you know the meaning of the preposition? Is the preposition

INCORRECT [The letter was written from his secretary.]
CORRECT The letter was written ~ his secretary.



Mark the choice that best completes the sentence.

1. The mail carrier left the mail the secretary's desk. CD CD CD QD
(A) to (C) at
(8) on (0) above

2. The software company offers training Atlanta. CD CD CD QD

(A) at (C) by
(8) on (0) in

3. There will be a holiday Monday. CD CD CD QD

(A) on (C) at
(8) from (0) in

4. The presentation starts 9:30 A.M. in the CD CD CD QD

conference room.
(A) on (C) in
(8) at (0) for

5. The doctor will not give the patient the test results CD CD CD QD
(A) on (C) from
(8) until (0) at

6. That clerk stands a counter all day. CD CD CD QD

(A) on (C) behind
(8) in (0) above
7. Please hand in that report Friday afternoon. CD CD CD QD
(A) by (C) in
(8) at (0) over

8. Have you read this article our competitors? CD CD CD QD

(A) over (C) for
(8) above (0) about

9. We do almost all our corresponding e-mail. CD CD CD QD

(A) in (C) on
(8) by (0) with

10. The sale goes on the 16th. CD CD CD QD

(A) through (C) towards
(8) into (0) for


Words, phrases, and clauses are joined by words called conjunctions.

Coordinate conjunctions join two equal terms: and, or, nor, but.
Subordinate conjunctions join two clauses: although, since, because, when, before, etc.



Do you need to join two nouns, two adjectives, two prepositional

phrases, or any equal terms? If so, is there a coordinate conjunction
joining them?
INCORRECT [The president also his assistant are coming.]
CORRECT The president and his assistant are coming.

Do you need to join two sentences? If so, is there a coordinate

conjunction joining them?
INCORRECT [I can make the copies too John can collate the
CORRECT I can make the copies, and John can collate the
Do you need to join a dependent clause with an independent clause?
If so, is there a subordinate conjunction joining them?
INCORRECT [But he had a suggestion, he didn't raise his
CORRECT Although he had a suggestion, he didn't raise
his hand.
Do you understand the meanings of the conjunctions and of the other
words in the sentence? Is the sentence logical? Does it make sense?
INCORRECT [1 know him but his wife.]
CORRECT 1know him and his wife.



Mark the choice that best completes the sentence.

1. they were tired, they worked overtime. CD CD @ @
(A) Because (C) Since
(B) In spite (D) Although

2. Neither Ms. Chen Mr. Martinez was able to CD CD @ @

attend the seminar.
(A) nor (C) neither
(B) and (D) or

3. Mr. Park worked for us, he had received CD CD @ @

training abroad.
(A) Before (C) While
(B) After (D) When

4. Please answer the phone it rings. CD CD @ @

(A) during (C) because
(B) when (D) and

5. You can look at the clothes in the shop windows, CD CD @ @

you can't go in and buy them.
(A) but (C) after
(B) or (0) while
6. The soccer game won't be postponed it CD CD @ @
looks like rain.
(A) because (C) since
(B) even though (D) as
7. profits have improved, we're all getting bonuses. CD CD @ @
(A) Since (C) Although
(B) Before (0) During
8. Ms. Adams refused the promotion the large raise. CD CD @ @
(A) because (C) despite
(B) but (D) neither
9. The hotel will accept no guests it's being renovated. CD CD @ @
(A) and (C) because of
(B) while (D) after
10. Restaurant food handlers must wear latex gloves CD CD @ @
health regulations.
(A) because of (C) since
(B) because (0) though


Adverbs of frequency can be divided into two groups: adverbs of definite frequency
such as every day, annually, twice a week and adverbs of indefinite frequency such as
always, rarely, never.



Are you sure of the position of the adverb? Is there a definite frequency
adverb? If so, remember that a definite frequency adverb usually goes
at the beginning or the end of the sentence.
INCORRECT [Mr. Escobar walks every day to work.]
CORRECT Mr. Escobar walks to work every day.

Are you sure of the position of the adverb? Is there an indefinite

frequency adverb? If so, there are three possibilities to remember: the
adverb goes after be (He is always busy.); the adverb goes before all
other simple verbs (He always eats lunch.); the adverb goes between
the first auxiliary and the main verb in a complex verb form (He has
always liked you.).
INCORRECT [He always is working late.]
CORRECT He is always working late.

Do you understand the finer meanings of the adverb? Is the sentence

INCORRECT [There is ~ time before the seminar begins.]
CORRECT There is still time before the seminar begins.



Mark the choice that best completes the sentence.

1. Mr. Lee is never sick and comes in on time CD CD CD @

(A) never (C) sometimes
(B) rarely (D) every day

2. The supervisor tries to be fair. CD CD CD @

(A) always (C) every day
(B) usual (D) ever

3. Our department has been this productive before. CD CD CD @

(A) still (C) yet
(B) never (D) lately

4. Ms. Carver late since she was promoted. CD CD CD @

(A) has been rarely (C) rarely has been
(B) has rarely been (D) rarely been
5. Our boss gives all of the management team bonuses CD CD CD @
(A) never (C) still
(B) always (D) annually
6. We have pre-registered for the conference. CD CD CD @
(A) yet (C) already
(B) still (D) ever
7. Mr. Kim calls in the auditors. CD CD CD @
(A) frequently (C) timely
(B) yet (D) already
8. The boss treats everybody to lunch CD CD CD @
(A) never (C) rarely
(B) on occasion (D) normally
9. We're waiting for a fax from the head office. CD CD CD @
(A) already (C) every day
(B) yet (D) still
10. The Sales Department holds a meeting CD CD CD @
(A) usually (C) weekly
(B) already (D) always


When someone makes something happen, you use a causative verb to show this. Look
carefully at the form of the verb in the clause that follows the causative verb. Some
causative verbs are get, make, have, order, want.



Does the subject of the noun clause that follows the causative verb
perform the action? If so, is the verb after that noun clause the simple
form, the infinitive form, or the present participle form of the verb?
INCORRECT [I had my coworker helped me.]
CORRECT 1had my coworker help me.

INCORRECT [I got my coworker help me.]

CORRECT 1got my coworker to help me.

INCORRECT [The supervisor had him stocked shelves all

CORRECT The supervisor had him stocking shelves all day.

Does the subject of the noun clause that follows the causative verb
receive the action? If so, is the verb after that noun clause the past
participle (-ed/-ell) form of the verb?
INCORRECT [Mr. Watson wants the report rewrote soon.]
CORRECT Mr. Watson wants the report rewritten soon.



Mark the choice that best completes the sentence.

1. The guard made the visitors at the gate. CD CD @ @
(A) waiting (C) to wait
(B) waited (0) wait

2. My assistant wasn't able to get his check because CD CD @ @

the bank was closed.
(A) cash (C) cashing
(B) cashed (0) cashes

3. Our company wants its customers CD CD @ @

(A) sa tisfies (C) satisfied
(B) satisfying (0) satisfy

4. I'll have my secretary for the package. CD CD @ @

(A) will sign (C) sign
(B) signs (0) to sign

5. Before the prime minister arrived, the police ordered CD CD @ @

the area
(A) clear (C) clearing
(B) cleared (0) be clear

6. We forced our competitors their prices. CD CD @ @

(A) to lower (C) lowered
(B) lower (0) lowering

7. With some effort, Ms. Manson got her schedule CD CD @ @

(A) to change (C) change
(B) changed (0) changing

8. The boss had me all of last month's sales figures. CD CD @ @

(A) to check (C) checking
(B) checked (0) checks

9. The airport guard made us our pockets at the CD CD @ @

security gate.
(A) to empty (C) emptying
(B) empty (0) emptied

10. The architects want all the hallways CD CD @ @

(A) widen (C) widening
(B) widened (0) to widen


There are two parts to a conditional sentence: the condition (if) and the result. There
are also two types of conditional sentences: real and unreal (contrary-to-fact).

If you come before the meeting, we'll have time to talk.


If my windows were larger, I would get more light.



Is it a real condition? If so, is the verb in the if clause in the simple

present or present progressive form? Is the verb in the result in the
present, future, or imperative form?

INCORRECT [If Gianni will be there, we'll give him the

CORRECT If Gianni ~ there, we'll give him the message.

Is it an unreal condition in the present using the verb be? If so, is was or
were the form of be that is used?
INCORRECT [If she ~ the boss, she would hire him.]
CORRECT If she was/were the boss, she would hire him.

Is it an unreal condition in the present or future tense? If so, is the verb

in the condition in the present subjunctive form? Does the verb in the
result contain would or could + the simple (base) form?
INCORRECT [If humans have two heads, they couldn't make
decisions easil y.]
CORRECT If humans had two heads, they couldn't make
decisions easily.



Mark the choice that best completes the sentence.

1. If the student for tomorrow's exam, she'll CD CD CD @
be more confident.
(A) prepares (C) prepare
(8) prepared (0) would prepare
2. If Mr. Kennedy the information, he would CD CD CD @
put it in the report.
(A) has (C) will have
(8) would have (0) had
3. If you how to use the word processor, ask any CD CD CD @
one of us.
(A) won't understand (C) understood
(8) don't understand (0) not understand

4. If you aren't able to finish the letter now, it later. CD CD CD @

(A) you could have done (C) you can do
(8) you have done (0) you will can do

5. If I you, I would take the job and then ask for CD CD CD @

more money.
(A) had been (C) were
(8) am (0) will be

6. If you to cancel your reservation, please do so CD CD CD @

forty-eight hours before that date.
(A) needed (C) need
(8) will need (0) had needed
7. Their marriage wouldn't be so good if they so well CD CD CD @
with each other.
(A) communicated (C) don't communicate
(8) didn't communicate (0) communicate

8. If we don't entertain our out-of-town buyers, they CD CD CD @

such big orders.
(A) will place (C) would place
(8) might not place (0) wouldn't place

9. Come to our next picnic if you the chance. CD CD CD @

(A) have (C) had
(8) will have (0) don't have

10. If I didn't think the gym was helping me feel better, CD CD CD @

I my membership.
(A) would be renewing (C) will be renewing
(8) wouldn't be renewing (0) can't renew


Look for time expressions in the sentence to help you decide on the verb tense: every
day, last week, tomorrow, etc. Another clue is to look at the tense of other verbs in the
sentence. Remember that some verbs can only be used in certain tenses.



Is there a time expression in the sentence? If so, does the verb tense
agree with the meaning of the time expression?
INCORRECT [I work in this department sinc~ 1994.]
CORRECT I've worked in this department since 1994.

Does the sentence have two clauses (an independent clause and a
dependent clause)? If so, is the tense of the verb in the dependent
clause correct?
INCORRECT [Ms. Martin tested the copying machine before
she buys it.]
CORRECT Ms. Martin tested the copying machine before
she bought it.

Is the verb being used as a stative verb? That is, does it describe a state
rather than an action? If so, check to make sure the verb is not a
progressive form (-ing). Note: Seem, know, and other verbs are always
stative. Become, be, and other verbs can describe a state or an action.
INCORRECT [I am understanding what he's saying.]
CORRECT I understand what he's saying.


Mark the choice that best completes the sentence.

l. When the messenger , will you please give him CD CD @ 0

this package?
(A) will arrive (C) arriving
(B) arrives (D) would arrive

2. The assistant to Ms. Brigham more responsible CD CD @ 0

in the last year.
(A) is becoming (C) has become
(B) has been becoming (D) becomes

3. The Paris branch of our bank five years ago today. CD CD @ 0

(A) opens (C) opened
(B) has opened (D) was opening


4. The consultant the results of his recommendations CD ([) @ @
by the end of the month.
(A) knows (C) has known
(8) does know (0) will know

5. My supervisor promises that I a raise next year. CD ([) @ @

(A) would get (C) will get
(8) should get (0) get

6. After you enough practice, it will be easy for CD ([) @ @

you to do.
(A) have had (C) had
(8) will have (0) are having
7. The boss for those reports all morning. CD ([) @ @
(A) is waiting (C) has been waiting
(8) waits (0) will waiting

8. I something very strange, like burning wires. CD ([) @ @

(A) am smelling (C) smelling
(8) smell (0) had smelled

9. You can take those files to the records room unless CD ([) @ @
Kim it first.
(A) does (C) is doing
(8) will do (0) had done

10. We at that restaurant in a few months. CD ([) @ @

(A) don't eat (C) haven't eaten
(8) won't eat (0) didn't eat


Two-word verbs such as look at, get by, take in are usually common verbs (look, get, take,
etc.) combined with other words that are often prepositions (at, by, in,from, Ollt, etc.).



Are you unsure about the meaning? If so, check your dictionary. There
are no rules about two-word verbs that will help you predict their


Mark the choice that best completes the sentence.

1. The new lawyer has gone to the file. CD 0 CD @
(A) look away (C) look into
(B) look for (D) look out
2. Who will the advertising manager's projects CD 0 CD @
while she is on vacation?
(A) take away (C) take over
(B) take up (D) take off
3. The personnel officer believes that we can with CD 0 CD @
our present staff.
(A) get off (C) get up
(B) getby (D) get on
4. The chairwoman decided to sending the letter CD 0 CD @
until Monday.
(A) take on (C) put off
(B) keep up (D) pick up
5. Could you show me how to the copy machine? CD 0 CD @
(A) take hold (C) find out
(B) turn on (D) leave off
6. Please this article for any typos or other errors. CD 0 CD @
(A) check into (C) look over
(B) look for (D) check up
7. Did I tell you? I Ms. Flynn at the conference. CD CD CD @
(A) ran over (C) found out
(B) ran into (D) brought up
8. I can't find the Simpson will anywhere. I CD 0 CD @
(A) give up (C) give over
(B) give out (D) give back
9. You don't need to give me your decision right now. CD 0 CD @
(A) Check it over. (C) Think it over.
(B) Look it over. (D) Turn it over.
10. When you get to Hong Kong, are you going to CD 0 CD @
Mr. Cao?
(A) call on (C) call off
(B) look through (D) pick off



Review these strategies for Part 5 of the new TOEIe test.

For word family items, ask yourself:
Do you need a noun, adjective, adverb, or verb?
For similar word items, ask yourself:
Do answer options contain similar letters or spellings?
Do options refer to the same topic, but with different meanings?
For preposition items, ask yourself:
Do you need to refer to a specific time, day, date, or city?
Are the preposition choices logical?
For conjunction items, ask yourself:
What do you need to join and what conjunction is needed?
Are the conjunction choices logical?
For adverb of frequency items, ask yourself:
Is the position of the adverb correct?
Are the adverb choices logical?
For causative verb items, ask yourself:
What is the form of the verb in the noun clause?
Who performs the action?
For conditional sentence items, ask yourself:
Is the condition real or unreal?
Is the condition in the present, past, or future?
For verb tense items, ask yourself:
What time expressions are in the sentence?
If there are two clauses in the sentence, are the verb tenses appropriate?
Is there a stative verb?
For two-word verb items, ask yourself:
Is the meaning of the two-word verb logical?


DIRECTIONS: Read the following statements and choose the word or phrase that best
completes the sentence. Use the strategies you have learned.
1. The office manager prefers her coffee with cream CD CD CD @
(A) but (C) and
(B) nor (0) plus

2. Office hours will be from 8:30 5:00. CD CD CD @

(A) at (C) by
(B) to (0) toward

3. If the secretary where the missing files are, CD CD CD @

we can stop looking for them.
(A) knew (C) had known
(B) would know (0) knows

4. The cashier has to turn the key to open the safe. CD CD CD @

(A) clocked (C) clockwise
(B) clock (0) clocking
5. The chairman of the board is not ; he has been CD CD CD @
married for two years.
(A) singular (C) only
(B) single (0) sole

6. When the president arrived, everyone CD CD CD @

(A) has left already (C) already left
(B) had already left (0) left already

7. Mr. Hao was able to get the envelopes before CD CD CD @

the mail carrier arrived.
(A) addressed (C) were addressing
(B) were addressed (0) being addressed

8. Since many of our clients insist on French food, we CD CD CD @

make reservations for lunch at the restaurant
Lion d'Or.
(A) often have (C) have often to
(B) have to often (0) often have to

9. you finish typing that report, make five copies CD CD CD @

of it and give it to all of the officers.
(A) While (C) But
(B) When (0) Although

10. Let's have this letter by express mail. CD CD CD @

(A) sends (C) sent
(B) send (0) being sent


Since we need to know who belongs to this organization, CD CD @ @
could you have the computer do a printout of the
entire ?
(A) membership (C) members.
(B) remembrances (0) memories
12. Ms. Parker was very with the answers the job CD CD @ @
applicant gave during the interview.
(A) impress (C) impression
(B) impressionable (0) impressed
13. I'll stay late tonight if we by 5:00. CD CD @ @
(A) did not finish (C) had not finished
(8) do not finish (0) wili not finish
14. The final draft will be completed Wednesday. CD CD @ @
(A) to (C) on
(B) at (0) from
15. The benefits program in the next few months. CD CD @ @
(A) had changed (C) changed
(B) were changed (0) will be changed
16. Mr. Honda is a terrific worker. He two CD CD @ @
promotions this year.
(A) has been giving (C) was given
(8) gave (0) giving
17. If we keep like this, we should be done before CD CD @ @
the deadline.
(A) working (C) to work
(B) worked (0) work
18. I don't need those statistics right now, but please have CD CD CD @
them ready five o'clock.
(A) on (C) in
(B) by (0) since
19. I'll be home for dinner unless the boss me to CD CD CD @
work overtime.
(A) will ask (C) asks
(B) is asking (0) asked
20. Make sure you get these contracts before you CD CD CD @
meet with the lawyer.
(A) signed (C) signing
(B) to sign (0) sign