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Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas

Resources of the Niger Delta Province,


Nigeria and Cameroon, Africa

By Michael E. Brownfield

ME
ATLANTIC DIT
ERR
ANEA
OCEAN N SEA

INDIAN OCEAN
Niger
Delta

SOUTH
ATLANTIC
OCEAN

INDIAN OCEAN

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Volume Title Page

Chapter 5 of
Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Hydrocarbon Resources
of Sub-Saharan Africa
Compiled by Michael E. Brownfield
\\IGSKAHCMVSFS002\Pubs_Common\Jeff\den13_cmrm00_0129_ds_brownfield\dds_69_gg_ch05_figures\ch05_figures\ch05_cover.ai

Digital Data Series 69GG

U.S. Department of the Interior


U.S. Geological Survey
U.S. Department of the Interior
SALLY JEWELL, Secretary

U.S. Geological Survey


Suzette M. Kimball, Director

U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia: 2016

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as noted in the text. Permission to reproduce copyrighted items must be secured from the copyright owner.

Suggested citation:
Brownfield, M.E., 2016, Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Niger Delta Province, Nigeria and
Cameroon, Africa, in Brownfield, M.E., compiler, Geologic assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources of
Sub-Saharan Africa: U.S.Geological Survey Digital Data Series 69GG, chap. 5, 20 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ds69GG.

ISSN 2327-638X (online)


iii

Contents
Abstract............................................................................................................................................................1
Introduction.....................................................................................................................................................1
Geology of the Niger Delta Province, Nigeria and Cameroon, Africa...................................................6
Tectonics.................................................................................................................................................6
Depositional History..............................................................................................................................6
Petroleum Occurrence in the Niger Delta Province, Nigeria and Cameroon, Africa.........................9
Source Rocks.......................................................................................................................................10
Reservoirs.............................................................................................................................................12
Traps and Seals....................................................................................................................................13
Exploration.....................................................................................................................................................16
Geologic Model.............................................................................................................................................16
Resource Summary......................................................................................................................................18
For Additional Information...........................................................................................................................18
Acknowledgments........................................................................................................................................18
References.....................................................................................................................................................19

Figures
1. Map of Nigeria and Cameroon and the Niger Delta showing Niger Delta Province..................2
2. Map showing extent of the Agbada Assessment Unit (71920101) and the Akata
Assessment Unit (71920102).........................................................................................................3
3. Map showing generalized geology of West Africa..................................................................4
4. Map showing geology of the Gulf of Guinea and the Niger Delta, Africa............................5
5. Paleotectonic maps showing the evolution of continental margins of West Africa
and South America..............................................................................................................................7
6. East-west cross section through the Niger Delta region.......................................................8
7. South-north cross section through the Niger Delta region....................................................9
8. Stratigraphic section of the Anambra Basin from Late Cretaceous through Eocene............. 10
9. Cross section of the Niger Delta, Africa..................................................................................11
10. Map showing coastline progradation of the Niger Delta since 35 Ma...............................12
11. Sequence-stratigraphic model for the central portion of the Niger Delta.........................13
12. Subsurface depth to top of Niger Delta oil kitchen................................................................14
13. Burial-history chart for the northern portion of the Tertiary Niger Delta
(Akata-Agbada)............................................................................................................................15
14. Slope edge normal-fault simulation (2 Ma to present) of the Niger Delta.........................16
15. Diagram of oil field structures and associated trap types, Niger Delta, Nigeria
and Cameroon, Africa.................................................................................................................17
16. Events chart for the Tertiary Niger Delta Petroleum System (719201) and the
Agbada and Akata Reservoirs Assessment Units (71920101, 71920102)............................18
iv

Table
1. Niger Delta Province and Agbada and Akata Reservoirs Assessment Units results
for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, gas, and natural gas liquids.........................19

Abbreviations Used in This Report


ft foot
km kilometer
Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of
the Niger Delta Province, Nigeria and Cameroon, Africa

By Michael E. Brownfield

Abstract to turbidites. The Eocene marine mudstone and shale rocks


are the primary reservoir seals in both Agbada and Akata
The main objective of the U.S. Geological Surveys Assessment Units. The Niger Delta Province is considered
National and Global Petroleum Assessment Project is to assess mature for oil and gas; therefore, current field histories were
the potential for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil used as a partial guide for undiscovered sizes and numbers.
and natural gas resources of the United States and the world. The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes
As part of this project, the U.S. Geological Survey completed of undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional oil
an assessment of the Niger Delta Province, an area of about and gas resources for the Agbada Reservoirs Assessment
292,407 square kilometers. This assessment was based on Unit in the Niger Delta Province at 1,616 million barrels of
data from oil and gas exploration wells, oil and gas fields, oil, 9,454billion cubic feet of gas and 494 million barrels of
and published geologic reports. natural gas liquids. The estimated mean size of the largest
The Niger Delta Province is a priority province for the oil field that is expected to be discovered is 274million
National and Global Petroleum Assessment Project. The barrels of oil, and the estimated mean size of the expected
largest gas field is 981 billion cubic feet of gas. The
assessment was geology based and used the total petroleum
estimated mean volumes for the Akata Reservoirs AU are
system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum
13,918million barrels of oil, 48,767 billion cubic feet of gas,
system consist of hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock
and 5,832million barrels of natural gas liquids; estimated
maturation and hydrocarbon generation and migration),
mean sizes of the largest oil and gas fields are 4,119 million
reservoir rocks (quality and distribution), and traps for
barrels of oil and 13,355billion cubic feet of gas, respectively.
hydrocarbon accumulation. Using these geologic criteria, the
For this assessment, a minimum undiscovered field size of
U.S. Geological Survey defined the Tertiary Niger Delta Total
1 million barrels of oil equivalent was used for the Agbada
Petroleum System with two assessment units, the Agbada
Reservoirs AU and a minimum undiscovered field size of
Reservoirs and the Akata Reservoirs Assessment Units,
5 million barrels of oil equivalent was used for the Akata
encompassing 99,915 square kilometers and 212,652 square
Reservoirs Assessment Unit. No attempt was made to estimate
kilometers, respectively. The Agbada Reservoirs Assessment
economically recoverable reserves.
Unit was assessed to a water depth of 200 meters and the
Akata Reservoirs Assessment Unit was assessed to 4,000
meters water depth.
Hydrocarbons were generated from Eocene paralic Introduction
and prodeltic Type II and Type III kerogen, ranging from
1.4weight percent to 5.2 weight percent total organic carbon, The main objective of the U.S. Geological Surveys
and possibly from Cretaceous marine and lacustrine sources. (USGS) National and Global Petroleum Assessment Project is
Generation began in the Eocene and continues to the present. to assess the potential for undiscovered, technically recover-
Generation moved progressively from north to south as able oil and natural gas resources of the United States and the
younger units entered the oil window. Hydrocarbons migrated world (U.S. Geological Survey World Conventional Resources
into Eocene Agbada Formation sandstone reservoirs and Assessment Team,2012). As part of this project, the USGS
traps. Hydrocarbons have also migrated into Akata Formation recently completed an assessment of the Niger Delta
turbidite sandstones, including lowstand channels, sheet sand, Province (fig. 1), an area of about 292,407 square kilometers
and fans. In the Agbada Assessment Unit, hydrocarbon traps (km2). This assessment was based on data from oil and gas
are mostly structural, but stratigraphic traps are also present, exploration wells, fields (IHS Energy, 2008), and published
whereas in the Akata Assessment Unit traps are mostly related geologicreports.
2 Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Niger Delta Province, Nigeria and Cameroon, Africa

2E 4E 6E 8E
8N
ki
ali
b ak
A h
NIGERIA e- ug
BENIN nu Tro

k n
Be

Fla
nin
Be
TOGO Anambra Basin

200
Dahomey
6N 2,000 Basin
ki
Gulf of Guinea ali
ak
3,00 Ab h
0 Hig
CAMEROON
C
2 Fla alab
nk ar

00 Niger Delta
4,0
4N
7192
200
2 2

2,000
EQUATORIAL
3,000 GUINEA
2

0
2N

2,00

200
e
nic on
Lin
lca ro
Vo ame
C

SAO TOME AND


PRINCIPE
ATLANTIC 2

0
OCEAN
00
4,0 3,000 GABON

Base from U.S. Geological Survey digital data, 2002 0 50 100 KILOMETERS
World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 84)
Prime Meridian, Greenwich, 0 0 50 100 MILES

AFRICA

EXPLANATION NIGERIA
Niger Delta province boundary Niger Delta
7192
3,000 Bathymetric contourContour depth is
in meters. Contour interval varies
2 Sediment thickness contourContour
is in kilometers. Contour interval varies INDEX MAP

Figure 1. Nigeria and Cameroon, the Niger Delta Province boundary, bounding structural features, and
200-, 2000-, 3000-, and 4000-meter bathymetric contours.

This province was assessed previously as part of the reservoir rocks (quality and distribution), and traps for
USGS World Assessment 2000 (U.S. Geological Survey World hydrocarbon accumulation. Using these geologic criteria,
Energy Assessment Team, 2000), resulting in estimated mean the USGS defined the Tertiary Niger Delta Total Petroleum
undiscovered volumes of 40.5 billion barrels of oil (BBO), System (TPS) with two assessment units, the Agbada
133.7 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of gas, and 6.03 billion barrels Reservoirs Assessment Unit (AU) and the Akata Reservoirs
of natural gas liquids (BBNGL). AU (figs. 1, 2), encompassing 99,915 km2 and 212,652 km2,
The Niger Delta Province was reassessed because of respectively. The Agbada Reservoirs AU was assessed to
continued interest in its future oil and gas resource potential. a water depth of 200 m and the Akata Reservoirs AU was
The assessment was geology based and used the total assessed to 4,000 meters (m) water depth.
petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total Two previous USGS geologic studies have reported
AHCMVSFS002\Pubs_Common\Jeff\den13_cmrm00_0129_ds_brownfield\dds_69_gg_ch05_figures\ch05_figures\ch05_figure01.ai
petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source- on the potential for undiscovered hydrocarbon resources
rock maturation and hydrocarbon generation and migration), and described the petroleum system, assessment units,
Introduction3

2E 4E 6E 8E
8N
i
lik
ka
A ba h
NIGERIA - g
BENIN ue rou
en T

nk
Fla
B

nin
Be
TOGO Anambra Basin

200
Dahomey
6N 2,000 Basin
ki
Gulf of Guinea ali
ak
3,00 Ab h
0 Hig
CAMEROON
C
Fla alab
nk ar

00 Niger Delta
4,0
4N
7192
200

2,000
EQUATORIAL
3,000 GUINEA

0
2N

2,00

200
e
nic on
Lin
lca ro
Vo ame
C
SAO TOME AND
PRINCIPE
ATLANTIC
0
OCEAN
00
4,0 3,000 GABON

Base from U.S. Geological Survey digital data, 2002 0 50 100 KILOMETERS
World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 84)
Prime Meridian, Greenwich, 0 0 50 100 MILES

AFRICA
EXPLANATION
NIGERIA
Agbada Reservoirs Assessment Unit Niger Delta
7192
Akata Reservoirs Assessment Unit
Niger Delta Province boundary
3,000 Bathymetric contourContour depth is INDEX MAP
in meters. Contour interval varies

Figure 2. Extent of the Agbada Reservoirs Assessment Unit (71920101) and the Akata Reservoirs Assessment
Unit (71920102). The Agbada Reservoirs Assessment Unit overlies the Akata Reservoirs Assessment Unit, in
part subaerially.

hydrocarbon source rocks, reservoir rocks, and potential outcrops on the Abakaliki High and Calabar Flanka hinge
traps for hydrocarbon accumulation for the province (Tuttle, line bordering adjacent Precambrian rocks in Cameroon
Brownfield, and Charpentier, 1999; Tuttle, Charpentier, and terrain (figs. 1, 2). The offshore boundary of the province is
Brownfield, 1999). Geologic maps of west Africa and the Gulf defined by the Cameroon volcanic line on the southeast and
of Guinea are shown in figures 3 and 4. the eastern boundary of the Dahomey Embayment (fig. 4) to
The northern boundary of the Niger Delta Province is the the west. The 2-kilometer (km) sediment thickness contour
\\IGSKAHCMVSFS002\Pubs_Common\Jeff\den13_cmrm00_0129_ds_brownfield\dds_69_gg_ch05_figures\ch05_figures\ch05_figure02.ai
Benin flank (figs. 1, 2)an east-northeast trending hinge line or the 4000-m bathymetric contour in areas where sediment
south of the West Africa Nigerian Massive Province (figs.3, thickness is greater than 2 km defines the boundary to the
4). The northeastern boundary is defined by Cretaceous south and southwest.
4 Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Niger Delta Province, Nigeria and Cameroon, Africa

18W 12W 6W 0 6E 12E 18E 24E

Iullemmeden Chad
Taoudeni 7055 7066
Basin
7035
12N

Senegal
Volta Nigerian
7013 West African 7114 Massif
Baffa Shield
W

7105 7121
es

7021
t Af

Benue
ric
an

7136
Co

6N
as
tal
71

Gulf of Guinea 7183


73

Niger Delta
7192

Base from U.S. Geological Survey digital data, 2002 Zaire


World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 84) West Zaire 7225
0 Precambrian
Prime Meridian, Greenwich, 0
Belt
7211

0 300 600 KILOMETERS

0 300 600 MILES


West-Central
6S
Coastal
EXPLANATION 7203
ATLANTIC
OCEAN
Quaternary

Quaternary and Tertiary

Tertiary 12S

Cretaceous

Triassic and Jurassic

Paleozoic

Precambrian Etosha
18S
7285
Igneous
ge
Salt structure Rid
Contact lvis
Niger Delta Province boundary Wa Damer Belt
7311
Other petroleum province boundary Kalahari
Baffa 24S
Petroleum province identifier 7325
7105

Orange River
Coastal
30S
7303
Karoo
7355

South African Coastal


36S
7363

Geology by Persits and others, 2002

Figure 3. Generalized geology of west Africa (Persits and others, 2002), petroleum province boundaries, and 20 province names and codes
as defined by Klett and others (1997).

\\IGSKAHCMVSFS002\Pubs_Common\Jeff\den13_cmrm00_0129_ds_brownfield\dds_69_gg_ch05_figures\ch05_figures\ch05_figure03.ai
Introduction5
8W 4W 0 4E 8E
Taoudeni
Basin Volta
7035 7114 Iullemmeden
7055
Volta Basin Nigerian
Massif
7121
8N
West African Dahomey Embayment
Shield Benue
7021 7136

Ivory Coast Basin

West African
Coastal
7173 Gulf of Guinea
7183
4N
Niger Delta
7192

Gulf of Guinea

West Zaire
ATLANTIC OCEAN Precambrian
West-Central Belt
Coastal 7211
7203
0

Base from U.S. Geological Survey digital data, 2002 0 100 200 KILOMETERS Geology modified from Persits and others, 2002
World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 84)
Prime Meridian, Greenwich, 0 0 100 200 MILES

EXPLANATION

Quaternary Paleozoic and Mesozoic Contact


Niger Delta Province boundary
Pleistocene Paleozoic
Other petroleum province
Quaternary and Tertiary Precambrian boundary
Niger Delta
Tertiary Igneous 7192 Petroleum province identifier

CretaceousUndivided Salt structure

Lower Cretaceous

Figure 4. Geology of the Gulf of Guinea and the Niger Delta, Africa, showing 11 provinces.

\\IGSKAHCMVSFS002\Pubs_Common\Jeff\den13_cmrm00_0129_ds_brownfield\dds_69_gg_ch05_figures\ch05_figures\ch05_figure04.ai
6 Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Niger Delta Province, Nigeria and Cameroon, Africa

Geology of the of the Niger Delta 1997). Shallow marine clastic sediment was deposited farther
offshore and, in the Anambra basin (fig. 1), is represented
Province, Nigeria and Cameroon, by the Albian-Cenomanian Asu River shale, Cenomanian-
Santonian Eze Aku and Awgu shales (fig. 7), and Campanian
Africa to Maastrichtian Nkporo shale (fig. 8), among others (Reijers
and others, 1997). The distribution of Late Cretaceous shale
Tectonics beneath the Niger Delta is unknown.
In the Paleocene, a major transgression began with
The tectonic framework of the continental margin
deposition of the Imo shale in the Anambra Basin to the
along the West Coast of equatorial Africa is controlled by
northeast and the Akata shale in the Niger Delta Basin area to
Cretaceous fracture zones expressed as trenches and ridges
the southwest (fig. 8). In the Eocene, the delta coastline was
in the deep Atlantic. The fracture-zone ridges subdivide the
again influenced by longshore currents, and wave-dominated
west African margin into individual basins and, in Nigeria,
sedimentation predominated (Burke, 1972; Reijers and others,
form the boundary faults of the Cretaceous Benue-Abakaliki
1997). At this time, deposition of paralic sediment began in
Trough (figs. 1, 2), which extends eastward into the west
the Niger Delta Basin proper and, as the sediment prograded
African shield. The trough represents a failed arm of a rift
south, the coastline became progressively more convex
triple junction associated with the opening of the South
seaward. Today, deltaic sedimentation is still wave dominated.
Atlantic. Inthis part of the Africa and South America
The Tertiary section of the Niger Delta is divided into
continental margins, rifting started in the Early Cretaceous and
three formations, representing prograding depositional facies
persisted into the Late Cretaceous (Genik, 1993). In the Niger
(figs. 7, 8, 9). These formations are the Akata Formation,
Delta area, rifting ended in the latest Cretaceous. Figure 5
the Agbada Formation, and the Benin Formation. The
shows Early Cretaceous to Holocene paleogeography of
three formations were deposited during offlapping clastic-
west-central Africa and South America. After rifting ceased,
sedimentation cycles that compose the Niger Delta. The
gravity tectonism became the primary deformational process.
deposits resulting from these cycles (depobelts) are
Shale mobility induced internal deformation and occurred
3060km wide and prograde southwestward 250km
in response to two processes (Kulke, 1995). First, loading
over oceanic crust into the Gulf of Guinea (fig. 10)
by higher density delta-front sands in the overlying Agbada
(Whiteman, 1982; Stacher, 1995). They are characterized by
Formation induced shale diapirs to form in the underlying
synsedimentary listric faulting in response to variable rates
poorly compacted and overpressured prodelta and delta-slope
of subsidence and sediment supply (Doust and Omatsola,
clays of the Akata Formation. Second, a lack of basinward
1990). The interaction of subsidence and supply rates resulted
support from the under-compacted delta-slope clays of the
in sedimentation in the depobelts, and when further crustal
Akata Formation led to slope instability within the delta
subsidence of the basin could no longer be accommodated,
complex. Gravity tectonics, which ended before deposition of
the focus of sediment deposition shifted seaward and formed
the Benin Formation, are expressed in complex structures such
a new depobelt (Whiteman, 1982; Doust and Omatsola,
as shale diapirs, roll-over anticlines, collapsed growth faults,
1990). Five major depobelts are generally recognized, each
back-to-back features, and steeply dipping, closely spaced
with its own sedimentation, deformation, and petroleum
flank faults (Doust and Omatsola, 1990; Stacher, 1995).
history (Doust and Omatsola, 1990; Tuttle, Brownfield,
and Charpentier, 1999). The shorelines shown in figure 10
Depositional History approximate the depobelt shorelines described by Doust and
Omatsola (1990).
The Cretaceous section has not been penetrated The type sections for these formations are described
beneath the Niger Delta Basin, the youngest and southern- in Short and Stuble (1967) and summarized in a variety
most subbasin in the Benue-Abakaliki Trough (figs. 1, 6). of papers (for example, Doust and Omatola, 1990; Kulke,
Cretaceous rocks deposited in what is now the Niger Delta 1995). The Akata Formation at the base of the delta is
Basin can be extrapolated only from an exposed Cretaceous of marine origin and is composed of thick shale sections
section in the next basin to the northeastthe Anambra containing potential source rock and turbidite-sand reservoirs
Basin (fig. 1). From the Campanian through the Paleocene, in the deeper parts of the delta (figs. 7, 9). Beginning in
longshore drift along a shoreline that was concave into the the Paleocene and continuing to the Holocene, the Akata
Anambra Basin resulted in tide-dominated deltaic sedimenta- Formation accreted, during lowstands, when terrestrial
tion during transgressions and river-dominated sedimenta- organic matter and clays were transported to deep-water
tion during regressions (Burke, 1972; Reijers and others, areas of the delta. Only the upper part of the formation has
Geology of the of the Niger Delta Province, Nigeria and Cameroon, Africa 7

A. 126 million years ago, Neocomian B. 108 million years ago, late Aptian

ARABIA ARABIA

SOUTH SOUTH

OCE AN
AFRICA

OCE AN
AMERICA AMERICA AFRICA

AN

AN
I

I
IND

IND
C. 96 million years ago, late Albian D. 9084 million years ago, Turonian - Santonian
ARABIA ARABIA

AFRICA
SOUTH
OCE AN

OCE AN
ATLANTIC
AN

AN
AMERICA
ATLANTIC SOUTH
I

I
IND

IND
AFRICA AMERICA

E. 74 million years ago, late Campanian F. 54 million years ago, early Eocene
ARABIA ARABIA

AFRICA AFRICA
ATLANTIC
ATLANTIC
OCE AN
AN

SOUTH
I
IND

AMERICA

G. 300 million years ago, Miocene to recent


ARABIA
RE

EXPLANATION
D
SE

Continental sediment Incipient riftLonger dash where


A

10 million years younger


Marine transgression with
marine deposition Adamawa uplift
Gulf of Guinea Province East African rift system
boundary
Direction of active extension
AFRICA Major fault or block boundary
Dashed where uncertain Direction of possible compression
Strike-slip faultArrows show
ATLANTIC sense of movement Direction of marine incursion
OCE AN

ContactDashed where uncertain


AN

Area of Paleogene rifting


I
IND

Figure 5. Paleotectonic maps showing evolution of the west Africa and South America continental margins. Niger Delta Province
outlined in red. Modified from Genik (1993).

\\IGSKAHCMVSFS002\Pubs_Common\Jeff\den13_cmrm00_0129_ds_brownfield\dds_69_gg_ch05_figures\ch05_figures\ch05_figure05.ai
8 Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Niger Delta Province, Nigeria and Cameroon, Africa

A 5E 10E

Benue Trough
B'
2
Dahomey Embayment
2 3
4
3 5
A
86
4
5N

B 10
e A'
ain Zon 8
Chault 6
5
F 4

ine
e
on 3
lt Z

L
ic
u
Fa

an
t
rco

olc
a
Ch

nV
roo
me
Ca
0
0 50 100 KILOMETERS

0 50 100 MILES

EXPLANATION
Fault
Scarp on faultHachures point
downscarp
A A' Line of section
3 Isopach contourThickness in
kilometers. Contour interval
varies

B
WEST EAST
A Benue Trough A'

Cenozoic

Romanche Fault Zone


Cameroon Volcanic Line

Upper Cretaceous

Basement complex
Lower Cretaceous
Jurassic (?)
Chain Fault Zone
Charcot Fault Zone

NOT TO SCALE

Figure 6. A, Isopach map of Niger Delta; isopachs represent total


sediment thickness (Kaplan and others, 1994). B, Diagrammatic west-
east cross section through the Niger Delta region. Modified from
Whiteman (1982).

\\IGSKAHCMVSFS002\Pubs_Common\Jeff\den13_cmrm00_0129_ds_brownfield\dds_69_gg_ch05_figures\ch05_figures\ch05_figure06.ai
Petroleum Occurrence in the Niger Delta Province, Nigeria and Cameroon, Africa 9

Present-day Niger Delta Province


SOUTH NORTH
delta front boundary
B B'
METERS
Sea
level Miocene-Pliocene Benin facies Coal facies
1,000 delta front
Agabada e
2,000 Reservoirs Eocene hal
delta front guS
3,000 Assessment Miocene ne Aw up
Unit delta front ce nt Gro
l igo a fro Agabada Reservoirs A ku
4,000 O lt Eze
Agabada Reservoirs de Assessment Unit Paleocene Asu
5,000 Assessment Unit Upper Cretaceous River Group
delta front
6,000

7,000
Akata Reservoirs
8,000 Akata Reservoirs crust
Assessment inental
Assessment Unit it Cont
9,000 Unit Lim tain
c e r
un
10,000

t
crus
Aeromagnetic anic
0 meters Oce
basement 11,00

0 100 200 KILOMETERS

0 100 200 MILES

EXPLANATION

Continental facies

Marine facies

Basement complexOceanic
and continental
ContactDashed where uncertain
Facies boundary

Unconformity

Figure 7. Southwest-northeast cross section (BB in fig. 6A) through the Niger Delta region. Modified from Whiteman (1982).

been drilled. It is estimated that the formation is as much as


7,000 m thick (Doust and Omatsola, 1990). The formation
Petroleum Occurrence in the Niger
underlies the entire delta, and it is typically overpressured. Delta Province, Nigeria and Cameroon,
Turbidity currents likely deposited deep-sea fan sands within
the upper Akata Formation during development of the delta.
Africa
Deposition of the overlying Agbada Formation began in the
Eocene and continues into the Holocene (figs. 7, 9). The Oil and gas occur throughout the Agbada Formation
formation consists of marine, marginal-marine, and nonmarine of the Niger Delta (figs. 1, 2), however, several oil-and-gas-
siliciclastic units more than 3,700 m thick that represent the field trends form an oil-rich belt having the largest fields and
deltaic portion of the succession (fig. 9). Clastic sediment lowest gas:oil ratios. The belt extends from the northwest
accumulated in delta-front and fluviodeltaic environments. In offshore area to the southeast offshore and along a number
the lower Agbada Formation, shale and sandstone beds were of north-south trends near Port Harcourt (Tuttle, Brownfield,
deposited in equal proportions; however, the upper portion is and Charpentier, 1999, fig. 1). The trend corresponds to
mostly sandstone with only minor shale interbeds. The Agbada the transition between continental and oceanic crust and is
Formation is overlain by the Benin Formation, a latest Eocene within the axis of maximum sedimentary thickness (fig. 6).
to Holocene deposit of alluvial and upper coastal plain sands Stacher (1995), using sequence stratigraphy, developed a
that are as much as 2,000 m thick (fig. 7). hydrocarbon-habitat model for the Niger Delta (fig. 11). The
10 Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Niger Delta Province, Nigeria and Cameroon, Africa

WEST EAST
Age

Epoch
Niger Delta Basin Anambra Basin Millions of
years ago
Stage
40 Bartonian
Sequence boundary
Lutecian

Eocene
Agbada Formation Nanka Formation 50

Ypresian
Ameki Formation

Thanetian

Paleocene
60
Imo Formation Danian
Maximum flooding surface Nsukka Formation
Akata Formation
Maastrichtian
Ajali Formation 70
Mamu Formation
Mamu Formation Campanian

Late Cretaceous
Sequence boundary
Owelli Sandstone Enugu Shale
Nkporo Shale
Maximum flooding surface 80 Santonian
Sequence boundary? Awgu Formation
Maximum flooding surface?
Sequence boundary
Coniacian

90
NOT TO SCALE

EXPLANATION
Coal
Channel
Tidal structure
Contact
Figure 8. Stratigraphic section of the Anambra Basin (fig. 1) from Late Cretaceous through Eocene and time-equivalent formations in the
Niger Delta Basin. Modified from Reijers and others (1997).

model was constructed for the central portion of the delta, Source Rocks
including some of the oil-rich belt, and relates deposition of
the Akata Formation (assumed lowstand source rock) and Several reports have debated the source rock for oil
the sand-shale units in the Agbada Formation (the reservoirs and gas within the Niger Delta (Ekweozor and Okoye, 1980;
and seals) to sea level. The Akata Formation shale, which Lambert-Aikhionbare and Ibe, 1984; Bustin, 1988; Doust and
was deposited in deep water during lowstands, is overlain by Omatsola, 1990; Tuttle, Brownfield, and Charpentier, 1999;
the Agbada sequences. The Agbada Formation in the central Haack and others, 2000). Source rocks include the interbedded
portion of the delta fits a shallow-ramp model with mainly marine shale in the Agbada Formation, the marine Akata shale,
highstand (hydrocarbon-bearing sandstone) and transgres-
and possibly Cretaceous shale (Ekweozor and Okoye, 1980;
sive (sealing shale) system tracts. Faulting in the Agbada
Lambert-Aikhionbare and Ibe, 1984; Doust and Omatsola,
Formation provided pathways for petroleum migration and
1990; Stacher, 1995; Tuttle, Brownfield, and Charpentier,
\\IGSKAHCMVSFS002\Pubs_Common\Jeff\den13_cmrm00_0129_ds_brownfield\dds_69_gg_ch05_figures\ch05_figures\ch05_figure08.ai
formed structural traps that, together with stratigraphic traps,
accumulated hydrocarbons. The shale in the transgressive 1999; Haack and others, 2000).
system tract provided an excellent seal above the sand as well Some intervals in the Agbada Formation contain organic
as enhancing clay smearing within fault zones. carbon contents sufficient to be considered good source
The Akata Formation underlies the entire Niger Delta rocks (Ekweozor and Okoye, 1980). The source-rock intervals
Province (figs. 1, 2). It contains hydrocarbons within rarely reach thicknesses sufficient to produce a world-class oil
sandstone-units-related growth-fault structures, rotated fault province and are immature in parts of the delta (Stacher, 1995).
blocks within the lower parts of the continental shelf, and The Akata shale is present in large volumes beneath the Agbada
stratigraphic traps related to turbidites. The turbidites include Formation (fig. 7) and is at least volumetrically sufficient to
channel and ponded sandstone and deep-water clastic fans in generate enough oil for a world-class oil province such as the
the deep-water part of the Niger Delta. Niger Delta (Klett and others, 1997).
Petroleum Occurrence in the Niger Delta Province, Nigeria and Cameroon, Africa 11

SOUTHWEST NORTHEAST
Quaternary
Deltaic facies
Pliocene
(Agbada Formation)
Continental alluvial sand
(Benin Formation)

Late

Afam Clay Marine shale


Miocene

Soku Clay
Middle
Deltaic facies
Buguma Clay

Agbada Clay Opuama


channel
Early complex
(Agbada Formation)
Marine
shale
Marine shale
(Akata Formation)
Oligocene

Deltaic facies
Late
Eocene

Middle

Early

Paleocene

Late
Cret
AB-TU
NOT TO SCALE
EXPLANATION

Extent of erosional
truncation
Contact
Extent of erosional truncation
boundary
Cret Cretaceous
AB-TU Albian-Turonian

Figure 9. Schematic cross section of the Niger Delta, Africa. Eocene Agbada Formation contains deltaic-
sandstone reservoirs and traps. Akata Formation contains turbidite sandstone and lowstand channels,
sheet sands, and fans. Modified from Shannon and Naylor (1989) and Doust and Omatsola (1990).

\\IGSKAHCMVSFS002\Pubs_Common\Jeff\den13_cmrm00_0129_ds_brownfield\dds_69_gg_ch05_figures\ch05_figures\ch05_figure09.ai
12 Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Niger Delta Province, Nigeria and Cameroon, Africa

Some authors have proposed that oil-bearing Cretaceous


rocks may be beneath and east of the present Niger Delta (Frost,
1997; Haack and others, 2000). This Cretaceous section has
not been drilled owing to its great depth; therefore, no data
exist on its source-rock potential. Migration of oil from the
U pp
Cretaceous into reservoirs in the Agbada Formation would
er E o c e ne
require an intricate fault or fracture network, because the Akata
Oli
go
c e ne shale reaches a thickness greater than 6,000 m. No data exist
to support the existence of such a network. Haack and others
M iocen
e
(2000) reported rocks and marine kerogen may be present along
the Nigerian coastline and offshore. These conclusions are
ATLANTIC
OCEAN Pr based on oil seeps from Nigerian tar sands within the Dahomey
M e se n t Embayment (fig. 4), source-rock outcrops along the eastern
io c
e n e-Pliocene
Plio
c ene-Pleistocene margin of the delta, and geochemical data from wells. These
source rocks could be contributors to hydrocarbon accumula-
0 30 60 KILOMETERS tions in the deep-water areas of the Niger Delta.
0 30 60 MILES In the northwestern part of the Niger Delta, the oil
window lies in the upper Akata Formation and the lower
EXPLANATION Agbada Formation (fig. 12). To the southeast, the oil window
Cretaceous and younger is stratigraphically lower, as much as 4,000 ft below the
sediment upper Akatalower Agbada strata (Evamy and others, 1978).
Pre-Cretaceous basement The present day oil-generation window in the Niger Delta is
Approximate coastline positions approximately at the 240 F (115 C) isotherm.
at the designated timeDashed A burial history chart for the Oben-1 well (fig. 12) in
where uncertain
the northern part of the Niger Delta is shown in figure13.
Lower Tertiary basin axis and
direction of clastic supply The Akata-Agbada Formation boundary entered the oil
window at approximately 0.6 percent Ro in the late Eocene. The
Figure 10. Coastline progradation of the Niger Delta since Akata-Agbada boundary in this part of the delta is currently at a
35million years ago (Ma). The delta has advanced seaward more depth of about 4,300 m, with the upper Akata Formation in the
than 200 kilometers and has broadened from a width of less than wet-gas-condensate generating zone (vitrinite reflectance greater
300 kilometers to a width of about 500 kilometers. Shorelines than 1.2 percent; Tissot and Welte, 1984). The lowermost part
approximate the Doust and Omatsola (1990) depobelts. Modified of the Agbada Formation entered the oil-generation window
from Whiteman (1982). sometime in the lateOligocene.
Bustin (1988) reported total organic carbon (TOC)
analyses of Agbada Formation siltstone and shale samples Reservoirs
to be essentially the same, averaging 1.4 to 1.6 weight Oil and gas in the Agbada Reservoirs AU is produced from
percent. The TOC content, however, seems to vary with sandstone and unconsolidated sand primarily found within the
age of the strataan average of 2.2 weight percent in the Agbada Formation (fig. 9). Known reservoir rocks are Eocene to
late Eocene compared to 0.9 weight percent in Pliocene Pliocene in age, are commonly stacked, and range in thickness
strata. Bustin (1988) reported that the Eocene TOC average from less than 15 m to greater than 45m (Evamy and others,
compares well with the averages of 2.5 weight percent and 1978). The thicker reservoirs likely represent amalgamated
2.3 weight percent obtained for Agbada-Akata shales in two bodies of stacked channels (Doust and Omatsola, 1990). Based
wells (Udo and Ekweozor, 1988). Ekweozor and Okoye on reservoir geometry and quality, Kulke (1995) described the
(1980) reported TOC values ranging from 0.4 to 14.4 weight most important reservoir types as point bars of distributary
den13_cmrm00_0129_ds_brownfield\dds_69_gg_ch05_figures\ch05_figures\ch05_figure10.ai
percent in the both onshore and offshore paralic sediments. channels and coastal barrier bars intermittently cut by sand-filled
channels. Edwards and Santogrossi (1990) described the primary
Nwachukwu and Chukwura (1986) reported values as high
Niger Delta reservoirs as Miocene sandstones with as much as
as 5.2 weight percent in paralic shales from the western part
40 percent porosity, 2 darcies permeability, and a thickness of
of the delta. Bustin (1988) concluded that there are no rich 100 m. The variation in reservoir thickness is strongly controlled
source rocks in the delta and that the poor quality of the by growth faults; the sandstone thickens against the fault within
source rock has been partly offset by its great volume and the down-thrown block (Weber and Daukoru, 1975). Porosity
excellent migration pathways. The oil potential is further typically decreases with depth (Kulke, 1995).
increased by permeable interbedded sandstone and rapid Computer modeling suggests that local fault movements
hydrocarbon generation and overpressuring resulting from along the shelf edge control the thickness and lithofacies of
high sedimentation rates. potential reservoir sand downdip (Tuttle, Brownfield, and
Petroleum Occurrence in the Niger Delta Province, Nigeria and Cameroon, Africa 13

SOUTH NORTH

ression
Transg
Agbada Formation
(shallow ramp)

nd
Highsta
r ession
Transg

nd
Highsta
s sion
Transgre
Akata Formation
(lowstand)

NOT TO SCALE

EXPLANATION
Hydrocarbon accumulation Flooding surface
Main boundary fault Hydrocarbon migration path
Fault Principal source rock
Top of oil window Contributing source rock

Figure 11. Sequence-stratigraphic model for the central portion of the Niger Delta. Source rock, migration pathways, and hydrocarbon
traps mainly related to growth faults, but minor stratigraphic traps present. Hydrocarbon fluids migrated laterally through Agbada Formation
sandstone units. The main boundary fault separates megastructures, which represent major breaks in the regional dip of the delta (Evamy and
others, 1978). Modified from Stacher (1995).

Charpentier, 1999; their figure 15). The slope-edge fault and In the deep-water part of the delta, the primary reservoirs
reservoir simulation from these experiments are shown in found in Akata Reservoirs AU are mostly stratigraphic and
figure14. include turbidite sands, lowstand sand bodies, and clastic fans
(Beka and Oti, 1995). Structural traps are less common in the
Traps and Seals deep-water parts of the delta.
The major reservoir seal rocks in the Niger Delta
Traps in Niger Delta oil and gas fields are mostly are interbedded shale units within the Agbada and Akata
structural, although stratigraphic traps are not uncommon formations. The shale provides three types of seals in the
(fig.15). Structural traps developed during synsedimentary Agbada: clay smears along faults, interbedded strata against
deformation of the Agbada paralic sequences (Evamy and which reservoir sands are juxtaposed due to faulting, and
others, 1978; Stacher, 1995). Structural complexity increases vertical seals (Doust and Omatsola, 1990). On the flanks of the
from north to south within the depobelts in response to
delta, major erosional events of early to middle Miocene age
increasing instability of the less-compacted, overpressured
shale. Doust and Omatsola (1990) described a variety of formed canyons that are now clay filled (fig. 9). These clays
structural-trapping elements, including those associated with form the top reservoir seals for some highly productive(?)
simple rollover structures, clay-filled channels, structures with offshore fields (Doust and Omatsola, 1990). Akata shale is
multiple growth faults, structures with antithetic faults, and the primary seal in the deep-water parts of the delta where
collapsed-crest structures (fig. 15). turbidites and submarine fans are the primary traps.
14 Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Niger Delta Province, Nigeria and Cameroon, Africa

5E 6E 7E 8E

6N Oben-1
12,
13,000 000

11,000 NIGERIA

00
14,0
14
,00
5N 0

Port Harcourt
14,000
13
,00
0
12,
00
11, 0
000
00
13,0
14,000 000
12,

0
ATLANTIC

,00
0
,00

10
OCEAN

11
4N

0 25 50 KILOMETERS

0 25 50 MILES

EXPLANATION

Top of oil kitchen in lower 10,000 Depth contour to top of oil


Agbada Formation kitchen (240 F, 115 C)
Contour is in feet. Contour
Top of oil kitchen in interval 1,000 feet
Akata Formation
Oben-1 Well and identifier

Figure 12. Subsurface depth to top of Niger Delta oil kitchen showing that the entire Akata Formation and a portion of the lower Agbada
Formation are in the oil window. Modified from Evamy and others (1978).

\\IGSKAHCMVSFS002\Pubs_Common\Jeff\den13_cmrm00_0129_ds_brownfield\dds_69_gg_ch05_figures\ch05_figures\ch05_figure12.ai
Petroleum Occurrence in the Niger Delta Province, Nigeria and Cameroon, Africa 15

GEOLOGIC TIME
60 50 40 30 20 10 SCALE

DEPTH (kilometers)
Age in million
years (Ma)
Cenozoic
Tertiary
Plio to ROCK
Eocene Oligocene Miocene present UNIT
Akata Formation Agbada Formation Benin Formation

Ro = 0.6 Agbada Formation

Ro = 0.8 3

Ro = 1.2 4
Activation of Northern Depobelt

Ro = 2.0 5

Akata Formation
6

EXPLANATION
Actual burial curve
Projected burial curve
Isoreflectance line
Ro Vitrinite reflectance

Figure 13. Burial-history chart for the northern portion of the Tertiary Niger Delta (Akata-Agbada). Data from Oben-1 well (fig. 12)
innorthern depobelt (Doust and Omatsola (1990). Modified from Ekweozor and Daukoru (1994). Plio, Pliocene.

\\IGSKAHCMVSFS002\Pubs_Common\Jeff\den13_cmrm00_0129_ds_brownfield\dds_69_gg_ch05_figures\ch05_figures\ch05_figure13.ai
16 Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Niger Delta Province, Nigeria and Cameroon, Africa

Shoreward Basinward
Distance in kilometers
0 10 20 30 40 50

METERS
Sea level
Slope Edge
250

500

750

1,000

1,250

1,500

1,750
Slope-edge normal faults
2,000

2,250

2,500

2,750

3,000

0 5 10 KILOMETERS

0 5 10 MILES

VERTICAL GREATLY EXAGGERATED

Figure 14. Slope edge normal-fault simulation (2 million years ago (Ma) to present) of the Niger Delta. Orange and yellow, potential
hydrocarbon accumulations in sandstone reservoirs. Figure provided by Linda Smith-Rouch (written commun., 1998; Tuttle, Brownfield,
and Charpentier, 1999).

Exploration Geologic Model


Between the USGS World Assessment 2000 The geologic model developed for the assessment of
(U.S.Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team, conventional oil and gas in the Niger Delta Province and the
2000) and this assessment (2009), both the Agbada and the Coastal Plain and Offshore AU is as follows:
Akata Reservoirs AUs added fields. The Agbada added 84 oil
1. The primary source rock for petroleum is the upper
fields and 22 gas fields exceeding the minimum assessment
Akata Formation, the marine-shale facies of the delta.
size of 1 million barrels of oil equivalent (MMBOE). It now
Additional hydrocarbon contributions from interbed-
contains a total of 537 oil and 161 gas fields. The Akata
ded marine shale of the lowermost Agbada Formation
Reservoirs AU added 39 new oil fields and 13 new gas
are possible. Oil and gas were generated from Eocene
fieldsthe total number of fields in the assessment unit
\\IGSKAHCMVSFS002\Pubs_Common\Jeff\den13_cmrm00_0129_ds_brownfield\dds_69_gg_ch05_figures\ch05_figures\ch05_figure14.ai
paralic and prodeltic Type II and Type III kerogen
exceeding the minimum assessment size of 5 MMBOE. In the
ranging from 1.4 weight percent to 5.2weight percent
Agbada Reservoirs AU, the largest grown oil field is about
total organic carbon and possibly from Cretaceous
2.0 BBO and the largest grown gas field is about 8.2 TCF. In
marine and lacustrine sources. Hydrocarbon
the Akata Reservoirs AU, the largest grown oil field is about
generation began in the Eocene and continues to
1.4 BBO and the largest grown gas field is 8.5 TCF. The
the present. Petroleum generation shifted north to
Niger Delta Province is considered mature on the basis of its
south as progressively younger depobelts entered the
exploration activity.
oil window.
Producing fields (IHS Energy, 2008) provide evidence
for two inferences: the existence of an active petroleum 2. Petroleum migrated into Eocene Agbada Formation
system containing Tertiary source rocks that have produced sandstone reservoirs and traps. Petroleum also migrated
hydrocarbons most likely since the Eocene, and the migration into Akata Formation turbidite sandstone units including
of hydrocarbons into Tertiary reservoirs. lowstand channels, sheet sands, and fans.
Geologic Model17

Simple rollover structure with clay-filled channel Structure with multiple growth faults
SOUTH NORTH SOUTH NORTH

Growth fault Growth fault


Stratigraphic
trap
Clay filled channel Rollover structure

Rollover structure Fault closures


Stratigraphic trap

Fault clo Stratigraphic trap


sure
Rollover structure Sand pinchout
Stratigraphic trap

Sand pinchout
Akata
Akata

NOT TO SCALE NOT TO SCALE

Structure with antithetic fault Collapsed-crest structure


SOUTH NORTH SOUTH NORTH

Antithetic fault Growth fault


Rollover structure
Antithetic fault Growth faults
Collapsed crest
Fault closure

Fault closures
Fault closures
Rollover structure

Akata Akata

NOT TO SCALE NOT TO SCALE

EXPLANATION
Strike-slip faultArrows
show sense of movement
Inferred bedding surface

Figure 15. Oil field structures and associated trap types, Niger Delta, Nigeria and Cameroon, Africa. Modified from Doust and Omatsola
(1990) and Stacher (1995).

\\IGSKAHCMVSFS002\Pubs_Common\Jeff\den13_cmrm00_0129_ds_brownfield\dds_69_gg_ch05_figures\ch05_figures\ch05_figure15.ai
18 Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Niger Delta Province, Nigeria and Cameroon, Africa

3. Traps are mostly structural in the Agbada Reservoirs AU,


PETROLEUM

T IO N - R A T IO N - U M U L A T IO N
but stratigraphic traps are also present. Turbidite traps are
SYSTEM EVENTS
the major trapping style in the Akata Reservoirs AU.
4. The Eocene marine mudstone and shale rocks are the

OVERBURDEN ROCK
TRAP FORMATION

ACC
RESERVOIR ROCK
primary reservoir seals in both Agbada and Akata

PRESERVATIO N
assessment units.

SOURCE ROCK
5. The Niger Delta is considered mature for oil and gas;

ROCK UNIT

SEAL ROCK

M IG
therefore, current field histories were used in part to
determine the distributions of sizes and numbers of

GENRA
undiscovered fields. Age in million years (Ma)
An events chart (fig. 16) for the Tertiary Niger Delta 0
Plio
Total Petroleum System and the Agbada Reservoirs and Neogene
Akata Reservoirs AUs summarizes the age of the source, Mio
seal, and reservoir rocks and the timing of trap development, 24
Olig
generation, and migration of petroleum.
Paleogene Eoc
50
Resource Summary Pal
65
The USGS estimated mean volumes of undiscovered,
technically recoverable conventional oil and gas resources for L
the Agbada Reservoirs Assessment Unit in the Niger Delta
Cretaceous
Province (table 1) at 1,616 million barrels of oil, 9,454billion 100
cubic feet of gas, and 494 million barrels of natural gas liquids.
The estimated mean size of the largest oil field that is expected E
to be discovered is 274 million barrels of oil, and the estimated
mean size of the expected largest gas field is 981 billion
cubic feet of gas. The estimated mean volumes for the Akata
Reservoirs Assessment Unit (table 1) are 13,918million barrels 146
150 L
of oil, 48,767 billion cubic feet of gas, and 5,832million barrels
of natural gas liquids with estimated mean sizes of the largest oil M
and gas fields of 4,119 million barrels of oil and 13,355 billion Jurassic
cubic feet of gas, respectively. For this assessment, a minimum
E
undiscovered field size of 1 million barrels of oil equivalent was
used for the Agbada Reservoirs Assessment Unit and a minimum 200 200
undiscovered field size of 5 million barrels of oil equivalent was
used for the Akata Reservoirs Assessment Unit. No attempt was L
made to estimate economically recoverable reserves. Triassic
M
For Additional Information 250 251
E
L
Permian
Assessment results are available at the USGS Central E
Energy Resources Science Center website: http://energy.cr.usgs.
gov/oilgas/noga/ or contact Michael E. Brownfield, the assessing
Figure 16. Events chart for the Tertiary Niger Delta Total Petroleum
geologist (mbrownfield@usgs.gov).
System (719201) and the Agbada and Akata Reservoirs Assessment
Units (71920101; 71920102) in the Niger Delta Province, Africa. Gray,
Acknowledgments rock units present; yellow, age range of reservoir rock; green,
age ranges of source, seal, and overburden rocks and the timing
The author wishes to thank Mary-Margaret Coates, of trap formation and generation, migration, and preservation
Jennifer Eoff, Christopher Schenk, and David Scott for their
of hydrocarbons; wavy line, unconformity. Divisions of geologic
suggestions, comments, and editorial reviews, which greatly
improved the manuscript. The author thanks Wayne Husband time conform to dates in U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Names
for his numerous hours drafting many of the figures used Committee (2010). Ma, million years ago; Plio, Pliocene; Mio,
in this manuscript, and Chris Anderson, who supplied the Miocene; Olig, Oligocene; Eoc, Eocene; Pal, Paleocene, L, Late; E,
\\IGSKAHCMVSFS002\Pubs_Common\Jeff\den13_cmrm00_0129_ds_brownfield\dds_69_gg_ch05_figures\ch05_figures\ch05_figure16.ai
Geographic Information System files for this assessment. Early; M, Middle; ?, uncertain.
References19

Table 1. Niger Delta Province and Agbada and Akata Reservoirs Assessment Units results for undiscovered, technically recoverable
oil, gas, and natural gas liquids.
[Largest expected mean field size in million barrels of oil and billion cubic feet of gas; MMBO, million barrels of oil; BCFG, billion cubic feet of gas;
MMBNGL, million barrels of natural gas liquids. Results shown are fully risked estimates. For gas accumulations, all liquids are included as natural gas liquids
(NGL). Undiscovered gas resources are the sum of nonassociated and associated gas. F95 represents a 95-percent chance of at least the amount tabulated; other
fractiles are defined similarly. Fractiles are additive under assumption of perfect positive correlation. AU, assessment unit; AU probability is the chance of at
least one accumulation of minimum size within the AU. TPS, total petroleum system. Fractiles are additive under assumption of perfect positive correlation.
Gray shading indicates not applicable]

Largest Total undiscovered resources


Province,
Field expected Oil (MMBO) Gas (BCFG) NGL (MMBNGL)
Total Petroleum Systems (TPS)
type mean field
and Assessment Units (AU) F95 F50 F5 Mean F95 F50 F5 Mean F95 F50 F5 Mean
size
Niger Delta ProvinceTertiary Niger Delta TPS
Oil 274 526 1,437 3,326 1,616 1,904 5,387 13,011 6,139 65 245 904 339
Agbada Reservoirs AU
Gas 981 751 2,742 7,817 3,315 30 120 397 155
Oil 4,119 4,321 12,271 29,129 13,918 5,432 16,270 45,864 19,779 143 433 1,253 535
Akata Reservoirs AU
Gas 13,355 5,862 21,723 78,443 28,988 1,030 3,886 14,491 5,297
Total Conventional Resources 4,847 13,708 154,081 15,534 8,949 46,122 145,135 58,221 1,268 4,684 17,045 6,326

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Burke, K., 1972, Longshore drift, submarine canyons, and sub- Genik, G.J., 1993, Petroleum geology of the Cretaceous-
marine fans in development of Niger Delta: American Associa- Tertiary rifts basins in Niger, Chad, and Central African
tion of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 56, p.19751983. Republic: American Association of Petroleum Geologists
Bustin, R.M., 1988, Sedimentology and characteristics of Bulletin, v. 73, no. 8, p. 153168.
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source rocks in a deltaic environment: American Associa- Gant, N.J., May, E.D., and Kelsch, K., 2000, Niger Delta
tion of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 72, p. 277298. petroleum systems, Nigeria, in Mello, M.R., and Katz,
Doust, Harry, and Omatsola, Ebi, 1990, Niger Delta, in B.J., eds., Petroleum systems of South Atlantic margins:
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