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Entomology Example: Butterfly - Responsible for contractions

and functions
Introduction to Insects: Structures 4. Chitinous Exoskeleton
and Functions - Periodically shed and renewed *striated- Located at the Mid-Rib
as the animal grows
The Insects 10. Excretion usually by means of
* Ecdysis- Process of molting tubes (Malpighian tubules) that
Fossil records indicate insects empty into the alimentary
on land more than 300 million * Schlerotization/Tanning- Hardening of canal
years (Mid Paleozoic Era) exoskeleton - The excreted materials passing
From an ancient lineage that to the outside by way of the
* Teneral body- Soft
included trilobites and anus
crustaceans which abundant in 11. Respiration
5. A tubular alimentary canal
the oceans over 500 million - By means of gills or tracheae
- With mouth and its anus
years ago. 6. An open circulatory system and spiracles
- The only blood vessel usually
But we are surrounded by being a tubular structure dorsal *Spiracles- openings; lateral surface of
crustaceans. Most of which are the abdomen
to the alimentary canal with
aquatic insects shared the terrestrial lateral opening in the
12. The sexes nearly always
habitat with various relatives such as abdominal region separate
spiders, ticks, mites and scorpions. 7. Body cavity of the blood or
hemocoel Arthropoda is divided into 4 smaller
8. The nervous system consisting
goups called classes
of an anterior ganglion or brain
This Group of belongs to the Phylum
located above the alimentary + Crustacea: 10 + legs, 2 body
Arthropoda. This insects the following
canal regions, mandibles, 2 pairs of
characteristics. - A pair of connectives extending antennae. No wings
from thre brain around the
1. Body segmented
- The segments usually grouped alimentary canal and paired +Myriapoda: 2 pairs of legs per
in two or three rather distinct ganglionated nerve cords segment, 2 body regions, mandibles, 1
regions. located below the alimentary pair of antennae. NO WINGS
2. Paired Segmented Appendages canl
- From which the Phylum gets its 9. The skeletal muscles striated + Arachnida (Cheliorata): 8 legs, 2
name - Somewhat tubular body regions, chelicerae, no antannes.
3. Bilateral Symmetry - Has lines that run along the No wings
+ Insecta: 6 legs, 3 body regions, Eat about anything imaginable Renaissance: Rise of Natural History
mandibles, 1pair of antennae. 0,-2-4 of occupy about every imaginable
wings niche Late 1800s: entomological science
with advent of large scale agriculture
Arachnida (Chelicerata) WHY INSECTS ARE SO SUCCESFUL? and economic need to control pests.
Institutionalized Entomology in US.
- Have no antennae and the - They have wings (dispersive)
mouthparts are chelicerae - Diverse mouthparts *Monoculture- there will be no
which are not homologous to biodiversity because of culturing only
the mouthparts of insects Relation of Insects to Humans one species on a certain place which
- They are an 8 legged group on will vulnerable to more powerful
1. Benificial (Pollination, Honey,
the evolutionary line that predators
Beewax, Silk [ 65-75 million
diverged from the insects in the
pounds produced annually], Importance of Arthropods
mid Paleozoic era
shellac, dyes breakdown raw
Myriapoda (Centipedes, Millipedes) material, aerate soil, biocontrol Natural World
of weeds etc)
- Have antennae, mandibles, 2. Aesthetic value (Jewelry, pets, - Short-term effects on humans
maxillae and tracheal system nice to look at) are neutral or diffuse but
but have only two body regions 3. Injurious (Plants, stored foods, immense
and they add segments as they woods, fabrics, humans and
animals) Contributions of Insects to:
molt (Anamorphosis)
- In the early myriapod lineage,
What is Entomology? + Community structure
certain segments and legs were
not added at molting - Nutrient cycling, vegetation
Increasingly bound definition
(epimorphic) structure (Phytophagy,
Use insects as biological test
At least of the animals pollination, seed dispersal)
currently occupying the earth
Entomologists also expected to
are insects ( 1.5 million + Population dynamics
know about arachnids, some
other arthropods - Predators and parasites,
Of all insect species in the
world less than 1 % considered disease transmission
to be pests (99% beneficial or
+ Food Web
not considered as pests) Ancient Times: insects use as symbols
of culture worship - Food for other animals
The little things that run the world- Aesthetics: art and imagination How old are insects?
E.O Wilson (butterflies, beetles and
fireflies) - Oldest known hexapod:
Anthropocentric World Foods: nutrition, environmental Rhynella precursor [collembola,
and economic sustainability 380 my]
- Best defines as MONEY - Oldest known insect: Eopterum
*Apiery- Bee keeping deveconum [Archeognatta, 370
Negative Effects my]
Agriculture: competition for Origin of the Orders
food and Fiber (apple maggot, Estimates 5-80 million species
bark beetles) 5/6 of all known animal life on Most present orders had
Domestic: damage to property evolved by the Permian period
earth (Planet of Insects)
and goods (termites, silverfish, 245-285 my
dermestids) Beetles (Order Poliopthera) Most of the rest had evolved by
Medicine: Parasites and disease the Cretaceous Period 65-285
(malaria, WNV via mosquitoes) - Most diverse order so far my
- Irwins tropical canopy work Sociality in the insects is
Positive Effects - Bias in sampling
atleast as old as the
Insects Evolutionary/Ecological Cretaceous Period possibly the
Agriculture: Biocontrol and
Success (Richness & Numbers) Jurassic Period 145-210 my
pollination (Parasitoid wasps,
honey bees and soolitory bees) Orders of Insects
Relative size (more inches)
Medicine: antibiotics, chronic
Short generation time (Rapid
disease treatment, maggot Class Insecta
debridement, apitheraphy
Holometabolism - Three tagmata; Head, thorax
(honeybee venom, maggot)
Commerce: products, (Metamorphosis) and abdomen
Powered light - Thorax, with three pairs of legs,
conchineal, silk wax and honey
Sensory and motor neuron two pairs of wings in adult
(scale insects, silk moths,
sophistication stage
honey bees)
Pre-adapted for coevolution - Head, with one pair of
Science: research subjects
with other organisms antennae
(vinegar fruit flies, tobacco
Geological age - Respiartion by trachea
hornworm, honey bees) - Terrestrial & fresh water
Sexual selection
Phytophagy inhabitants
- All have one pair of antennae, a Egg stage: egg - Cerci absent; 3-segmentted
head, thorax and abdominal
regions, three pairs of legs Larval stage: 1st to 3rd instar Diplura
- Adults usually have wings (use
Pupal stage : pupa - Compound eyes absent
of trachea)
- Antennae longer than head
Adult stage: adult - With 10 or more bead-like
Life Cycle Groups
*grubs- larval stage - Abdomen with 10 visible
Egg, nymph, adult stages segments
No Metamorphosis - Carci presnet
Examples of this is
A. long and slender
Cockroaches Some consider more groups B. forceps like in appearance
Complete insect-like and place in - Tarci, one segmented
Egg, larva, pupa, adult - Short, lateral style and
different class or subclass
stage Adults do not have wings and eversible vesicles presemt on
may more after becoming modt of the first 7 abdominal
*Naiads- incomplete life cycle
mature segments
*Egg stage- egg
Thysanura: silverfish, firebrats Microcoryphia
*Nymphal stage- instar Collembolla: springtails
- Bridetails are wingles, scaley
*Adult stage- adult Protura insects that are usually found
on the soil surface
*Hatching- 1st instar Derived Charcteristics - While they look similar to
Every Instar stage undergoes - Eyeless - They are more cylindrical with
ecdysis - Antennae absent large compound eyes that are
- Tentorium absent
connected in the center of their
*Stadia- gap of every instar (1st to 2nd ) - Forelegs enlarged with many
- Bristletails live in grassy or
*Mayfly- 1st day, 24 hrs. life (dont wooded areas under leaves,
have mouth) Other Characteristics
stones, rocks, barks and in
- Very small less than 2 mm long dead wood
Water: Epimeroptera, Dychoptera,
- Andomen with 12 segmented - They feed primarily on algae
Trichoptera, Odonata
as adults but also feed on linens, mosses
Complete Life Cycle - Mouthparts entognathrous and decaying plant matter
Thysanura - Aquatic nymphs with Plecoptera
abdominal gills
- Silverfish and firebrats - Caudal appendages (2 or 3) - Front wings narrow
- No wings as adults long - Hind wings folded fanlike
- 2,3 caudal appendages (two - Chewing mouthparts often non- - Aquatic nymphs (naiads)
cerci and sometimes central - With the abdominal cerci
functional in adult
telson - Straight moderately
- Adults may continue to molt

Collembola Odonata
- Springtails - Dragonflies and damselflies
- No wings as adults, caudal - Termites
- Front and hind wings are
- Social insects
appendages designed for narrow with many cross veins, - Winged reproducers with both
jumping (furcula and colliphore) membrabous wings some size and
- Adults may molt - Aquatic nymphs (naiads)
- Predatory with caudal or rectal
Simple Metamorphosis - Straight on curved antennae
consists of beadlike segments
- Antennae bristle-like no
Ephemeroptera (Mayflies, - Abdomen breadlly joined to
abdominal cerci (chewing
shadflies) throrax, no cerci
mouthpart) - Chewing mouthparts
Odonata (Dragonflies,
damselflies) Orthoptera Incomplete Metamorphosis Cycle
Orthoptera (grasshopers,
crickets, cockroaches, mantids, - Cockroaches, grasshopers,
Hemiptera (true bugs and bug-
walking sticks) crickets, preying mantids and
like insects)
Dermaptera (earwigs) walking sticks
Thysanoptera (thrips)
Precoptera (stoneflies) - Front wings leathery
- Hindi wings double folded Psocoptera (barklice and
Isoptera (termites) bookilice)
- Abdominal cerci forceps-like
(chewing mouthparts) Phitiraptera (Biting and sucking
- Mayflies, Shadflies, Canadian Dermaptera
- Front wings short, leathery
- Front wings large, triangular
- Hindi wings double folded - Suborder heteroptera
held over body at rest - Abdominal cerci forceps-like - True bugs
- Hindwings smaller absent
(Chewing mouthparts)
- Front wings half leathery and Psocoptera - Using maggots for therapy (for
half membranous diabetic pattern collection)]
- Hind wing membranous - Front wings with reduced
- Usually long antennae venation Collecting Methods
- Sucking mouthparts from front - Hind wings reduced or absent
of head - Wings often absent 1. Passive Collection
- Distinctive frontal bulge on Using traps
Hemiptera head 2. Active collection
- Long antennae - Using collecting nets for finding
- Suborder Auchenorrhyncha - Chewing mouthparts insects
- Bug-like insects: cicadas, leaf, - Booklice are extremely
plant and tree hoppers flattened *Using killing jar or bottle and or
- Front wings same texture rather bottle and solid killen agent
throughout leathery or
membranous Killing equipments
- Wings often absent Phthiraptera
- Long or bristle like antennae Bag (mail bag)
- Sucking mouthparts - Mallophaga Kill jar
- Arise from back of the head or - Biting lice; 2.7 k.p.p Different sizes of vials with 90%
- Very flat and small
between front legs ethanol
- No wings
- Chewing the mouthparts Forceps
Hemiptera Wear long sleeves with a vest
- External parasites or birds and
mammals Repellant
- Suborder Stenorrhyncha
Strong knife
- Bug-like insects: psyllids,
Diptera Need to label vials
whiteflies, aphids, mealybugs
Small fine brush
and scales - Flies, midges, mosquitoes Hand lens
- Front wings membranous
Thysanoptera - Hind wings reduced to small Types of Net
balance organ-haltere
- Jb
- Mouthparts piercing, sucking or Aerial Net
- Small front and hind wings
- Blode like with hair fringe sponging sucking Sweeping net
- Often absent - Larvae wireworm shaped or Aquatic Net
- Mouthparts modified rasping maggots with chewing or
sucking rasping mouthparts
- Antennae short
Maggot Debreedment