This document describes Lissajous curves, their properties and interesting facts.

© All Rights Reserved

25 views

This document describes Lissajous curves, their properties and interesting facts.

© All Rights Reserved

- Aerodynamic Forces and Moments
- Nokia 3
- Lecture 1
- Magnetosphere
- Mahadevi Varma
- Aerospace Syllabus at IIT Bombay
- chap8.pdf
- Anagram
- Refrigeration in water coolers
- Ludwig Prandtl
- Rings of Saturn
- Titan (Moon)
- Sumatran Tiger
- Problems on Numerical Linear Algebra
- Departments of France
- Steamboat Willie
- List of Ubuntu Releases
- GATE 2016 Aerospace Question Paper
- Black American Sign Language
- Similarity Solution

You are on page 1of 5

enclosed by a circular boundary, whereas Lissajous

curves are enclosed by rectangular boundaries.

as Lissajous gure or Bowditch curve /badt/, is the

graph of a system of parametric equations

x = A sin(at + ), y = B sin(bt),

curves was investigated by Nathaniel Bowditch in 1815,

and later in more detail by Jules Antoine Lissajous in

Lissajous gure on an oscilloscope, displaying a 1:3 relationship

1857. between the frequencies of the vertical and horizontal sinusoidal

The appearance of the gure is highly sensitive to the ratio inputs, respectively.

a/b. For a ratio of 1, the gure is an ellipse, with special

cases including circles (A = B, = /2 radians) and lines

are Chebyshev polynomials of the rst kind of degree

( = 0). Another simple Lissajous gure is the parabola

N. This property is exploited to produce a set of points,

(b/a = 2, = /4). Other ratios produce more compli-

called Padua points, at which a function may be sam-

cated curves, which are closed only if a/b is rational. The

pled in order to compute either a bivariate interpolation

visual form of these curves is often suggestive of a three-

or quadrature of the function over the domain [1,1]

dimensional knot, and indeed many kinds of knots, in-

[1,1].

cluding those known as Lissajous knots, project to the

plane as Lissajous gures.

Visually, the ratio a/b determines the number of lobes

of the gure. For example, a ratio of 3/1 or 1/3 produces a

1 Examples

gure with three major lobes (see image). Similarly, a ra-

tio of 5/4 produces a gure with ve horizontal lobes and

four vertical lobes. Rational ratios produce closed (con-

nected) or still gures, while irrational ratios produce

gures that appear to rotate. The ratio A/B determines

the relative width-to-height ratio of the curve. For exam-

ple, a ratio of 2/1 produces a gure that is twice as wide as

it is high. Finally, the value of determines the apparent

rotation angle of the gure, viewed as if it were actually

a three-dimensional curve. For example, = 0 produces

x and y components that are exactly in phase, so the re-

sulting gure appears as an apparent three-dimensional

gure viewed from straight on (0). In contrast, any non-

zero produces a gure that appears to be rotated, either

as a leftright or an updown rotation (depending on the Animation showing curve adaptation as the ratio a/ b increases

ratio a/b). from 0 to 1

Lissajous gures where a = 1, b = N (N is a natural num- The animation shows the curve adaptation with continu-

ber) and ously increasing a/b fraction from 0 to 1 in steps of 0.01

( = 0).

= odd natural number a, an even natural number b, and | a

N 2

1

2 3 APPLICATION FOR THE CASE OF A = B

more sophisticated audio mixing consoles an oscilloscope

may be built-in for this purpose.

On an oscilloscope, we suppose x is CH1 and y is CH2, A

is the amplitude of CH1 and B is the amplitude of CH2,

a is the frequency of CH1 and b is the frequency of CH2,

so a/b is the ratio of frequencies of the two channels, and

is the phase shift of CH1.

a = 1, b = 2 (1:2) A purely mechanical application of a Lissajous curve with

a = 1, b = 2 is in the driving mechanism of the Mars Light

type of oscillating beam lamps popular with railroads in

the mid-1900s. The beam in some versions traces out a

lopsided gure-8 pattern on its side.

a = 3, b = 4 (3:4)

In this gure both input frequencies are identical, but the phase

a = 5, b = 4 (5:4)

variance between them creates the shape of an ellipse.

2 Generation is sinusoidal with the same frequency, but it may have

a dierent amplitude and some phase shift. Using an

Prior to modern electronic equipment, Lissajous curves oscilloscope that can plot one signal against another (as

could be generated mechanically by means of a opposed to one signal against time) to plot the output of

harmonograph. an LTI system against the input to the LTI system pro-

duces an ellipse that is a Lissajous gure for the special

case of a = b. The aspect ratio of the resulting ellipse is a

2.1 Practical application function of the phase shift between the input and output,

with an aspect ratio of 1 (perfect circle) corresponding to

Lissajous curves can also be generated using an a phase shift of 90 and an aspect ratio of (a line)

oscilloscope (as illustrated). An octopus circuit can be corresponding to a phase shift of 0 or 180.[1]

used to demonstrate the waveform images on an oscillo- The gure below summarizes how the Lissajous gure

scope. Two phase-shifted sinusoid inputs are applied to changes over dierent phase shifts. The phase shifts are

the oscilloscope in X-Y mode and the phase relationship all negative so that delay semantics can be used with a

between the signals is presented as a Lissajous gure. causal LTI system (note that 270 is equivalent to +90).

In the professional audio world, this method is used for The arrows show the direction of rotation of the Lissajous

realtime analysis of the phase relationship between the gure.[1]

3

4 In engineering

A Lissajous curve is used in experimental tests to de-

termine if a device may be properly categorized as a

memristor.

5 In culture

5.1 In lm

Middle: Output signal as a function of time.

Bottom: resulting Lissajous curve when output is plotted as a

function of the input.

In this particular example, because the output is 90 degrees out Science ction style Lissajous animation

of phase from the input, the Lissajous curve is a circle.

Lissajous gures were sometimes displayed on oscillo-

scopes meant to simulate high-tech equipment in science-

ction TV shows and movies in the 1960s and 1970s.[2]

The title sequence by John Whitney for Alfred Hitch-

cock's 1958 lm Vertigo is based on Lissajous gures.[3]

Lissajous gures are sometimes used in graphic design as

logos. Examples include:

= 3, = /2)[4]

0)[5]

(a = 5, b = 6, = /2).

A pure phase shift aects the eccentricity of the Lissajous oval.

Analysis of the oval allows phase shift from an LTI system to be

measured.. 5.3 In modern art

Further information: Mathematics and art

4 8 EXTERNAL LINKS

The Dadaist artist Max Ernst painted Lissajous g- Interactive Lissajous Curves in Java graphical rep-

ures directly by swinging a punctured bucket of resentations of musical intervals, beats, interfer-

paint over a canvas.[6] ence, and vibrating strings

The digital artist Gordon Clyne has created an App Simple HTML5 Lissajous curve generator allows

named Nebula to draw Lissajous gures with just a controls for A and B as integers from 1 to 12 each

few taps on a tablet screen.

Interactive Lissajous curve generator Javascript

applet using JSXGraph

6 See also Animated Lissajous gures

Rose curve

Lissajous orbit

Blackburn pendulum

Lemniscate of Gerono

7 Notes

[1] Al-Khazali, Hisham A. H.; Askari, Mohamad R. (May

2012). Geometrical and Graphical Representations

Analysis of Lissajous Figures in Rotor Dynamic System

(PDF). IOSR Journal of Engineering. 2 (5): 971978.

Business Information: 77. 24 September 1987. ISSN

0262-4079.

ema?".

2008. Retrieved 2008-04-12.

epistemology in art and science. (PDF). Retrieved 17

September 2015.

8 External links

Lissajous Curve at Mathworld

3D Java applets depicting the construction of Lis-

sajous curves in an oscilloscope:

Physics applet by Chiu-king Ng

sajous gures with interactive sliders in Javascript

sajous gures

5

9.1 Text

Lissajous curve Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lissajous_curve?oldid=770162803 Contributors: Michael Hardy, Dcljr, Ellywa,

AugPi, Samw, Revolver, Charles Matthews, Imc, Ldo, Robbot, Stewartadcock, Pifactorial, Lzur, Mattaschen, Giftlite, Frencheigh, Grace-

fool, Gzornenplatz, Alberto da Calvairate~enwiki, Russell E, SethTisue, Burschik, Abdull, Thorwald, Jkl, Rich Farmbrough, TedPavlic,

Avriette, Ardonik, Solkoll~enwiki, Kwamikagami, Dungodung, Arthena, Edgriebel, Kurmis~enwiki, Gerd Breitenbach, Firien, Waldir,

Virtualphtn, TedPostol, Bubba73, Alejo2083, MrFiver, Krishnavedala, Roboto de Ajvol, Kordas, Hydrargyrum, BOT-Superzerocool, By-

teemoz~enwiki, SmackBot, Simpsons contributor, Tamfang, OrphanBot, Nmnogueira, Spiritia, Jim.belk, Kransky, Loadmaster, Hvn0413,

Dcashm, Joseph Solis in Australia, Ruslik0, Doctormatt, Robertinventor, Raoul NK, Thijs!bot, WinBot, Tjmayerinsf, Dreaded Walrus,

JAnDbot, Deective, David Eppstein, SharkD, Klauspope, Mrceleb2007, Chiswick Chap, Fountains of Bryn Mawr, VolkovBot, WOSlinker,

Leav, Mr. PIM, SieBot, Flyer22 Reborn, Tesi1700, CBM2, Sfan00 IMG, Jordwest, DrHonzik, Humanengr, XLinkBot, Addbot, Sherman-

bay, K Eliza Coyne, Lightbot, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Materialscientist, LilHelpa, MidnightProgrammer, Rb88guy, Shadowjams, Einsteinino,

FrescoBot, Intelligentsium, PeterDReid, Mktyscn, Gryllida, VEO15, Justzzq, JSo9-10, Dcirovic, Tanner Swett, Nomalas, Cybergothiche,

ChuispastonBot, ClueBot NG, Aisteco, Fylbecatulous, BattyBot, Historyphysics, Vanished user lalsdi45ijne4, GLG GLG, KasparBot,

Ecdemis, CAPTAIN RAJU, Bender the Bot, Kl6785406 and Anonymous: 90

9.2 Images

File:Circular_Lissajous.gif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/38/Circular_Lissajous.gif License: CC BY-SA

3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Fiducial

File:Commons-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg License: PD Contributors: ? Origi-

nal artist: ?

File:Lissajous-Figur_1_zu_3_(Oszilloskop).jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/46/Lissajous-Figur_1_

zu_3_%28Oszilloskop%29.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?

File:LissajousTechnion.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6b/LissajousTechnion.png License: CC BY-

SA 3.0 Contributors: I took a picture sduring an experiment at physics lab at the Technion (Israel) Original artist: snamepi

File:Lissajous_animation.gif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5d/Lissajous_animation.gif License: CC

BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Krishnavedala

File:Lissajous_curve_1by2.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/84/Lissajous_curve_1by2.svg License:

CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: This diagram was created with gnuplot. Original artist: Alessio Damato

File:Lissajous_curve_3by2.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1f/Lissajous_curve_3by2.svg License:

CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: This diagram was created with gnuplot. Original artist: Alessio Damato

File:Lissajous_curve_3by4.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6b/Lissajous_curve_3by4.svg License:

CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: This diagram was created with gnuplot. Original artist: Alessio Damato

File:Lissajous_curve_5by4.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4a/Lissajous_curve_5by4.svg License:

CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: This diagram was created with gnuplot. Original artist: Alessio Damato

File:Lissajous_phase.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/12/Lissajous_phase.svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0

Contributors: Own work Original artist: Krishnavedala

File:Question_book-new.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/9/99/Question_book-new.svg License: Cc-by-sa-3.0

Contributors:

Created from scratch in Adobe Illustrator. Based on Image:Question book.png created by User:Equazcion Original artist:

Tkgd2007

File:Simple_Lissajous_Animation.ogv Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/13/Simple_Lissajous_Animation.

ogv License: CC0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Ldo

File:Text_document_with_red_question_mark.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a4/Text_document_

with_red_question_mark.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Created by bdesham with Inkscape; based upon Text-x-generic.svg

from the Tango project. Original artist: Benjamin D. Esham (bdesham)

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0

- Aerodynamic Forces and MomentsUploaded byDasika Sunder
- Nokia 3Uploaded byDasika Sunder
- Lecture 1Uploaded byNadiah Salikon
- MagnetosphereUploaded byDasika Sunder
- Mahadevi VarmaUploaded byDasika Sunder
- Aerospace Syllabus at IIT BombayUploaded byDasika Sunder
- chap8.pdfUploaded byArijit Saha
- AnagramUploaded byDasika Sunder
- Refrigeration in water coolersUploaded byDasika Sunder
- Ludwig PrandtlUploaded byDasika Sunder
- Rings of SaturnUploaded byDasika Sunder
- Titan (Moon)Uploaded byDasika Sunder
- Sumatran TigerUploaded byDasika Sunder
- Problems on Numerical Linear AlgebraUploaded byDasika Sunder
- Departments of FranceUploaded byDasika Sunder
- Steamboat WillieUploaded byDasika Sunder
- List of Ubuntu ReleasesUploaded byDasika Sunder
- GATE 2016 Aerospace Question PaperUploaded byDasika Sunder
- Black American Sign LanguageUploaded byDasika Sunder
- Similarity SolutionUploaded byDasika Sunder
- ChhayavaadUploaded byDasika Sunder
- JEE 2016 Advanced Answer KeyUploaded byDasika Sunder
- An Introduction to LaTeXUploaded byScribd_rkc
- Content SOI2013FinalNewUploaded byrevetron
- Assignment on AerodynamicsUploaded byDasika Sunder
- IISc Admissions 2016 Important DatesUploaded byDasika Sunder
- Assignment 2Uploaded byDasika Sunder
- Msphdbrochure 20.02.2015Uploaded byDasika Sunder

- Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of DirectorsUploaded byFibriaRI
- Some Aggregation Operators For Bipolar-Valued Hesitant Fuzzy InformationUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- Generator RoomUploaded byparthiv
- TB01200001E[1]eatonUploaded byRAUL354
- E-Mudhra AppForm OrganizationUploaded bysnahush
- 000000000001024444Uploaded byhayjoss
- Upgrading to Release 12Uploaded bydsmith_au
- AS2129 Flange Data SheetUploaded bygarrybieber
- Corporate PptUploaded byThalapathy Venkat
- 5.3 Using 3-Point Hitch ImplementsUploaded byeleyahob
- ZF 5HP19HL.pdfUploaded bywilder
- HTML IframesUploaded byAnkit Saha
- aminoglucanosUploaded byjmd047
- Chapter 15Uploaded byKimberly Lim
- GlobalizationUploaded byujangketul62
- Ami Stacx Wordpress 4.7.5 Woo Install v1.3Uploaded byJonathan Ruver
- Pathophysiology of Cerebrovascular AccidentUploaded byrabbygranada
- Marketing PlanUploaded byAlok Tiwari
- Rooftops 1Uploaded byANA LÓPEZ CERES
- Order in the matter of Sunheaven Agro India LimitedUploaded byShyam Sunder
- Verma Environmentally Sound Management of E-waste and Practices of RecyclingUploaded byteni1968
- Gillilan v. Autry Prison Medical Staff Employees - Document No. 5Uploaded byJustia.com
- Modbus ProtocolUploaded byronkholz
- Basic Power Supply Rectification TutorialUploaded bykipkoech_rotich
- 2004 749 Parts BookUploaded byTommy Zipprian
- Thermo MechanicalUploaded bymayilsvhec
- PIC_S 01 1-1 Recommendation on Computerised Systems.pdfUploaded byThomas Vater
- mete guray resume internetUploaded byapi-292570942
- Intel SSD Firmware Update Tool 2 0 3 User Guide 322570-006USUploaded byDragos Neacsu
- 3Uploaded byAnggita Permatasari